°-

Technical

Report

No. 82-31

J, o
/" L Juno lh Earth

RePo,, .............
) _9/ Satellites

Volume !!1,

(Title Unclassified)
C. F. Mohl _.._, /_;_ 3_.y

OR-5 ;_Y_23 ,7FL-- 7_1 ._,_-3/
(NASA-CR-52802) III. JUNO II Propulsion JUNO FINAl REPORT, EARTH SATEILITES (Jet 32 p VOZU_E N79-762_7

/
00/15
_nclas 110_

Lab.)

.

3

j

_

OR

TMX

OR

AD

NUMBER}

ET

PROPULSION
INSTITUTE PASADENA,

LABORATORY
OF TECHNOLOGY CALIFORNIA

CALIFORNIA

June 28, 1962

This document co/_ns inf defense of the Unifll_Stat_,

or ,/on
within

ffecting the national the meaning of the

EspionageLaws,Title'l_B'. S.C., Sections793 and 794, the transmission rev_llLof or which in any manner to an unauthorized pers_llg p'_ited is by law.

O

_ _, ,i_ _'_ _

Technical

Report

No.

32-31

Juno Final Report Volume III

Juno I1: Earth
(Title

Satellites

Unclassified)

c. F. Mohl

Charles

W.

Cole Director

Juno Project

003,1"2
Copy No.

JET

PROPULSION INSTITUTE

LABORATORY OF TECHNOLOGY

CALIFORNIA

PASADENA_

CALIFORNIA

June 28, Do a__at

1962 3 year intervals; 12years.

GROUP 4

decl_r

r--

....

--

•-., p,-.

,-

JPL TECHNICAL VOLUME I11

REPORT

NO.

32-31

Copyright Jet Propulsion California

© 1963 Laboratory

Institute of Technology

Prepared National

Under Contract

No. NAS 7-100

Aeronautics

& Space Administration

/
This document cord,s informati_..affecting the national defense of the Unite_Lates,,_thin the meaning of the Espionage Laws, Title 1_C., Sections 793 and 79.4, the transmission or revelati_l_f which in any manner to an unauthorized person is_:>roffl_j_d by law.

!1

.....

.,--_kl"r'.

A I

J

Ilm_

v

_wJ

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.

32-31
III

VOLUME

CONTENTS

I.

Introduction

....................

1

II. Juno

II Launching Design Stage

Vehicle Modifications

............... ..............

4 4 4 5

A. Basic

First

.................... System Stages .................. Rotation Launcher ..........

C. Guidance D. High-Speed E. Second F. Third G. Fourth III. Juno

5 5 5 7 8

Stage Stage Stage

................... .................... ................... Review Satellite (Round Test ................ Launchings AM-16) ...........

II Program II Earth Satellite Spin

IV. Juno

10 10 10 10

A. IGY

.............

1. RF

..................

2. Flight

Test

................... Operations ..............

3. Countdown 4. Launch B. Twelve-Foot 1. Cluster 2. RF Spin 3. Flight 4. Payload 5. Dispersion C. ]uno H (Round

11 11

.................... Inflatable Preflight Test Sphere Preparation .................. ................ ................. ................ ............... ............... ................ .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. (Round AM-19B) .......

11 12 13 13 13 15 17 17 19 20 21 22 24 24 25 25 25 26

............

Operations Design Study AM-19A)

1. Preflight 2. Dispersion D. E. Round Round

Preparation Study

AM-19C AM-19D AM-19F AM-19E AM-19G

Launching Launching Launching Launching Launching

F. Round G. Round H. V. Round

Conclusions A. Vehicle B. Mission

.................... Performance Accomplishment ................. ...............

References

.......................

+COhl"-'"--

.....

- _--

Inn

_,_-__ _:-:_

_; ,;'7: :.__

°

JPL TECHNICAL VOLUME III

REPORT

NO.

32-31

TABLES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Description RTV and Juno of Juno Juno II Earth satellite ................. ............... ................ VIII .............. launchings ......... 2 3 3 9 22 23 24 25

I launchings probe

II space

launchings summary of Explorer AM-19F of Explorer

Cluster Orbit Initial Orbit

dispersion characteristics data

on round

................ XI .............. ..............

characteristics

Summary

of successful

launchings

FIGURES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Solid Cone Cluster Modified Main Stage Stage Timer, propellant support roller motors .................. structure assembly stage and .................. .................. .................. sequence ............... 2 4 4 5 fi 7 7 7 ............... ................ postflight ................. ................. AM-19B ................... ................... sphere ............... ............... ............. 10 11 ]2 12 ]2 13 14 15 15

fourth

assemblies 2 motor 3 motor ignition

assembly assembly ..................... payload,

................. .................

Multipurpose High-speed Assembly Assembly Assembly Payload Payload, Beacon

AM-16

stages, II and III, IV, and

AM-16

launcher,

postflight postflight cluster,

AM-19B assembly inflatable

Twelve-foot

IV

JPL TECHNICAL REPORTNO. 32-31 VOLUME Ill
FIGURES
18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. Inflation Vibration Multipurpose Modified Fourth Vibration Payload-Van Cluster Cluster Juno third stage role sequence AM-19B payload stage .................. ................. experiment, .................. adapter ............... AM-19A ..........

(Cont'd)
16 ]7 18 19 19 20 AM-19C ........ 21 21 22 22

data,

support

data,

AM-19A radiation

................. experiment, ............... ...............

Allen

configuration, configuration,

AM-19C AM-19D

II, AM-119F AM-19F, AM-19F stage ray

.................... ionosphere .................... characteristics satellite, ............. AM-19E ........... beacon ............

Payload, Shroud, Second Gamma

22 23 23 24

ignition astronomy

............

II

--

I

V

JPL TECHNICAL REPORTNO. 32-31 VOLUME 111

PREFACE

Technical a summary the ]uno Volume launching down

Report

No. 32-31,

which

is prepared space-flight configurations. in 1954

in three activities

volumes, utilizing

is

of Jet Propulsion I and I ]uno describes

Laboratory

II rocket-vehicle events

beginning

which carries

led the

to

the story

of Explorer Explorer describes

I, America's V. the III first ]uno II

first satellite,

and

through II

Volume which led

rocket and

vehicle

and

the

program flight

to the IV, III

Pioneer

launching successful the

culminated probe. of the

in the

of Pioneer Volume it

America's is concerned the entire

lunar

with

final phase and

]uno in

program; eight

summarizes

program,

describes

detail

launchings. The presented Department Ord ferred general program presented II, was in Volume conducted Corps, IV flight, and Space I, and under Contract the most of the work of the

in Volume of the

sponsorship

Army, the

Ordnance Pioneer

No. DA-04-495was trans-

18. Shortly to the

before

program

National

Aeronautics

Administration,

Contract

No. NASw-7.

Vi

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.

32-3t
III

VOLUME

ABSTRACT

This ing Earth the

report ]uno satellites

is the

third

and which

final had

volume for

of a series

of reports the

coverof of and

program, and

its objective the

launching consisted 1upiter

space

probes.

Basically, Redstone

vehicle

a booster upper

of either

a modified

or a modified

stages

of scaled-down were

Sergeant in the

solid-propellant ]uno program; and

motors. Volume covers the

A total III period used " of

of 19 launchings this series describes March

involved

eight and each

of these May

launchings The

between are

1959 as are

1961.

six different firings. _4-_'_

payloads i_z_v

described,

of the

eight

I. INTRODUCTION

This

report

is the third

of a three-volume

series

cover-

missile

laboratories

at

Redstone

Arsenal

were

in

the

ing the Juno program Propulsion Laboratory's activities. This volume launchings that Final Report, involved eight ferent types of ered the period

(see Ref. 1 and 2) and the Jet participation in early spacecraft covers the ]uno II Earth satellite

followed the ]uno II space probes (]uno Volume II). This series of launchings very similar 1uno II vehicles and six difpayloads (as shown in Table 1) and covbetween March 1959 and May 1961.

process of developing sion of the Redstone the first stage booster cluster (JPL), became for a satellite vehicle.

a modified high-performance vermissile. This modified missile, as for a three-stage solid propellant the basis for the Army proposal As part of the feasibility study for

the development of an orbiting missile, JPL also conducted an investigation into the problem of instrumenting such a missile. This investigation culminated in a JPL proposal missile using Actual to determine the radar techniques. trajectory of an orbiting

Aside from some early studies on satellite trajectories carried out for the Navy in 1945 and 1946, the first direct participation of JPL's space-flight activities occurred in the joint Army-Navy Project Orbiter studies in 1954 and 1955 when Army Ordnance Corps asked JPL to assist in the preparation of a feasibility study for a rocket vehicle capable of orbiting a small payload around the Earth. Also at that time, as part of a re-entry test program, tile

development

of the orbiting

vehicle,

as described

in the feasibility studies was never authorized as Project Orbiter was cancelled in August 1955 when the Vanguard Project was established. However, the need for obtaining re-entry test data still remained, and Redstone Arsenal (Army Ordnance) continued work toward this objective.

