UBAID ULLAH ZIA KHAN

2007-CIVIL-94

TYPES OF PENETROMETER
AKBARS DILATOMETER:
A new dilatometer for in-situ soil testing has been developed which uses a rigid piston to load the soil. The new dilatometer µcalled the Newcastle Dilatometer ( DMT)¶ uses a N Hall effect transducer and a magnet system to measure the penetration of the piston during loading of the soil. The pressure required to penetrate the piston is recorded using a pressure transducer. The two transducers together can produce applied pressure-displacement curves for obtaining soil parameters which can be more reliable than those obtained based on just one or two contact pressures values as in the Marchetti dilatometer. The NDMT uses displacement and pressure transducers which can record the data throughout the penetration of its piston into the soil. The stress -strain curve thus produced can be studied and analysed with more confidence. Furthermore, the test procedure can be varied easily to suit the nature of the soil parameter required in the design. FEATURES:
TheNDMT blade whose geometry is the same as that of the Marchetti Dilatometer. The

membrane of the MDMT is replaced with the piston assembly. The use of the wave spring washerbetween the piston flange and the retaining ring keeps the piston flush with the blade until the piston is pressurized using dry N gas and brings the piston back
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when depressurized. Two O-rings are incorporated in the NDMT to keep the assembly air and water tight. The applied gas pressure is recorded using a pressure transduer. c A magnet has been glued inside a hole at the centre of the piston. AnHET has been glued to the blade facing this magnet. This system of a Hall effect transducer HET) and ( a magnet is used for measuring the displacement of the piston. When the pistonmoves by internally pressurizing the blade, the HET produces a change in its output according to the flux intensity. This output is non-linear but non-hysteretic and a second-degree curve fits the data (Akbar, 2001). Access to the connections between theHET and the cable is via steel cover.

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t for t ot rocedures, t e displ cement of t e piston in mm) s From t plotted inst t e pressure pplied in P ). e different initi l characteristics from the t o procedures may e due to the time lag et een the pressure increase and the same pressure to e effecti e and acti ate the piston. hen the pressure is increased, it is recorded immediately ecause the pressure transducer is adjacent to the pressure regulator. he same pressure takes some time to reach the probe and acti ate the piston. he time is a function of the length of the hose about 5 m in this case). In the SIC procedure, equilibrium is reache d bet een the pressure applied and the piston movement due to that pressure in 3 seconds. In the C S procedure, since the load is increased/decreased continuously, equilibrium bet een the applied pressure and the piston movement due to that pressure is ne ver reached. As a result, in the C S procedure, lower penetration values are recorded compared to the SIC procedure at the same pressures, as is evident. In the SIC procedure, data points prior to load increments/decrements are considered. It is possible to determine the slope of the loading and unloading parts of the curve to correct the field curve for system compliance. In the C S procedure, finding the best fit curve to the loading curve only is possible, as the unloading curve does not have a regular shape due to fast unloading. After the calibration, the probe was pushed into the ground using a mechanical jack. he in-situ testing was carried out at two adjacent locations. At one location, the C S procedure was used, at the other location, the SIC pro cedure was employed. ests were conducted immediately after the blade reached a test depth to perform tests under undrained conditions. As a test takes longer to complete with the SIC procedure, tests were carried out at 4 cm intervals to obtain a deeper profile. sing the C S cm interval, as recommended by archetti procedure, tests were carried out at every 98 ). sing the SIC test procedure, the tests were carried out by increasing the pressure at a constant rate up to the lift -off pressure and thereafter the pressure was increased in increments, maintaining each increment for 3 seconds. sing the C S procedure, the pressure was applied through the archetti DMT pressure regulator. After attaining . mm penetration of the piston, the pressure wa s vented off. Each test took between and 3 minutes. At the end of the test, the instrument was withdrawn and calibrated for system compliance. he calibrations before and after the in-situ testing were averaged. he in -situ test curves were then corrected for system compliance. IN ERPRE ION OF DATA: For the SIC test procedure only data points prior to a pressure increment/decrement were used to obtain the stress -strain curve for the tests. For the C S test procedure, all the data points were plotted. he yield pressure p equivalent to archettiDMT p pressure) has been determined by
E o

tracing back the trend of or tangent to) the initial part of the plastic loading curve to intercept the pressure axis at point E. his pressure corresponds to ero disp lacement of the piston. ote that pushing the blade into the soil causes the soil to yield, which implies the initial pressure on the piston should be p . he fact that the initial pressure
E

pressure corresponding to point A) is less than p is a result of unloading that occurs as
E

the soil is unloaded as it moves past the shoulder of the blade. he piston is forced to move by at least . mm to . he pressure corresponding to point is p . he C S procedure records values of p about % on average hig her

