READING

SKILL

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Big Brother by Munshi Prem Chand
My brother was five years elder to me, but only three grades ahead. Not that his tryst with schooling
began late, it surely must been his keen devotion to learning that dissuaded him from any hasty
progress. How could the great monument of knowledge stand tall without a strong foundation? Hence
the motto of spending more than a year in each division.
My upbringing was solely his responsibility and for me, his was obviously the final word. How could I
ever think of defying him? He was so studious … always engrossed in books. I often found fancy cats,
dogs and birds drawn on few pages of his note books…. could well have been his idea of taking a
break perhaps.
Many a times he wrote a single name several times over, or scribbled few sentences that didn’t make
any sense to me. For instance, once I found the following etched in his notebook:
Special, Ameena, brothers, because, Radheshyam, Mr. Radheshyam, one hour…
At the end of this trail was the image of a man. I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel
the mystery. Nor did I dare to ask him. He was in the ninth standard; I was only in the fifth
grade…how could I attempt to dissect such intricate stuff?
I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground, throwing pebbles in the air; flying paper
butterflies. Climbing up and down the stairs, riding the hostel gate like a motorcar….I had great fun,
but back in the hostel room, an eerie silence invariably unnerved me.
My brother would fling the first question rudely “Where were you?”
My answer was a meek silence, conveying the acceptance of my crime. He would then caution me in a
flurry of kind and rude words.
“Learn English in this fashion, and you had it. This is no child’s play dear. Slog for months and you
barely get to reach the shore, even scholars never take it easy.
And I ask, do you not see me toiling , poring over books, if you fail to see, that’s your fault. There are
umpteen plays, fairs, cricket matches everyday, have you ever seen me taking a break. And despite this
devotion, I spend more than two years in each grade. It takes me two years, you will probably spend a
lifetime. If you want to waste your life thus, better go home and play Gulli danda* to your heart’s
content. Why blow Dada’s** hard –earned money for nothing?”
I would burst into tears after this, guilty that I was. He would hurt me with such choicest words. For a
second, I would be tempted to give up…why not go home... I was happy being a dullard but god save
me from this struggle…
But all tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve.... to burn the midnight
oil, a new time table sans fun and frolics....
Get up at 6 sharp, finish breakfast… 6 to 8 English, 8 to 9 Math, 9 to 9.30 History, followed by lunch
and school. Back home at 3.30, half an hour rest, 4 to 5 Geography, 5 to 6 Grammar, stroll round the
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hostel half an hour, 6.30 to 7 English composition, followed by dinner, 8 to 9 translations, 9 to 10
Hindi, 10 to 11 revision and then retire to bed. Making a time table is one thing, sticking to it is
another. The breach began from day one. The bouncing football, the fervor of Kabbadi, and the pace of
volleyball all pulled me back to the playground. And gone were all oaths, all resolve …
The annual results were out. I stood first, he failed to clear. Now just two grades separated us. For a
second, I was tempted to confront him right away. “And whatever happened to your penance? What do
we see?”
But his crestfallen face made me think otherwise. Rage made way for compassion. But yes, now I had
a newfound confidence and the guilt was gone for good. Probably, he had guessed it.
Yet, he got his chance one day at the lunch table.
“So you feel you have conquered the world. My dear fellow, this is just the beginning. History is
replete with stories of pride getting the better of the best. Remember what happened to the might of
Ravana – the invincible demon king. What did you learn from his story? "
"Clearing an exam is one thing, knowledge is another. You were lucky this time, but it can’t happen
every time. Don’t judge me by my score, wait till you reach my grade. Algebra and Geometry will
drive you crazy and god save you from the atrocities of British history. Just try remembering emperors
by names. There have been eight Henries alone. Mention Henry the VII as VIII and you lose all marks.
And we have dozens of James and Williams, and countless Charles…where are you dear? And every
name troubles you again with I, II, III, and IV…
Had they asked me for options and I would have thrown up countless names. Why stick to the same
name again and again?
"Geometry is another torture…. write A, B, C as A, C, B and you get a big zero. I just don’t get the
point…Daal, Rice, Chapati or Rice, Daal, Chapati…is it not the same...Then why kill poor students for
the goddamed sequence? But if you want to clear exams, you better suffer this nonsense. Write an
essay on “the value of time” in not less than 400 words. What kind of a joke is that? Common sense
has it --- say what you have to in 3-4 lines and move ahead in life. But no, 400 words please. This is
nothing but anarchy.”
”So you see, my darling brother, you have a long way to go. Don’t float in the air; you will soon land
with a thud. Yes, I have flunked but I am still your elder brother and I know the world better.”
I was getting late for school, waiting for this painful discourse to end. I simply lost my appetite over
his ghastly picture of higher grades.
Somehow, I tugged along, my daily routine intact. Annual exams were round the corner again. I
cleared again, he flunked again…I had no idea how, but I had topped again. And he had miserably
failed…This time, he was in real bad shape…face devoid of color, eyes sunk deep…I felt sorry for
him. And then a wicked thought crossed my mind. One more year and we could end up in the same
grade. no no… How could my mind be so devilish? I crushed the nasty thought.
But now he was no more the same brother I knew. He would pass off all opportunities to pull my ears
and generally kept off me. May be, he realized he had lost the right. This made me even more
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independent and I roamed about at will all day long.
One pleasant evening, I set about running after colorful kites. I was one among the army of 10-12 lads
carrying bamboo sticks as weapons. Our mission was to collect as many fallen kites as we could. We
were oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother. He was probably on his
way back home from the bazaar. He caught me by the wrist and asked tersely
“Are you out of your mind? Roaming like a vagabond with these hooligans. If not anything, have
some respect for your grade. I know of several eight-graders of yester years who made name as
magistrates, collectors, editors, leaders and scholars. And look at yourself? You are intelligent no
doubt, but where's your self-respect?”
“I can read your mind all right. You feel you have caught up with me and that I have no right to
question you. But you are wrong. I am five years elder to you and will always remain so…This truth
will prevail and even God can’t challenge it...whether you get into my grade or even move ahead. "
"And, thanks to the kind of examiners we have these days, that's indeed possible. . ." he added with a
wry smile.
"I have loads of worldly knowledge that’s way above academic grades. Did our Amma*** and Dada
ever go to school? The government in America, constellations in space, wives of Henry the VIII, they
may not know, but can we ever match their wisdom in worldly matters. Tomorrow, if I fall sick, you
will surely panic and send a telegram to Dada, but Dada in your place, would never react like that. He
will first try some home remedy, only if it fails, will he call for a doctor."
"Leave health issues" , he paused for effect to resume again, "those are grave matters, can we plan our
monthly budgets? Every rupee that Dada sends us, does it not vanish by the 22nd of the month? Are
we not left waiting for the next remittance? Did you know that Dada raised a family of nine in less
than half of what we blow up?"
"Look at our headmaster. He has an MA, that too from Oxford. He earns a handsome Rs. 1000 as
salary. But who runs his house? His aged mother. There goes his degree to the bin.
"So you see, do away with that false pride. You are nowhere near me.” He then raised his hand
consumed by rage
“And I will not hesitate to thrash you if need be. I know you’ll hate me for this”
I was speechless and an intense, queer feeling swept over me. I could not bear the sight of my poor
brother, shaking nervously, and losing his mind with every word he uttered. As tears trickled down my
cheeks, I only managed to say,
“No, I don’t hate you, it’s all my undoing. Every word of what you say is true. Please forgive me”
He hugged me instantly. His shaky voice was now barely audible.
“I am not against flying kites, my love. Even I am tempted, but I am helpless. If I take it easy, who will
look after you?’
Just then, we saw a kite above us, utterly helpless, cut reins hanging in shame, on its mournful journey
down. Tall that he was, my brother caught the twine and ran towards the hostel, hapless but fast. I
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pacing after him.followed suit. To be done in reading: Word Antonym Synonym Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading Vocabulary based on text WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE DICTIONARY To be done in speaking SENTENCE 4 .