JPL TECHNICAL VOLUME III

REPORT

NO.

32-31

Table

1.

Description

of Juno

II Earth

satellite

launchings

in

the

RTV (Table II

and 2).

]uru)

I series,

and

these

are

tabulated

below
Round Date Stages Payload

Volume the
sphere

(Hcf.

2)

of

this llI Volume

series and II

of IV) also

reports launched gives and

covered on the

16 19B 19A 19C 19D 19F 19E 19G

7116159 8114159 10/13159 3/23/60 11/3/60 2/24/61 4/27/61 5/24/61 Van Ion Ionosphere Gamma Ionosphere Inflatable

IGY

space ]uno

probes II of

(Pioneers vehicles. the

initial

detailed of used used in tile for for this

IGY Allen probe beacon Ray astronomy beacon

description basic the the

payh)ads The

(space launching

probes)

launching space Juno The probes lI

vehicles is very satellite

vehicle vehicle described

similar

to the

Earth results 3.

launchings probe

report. lated

of the space

launehings

are tabu-

in Table

In

support

of the on

re-entry the

test

vehicle of keyed the

program, high-speed to tile

JPL

constages,

tinued but this

to work

development was rather now than

development test program and In

Redstone program, were modiJPL

re-entry and fied the

satellite

!i

ooo

objectives

development following cluster utilized

schedules these

accordingly.

ohieetives,

developed a two-stage motors that could be first stage to satisfy

of Sergeant solid-propellant with a modified Redstone test problem.

the

re-entry

Although directed analysis of it the to was

the

major

effort the

of

tile

laboratory vehicle the basis

had

been some

solving undertaken

re-entry to explore On some a single the minor

design, growth of this

potential analysis, modificamotor some motors, develthe signi5
;2

high-speed that addition the

stages. with of solid the

appeared

structural solid-propellant stage, and

tions, (Fig. opment

1) as a third work on stages

propellant solid capable

existing be

propellant of

high-speed ficant

would into

hmnehing

payloads

orbiting

trajectories.

The the rounds fully without

RTV had fired

program recovery been in fired.

was

concluded first, 1956 nose to cone.

in August IRBM round test nose 27, the was basic

1957 cone.

with Three

:?

successful

of a scale The

successvehicle

September type

a re-entry

The the nose

next

round

(34)

had too

a guidance far from the round and the

malfi_ction, target (40) nose area

and to be

cone

impacted the target

recovered; very close

however, to the

following area,

impacted cone was
!i

recovered

intact.

Volume early the etry and history high-speed system, Juno

I (Ref. of and I rounds.

1) of the

this

series

of

reports

covered description and of the

the of telemRTV ed Fig. 1. Solid propellant motors
THI a. SECOND-AND RD-STAGE MOTOR b. FOURTH-STAGE MOTOR

program, the launching were

a detailed tracking operations nine

stages, the

Microlock

There

launchings

invoh,

2

,L_,..nkl

c-i,-,,--,_,-

r.

._.

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.

32-31
111

VOLUME

Table
Program Flight or round and date Round 9/20/56 27, Jupiter-C Duplicate designations

2.

RTV and

Juno

I launchings

Stages 3

Mission

Results

RTV

Proof test of re-entry vehicle and Microlock

test

Successful Range: Height: 3300 650 mi. mi. of nose cone

RTV

Round 5/15/57 Round 8/8/57 I Round 1/31/58 Round 315/58 Round 3/26/58 Round 7/26/58 Round 8/24/58

34,

Jupiter-C

Nose

cone

test and

recovery

No

recovery

RTV

40,

Jupiter-C

Nose

cone

test

Successful cone In orbit

recovery

of

nose

Juno

29,

Jupiter-C

Explorer 1958

I

Earth

satellite

Alpha I! Earth satellite Fourth stage function In orbit did not

Juno

I

26,

Jupiter-C

Explorer

Juno

I

24,

Jupiter-C

Explorer Ill 1958 Gamma Explorer 1958 IV

Earth

satellite

Juno

I

44,

Jupiter-C

Earth

satellite

In orbit

Epsilon V Earth satellite Failed to orbit

Juno

I

47,

Jupiter-C

Explorer

Juno

I

Round 49, 10/22/58

Jupiter-C

Deal

Ill

Earth

satellite

Foiled

to orbit

Beacon

Table

3.

Juno II space

probe

launchings

Program Juno It

Flight or round and date Round 12/6/58 AM-II

Duplicate designations Juno Pioneer IIA III Stages Mission Results

1. To establish

trajectory.

Failed velocity; elliptical

to

obtain however, trajectory

escape its highly {63,500-

mile apogee) provided excellent measurements indicating of the 2. 3. To measure radiation. To test cosmic ray outer the existence Allen belt. Van

communications ranges.

to extended 4.

To test engineering devices that would be useful on later rounds.

Juno

II

Round 3/3/59

AM-14

Juno Pioneer

IlA" IV

Same

as above.

Successful.

Maximum Information radiation space Van De-spin A/len

communication miles. on cis-lunor in obtained levels belts. tested as in the

distance--407,000

as well

mechanism

successfully.

3

JPL
VOLUME

TECHNICAL
[11

REPORT

NO.

32-31

II. JUNO

I1 LAUNCHING

VEHICLE

The launching vehicle missions was essentially 1uno IIA and IIA' Vol. II). However, necessary tile case without

for the Juno II Earth satellite the same vehicle used on the

(Pioneer III and IV as reported in some structural modifications were

to accommodate the heavier payloads, and in of round AM-19B, the vehicle was designed a fourth stage. the same as that probe launchings:

The basic flight plan was essentially followed in the Juno I and the space separation of booster (with the high-speed shroud ejection during partment stabilization, stages. A. Basic Design Modifications

from the guidance compartment stages attached) after burnout, early coast period, guidance comand ignition of the high-speed

When the Juno program progressed into the Juno II Earth satellite phase, several vehicle and payload design considerations were necessary to accommodate the increased payload weight area, (75-100 the main lb satellites). design effort was to raise

In the vehicle

the resonant frequency of the composite cluster-booster. Early experiments showed that the cluster could be appreciably stiffened by supporting stage 4 with a cylindrical support (Fig. 2) built up from the stage 3 cone. In addition to this support, six 4-in. nylon rollers were installed on the inner side of the shroud support at the level of the combination top of the rotational launcher, of the cylindrical support on Fig. 3. The stage 3 and

Fig. 2.

Cone support structure

the nylon roller bearing on the shroud supporting stage 2 raised the first cantilever mode frequency to approximately 10 cps. Most of the had a spin rate of less than clusters used 450 rpm. in this series

Stage 4 was fitted with a head-end adapter to make it compatible with the cylindrical launching cylinder on stage 3 (Fig. 4). This adapter also served as the mating flange for the stage 4 payload interface.

B. First Stage The modified ]upiter booster used in this series consisted of the main body section with its propulsion system and the instrument compartment which housed the guidance spatial attitude control, the events programmer, tracking devices, the cluster drive motors, the cluster tube or rotational launcher, and the shroud.

Fig. 3.

Cluster roller assembly

4

-.2--.,_, .. i .-..- t ._ i ....

,JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.
VOLUME

32-31
Ill

D. High-Speed The rotational

Stages launcher attached The housed the to

Rotation for the the forward

Launcher high-speed end of stages the and instrutheir is

permanently

F

ment power ment

compartment. supply along are with

launcher within

drive the

motors

instrument control

compart-

launcher

rpm

equipment.

E. Second ; The essentially each pellant an JPL

Stage high-speed consists second of eleven approximately of a polysulfide perchlorate oxidizer. stage scaled-down used on this vehicle motors solid fuel prowith

Sergeant

containing composed ammonium

50 lb of T17-E2 (rubber-type)

Each two Fig. 4. Modified fourth stage and plastic The cylindrical frame section time. pulsion using in air frame shell used and on this is missile is a seml-monocoque the except for same that as the the air tank The about transverse

rocket

motor

contains (DuPont

an type

igniter, S-88) material

composed wired in parallel in

of

electric sheath.

matches of

a jelly-roll

metal

oxidized

encased

a

essentially type missile 36 used is in.

motors a center

(Fig. tube

6) are and held On ring

arranged in position the base

in of

an this

annular by center

ring three tube

a production been power

radially

has The

elongated plant which develops LOX

increased lb sea-level The

burning liquid prothrust engine in two

bulkheads. machined base by cluster of the this

a NAAS-3D 150,000

is a carefully ring is for tion mating Stage at the

which

is mated The

to a similar axial load

engine RP-1 fuel

rotational tube, by

launcher. while a ring having

and

(liquid mechanism

oxygen).

carried the

center

transverse on the forward that of stage

support secengage 2.

is equipped planes turbine

with

a gimbal

operating and yaw.

is provided launcher the its

to control exhaust

the missile in pitch nozzles control roll.

Hinged

of the

rotational on

guides

surfaces 2

forward ignition

bulkhead current

receives

from when

batteries a program-

C.

Guidance After burnout,

System the main from assemblies accomplished used to fasten the Retrorockets main body difference possibility of are then between bumping. body the rest section of the by main (thrust vehicle. sequence firing body located fired the to units Figure of events. and 5

located mer

in the

instrument

compartment compartment

in the

instrument

reaches

a preset

time.

tanks) shows Separation explosive ment section substantial to

is separated the main was bolts compartment. of the

and

overall

spring-loaded to the in instruthe provide two bodies aft a

F. Third The Sergeant formance that used

Stage third stage (Fig. 7) the 136. also utilizes scaled-down is a higher is identical perto

motors; polysulfide in stage

however, JPL 2.

propellant The igniter

velocity any

preclude

Stage The partment pushed a small of the out rocket coasting the stages system shroud (by is then firing to exert period, instrument can separated spring-loaded guidance-compartment a side force. During attitude so from the explosive path the control that the guidance bolts) by comand firing held by

3 is formed three the

by

a bundle bulkheads

of three with

of these the motor

motors cases and forward a

transverse axial loads. (Fig.

carrying cylindrical bulkhead structure a fourth was used

A cone-support 2) is attached a support AM-19B only the The the was

structure to did conical only other In the this the not

of the

support of for stage, stage stage and

remainder system highThis air jets, at the

3 to provide 4. However, therefore for the did not conical very light

and

launching utilize support round support case

a spatial

positions speed control tangentially aft end of

compartment on a proper

be launched compressed on four

trajectory. eight

as a base series that to the was

payload. utilize one

uses located

air through fin-like

in this

cylindrical

protuberances

in addition the payload

AM-19C. lb), and

the

instrument

compartment.

(22.5

additional

._...

_E.I

5

JPL
VOLUME

TECHNICAL
III

REPORT

NO.

32-31

_ SECOND STAGE_

_

_

PAYLOAD

_

FOURTH

STAGE

/
_THI_ IMAGE

NOSE

CONE--

--INSTRUMENT AND

GUIDANCE ENT

COM PARTM

JUPITER

BOOSTER

Fig. 5.

Main

assemblies

and

sequence

6

_ --_.._.

,--j r _ .....

• ._

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.
VOLUME

32-31
III

Fig. 7.

Stage

3 motor

assembly

bly

on

stage Fig.

3).

In

this

series

the easier

timer

was

modified methods

as in

shown in the field.

8 to facilitate

handling

Fig. 6.

Stage

2 motor

assembly

Fig.

8.

Timer,

ignition

rigidity whereas

afforded the need

by

the

support

cylinder weight was

was

not

needed,

G. Fourth The motor

Stage used stages is made in this and, of 410 stage unlike steel is JPL is similar the rather 532A, Pioneer than to those space titanium. used probe The in

for

saving

imperative. the series, other it

The 20-sec launch one stage 9 sec fires of

ignition timer cone. two

of stage located The timer pressure when timer

3 is controlled near switches stage starts, the base by of

by

a motor-driven the on fourth-stage of two either of the

is started

the

closure

(mounted 2 is ignited. it completes in the carried

propellant polyurethane The

in this motor propellant. of same 9 sec stage timer after

a high-performance

2 motors) after stage the

Approximately a circuit timer that assem-

ignition by the

4 is provided that the fired stage

by

a battery

conoccurs

3 (from

batteries

trolled

3. Ignition of stage 3.

approximately

ignition

.....

r

.....

i i
---

i
7

JPL
VOLUME

TECHNICAL
III

REPORT

NO.

32-31

III.

JUNO

II PROGRAM

REVIEW

Of the

four

attempts three orbital

to launch

Earth

satellites

in the

Juno II program, failed to achieve were attributed

(AM-16, AM-19B, and AM-19C) conditions. Two of these failures vehicle system and one to

to the launch

the cluster system. Accordingly, in the summer and fall of 1960 a thorough review of all elements of the Juno II system was conducted. The JPL portion of this review consisted of a detailed engineering analysis of the 1uno II cluster in an effort to provide the largest probability of success for the remaining vehicles. This analysis, made in September and October 1960, consisted of a review of the following 1. Hardware procedures, and general 2. Design changes. four areas: ground assembly balancing and checkout procedures,

The possibility of insta]lling a telemetry system capable of providing engineering information on the separation and flight dynamics was considered. It was found that the vehicle's limited weight capability precluded the installation in the payload or cluster of any really worthwhile telemetry. The use of booster telemetry to monitor stage 2 ignition was rejected on the grounds that propulsion ignition malfunction could be determined from tracking data and that coupling the ignition system and the telemetry system at this late date would decrease ignition reliability.

condition,

inspection and quality control. and

modifications

structural

or

hardware

3. Engineering 4. Dispersion At the initiation

telemetry. analysis, of this correlation, review, and prediction. had been

A study was made of the general cluster dispersion problem in an effort to correlate past performance, isolate the major causes of this dispersion, and predict the behavior of future flights. (See Table 4.) Dispersion angle of the cluster (the angle between the actual velocity vector at time t and the velocity vector obtained from a perfect cluster fired with the same stage 2 launcher constraints) is a function of booster instrument compartment pitch and yaw rates, cluster spin rate, cluster balance, thrust malalignments, thrust, mass flow, ignition and tailoff, motor-to-motor variations, stage pitch to roll moment of inertia ratios, stage-to-stage principal axis malalignments, cluster stiffness, and payload weight. Some of these parameters have been different for different payloads. In addition, the dispersion angle of the cluster is a function of the precession-period-to-burningtime ratio, the precession period to duration from stageto-stage ignition, and the phase of the nutation angle at the instant of motor burnout. It was found to be impossible to compute accurately the dispersion of a particular round. This was due to the inability to accurately establish the geometric and mass parameters of the cluster as a function of time as well as dynamic effects in the cavities during (igniter mass separation, and timer) parameters stored elastic energy, stage 4 nozzle blockages, as well as geometric and of the cluster.