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than the SIC method. he p

1.1

pressures recorded by the C S procedure are about 10%

higher than those from the SIC method, as expected. his is due to the time lag between the pressure increase and the pressure becoming effective, as explained during t he calibration above. he two pressures p and p ) together with the test depth, are converted to a
E 1.1

dilatometer modulus E ), a hori ontal stress index K ), and a material index I ), using
D D D

the following equations: K = pE u0 v (1)
D

I = pE u0
D

v (2)
1.1

E = 42.8 (p
D
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p ) (3)
E

whereu is the in-situ pore water pressure. K is a very useful parameter in understanding the stress history ( OCR profile) of
D

a deposit. K § 2 corresponds to OCR § 1 (Marchetti 1997).
D

I is related to the prevailing grain si e. E is a function of the soil stiffness and is based
D D

on the loading of a rigid, circular plate on elastic soil. the p pressures are higher for the C S procedure, therefore, soil parameters K , K ,
E D o

OCR) based on this pressure should be slightly higher for the C S procedure compared to those based on the SIC test procedure in identical soil conditions. he archetti 1980) classification is based on a range of I values, a little difference in I values from
D D

both the procedures is not relevant. he dilatometer modulus, E values from both
D

procedures should also be similar in identical soil conditions. APP ICATION: UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH Since the slope of the loading curve is a function of the streng th of the soil, the same part has been analyzed to estimate the undrained strength, s .
u

he applied pressure has been plotted against the natural logarithm of the cavity strain. he cavity strain, which is not a true cavity strain as defined in expanding c avities, is defined as the penetration of the piston divided by half the thickness of the blade 7.5 mm), expressed in percentage. he slope of the initial part of the curve after the yield) between cavity strain 0.7 and 5.7%, for SIC procedure and 1 and 3% for C S procedure have been considered appropriate for estimating the undrained strength for the following reasons: ‡ here should be a negligible effect of the pore pressure dissipation over this early strain range. ‡ hese strain ranges give s values comparable with those from the archetti DMT for
u

the in-situ testing carried out during this research. ‡ A similar approach has been used to determine the undrained strength from the self boring and pre±boring pressure meters curves Clarke, 1995). he disadvantage with the SIC procedure used is that the only data point prior to a load increment is used to plot the curve, which misses the data points in between the load increments. For this reason, it is difficult to adhere to a particular strain range for deducing s . his is possible
u

with the CS procedure used with the NDMT.