but outstays its welcome by weeks. If you're thirty-nine. the married people and others who are otherwise hooked and secure have turned even that benefit into a joke--and no woman likes to place all her heart-yearnings at the mercy of a laugh. In that way I should be able to smile through life like those people who. in snapshots from the Riviera. as it were. whose skies are supposed to weep all day long. it keeps people younger a day longer. but who is. Besides. One simply lives through it as one lives through a necessary duty. but generally only succeed in dribbling. so to speak. and starts ringing us up. you're thirty-nine for an extra twenty-four hours. he is here--and so we can endure the suspense of waiting for him with a grin. It is indeed unspeakable. So that. as it were. Usually it's gone before we have. and the new-poor. though the shortest. swear at them in secret. washed our hands. the weather has a lot to do with that spotless robe of white which is supposed to envelop saints. Just as if we didn't know--just as if we ever wanted to know! The English Summer is far more modest. seem composed principally of wide grins and thin legs. he has arrived. and we wait for it like we wait for a lover--a lover in whose embrace we may not yet be. And this is about all the good that February does. once in four years it also allows old maids to propose. It is the month when the new-rich depart to sun themselves in their new-found sun. seems to linger longest. once every four years. Thank Heaven! somebody once made it the shortest! By the end of January most people have had more than enough of the English Winter even if the English Winter thinks we can ever have enough of it. and at that period of life you're glad of any small mercy. True. April may fill the dykes fuller than February. what Leap-Year once allowed. and comes back saying "Hello!" to us right into Summer. say what you will. But then. I would follow Spring round the World. that is all part and parcel of February. yes. Oh. then a hat would surely hide your halo. Were I a rich man. And of all the months it brings with it. and whose joie de vivre is usually published in English illustrated journals in seasons when the English weather makes you feel that Life is just a Big Damn in a mackintosh. And if you _can_ be all these things in weather that is typically English and typically February. you might as well write yourself off for evermore among the ignoble army of the eternally disgruntled. But the three years when they had to wait to be asked have usually taken all their courage out of them." No one ever sings about February: scarcely anyone speaks about It. indeed! If the Clerk of the Weather has a left ear it must surely at this moment be as 'ot as 'ell! Nobody likes February--it is the step-child of the months. But Winter in England not only comes before it is wanted. so far as I can see. February. and others who are quite used to poverty. but the first day of Spring is marked on its calendar. cold-red are the noses--and so (oh help!) are the "toes-es. people have turned into a jeer. March may be colder. February always reminds me of the suburbs--appalling but you've got to go through them to get to London. Its only benefit is that. tidied our hair. whose friendship was never too cold to freeze further promise of intimacy. What a delightful chase! and what a sweet-tempered man I should be! For. It's a month--and that's all. If you can't be pure and good and generous and altogether delightful in the Spring. to tell us it's coming back again as early as October. and dressed ourselves up to meet it.LECTURE – 5 February February is the month when. To follow Spring round the world would be like following a mistress whose charms never palled. downstairs washing his hands. whose welcome was never too warm to be sultry. but April belongs to Spring--even though our face and hands and feet are still in Mid-Winter. Somebody once tried their best to make it as attractive as 5 .

possible. But everybody else has since done their best to rob it of its one little bit of anaemic joy. Perhaps we ought not to blame them! Nobody ought to be blamed in February. To be done in reading: Word Antonym Synonym Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading Vocabulary based on text WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE DICTIONARY To be done in speaking SENTENCE 6 . It is a month which brings out the very worst in everybody. even if it could only be so once every four years.