15 clusters

launched on two types of boosters; thus, a good of the review was based on flight experience.

portion

Each subsystem and area of the cluster was examined in detail in an attempt to locate any incipient causes of future failures. Special attention was given to those areas which might have contributed to past failures. While no individual item was found to be defective, several recommendations were made and implemented, reflecting a general upgrading recommendations ing, cable The routing of the quality of the installation. were in the areas of alignment, and tiedown, was handling, and These balanc-

inspection. for smaller

cluster

system

initially

designed

payloads than those being flown in the ]uno II satellite program. Although the structure and configuration were judged adequate to meet the design conditions, new designs were investigated to improve weak points. These designs provided a more rigid structure, larger separation clearance angles, increased gas venting on separation, and better accessibility. No new design was appreciably lighter than the existing configuration. These redesigns were not incorporated because of the short schedule and small number of flights remaining as well as the serious possibility of failure. of introducing new and unexpected sources

Flight because

results could not be correlated of the almost complete randomness

specifically of most of

the previously mentioned dispersion-causing parameters. This large number of random effects, most of which are in series with each other, leads to a fairly wide statistical distribution of dispersion angles. The difference in probaa dissmall. bility between persion factor the most probable dispersion and of 1._ to 2 different is extremely

8

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.

32-31
III

VOLUME

A range was this range.

of

possible, and The small

probable all number variables of

dispersions flights flights

(0 compared any

to fell

6 deg) within to the

of

specific

rounds.

The observed of similar

overall to date future this

conclusion are rounds vehicle.

is

that

the of these

computed

(non-aborted)

flight the

dispersions magnitudes are

representative and that

number

of

random

precludes

correlation

dispersions

normal

for

Table

4.

Cluster

dispersion

summary

Number flights 3

of

General results Successful a. b. c. Successful, high but with a. b. c. Final

Detailed dispersion, per

comments 2 deg stage, low 25%

Round number 29 44 47 24 AM-I 25% on others AM.14 I

Aclual rpm 750 750

Actual dispersion 1.2 ° 0.76 +

Computed dispersion 3.3 ° 3.3

Dispersion Roll Final rate

of stage

4 dropped 5-7 deg high

dispersion, per

750 405

4.8 4.7

3.3 7.9

dispersion

Dispersion Stage on one 4 roll

stage,

rate

dropped

flight; or

no record ignition

560

4.6

4.3

Failures AM-19 (heavy payload)

a. a. b. c.

Electrical Final

malfunction 2 deg AM-19A 428 0.76 0.38

deviation per

less than stage,

Dispersion Stiffened

small

structure

_--"k=|e--'Z

---

"--"

" "---!

9

JPL
VOLUME

TECHNICAL
III

REPORT

NO,

32-31

IV.

JUNO

II EARTH

SATELLITE

LAUNCHINGS

Tile field operations during May-October concerned with the preparation and firing AM-16 and AM-19B whose missions were multipurpose eter inflatable successful. scientific sphere, payload (Fig. respectively. Neither

1959 were of rounds to orbit a effort was

9) and a 12-ft diam-

with payload 2 on the ehlster showed an undesirably large runout, necessitating a shim between the payload and the separation joint:. Final runout on the payload was 0.0025 in. The two cluster vibration accelerometers were used again added to tlnis cluster. The basic on AM-14 was modified to improve to reduce the interference system as frequency previously

response and encountered.

The cluster electrical checkouts proceeded in a satisfactory inanner, disclosing several difficulties that were corrected before flight. Several finger contacts on the assembly IV motor showed intermittent shorting to the motor case. This difficulty was finally traced to metal chips in the hollow aft hmnch ring that were coming in contact with the bolts holding the finger contacts onto the motor. An additional problem was encountered with the assembly II accelerometer breakwire modules in that the fine piano wires were corroding to such an extent that electrical continuity was no longer obtained. These ,nodnles were replaced. On June 16, 1959 the decision was made to return one of the payloads to ABMA in order to complete two weeks of environmental testing under vacuum conditions. Field operations were resumed again on July 6 with another check with the payload on the cluster. With the satisfactory completion of this and other final tests, preparations were made to install the cluster and payload on the booster. 1. RF Spin Test The cluster Fig. 9. Multipurpose payload, AM-16 was moved to the pad (Fig. 10) at 0700 EST

The Laboratory's efforts in preparing the high-speed stage for the AM-16 launch and the payload for the AM-19B launch below.

cluster 14 of and ehlster 15 are described

on July 9, 1959, and after an hour's delay, necessitated by minor mating problems, was satisfactorily mated with the booster. Prior to installing the payload, wiring errors were discuvered in the payload simulator. These errors had to be corrected before a satisfactory check of the payload control system could be made. During the actual spin test no difficulties were encountered with the cluster system. Tile two cluster monitored at the telemetry accelerometers' ground station, signals were and although

A. IGY Satellite fRound AM-161
Cluster 14 was received at the Cape on May 16, 1959,

a cyclic variation similar to that found on the AM-14 spinnp was noticed, the level was only 4_ of full bandwidth. 2. Flight Test of the payload and necessity and cluster work completed

and was stored until May 20 when it was unpacked, inspected, and the launcher drive motor gear system changed to a ratio of 17.7:1. Chlster assembly, alignment and balancing through assembly IV proceeded in a normal manner with no serious difficulties. Alignment cheeks

The additional complexity of having 99_ of the payload

IO

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.
VOLUME

32-31
III

addition the carrier frequency was shifted during the sampling period. It was believed that tile doppler data, and hence the early orbit determination, would be marginal. Since the payload would have to be returned to ABMA for reworking, with the launching. the decision was made to go ahead

A faulty pitch gyro was found during system checkout and replacement required at X - 100 min. At the X-47 pad area

tile guidance a 50-rain hold

sec a 13-rain hold was required to clear prior to turning on all rf equipment. a 4-rain hold was called by the range Safety Vertical _,Vire Sky Screen opercontact with tile Range Safety Office. was recycled at X-2 min and held pre-settings. 16, 1959. Liftoff occurred

At X50 see when the Range ator lost phone The countdown

for 10 min to check guidance at 1237:03:18 hr EST July 4. Launch At liftoff ously erratic the missile

deviated

to the

west

in an obviwere

manner.

Cutoff

and destruct

commands

sent by the Range Safety Officer at about 5!/.. sec of flight. , Impact occurred about 250 ft northwest of the pad 5 launch table and 300 ft southwest of the blockhouse. Personnel at the blockhouse window had observed at least one upper stage rocket motor burning at both ends after missile destruct; most of the solid propellant and all booster Ordnance items were consumed by tile ensuing fire after impact. Cluster motor cases, tile instrument compartment, and payload were found within a circle of less than 100-ft diameter. Figures 11, 12, and 13 show assembly II and launcher, assembly III, and assembly IV, respectively. No propellant was found during the initial examination, but on closer scrutiny the following day, several pieces were found totaling about 5 lb. This propellant, as well as most of the rocket motor cases and other cluster parts, was returned to JPL for examination. records and of

Fig. 10. High-speed

stages, AM-16

before roller

the 21t2 hr required for shroud installation and adjustment could commence resulted in an ex-

tremely long countdown. The igniter installation was shifted to the early if-silence period in an attempt to get assembly IV and the payload on earlier. Even so, the count required 700 min plus a built-in hold of 60 min in order to ensure that the prescribed firing time tolerances could be met. 3. Countdown Operations

Preliminary

investigation

of telemetry

The countdown operations started fairly smoothly, although difficulties encountered during the preparation of the payload delayed payload delivery at the pad about 11/_hr. Most of this time was recovered, and it was only necessary to delay LOX loading at X - 220 for 20 min. During payload rf checkout, a peculiarity was noted in the 108-Mc signal containing the micrometeorite experiment data. The Mierolock receiver was apparently losing lock because of the nature of the sampled data, and in

components recovered from the wreckage indicated that inverter 1 had ceased to deliver power to the guidance system at liftoff due to a short between the cases of two diodes in inverter 1 voltage regulator.