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Beyond the initial yield after pressure p in Fig. 5), the undrained strength is assumed to
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be a constant. his is because the mean effective stress in a cohesive soil does not change after the soil has yielded Campanella et al. 1991; Clarke, 1995). he increase in the applied pressure increases the excess pore pressure o nly. owever, the gradient of the curve for the SIC test data Fig. 7b) seems increasing with expansion indicating an increase in the strength with cavity expansion. his may be due to: ‡ he test procedure followed i.e. stress increment controlled, SIC) during which partial dissipation of the excess pore pressure developed may take place with time. his partial dissipation of excess pore pressure increases the effective stress and hence the strength and stiffness as the cavity strain increases. In genera l, all tests show a similar behaviour but tests including an unload -reload cycle show slightly steeper gradient after the cycle as in Fig. 7 b). his is due to the time spent to carry out the cycle during which pore pressure developed can dissipate more th an a test without a cycle. ith a constant stress rate CS ) test procedure, the gradient after the initial yield point remains nearly linear, indicating undrained condition during a test, as shown in Fig. 7 a). ‡ he gradient of the line can also vary de pending upon the strain level as most soils are not perfectly plastic Clarke, 1995). he above explanation shows that a correct assessment of the reference datum is very important to determine the undrained strength from this curve fitting method. he MDMT has been the only device used to calibrate the NDMT results. here is a need to verify the NDMT results with the other field and laboratory methods such as field vane, triaxial etc. Fig. 8 shows that there is some scatter in the strength values obta ined by the two test procedures. It may be due to the inability in adhering to a certain strain range with the SIC test curve, and the fact that soils vary. UNDERSIDES: The archetti dilatometer MDMT) is a simple device that can be used to determine in situ stress, stiffness and strength of a soil with some degree of confidence. During a test the MDMT furnishes only two data points consisting of displacement and the corresponding pressure at two different displacement position of its membrane. This device, therefore, lacks in providing any information between the two displacement positions and the only two data points are interpreted to establish the various in -situ soil properties. CONE PANETRATION METER :
Static cone penetration test is internationallyrecognized as a standard field test to collectdata about bearing capacity and frictionalresistance of soil.The equipment meets the essential requirements o f IS:4968 Part - III) the probingpart consists of a cone which has an apexangle of 60 0 and an overall base diameterof 35.7 mm equivalent to area of 10 cm2 .The cone is connected with sounding rods which are protected by mantle tubes. Theassembly of sounding rod and mantle tube is pushed into the soil, by means of amechanical rack jack or by an engine driven hydraulic pumping unit and ram. Basicallythe test procedure consists of first pushing the cone alone, then the cone and the friction jacket and finally the w hole assemblyin sequence through specified depth andnoting the resistance in the first two cases,limited to the designed capacity of the unit.The readings are taken for ever y 20 cm ofpenetration, and thus continuous data ofend bearing and frictional resistance of soilis recorded. The results are correlated withbearing capacity and settlement of shallowfoundation and piles.Static C one Test is unsuitable for gravellysoils. The Static Cone resistance is correlatedwith the ' ' value as obtained from standardpenetration test, thus increasing theutility of the test.

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UBAID ULLAH ZIA KHAN

2007-CIVIL-94

STA DARD PA ETRATIO TEST: The standard netrati n test (SPT) is an in-situ dynamic penetration test designed to provide information on the geotechnical engineering properties of soil. The test procedure is - and ASTM D1 . described in the British Standard BS EN ISO 22 PROCEDURE: The test uses a thick-walled sample tube, with an outside diameter of 0 mm and an inside diameter of mm, and a length of around 0 mm. This is driven into the ground at the bottom of a borehole by blows from a slide hammer with a weight of . kg (1 0 lb) falling through a distance of 0 mm ( 0 in). The sample tube is driven 1 0 mm into the ground and then the number of blows needed for the tube to penetrate each 1 0mm ( in) up to a depth of 0 mm (1 in) is recorded. The sum of the number of blows required for the second and third in. of penetration is termed the "standard penetration resistance" or th e "N-value". In cases where 0 blows are insufficient to advance it through a 1 0mm ( in) interval the penetration after 0 blows is recorded. The blow count provides an indication of

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UBAID ULLAH ZIA KHAN

2007-CIVIL-94

the density of the ground, and it is used in many empirical geotechnical engineering formulae.

PURPOSE:
The main purpose of the test is to provide an indication of therelative density of granular deposits, such as sands and gravels from which it is virtually impossible to obtain undisturbed samples. The great merit of the test, and the main reason for its widespread use is that it is simple and inexpensive. The soil strength parameters which can be inferred are approximate, but may give a useful guide in ground conditions where it may not be possible to obtain borehole samples of adequate quality like gravels, sands,silts, clay containing sand or gravel and weak rock. In conditions where the quality of the undisturbed sample is suspect, e.g. very silty or very sandy clays, or hard clays, it is often advantageous to alternate the sampling with standard penetration tests to che the strength. If the samples ck are found to be unacceptably disturbed, it may be necessary to use a different method for measuring strength like the plate test. When the test is carried out in granular soils below groundwater level, the soil may become loosened. In certain circumstances, it can be useful to continue driving the sampler beyond the distance specified, adding further drilling rods as necessary. Although this is not a standard penetration test, and should not be regarded as such, it may at least give an indication as to whether the deposit is reallyas loose as the standard test may indicate. The usefulness of SPT results depends on the soil type, with fine -grained sands giving the most useful results, with coarser sands and silty sands giving reasonably useful results, and clays and gravelly soils yielding results which may be very poorly representative of the true soil conditions. Soils in arid areas, such as theWestern United States, may exhibit natural cementation. This condition will often increase the standard penetration value.

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The SPT is used to provide results for empirical determination of a sand layer's susceptibility to earthquake liquefaction , based on research performed by arry Seed, T. Leslie Youd , and others.

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