] Central Jail. Death should not be a means to escape the worldly difficulties. Yours truly Bhagat Singh Letter to B. but you are sentenced to transportation for life.] Mianwali Jail 17 June. 1930 DEAR BROTHER. Lahore DEAR SIR. You will live and. I am condemned to death. Yours Bhagat Singh 7 . Perhaps I am the only man amongst them who is anxiously waiting for the day when I will be fortunate enough to embrace the gallows for my ideal. (Prisons). In these cells. I will climb the gallows gladly and show to the world as to how bravely the revolutionaries can sacrifice themselves for the cause. I request you that you order my immediate transfer to Lahore Central Jail so that I get an opportunity to prepare my case. Despite the fact that I will be prosecuted along with other youngmen arrested in Saunders shooting case. Lahore November. Dutt [This letter gives an idea as to what Bhagat Singh expected from those comrades who would escape capital punishment. justice demands that every under trial should be given all those facilities which help him to prepare and contest the case.G. the route is troublesome and it is very far from Lahore. I have been shifted to Mianwali Jail from Delhi. Punjab [Prelude to a prolonged struggle in jail on the demand of a better treatment.K. The judgement has been delivered. besides myself. I hope that it will be given the earliest consideration. The only prayer of these people is that somehow or other they may escape the moose. Punjab Jails. How can I appoint any lawyer while I am here? It is difficult to keep on the contact with my father and other relatives. 1929.LECTURE – 9 Letters of Bhagat Singh Letter to I. you will have to show to the world that the revolutionaries not only die for their ideals but can face every calamity. Those revolutionaries who have by chance escaped the gallows for the ideal but also bear the worst type o tortures in the dark dingy prison cells. 1929 To The Inspector-General(Jails). This place is quite isolated. I am totally unable to understand the logic behind this kind of shifting. Whatever it be. I will condemned to death. while living. there are many others prisoners who are waiting to be hanged. The hearing of the case is to start from 26 June.

including themselves. now hidden. No matter. whom your government has declared to be outlaws. Lahore Conspiracy Case Ordinance. that there exists a state of war between the British Nation and the Indian Nation and. the heroines who had ungrudgingly sacrificed or offered for sacrifice their husbands. which it should adopt rests with you. if once again the vanguard of the Indian movement. constituted under the Sp. but nevertheless we cannot overlook the fact that they did become so callous as to ignore and not to make a mention in the peace negotiation of even the homeless. 8 . They may be purely British Capitalist or mixed British and Indian or even purely Indian. But that war shall be incessantly waged without taking into consideration the petty (illegible) and the meaningless ethical ideologies. The war shall continue.E. please allow us to accept the validity of the pre-supposition taking it at its face value. The war neither began with us nor is it going to end with our lives. King George. They may be carrying on their insidious exploitation through mixed or even on purely Indian bureaucratic apparatus. No matter if the leaders to whom personally we are much indebted for the sympathy and feelings they expressed for us. Apparently there seems to be no such war as the phrase indicates. the Head of the British Government of India. that we had actually participated in that war and were therefore war prisoners. L. but nevertheless it is too tempting to resist the desire of acquiescing in it. No matter. It shall be waged ever with new vigour. The days of capitalist and imperialist exploitation are numbered. In the very near future the final battle shall be fought and final settlement arrived at. secondly. we are constrained to go into some detail. It may assume different shapes at different times. All these things make no difference. please allow us to say that when you have decided to put us to death. The choice of the course.M. As regards the first. the Revolutionary Party. With due respect we beg to bring to your kind notice the following: That we were sentenced to death on 7th October 1930 by a British Court. based on social prosperity and thus every sort of exploitation is put an end to and the humanity is ushered into the era of genuine and permanent peace. it your agents stoop so low as to fabricate baseless calumnies against their spotless characters to damage their and their party's reputation. if your Government tries and succeeds in winning over the leaders of the upper strata of the Indian Society through petty concessions and compromises and thereby cause a temporary demoralization in the main body of the forces. It may become now open.Bhagat Singh's last petition To The Punjab Governor Sir.C. Our humble sacrifices shall be only a link in the chain that has very accurately been beautified by the unparalleled sacrifice of Mr. brothers. Das and most tragic but noblest sacrifice of Comrade Bhagawati Charan and the glorious death of our dear warrior Azad. Nevertheless. As to the question of our fates. Choose whichever you like. finds itself deserted in the thick of the war. the King of England. No matter. greater audacity and unflinching determination till the Socialist Republic is established and the present social order is completely replaced by a new social order. The second pre-supposition seems to be a little bit flattering. now fierce life and death struggle.C Tribunal. promulgated by the H. and all that were nearest and dearest to them. now purely agitational. friendless and penniless of female workers who are alleged to be belonging to the vanguard and whom the leaders consider to be enemies of their utopian non-violent cult which has already become a thing of the past. and that the main charge against us was that of having waged war against H. The above-mentioned finding of the Court pre-supposed two things: Firstly. The Viceroy. Let us declare that the state of war does exist and shall exist so long as the Indian toiling masses and the natural resources are being exploited by a handful of parasites. It is the inevitable consequence of the historic events and the existing environments. But in order to be correctly understood we must explain it further. whether bloody or comparatively peaceful.