B. Twelve-Foot

Inflatable

Sphere

IRound

AM-19BJ

The purpose of the inflatable to determine the characteristics

sphere experiment was of the upper atmosphere

11

.....
JPL TECHNICAL VOLUME III REPORT NO. 32-31

"-- I " L,

Fig. 13. Assembly

IV, postflight

in the region between 100,000 and 500,000 ft. To aid in the gathering of data an inflated sphere having a minimum lifetime of 40 days was to be used. Tile payload preparation at JPL started early in March 1959, and ran through the middle of July. However, a completed payload had to be available early in June for environmental testing. Round AM-19B was scheduled for launching between 1915 and 2045 EST August 12, 1959 on an azimuth of 44 deg. Approximately 2 weeks prior to launch the range indicated that 44 deg was not considered a safe azimuth; the azimuth encountered was with changed to 48 deg. Also, difficulties the cluster drive motors resulted in a

Fig. 11. Assembly

II and launcher,

postflight

2-day delay in firing. Cluster and payload operations were considerably simplified for this flight since no assembly IV was necessary, and the payload was bolted to the assembly III cone. Figure 14 shows the payload and cluster assembly. 1. Cluster Preflight Preparation started at Cape Canaveral on preliminary inspection, at which that one of the leads to the

Cluster 15 operations July 13, 1959 with the time it was discovered

accelerometer amplifier on stage 2 was damaged to the point of requiring replacement. The change of the drive motor gear system to a ratio of 15:1 to accommodate the cluster spin rate from 450 to 600 rpm had already been started in California. However, due to improper tolerances on some of the parts, ABMA personnel completed the work at the Cape. Considerable difficulty was encountered with the system, including motors wired backwards, loose parts in the filters, the filters themselves mounted backwards, and a faulty synchro. After ceeded persion the gear change, the assembly of the cluster prosatisfactorily with the installation of the two disaccelerometers on assembly II, the alignment

Fig. 12. Assembly

III, postflight

12

,JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.
VOLUME

32-31
III

/

exceeded

800 amperes

total;

the specified

maximum

was

700 amperes. Although the motors have in the past exceeded the maximum specified current, the power source has been incapable of supplying over 800 amperes. For this operation an additional battery had been added to the system. To correct this condition and still maintain the added capability of the two batteries required considerable effort and resulted in a 2-day postponement of the flight. The assembly II dispersion accelerometers showed

negative out-of-band ately following the

signals all during tile test. Immeditest, voltage measurements made on

the amplifier package showed only 60_g of normal. No other discrepancies were discovered, and it was believed that the low voltage was caused by either a short on the output or a voltage of opposite polarity applied to the output. The amplifier package was replaced, and although no more trouble was experienced, no satisfactory explanations were found. 3. Flight Operations

Fig. 14. Payload and cluster, AM-19B

and balance of assemblies II and and motor and igniter checkout. During the period between

III,

electrical

checkout,

The countdown started at X - 720 rain on August 14, 1959 without any built-in holds scheduled. Early in the count it was noted that two of the breakwire modules had their wires pulled out (one several inches), thus requiring replacement. No other difficulties were encountered during the cluster operation. A last-minute attempt was made to delay the firing time 30 rain in order to

rf spin

test

and

launch,

it was necessary to install the heat-balance coatings. This consisted in painting white stripes on the payload so that 21_g of the cylinder was covered, and also in adding gold-plated aluminum foil strips to the assembly III cone covering ,31_g of the surface. 2. RF Spin Test The cluster was installed on the booster on August 6, 1959, after a minor delay for re-routing the cluster drive motor cables on the booster. The payload was installed and then the shroud. The shroud rf windows, which were originally designed for operation at 960 Mc, had been tuned to 108 Mc prior to the spin test. Installation of the shroud strength represented caused an as received a approximate at the Cape's 8-db drop in signal Microlock station. This condition. There

improve the lighting conditions for photographing the flares that had been added to the instrument compartment. However, it was necessary to pick up time after only a 16-min hold in order to launch before a rain squall moved in. Liftoff occurred at 1931:00:7 EST. The velocity of the first stage was determined to be

approximately 5 to 10g low. To aid in optical tracking, a series of flares were to be fired from the guidance compartment. The first flare was fired at X + 180 sec; after which time, no further flares were observed or recorded. After X + 203 sec, telemetering records indicated a rapid reduction in the pressure within the guidance compartment. Pressurization of the guidance compartment is normally accomplished by a pressurized nitrogen bottle. This nitrogen bottle also serves as a gas supply for the guidance gyros bearing and attitude control jets. Because of the loss of guidance and the reduced velocity of the first stage, the velocity increments of the high-speed stages failed to put the payload into orbit. 4. Payload Design configuration, of 31.5 in. The

satisfactory

operating

were several shifts in the beacon frequency, and although they did not occur during the actual spin test, the decision was made to exchange payload beacons. At the time the spin test in which ated from 450 to 600 rpm, the cluster the cluster accelerdrive motor current

The having

payload (Fig. 15) was a cylindrical a diameter of 7 in. and a length

13

JPL
VOLUME

TECHNICAL
Ill

REPORT

NO.

32-31

The sistorized The

transmitter oscillator was oscillator serving in derived turn, from channels oscillator, located fed

consisted operating used as two a the to

of a ery,stal-controlled, at feed approximately a transistorized doubler The subcarrier 3 was measnre also was used (108.03 54

tranMe. power Me) signal oscillators

i
I N FLATABLE SPHERE

amplifier which, was

frequency antenna.

,nodulation

transistorized 4. Channel its it would was

operating controlled a thermistor mitter eter by the

:3 and having

a resistancecontrolled the by trans-

frequency

so that This sphere's a step

temperature. inflatat)]e

channel ejection; function

to telem-

this

accomplished 10 eps 4 was a the firing valve. approxi-

superimposing

of approximately Channel to telemeter the was pressure to be

P I STON

upon the temperature information. current-controlled oscillator used of The the squil)s that step were for to this activate function

frequency 50 cps.

PAY LOA SHELL

D

matelv

b.
BELLOWS

Balloon

package. vessel

The and

inflatal)le

sphere

package valve,

cona belvalve,

sists h)ws and
PRESSURE VESSEL

of a pressure and an piston inflatable of two served

squib-actuated and thick) (0.45-mil inflation foil supplied balloon's bled off. pressure the inflated

assembly, sphere.

an inflation The Mylar inflatal)le (l-rail foil for the alulninun_ layers the were internal of

release was

sphere

con-

strutted between Mylar as SQI
ASSEMBLY

laminated layers

sandwiched thick). process The and be

of alu,ninum

as a gas barrier to which aluminunl the foil

a support The

layers the

could
structural

t)onded. rigidity after was shape, several
RADI OBEACON

required the not inflation dependent the times necessary it was reflective the inflated normalized

to preserve gases upon rigidity than resist be the the

spherical As to the

shape sphere its was inflexiloads provided

retain

designed greater to to

sphere

amount orbital The optical formed,

of structural environment foil also

bility to

which

subjected. for fully

a highly shows pressure Fig. 15. Payload, AM-19B Tile lnajor assembly, assembly, infatable units were were readied components the tile sphere. for were pressure bellows tile vessel, and payload the piston payload only (August date shell, squib-actuated assembly, and two 14, and three flight 1959). the beacon valve the flight units bly the first squibs event controlled fires a. Beacon assembly. The beacon assembly assembly, a battery of the pack beacon (Fig. a telemetry pack, and an 50 16) the the the

surface sphere

tracking. with

Figure its internal

17

to atmospheric

pressure.

se(tuence in

of the Fig. 18. just ejection

inflation The prior

and position to the

release

valve

asemshows The two (This currentwhich permits forcing The by valve part open-

is shown valve event

1 condition ejection process.

assembly in the

process the pressure

is the

firing

of the valve. the

A prototype However, launch the

which

actuate

vessel 4 by

fabricated.

is teletnetered oscillator squibs.) piston The

through sensing pressure to expel of to the tile spring, the to travel the

channel electrical vessel expand the piston inflation then valve

impulse then

valve the

pressurized belh)ws forward rope 2).

nitrogen

belh)ws, sphere.

consisted subcarrier antenna mw and

of a beacon oscillator assembly. utilized mercury The

rf transmitter assembly, power

packaged is then and free stem

extreme a wire (position of its

stopped release

exceeded 12 Mallory

attached The valve

a battery, cells.

containing

to release forward,

RM12-RT2

compression,

draws

14

i d"T_

-

-- _._l_,,,_s,_

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.
VOLUME

32-31
IJI

qTENNA

GAP BATTERY SHIELD SUBCARR IER OSCI LLATOR

t TRANSM ITTER

t

L I.