you will certainly do it. You have got the power in your hands and the power is the greatest
justification in this world. We know that the maxim "Might is right" serves as your guiding motto. The
whole of our trial was just a proof of that. We wanted to point out that according to the verdict of your
court we had waged war and were therefore war prisoners. And we claim to be treated as such, i.e., we
claim to be shot dead instead of to be hanged. It rests with you to prove that you really meant what
your court has said.
We request and hope that you will very kindly order the military department to send its detachment to
perform our execution.
Yours'
BHAGAT SINGH
To be done in reading:
Word

Antonym

Synonym

Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text
For each lesson :
Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below:
To be done in reading
Vocabulary based on text
WORD

GUESSED MEANING

MEANING IN THE
DICTIONARY

To be done in speaking
SENTENCE

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LECTURE – 13
Panchatantra Story – Union is Strength

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11

12

13 .

To be done in reading: Word Antonym Synonym Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading Vocabulary based on text WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE DICTIONARY To be done in speaking SENTENCE 14 .

19 Walk for Water grows longer 15 .LECTURE .

To be done in reading: Word Antonym Synonym Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading Vocabulary based on text WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE DICTIONARY To be done in speaking SENTENCE 16 .

For. it is proved not by extreme extraneous evidence. there is underlying all that change a living power that is changeless. the safest course is to believe in the moral government of the world and therefore in the supremacy of the moral law. I do dimly perceive that whilst everything around me is ever dying. that there is orderliness in the universe. I can see that in the midst of death. In the midst of darkness. who am infinitely lesser in respect to god than they to their ruler need not be surprised if I do not realize the presence of god. Bose. It transcends the senses. life persists. And since faith itself cannot be proved by extraneous evidence. London [AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED: Text version below transcribed directly from audio] There is an indefinable mysterious power that pervades everything. 17 . He must express himself in ever smallest act of his [goodery?]. But. To reject this evidence is to deny oneself. dissolves. that creates. Sense perceptions can be and often are false and deceptive however real they may appear to us. And thanks to the marvelous researches of Sir J. humble and mute acceptance of divine authority makes life’s journey easier even as the acceptance of earthly rule makes life under it easier. There is an unalterable law governing everything and every being that exists or lives. And since nothing else that I see merely through the senses can or will persist. the law of truth and love. I see it as purely benevolent. God to be god must rule the heart and transform it. Hence I gather that god is life. and recreates. but in the transformed conduct and character of those who have felt the real presence of god within. if he ever does. truth. and how he rules. just as my denial or ignorance of the existence of an earthly power will avail me nothing. I feel it. Whereas. Such testimony is to be found in the experiences of an unbroken line of prophets and sages in all countries and climes. He is love. Nevertheless I do feel as the poor villagers felt about Mysore. light. Faith transcends reason. He who would in his own person. That informing power of spirit is god. I may not deny the law or the lawgiver because I know so little about it or him. though I do not see it. This realization is preceded by an immovable faith. or why. I. truth persists. Exercise of faiths will be the safest where there is the clear determination summarily to reject all that is contrary to truth and love. light persists. the king of kings. He is the supreme good. It is this unseen power which makes itself felt and yet defies all proof because it is so unlike all that I perceive through my senses. Where there is realization outside the senses it is [imperial?]. If the knowledge of these poor people was so limited about their ruler. That law then which governs all life is god. my denial of god and his law will not liberate me from its operation. he alone is. It is not a blind law. All that I can advise is not to attempt the impossible. This can only be done through a definite realization more real than the fives senses can ever prove use. Even in ordinary affairs we know that people do not know who rules. test the fact of god’s presence can do so by a living faith. And if this power is benevolent or malevolent. In the midst of untruth. They simple said some god ruled it.LECTURE – 23 A speech by Gandhi Address at Kingsley Hall delivered 17 October 1931. that holds all together. it can now be proved that even matter is life. Law and the lawgiver are one.C. for no blind law can govern the conduct of living beings. But it is possible to reason out the existence of god to an [unintelligible] exchange. ever guiding. Even so. In my tour last year in Mysore I met many poor villagers and I found upon inquiry that they did not know who ruled Mysore. I confess that I have no argument to convince through reason. he is no god who merely satisfies the intellect. And yet they know that there is a power that certainly rules.

To be done in reading: Word Antonym Synonym Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading Vocabulary based on text WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE DICTIONARY To be done in speaking SENTENCE 18 .

20 And just because I was thrice as old And our paths in the world diverged so wide.-And the sweet white brow is all of her. in the glass. beside. Beginning to die too. I think: The shutters are shut. your soul was pure and true. 19 . Is it too late then. Sixteen years old when she died! Perhaps she had scarcely heard my name. The good stars met in your horoscope. no light may pass Save two long rays thro' the hinge's chink. Her life had many a hope and aim. this her bed. And now was quiet. She plucked that piece of geranium-flower. fire and dew-. Made you of spirit. Little has yet been changed.LECTURE – 27 Evelyn Hope Evelyn Hope by Robert Browning Beautiful Evelyn Hope is dead! Sit and watch by her side an hour. now astir. 10 It was not her time to love. Duties enough and little cares. Till God's hand beckoned unawares. That is her book-shelf. Evelyn Hope? What.

one. Ransacked the ages. in my soul's full scope. in fine. I shall divine. as mighty to make. Evelyn Hope. Thro' worlds I shall traverse. not a few: 30 Much is to learn. 40 I have lived (I shall say) so much since then. Yet one thing. Evelyn Hope! What is the issue? let us see! 20 . But the time will come. And creates the love to reward the love: I claim you still. Either I missed or itself missed me: And I want and find you. That body and soul so pure and gay? Why your hair was amber. naught beside? No. Given up myself so many times. at last it will. for my own love's sake! Delayed it may be for more lives yet. must I be told? We were fellow mortals. When. spoiled the climes.Each was naught to each. Gained me the gains of various men. much. what meant (I shall say) In the lower earth in the years long still. to forget Ere the time be come for taking you. In the new life come in the old one's stead. And your mouth of your own geranium's red-And what would you do with me. indeed! for God above Is great to grant.

And the red young mouth. and remember.I loved you. Hinge __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Chink __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Astir __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Beckon __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Diverge __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Naught __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Traverse __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Stead __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Ransacked __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 21 . So hush. Evelyn. that is our secret: go to sleep! You will wake. Vocabulary Exercise Q1: Give the meanings of the following words and use them in sentences. I shut it inside the sweet cold hand! There. and understand. all the while! My heart seemed full as it could hold. and the hair's young gold.--I will give you this leaf to keep: See. 50 There was place and to spare for the frank young smile.

To be done in reading: Word Antonym Synonym Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading Vocabulary based on text WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE DICTIONARY To be done in speaking SENTENCE 22 .

The wreathing fires made way. and pennon fair. Father. father!' once again he cried. They caught the flag on high. His voice no longer heard. Upon his brow he felt their breath. He called aloud–'say. Yet beautiful and bright he stood. A creature of heroic blood. There came a burst of thunder sound– The boy–oh! where was he? Ask of the winds that far around With fragments strewed the sea!– With mast. And in his waving hair. That father. faint in death below. And fast the flames rolled on.LECTURE – 31 Casabianca The boy stood on the burning deck Whence all but he had fled. 'Speak. And shouted but once more aloud. through sail and shroud. And looked from that lone post of death In still yet brave despair. 'If I may yet be gone!' And but the booming shots replied. A proud. And streamed above the gallant child. They wrapt the ship in splendour wild. Like banners in the sky. 'My father! must I stay?' While o'er him fast. The flames rolled on–he would not go Without his Father's word. As born to rule the storm. 23 . That well had borne their part– But the noblest thing which perished there Was that young faithful heart. say If yet my task is done?' He knew not that the chieftain lay Unconscious of his son. though child-like form. and helm. The flame that lit the battle's wreck Shone round him o'er the dead.

To be done in reading: Word Antonym Synonym Vocabulary /Activities/Questions based on text For each lesson : Teacher will pick all the difficult words in each and every story and make a table as given below: To be done in reading Vocabulary based on text WORD GUESSED MEANING MEANING IN THE DICTIONARY To be done in speaking SENTENCE 24 .

SPEAKING SKILL 25 .

. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts. Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or paragraph which they will share in the class. Points for the Story ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ ____________ ___________ 26 . LECTURE -2 Big Brother Vocabulary exercises based on text: 1.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………..

Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. beautician[noun]. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________ 27 .. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 3. 2.. After listening other students will be asked to tell the mistakes done by the speaker and teacher will point out common errors on the board.Beautify[verb].beautiful[adjective] Beautifully[adverb] ____________ ____________ ________________ ____________ ____________ ________________ ____________ ____________ ________________ ____________ ____________ ________________ ____________ ____________ ________________ ____________ ____________ ________________ ____________ ____________ ________________ ____________ ____________ ________________ ____________ ____________ ________________ 1based on Vocabulary-Pick any ten words of your choice and write key points of a short story or paragraph which they will elaborate in the class. Make more words from the picked verbs : For example.

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ______ 8. Forms (if verb) ________ _________ ________ _________ ________ _________ __________ __________ __________ 6. Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual vocabulary starting from the first letter of the name. Spellings ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 28 . Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings 1. Synonym ________ ____________ __________ _________ __________ 4. Antonyms ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ 3. Use the word as-Noun/Verb/Adverb [eg illusion-illusionist-illusioned –illusionism] ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ 7. Sentence formation _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ________ 5.

9. loan.. want. take. etch. prod. No word can be repeated in any column.” an appropriate sequence of words would be grow. haul. 3-letter verbs 5-letter verbs 3-letter adjectives 5-letter adjectives ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ 29 . In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place Eg Humour . you must start the next word in the column with the last letter of the previous word. Guess the word. For example. lend. however.. for “4-letter verbs.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. and so forth.Raju Srivastav Strength. deal.Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir Witty ______________ Beautiful ____________ Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ________ 11. Write words that fit the description.A_m_ _e __ __ __ __ __ answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for practice) ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ 10. drip.

Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. Write the names of the characters on play cards. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ______________ 3. distribute them among 30 . Who is your favorite character in the story and why? ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 5. What would you change if you had to rewrite the story. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 4.. 1.. Summarize the story ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ __ 2. Prepare a short skit on the text .

Students and randomly pick any two for role play.Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.. Batting and Bowling Batting (Questions) Bowling (Answers) 31 .. What touched you the most in the story? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ Tense check based on text1. ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ ________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 6.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. GD .

The teacher can write facts from the text and ask the student to say same in past or vice versa .The narrator and his brother.. Discuss the relationship of the narrator with his brother and the change that occurred with the passage of time. Role Play. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ 32 . 3.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ______________ Questions Based On Text :1.. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ 2..