I

Fig. 16. Beacon assembly

bellows piston exerts a forward-moving force of about 3 lb. Being compressed between the outer sleeve and the valve stem, the vah, e spring overcomes tile 3-]b force of tile bellows piston and pushes the outer sleeve back to its starting position. The valve spring, now to release, pulis the valve stem out of the inflation free and

release valve assembly, simultaneously imparting a separation energy to the satellite, and moving it ahead of the payload (position 4). Equalization of the internal pressure of the mental pressure of the satellite. satellite to that of the external environis provided through the open-valve stem

5. Dispersion

Study

Fig. 17. Twelve-foot

inflatable

sphere

Telemetry data was taken during Juno II firings for the purpose of studying possible causes of trajectory dispersion due to mechanical interference. The mechanization of this study the has been presented in Ref. and 3 and 4.

ing the ball cock outlet port, anti pressurized nitrogen begins to flow from the bellows, through the valve stem into the sphere (position 3).

Because

guidance

compartment

cluster

was

tumbling at the time of the second-stage telemetering signal was received. The

ignition, a poor vehicle antenna

The valve assembly ship until the of sphere quantity nitrogen

components is completely is required

remain to

in this relationThe the entire sphere,

inflated. inflate

pattern was such that all stations except the TLM-18 telemetering station on the Cape lost the signal at the time of second-stage ignition. This station regained the telemeter signal at low level 2 see before ignition and lost it 8 see after ignition. Consequently, the data during this period was quite noisy. (Received signal records were not obtained for this round.) strength

resulting in the draining off of the pressurized nitrogen in the bellows. In this condition the internal face of the

15

JPL VOLUME

TECHNICAL Ill

REPORT

NO.

32-31

PART

ATTACHED

PISTON TO DETENT BALLS -_ BELLOWS

_

VALVE

STEM

VALVE RELATIONSHIP PARTS PRIOR OF TO VALVE SQUIB _ "_ SPRING

ACTIVATION FIRST INTERNAL MOVEMENT OF VALUE

POSITION

2

FLOW OF NITROGEN THROUGH VALUE STEM BEGINS

POSITION

5

POSITION

4

VALVE STEM FREED FROM SECOND SET OF DETENT STEM FROM IN PROCESS OF VALVE ASSEMBLY

BALLS,

EXTRACTION

Fig. 18. Inflation

role sequence

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.

32-31
III

VOLUME

Evaluation of this ignition shock in the

data (Fig. 19) indicated an initial vicinity of motor 10, and a satura-

tion level bump in the vicinity of motor 2. The bump with a duration of approximately 30 millisec started shortly after the machined-surface release and ended shortly before the mid-bulkhead passed the lip of the tube. The data from this point until trailing-wire breakage (approximately the time tile aft bulkhead passed the lip of the tube) indicated a vibration which was difficult to evaluate because of the noise level. This vibration level, however, range of ±50 g peak. stayed within the measurement

(AM-19A) when 1upiter round AM-23 (launched September 16, 1959) was destroyed shortly after liftoff. Work was suspended on the cluster while awaiting word as to when the damage could be repaired. Pre-flight operations were started again on September 28 upon receiving word that the launching had been rescheduled for October 13. Payload integration and final preparation prior to moving to the pad were satisfactorily completed. 1. Preflight Cluster AMR Preparation 13, used for this flight, had since April. It was scheduled been in storage for use with a

at

C. Juno II (Round

AM-19A)

lighter payload and hence ing this heavier payload.

was not capable of supportIt was determined that the

On October 13, 1959, ]uno II Round AM-16A (19A) was launched successfully and resulted in placing a 9:2.5-1t) multi-experiment satellite (Fig. 20) into a satisfactory orbit. This launching represented the second attempt in July to achieve this mission, 1959, ending in failure the first attempt (AM-16) because of a malfunction delayed booster

cluster could most easily be modified by stiffening the fourth-stage motor case. However, it was desired that the modification not be directly attached to the fourth stage since this would subtract directly from payload weight. It was therefore decided to rivet a stiffening cylinder (Fig. 21) to the third-stage cone which would support the forward end of the fourth-stage motor case. An adapter (Fig. 22) on the fourth-stage motor case could then transfer the radial support to the head end

in the booster electrical system. Launching was 12 days because of damage sustained by the

MACHINED SURFACE RELEASE IGNITION (647.8 sec)
50

MID-BULKHEAD

NOZZLE

AFT-BULKHEAD

L_ Z 0 I--50 E} >

CHANNEL t3 330 cps FILTER 500 cps GALVO

WlRE BROKE

50
150

I ]V AI 600 cps FILTER 1500cps GALVO

/---WIRE

BROKE

I AA^ oIl_,Jl,...,,,/Vl JV_A .... • , - v-----_v Vl

I

(76 ms)

TIME

Fig. 19. Vibration

data,

AM-19B

17

JPL TECHNICAL VOLUME III

REPORT

NO.

32-31

COSMIC-RAY DETECTOR (Dr Van Allen) LONG DURATION TIMER---_ INSTRUMENT CC (Dr X-RAY DETECTOR NUCLEI CHAMBER ( Dr Groetzinger ANTENNA SPOOL (20 mc)
N

-ALPHA Friedman)

DETECTOR

ANTENNA RELEASE MOTOR (20 mc ) BATTERY BOX

MICRO- METEORITE EXPERIMENT

ANTENNA

(ZO-mc)--_

f,,.

-

"T_

RADIATION AND../ HEATDETECTOR BALANCE

('_=____ _

...... \ _ _ ANTENNA (108-mc LOOP)

SOLAR CELLS

SEPARATION DEVICE 0 2 4 6 FOURTH STAGE

SCALE, inches

Fig. 20.

Multipurpose

payload

experiment,

AM-19A

of the to the major The sembly 1959 the

cylinder. third cluster and

The fourth

adapter stages

was

fabricated requiring

and

attached any other

were

less

than

0.001

in,

both

in

perpendicularity

and

without

concentricity. a. RF mated interference with the test. and test. booster This the test cluster On October performed spinning Upon noticed, cluster 7, 1959, with did the all not cluster for the rf equipshow of that motors This the test, up the the was confield satis-

changes. successfully of the cluster accomplished, started and of period. the launcher, to and of the reduced any on final August check due installaand After the motor as28, of to was and preparation made

modification and at checkout Visual no long

rf interference ment any operating, interference current during was of

AMR. gave or each were the

inspection indication storage in and

pressure damages After the

motors

difficulties. records on it one was of the

examination however, drive periods. unbalancing the spin

shipping tion balance the entire of

telemetering armature excessive dition currents

assembly checked was the

alignment a minimum. shear-pinned, fourth-stage

cluster

acceleration

cluster taken on

balanced head end

improved the two

by deliberately motors. During

runouts

18

_O-.-F!_

....

.,,..,

-VVl _ii ll-/l--l_ I 11 ii

__

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.

32-31
III

VOLUME

Fig. 22. Fig. 21. Modified factory operation indicated. b. Flight hr, October of tile cluster third stage accelerometers was also the early orbit

Fourth stage support adapter determination at ABMA. Information,

based upon injection conditions that were obtained by fitting all doppler data available from launch and the first two orbital passes, Goldstone angle data from the second pass, and optical sighting from San Fernando, Spain, and Woomera, Australia, is shown in Table 20 of Ref. 5. 2. Dispersion The viding round. and for dropped the aft strength Study

test. The final countdown commenced at 2150 12 at X - 700 rain. In addition, a 1-hr hold

was scheduled at X - 31 min in order to assure launching during the allotted 2-hr firing window. The countdown operations progressed with only minor difficulties although the presence of several lightning storms in the general area caused considerable apprehension as to whether it would be necessary to stop work. F<)rtunately, the disturbances did not move in closer than the 1.5-kin safety radius, and countdown operations continued. X 45 rain, 4 rain of the built-in hold were utilized order again. At in

first stage performed normally as expected, proa greater signal strength than that of the previous However, commencing at second-stage ignition the duration of the measurement, signal strength slowly from 1400 to 350 /_v. About the time bulkhead passed jumped to a level the lip of the tube, signal of 1100 j_v where it remained

to clear the pad area prior to turning on all rf The remainder of the hold was used at the sehedholds were necessary EST on October 13,

tded time of X -- 31 min. No further and liftoff occurred at 10:30:14.25 1959. c. Results. Preliminary information

for about 90 millisec before dropping to 350 t_v. This malfunction was apparently caused by the flame around the telemetering antennas located on the sides of the guidance compartment. The data (Fig. 23) from this round indicates an initial

indicated

that

all

flight operations tions in velocity

were snccessfid with only minor deviaand angle. This was later confirmed by

shock in the vicinity of motor 5 and a saturation level bump (approximately 50-millisec duration) in the vicinity of motor 2. This bump started shortly after the machined-

19

JPL
VOLUME

TECHNICAL
III

REPORT

NO.