__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 33 .Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ 5. 3. Discuss-Wisdom comes with age not with education __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ 4. Discuss-Degree is not important to be successful. Discuss-Elders should allow the youngsters to learn from their own experience...

Name …………………………

Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE – 6
February

Vocabulary exercises based on text:
1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts.
Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short
story or paragraph which they will share in the class. Points for the Story

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3. Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.

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Name …………………………

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4. Make more words from the picked verbs :
For example- Beautify[verb], beautician[noun],beautiful[adjective]
Beautifully[adverb]
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Exercise based on Vocabulary - Pick any ten words of your choice and write key points of a short
story or paragraph which they will elaborate in the class. After listening other students will be asked to
tell the mistakes done by the speaker and teacher will point out common errors on the board.
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35

Name …………………………

Reg No…………………………...

SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings
Spellings
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Antonyms
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Synonym
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Sentence formation
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Forms (if verb)
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Use the word as-Noun/Verb/Adverb [eg illusion-illusionist-illusioned –illusionism]
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Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.
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Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual
vocabulary starting from the first letter of the name.
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36

Name …………………………
Guess the word- A_m_ _e
__ __ __ __ __

Reg No…………………………...

answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for practice)

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In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place
Eg Humour - Raju Srivastav Strength- Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir
Witty ______________
Beautiful ____________
Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons
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Write words that fit the description; however, you must start the next word in the column with the last
letter of the previous word. For example, for “4-letter verbs,” an appropriate sequence of words would
be grow, want, take, etch, haul, lend, drip, prod, deal, loan, and so forth. No word can be repeated in
any column.

3-letter verbs

5-letter verbs

3-letter adjectives

5-letter adjectives

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__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Batting and Bowling Batting (Questions) Bowling (Answers) 38 ... Summarize the Essay __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ What interested you the most in the essay ? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Tense check based on textGD .Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….

The teacher can write facts from the text and ask the student to say same in past or vice versa __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________ Questions Based On Text :1. How is February in India different from the February in England? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 39 . __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. Why does the month of February bring out the very worst in every body? Discuss..Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. Which is your favorite month of the year and why? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 3.

4. Which all celebrations come in the month of February and how do you celebrate them? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 40 .

Never before since Jamestown and Plymouth Rock has our American civilization been in such danger as now. Tonight. three powerful nations. in the presence of a world crisis. the widows and the old men wondering about their life's savings. We met the issue of 1933 with courage and realism. I well remember that while I sat in my study in the White House. It was a time when the wheels of American industry were grinding to a full stop. I tried to convey to the great mass of American people what the banking crisis meant to them in their daily lives. and your grandchildren much later. We face this new crisis. and all of the things that American independence means to you and to me and to ours. It is a talk on national security. I had before my eyes the picture of all those Americans with whom I was talking. 1940 -. the mines. in this new crisis which faces America. when the whole banking system of our country had ceased to function. the girl behind the counter. For on September 27th. joined themselves together in the threat that if the United States of America interfered with or blocked the 41 . preparing to talk with the people of the United States. the small shopkeeper.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. the farmer doing his spring plowing. and your children later. this new threat to the security of our nation. two in Europe and one in Asia.this year -by an agreement signed in Berlin.. 14 Visual based (3 based on famous speeches and 3 based on current events ) Franklin Delano Roosevelt The Great Arsenal of Democracy My friends: This is not a fireside chat on war. with the same courage and realism. out of a last-ditch war for the preservation of American independence. Tonight. the factories. I saw the workmen in the mills. because the nub of the whole purpose of your President is to keep you now. with the same people. LECTURE – 10. I want to do the same thing.. my mind goes back eight years to a night in the midst of a domestic crisis.

In view of the nature of this undeniable threat." So said the leader of the Nazis. that the United States has no right or reason to encourage talk of peace until the day shall come when there is a clear intention on the part of the aggressor nations to abandon all thought of dominating or conquering the world. Thereafter. and then to use the resources of Europe to dominate the rest of the world.a program aimed at world control -. The Nazi masters of Germany have made it clear that they intend not only to dominate all life and thought in their own country. on the other hand. it can be asserted. with the British as neighbors. we stood guard in the Atlantic. the Axis not merely admits but the Axis proclaims that there can be no ultimate peace between their philosophy -. our hemisphere included. It was only three weeks ago that their leader stated this: "There are two worlds that stand opposed to each other. and the high seas. Asia. In other words.and our philosophy of government. 42 . In Asia the Japanese are being engaged by the Chinese nation in another great defense. the Axis powers will control the Continents of Europe. It is no exaggeration to say that all of us in all the Americas would be living at the point of a gun -. we would have to convert ourselves permanently into a militaristic power on the basis of war economy. economic as well as military. Africa. At this moment the forces of the States that are leagued against all peoples who live in freedom are being held away from our shores. proven correct by history. but also to enslave the whole of Europe. In the Pacific Ocean is our fleet. We should enter upon a new and terrible era in which the whole world. And the fact is that during the whole of this time the Western Hemisphere has remained free from aggression from Europe or from Asia. and by thousands of soldiers and sailors who were able to escape from subjugated countries." And then in defiant reply to his opponents he said this: "Others are correct when they say: 'With this world we cannot ever reconcile ourselves. One hundred and seventeen years ago the Monroe Doctrine was conceived by our government as a measure of defense in the face of a threat against this hemisphere by an alliance in Continental Europe. Does anyone seriously believe that we need to fear attack anywhere in the Americas while a free Britain remains our most powerful naval neighbor in the Atlantic? And does anyone seriously believe. that we as neighbors could settle any disputes in peaceful fashion. would be run by threats of brute force. There was no "unwritten agreement.they would unite in ultimate action against the United States. properly and categorically.their philosophy of government -. There was no treaty.a gun loaded with explosive bullets. Austral-Asia.expansion program of these three nations -. that we could rest easy if the Axis powers were our neighbors there? If Great Britain goes down. But it is a matter of most vital concern to us that European and Asiatic war-makers should not gain control of the oceans which lead to this hemisphere. Some of our people like to believe that wars in Europe and in Asia are of no concern to us. The Germans and the Italians are being blocked on the other side of the Atlantic by the British and by the Greeks. And they will be in a position to bring enormous military and naval resources against this hemisphere." And yet there was the feeling. And to survive in such a world.''' I can beat any other power in the world.

Discuss the role of america in preserving the balance of power in the presence of the present scenario.. They say that if you want peace be prepared for war. Name the axis powers and speak in detail on at least one of them and its role in the world war? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Q2. Comment on this statement in the light of the above speech. Questions based on Text Q1.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ 43 . ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Q3..

the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. yes. a great American. In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. Five score years ago. the Negro still is not free. would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. But one hundred years later. Liberty and 44 . signed the Emancipation Proclamation.. "I Have a Dream" My friends: I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. One hundred years later. One hundred years later. the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. in whose symbolic shadow we stand today. black men as well as white men. One hundred years later. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition. Jr.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men. Martin Luther King..

And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. America has given the Negro people a bad check. let freedom ring! And if America is to be a great nation." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. From every mountainside. And as we walk. I say to you today. land of the Pilgrim's pride. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. Land where my fathers died.the pursuit of Happiness. And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. we've come to cash this check. but a beginning. I still have a dream. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds. my friends. I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. We cannot walk alone. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. for many of our white brothers. that all men are created equal. And so. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning: My country 'tis of thee. sweet land of liberty. insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. We cannot turn back. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. this must become true. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now." I have a dream today! And this will be the day -. as evidenced by their presence here today. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident. of thee I sing. we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead." It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note. a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. 45 . have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny.

And when this happens. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Protestants and Catholics. will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. from every state and every city. when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet. Do you think that Martin Luther's Dream has come to discuss with reference not only to America but to the entire world. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. But not only that: Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. What is the dream that Martin Luther talks about. Jews and Gentiles. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Q2. when we allow freedom ring. Do you find similarity with the dream of Mahatma Gandhi. we are free at last! Q1. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 46 . let freedom ring. we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children. From every mountainside. black men and white men.Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ 47 . Summarize the above speech in your own words.____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Q3.

but HIV is different. Two hundred thousand Americans are dead or dying. gay or straight. It is a present danger. country . I asked the Republican Party to lift the shroud of silence which has been draped over the issue of HIV and AIDS. AIDS is the third leading killer of young adult Americans today. despite good intentions and bold initiatives. TX Less than three months ago at platform hearings in Salt Lake City. and we have helped it along. gender. This is not a distant threat. I want your attention. because unlike other diseases. not your applause. and congressional hearings. White House meetings. young or old. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 48 . Worldwide. Though I am female and contracted this disease in marriage and enjoy the warm support of my family. it is -. But despite science and research. Tonight.. Largely unknown a decade ago. I represent an AIDS community whose members have been reluctantly drafted from every segment of American society.the epidemic which is winning tonight. In the context of an election year. It does not care whether you are Democrat or Republican. I bear a message of challenge. Though I am white and a mother. We have killed each other with our ignorance. Do you agree with the speaker that the threat of Aids is not limited to one race . Houston. I am one with the lonely gay man sheltering a flickering candle from the cold wind of his family’s rejection. male or female. but I believe that in all things there is a purpose. But it won’t be third for long. I am one with a black infant struggling with tubes in a Philadelphia hospital. Adolescents don’t give each other cancer or heart disease because they believe they are in love.despite it all -. to recognize that AIDS virus is not a political creature. here in this great hall.. and our silence. The reality of AIDS is brutally clear.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. I ask you. or listening in the quiet of your home. and I stand before you and before the nation gladly. sixty million. or a hundred million infections will be counted in the coming few years. forty million. Mary Fisher 1992 Republican National Convention Address Delivered 19 August 1992. The rate of infection is increasing fastest among women and children. and hopeful promises. this one travels. or region but looms large. it does not ask whether you are black or white. I have come tonight to bring our silence to an end. A million more are infected. our prejudice. Q1. not self-congratulation. I would never have asked to be HIV positive. campaign slogans.

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Headlines Students to see the visuals of the news headlines and speak on them ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 49 . Compare this speech with your own views on Aids.Q2.

..Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. LECTURE-18 Revision of all modules worksheets to be given for practice _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 50 .

Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. LECTURE -20 Cartoon based Stories Resources of Tom and Jerry and other Cartoons to be taken in Pendrive / DVD Exercise – 1 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 51 ...

..Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. EXERCISE: 2 52 .

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.. EXERCISE: 3 54 .Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….

Picture1_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture2_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture3_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture4_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture5_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture6_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture7_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture8_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture9_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture10____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 55 .

..Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. EXERCISE: 4 Picture1___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________Picture2_______ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________Picture3_____________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________Picture4___________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________Picture5_________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ____________Picture6_______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Picture7___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________Picture8_______ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________Picture9_____________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________Picture10__________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ 56 .