32-31

IGNITION

COMMAND

MACHINEDSURFACE RELEASE IGNITION (543.05 sec)

MID-BULKHEAD

NOZZLE AFT-BULKHEAD

50

CHANNEL

13

FILTER 1500 cps GALVO

i
O n._ rn 5O

CHANNEL 17 2364 cps FILTER 3500 cps GALVO
-50 TIME--P,.-

Fig. 23. Vibration

data,

AM-19A

surface bulkhead breaking

release passed shortly

and

ended

shortly lip, with point.

before the

the

midwires

the tube after this

trailing

Booster performance was essentially nominal; however, stage 2 fired under a mean angle of 19 deg down and 5 deg right from nominal with approximately correct performance. This large angle of the second stage is very unusual and exceeded all other observed stage 2 deviations on previous rounds. From this performance it was concluded that there was a cluster malfunction.

D. Round On

AM-19C 23,

Launching 1960, Juno II round AM-19C was

March

launched in an unsuccessful attempt to place the S-46, 22.5-1b Van Allen payload (Fig. 24) into a highly elliptical orbit. The payload for round AM-19C was designed to monitor the radiation intensity distribution of the two Van Allen radiation zones over an extended period of time with the objective of establishing the origins, including buildup and decay of radiation, in the two zones and correlating this with solar activity. In addition, the experiment was designed to study the composition of radiation in the two zones, to determine the nature of penetrating components and the energy spectrum of the less penetrating components, and to measure the total energy flux throughout the region of trapped radiation with special interest placed on the outer reaches.

JPL cluster 16 was used on this round, and its configuration was essentially that of early Juno II rounds (AM-11 and AM-14 used on the Pioneer series; see Fig. 25). It did not have the stage 3 cylindrical support was flown on rounds 19A and 16A. There were that two

reasons for this: first, the payload was very light (22.5 lb), and therefore the cluster did not require the additional structural stiffening; second, the orbit requirements were such that the extra 10 lb of cylindrical support weight on stage 3 could not be afforded. This cluster was delivered to Cape Canaveral on De-

cember 3, 1959, and stored until February 16, 1960, when it was sent to the JPL spin building for flight preparation. Initial spin tests for AM-19C were accomplished satisfactorily 6n March 15, 1960.

2O

I"3-_"'-

" _..

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO. 32-31 VOLUME III

the medium, and measurements of the frequency, tum, and energy of micrometeorite impacts. Both the ]upiter booster and JPL cluster

momen-

performed 5. JPL to the

close to preflight predictions, as shown in Table cluster 17 (Fig. 26) used on this round was identical cluster used on Round cylinder added to the again required of 92.5 lb, and

AM-19A (or 16A) with a support stage 3 cone. This cylinder was

because payload weight was in the range the cluster needed the additional rigidity.

This cluster was delivered to Cape Canaveral on May 2, 1960, and stored in the AMR magazine until September 27, 1960, when it was delivered to the JPL spin building for final assembly. By October 25, 1960, the cluster assembly work and payload mating had been completed, and the cluster was sent to the pad for mating with the ]upiter. The initial spin test was then conducted satisfactorily as was the plug drop test in which fuzes (simulating stage 2 igniters) were fired through the composite ]upiter cluster wiring.

II

Fig. 24. Payload-Van

Allen radiatlon AM-19C

experiment, !

Although much effort was expended in an attempt to pinpoint the cause of malfunction of the high-speed stages, no conclusive explanation could be obtained. Onemotor-out and found performance of the second to fit the flight performance stage was examined reasonably well.

/

E. Round On

AM-19D 3,

Launching 1960, the ]uno II AM-19D vehicle

November

placed into orbit the artificial satellite S-30, Explorer VIII, instrumented to study and report the temporal and spatial distribution of the ionospheric parameters existing between 200 and 1200 km above the Earth. The correlative data to be taken was charge accumulations the relation comprised of measurements of the on the surface of the satellite and to electrical drag and derisity of Fig. 25. Cluster configuration, AM-19C

of this data

21

v

i,.,w

i,i

!

JPL
VOLUME

TECHNICAL
III

REPORT

NO.

32-31

Table

5.

Orbit

characteristics

of Explorer

VIII

Characteristic

Predicted

Actual

Perigee, Apogee, Eccentricity, Inclination, Period,

km km km deg mln

395 2375 0.1276 50.33 113.3

370 2341 0.1275 49.9 112.7

i
Fig. 26. Cluster configuration, AM-19D

The
by tile repair the cluster,

countdown
necessity after it had was the

on October
of removing been launching mated the

3, 1960,
the to the

was marred
for cluster.

only
Fig. 27. Juno II, AM-19F

payload

a minor However, on tile

repair and

made,

payload successfully

remounted executed

the
of

payload.
payload, stage the

This
the 3 and

interference
unseating 4 timer, of and

led

to the
4, the

displacement
destruction to the loss of

within

of the

stage

the

allowed

firing

window.

eventually

F. Round On
launched S-45 The means of data

AM-19F

Launching ]uno
satellite was

February
in an ionosphere payload to study

24, 1961,
unsuccessful beacon for AM-19F the to

II AM-19F
attempt to (Fig. designed of signals

(Fig.
place 28) to into

27) was
the 75-1b orbit. a the

provide through

propagation signals would ionospheric density,

ionosphere.

These relative electron

enable absorption

the

acquisition anomalies, measnre-

integrated

faraday

rotation

ments,
As

and
detailed

a possibility
in Table until

of transmission
6, first booster separation While of shroud interfered failure (shown (held with

time

delays.
was tankage is the 29) in-

performance (booster evidence is that in Fig in place the

essentially from

normal

instrument

compartment). mode meter the and of

conclusive, from free the from

a possible angle-of-attack the side

cable came by of Fig. 28. Payload, AM-19F, ionosphere beacon

only rotation

a potting

compound)

22

.....

--

,,

i

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.
VOLUME

32-31
III

Table

6.

Initial

data

on round

AM-19F

of
Universal

the

shroud stage

(possibly 4 and

permitting payload).

the

escape

of

the

unseated
Event Predicted time, sec Range time, sec time

Range-zero tlftoff time

time (first of

R vertical vehicle)

Stage
0 0 1913:13

2 was

observed by netither supporting

to fire the

(with

approximately Laboratory stage the 4 was timer

corradar obwas

rect
0 179.3 186.3 0 178.5 186.5 1913:13 1916:11.5 1916:19.5

performance) however, to fire,

Lincoln stage 3 nor

movement Booster: cutoff

facility; served destroyed.

the

theory

that

8ooster: Signal

separation from angle-of-attack lost gyros 3 to motor scale greater than lose start 4 cps current: to

measurement Pitch and yaw at drive to full rolls deg

188.1

Another stage 4 shear After judged in The were existing
q

possible pins

mode failed

of

failure

is

that to this the

stage negative

3

to g

prematurely investigation and of shear-pinning shear and environment.

due

oscillate Cluster go Platform 15

188.1

loads.
I 188.7 m

considerable highly improbable, method criteria again cluster

possibility have been high-speed

was made

no changes

the

(essentially

reference) Payload lost Shroud separation of firing) dynamic to condition (no shroud kick transmitter signal

D

190.3

stages. design the

governing reviewed dynamic

pin

strength adequate

and for

judged

I

204

indication motor Cluster returns Stage Stage Stage Launch

214

JPL
214 1916:47

chlster 17 used the

19 on

used

on

this

round Prior to

was the

identical launching expressed

to of

cluster
221 432 473 Not Not 44 of i 1921:6 observed observed deg true East North

AM-19D. engineering test squib

normal

this

vehicle,

JPL

review

team

2 ignition 3 ignition 4 ignition azimuth

interest ignition combined mation, with nected connected camera the

in obtaining level and

information time delay

on the as To

second-stage of this the

afimction obtain to flight

cluster-Jupiter simulated exclusion the into to record time that from stage this igniters of

circuitry. (identical

inforigniters

pyrotechnic An

material) oscilloscope with Figure

were was

conalso

nThe instant chosen occurring immediately

as

range-zero time prior to liftoff.

is

the

first

whole-number

second

to

2 harness. harness and

equipped sequence.

a polaroid 30 shows and

the of

ignition the

spatial This the

attitude theory is

control supported

of

the by

instrument the dynamic after

compartment. condition the ejection of

the

actuation be period seen

eleven was first

igniter

simulators,

it can time

there power

approximately being supplied

a 4-millisec until the

cluster

returning

to normal

shortly

!i

Fig. 29.

Shroud,

AM-19F

Fig. 30.

Second

stage

ignition

characteristics

...........

23

mi _(--

lmF

_

"

-

JPL
VOLUME

TECHNICAL
II!

REPORT

NO.

32-31

first squib was activated. fired within a 0.5-millisec

The remaining 21 squibs all time period. The voltage rose

from approximately 18 v with full squib load to 28.5 v for no load. The important time period (as far as stage 2 ignition is concerned) is from the time the first squib ignites until the last squib ignites. In this particular case the 0.5-millisec time period is acceptable considering the fact that stage 2 maintains electrical contact for 12 millisec under full thrust conditions.

G. Round

AM-19E

Launching

Oil April 27, 1961, the ]uno II AM-19E vehicle placed into orbit the artificial 85-1b satellite S-15, Explorer XI, tile gamma-ray astronomy satellite. This satellite (Fig. 31) has the primary objective of detecting and mapping the high-energy gamma rays resulting from neutral pimeson (pion) decay and relating this data with the density of cosmic-ray flux and interstellar matter. The secondary objective is to measure the ratio of the high-energy gamma rays reflected by the Earth's atmosphere to the quantity of gamma rays falling upon the Earth.

Fig. 31. Gamma

ray astronomy

satellite, AM-19E

out interruption with the exception X - 15 min for an AMR computer H. Round AM-19G Launching

of a 5-rain check.

hold

at

Both the ]upiter booster and close to preflight predictions, cluster 18 used on this round used on 19D. The countdown

the JPL cluster performed as shown in Table 7. JPL was identical to the cluster proceeded smoothly with-

This

was the

last vehicle

in the Juno

II series

and

was

unsuccessfully launched on the afternoon of May 24, 1961. The payload for this vehicle was again (see AM-19F) S-45, the ionosphere beacon. Following takeoff, all vehicle functions were normal until after booster burnout and first separation (instrument compartment from thrust unit). During the coasting phase, failed, the power supply in the instrument compartment thereby cutting off all equipment dependent upon

Table 7. Orbit characteristics of Explorer XI
Characteristic Predicted 475 1832 deg 28.307 108.06 Actual 497 1793 28.49 108.1

Perigee, Apogee, Inclination, Period

km km

that power. The cluster ignition signal was dependent on this power supply and as a conseqnence, stage 2 of the missile never received ignition current and so failed to fire.

24

" -" vvl

"7"1 ........

JPL

TECHNICAL

REPORT

NO.

32-31
III

VOLUME

V.

CONCLUSIONS

A. Vehicle Performance
1. There were nineteen launchings in the RTV and

4. Two ]uno

of the nine II programs

failures in the are attributable

RTV, ]uno l, and to malfunction of

Juno programs. Out of these nineteen launchings, there were eighteen opportunities for the three-stage high-speed cluster system to function. Of these opportunities to function, sixteen unquestionably performed successfully; six of these performing successfully failed to achieve mission objectives because of unfavorable initial conditions caused by malfunctions of the booster or instrument compartment. These launchings resulted lites and two space probes in eight significant as shown in Table satel8.

the high-speed stages. On ]uno I round 26, the fourth stage failed to fire and on the ]uno II round AM-19C, one motor in the second stage probably failed to ignite. Examination of mode of failure on round 26 led to a component redesign on the fourthstage motor igniter support, and this type of failure never recurred. The failure of the second stage motor on round AM-19C was never exactly understood, and no corrective design action was undertaken. However, this failure did motivate everyone concerned to review the system (power supply, wiring, voltage level this particular B. Mission at the mode stage 2 igniters, of failure never etc.). Again recurred.

2. A total of 296 Sergeant scale motors were cast for flight purposes (including space stage 4 motors), and 180 of these motors were properly positioned in space and supplied an ignition signal. As stated before, two of these motors failed to function, resuiting in the loss of two missions.

Accomplishmenf all its its re-

Essentially the ]uno program accomplished major objectives. First, it successfully completed

3. In addition to the 296 flight motors, approximately 450 additional research and development units were produced. These motor units were used to evaluate hardware components, ignition systems, various propellant compositions, simulated flight loads, and propellant aging characteristics. No failures or detrimental effects of any type were encountered during the final flight motor evaluation phase. Table 8. Summary

entry nose cone testing mission. Second, the ]uno I program placed Explorer I and other significant satellites (18-to-30-1b class) into orbit. Thirdly, tile ]uno II space probe program boosted the first U.S. space probe in an orbit around the Sun, obtaining valuable trajectory and communication data, and lastly, in, the ]uno II Earth satellite program, it successfully completed 3 of 6 assigned missions.

of successful launchings

Program RTV

Flight or round and date Round 27, Jupiter 9/20/56 C

Duplicate designations

Stages

Mission

Results

3

Proof test of re-entry test vehicle and Microlock

Successful Range: Height: 3300 650 mi. mi.

RTV

Round

40, Jupiter 8/8/57 29, Jupiter i/31/58 24, 3/26/58 Jupiter

C

Re-entry nose cone lest Explorer 1958 I Earth satellite

Successful recovery of nose cone Successfully orbited

Juno

I

Round

C

Alpha Earth satellite Successfully orbited

Juno

I

Round

C

Explorer Ill 1958 Gamma Explorer IV 1958 Epsilon Pioneer Ill Juno IIA Pioneer Juno IIA' Satellite VI VIII IV

Juno

I

Round

44, Jupiter 7/26/58 AM-! 12/6/58 1

C

Earth

satellite

Successfully

orbited

Juno

II

Round

Space

probe

63,500-mi.

apogee

Juno

I1

Round

AM-14 313/59

Space

probe

In orbit

around

Sun

Juno

II

Round

AM-19 10/13/59

A

IGY

Earth

satellite

Successfully

orbited

Explorer D Explorer

Juno

II

Round

AM-19 11/3/60

Earth

satellite

Successfully

orbited

Juno

II

Round

AM-19 4/27/61

E

Explorer

Xl

Earth

satellite

Successfully

orbited

LA--_

25

y

....

JPL TECHNICAL VOLUME III

REPORT

NO.

32-31

REFERENCES
1. Wolfe, Re-entry Propulsion 2. Wolfe, Report 12, 3. Allen E., and William and J. Truscott, Explorer Juno Final Report. Volume No. I. Juno 32-31, I: Jet

Test Vehicles Laboratory, E., Juno 32-31, Jet

Satellites,

Technical 6,

Report 1960

Pasadena, Final

California, Volume

September II. Juno

(CONFIDENTIAL). Probes, Technical September

Allen No.

Report.

I1: Space

Propulsion

Laboratory,

Pasadena,

California,

1960

(CONFIDENTIAL). Summary No. 2, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California,

Space April

Programs 1, 1959

(CONFIDENTIAL). Summary No. 4, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California,

4.

Space August

Programs 1, 1959 Programs

(CONFIDENTIAL). Summary No. 6, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California,

5.

Space

December

1, 1959

(CONFIDENTIAL).

26

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