EXERCISE: 5 57 ...Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….

Picture1_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture2_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture3_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture4_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture5_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture6_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture7_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture8_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture9_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Picture10____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 58 .

21) and assign each student one idiom / proverb to speak upon _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 59 ... LECTURE – 24 Oral presentation on idiomatic and proverbial expressions Teacher to choose idioms / proverbs from the given resources (list already given in lecture.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….

newsreader. Enact the given situation while playing various role viz. you. father. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 60 . sibling etc ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Q2: Enact a court scene depicting Kasab in dock and trying to justify himself.. mother. LECTURE -28 Role play (based on social news .Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. real events and stories) Q1: Suppose you want to be a model and you are just on the verge of leaving your family to fulfil your dreams and suddenly on the TV set the news of Viveka’s suicide is flashed and members of your family start reacting otherwise and forbid you from going.

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 61 . ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Q4: Enact the scene from ‘Big Brother’ while introducing 2-3 more characters(fictitious).Q3: Create a scene of ‘Apki kacheri’ with any social issue.

advertisements etc and prepare PPTs Teacher to provide list of themes Students to write points only for preparation of PPTs __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 62 .Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. movies. LECTURE – 32 PPT presentations on the themes emerging from text and speeches Students/ Teacher to choose themes from texts ..

. LECTURE – 35 Oral presentation on idiomatic and proverbial expressions Teacher to choose idioms / proverbs from the given resources (list already given in lecture..21) and assign each student one idiom / proverb to speak upon _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 63 .Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….

GRAMMAR 64 .

_______________________________________________________________ 8. it_s just that he didn_t enjoy any indoor game_s. _______________________________________________________________ 3. Inverted Commas. I ask_ed her if she_s coming to see us this weekend. _______________________________________________________________ 2.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. You_d better hurry or we_ll be late for rehearsal_s. _______________________________________________________________ 5. Practice Exercises :Look at the following sentences. _______________________________________________________________ 7. _______________________________________________________________ 6. They_d once live_d in London_s West End but now they_ve moved to the country_side. It wasn_t that he couldn_t play card_s. Full stop. Interrogative and Apostrophes PUNCTUATION I. You_re going to have an accident if you don_t put that knife down.. Try to decide which words need an apostrophe and then write the sentence correctly. _______________________________________________________________ 4. Semi colon. Each sentence has at least one apostrophe missing somewhere. Fred_s the talles_t boy in his class but he still can_t reach top shelf.. Apple_s are cheap this year so we_re expecting Grandma to be baking lot_s of pies. Hint: some of the gaps have been put there just to fool you! 1. Colon. ______________________________________________________________ 65 . Jenny doesn_t care for women_s_ clothes but prefer_s to wear a shirt and jean_s. LECTURE-3 Commas.

sheds and yards. hovers basically anything with metal in it will be taken away for you free of charge the only exception to this is T. printers. dryers. I've copied it out exactly as it's printed except that I've removed the name of the company and their telephone number. IMPORTANT NOTICE There is an estimated 35. You will see that the information is perfectly understandable and as a piece of communication it works adequately in getting over its message. We will take away all your unwanted metal ie old cookers. fridges and fridge freezers these items are classed as hazardous waste and will be taken away by contacting your local council the council will charge you for taking items away if you have any queries please do no hesitate to call us on xxxxxxxxxxxxxx this service is free all we ask is that you help us to keep your town tidy thank you for your time we hope you take advantage of this service ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ 66 . old bicycles. We_d like to go to the we_dding but we_re sitting an exam on that day ______________________________________________________________ II.9. photocopiers. car batteries.V’s. There_s a chance that Graham_s match will be cancelled as the weather_s expected to get worse. garages. ______________________________________________________________ 10. We appreciate that a lot of people have not got the facilities to get to there local tip as a result a free I. See if you can spot all the errors and then try to write an improved version of the leaflet. keyboards etc etc basically eny computer equipment you want taking away .T. scanners. washers. Last year 11480 ton ended up on our streets and ally ways. Here is a leaflet that was pushed through my door.000 tones of rubbish abandoned in our homes. However the number of mistakes does tend to make it seem rather unprofessional. lawnmowers. and metal collection service has been organized in conjunction with xxxxx waste collections for your area on THURSDAY 8 APRIL we hope that this gives you enough time to sort out anything that you would like to be taken away all you have to do is place any items mentioned out side your gate collection will start 9 oclock we will take away any computer equipment ie towers.

Pete added The meeting about the play is next week. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Provide the missing commas in the passage below (14 commas altogether): Women's Studies is now established as an important field of study and research across the globe. First it was pointed out that women tended to be invisible inmost academic research and teaching where the emphasis appeared to be on important men and men's ideas and interests. Women's Studies activists and scholars aimed to rectify the situation. Put in the inverted commas wherever required: 1. This was to be done by providing information and analyses about the lives of women so that they could be used to initiate social changes that would end gender inequality. Linked to this was the need to develop new ways of thinking about doing research and constructing ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ IV. We must go to the hospital now. Women's Studies became linked to the educational wing of feminism in two ways. _____________________________________________________________________ 67 .III. am ready she said. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. said Beth. First appearing in the United States in the second half of the 1960s courses and degree programs rapidly emerged in other Western countries and in other parts of the world. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. The emergence of Women's Studies at this time was linked to the political movement and practice of feminism. Don’t forget to learn your spellings said Mrs Cryer. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Women mainly those who were white and from the West began more vocally to challenge the discrimination which made them unequal to men in areas such as education employment and domestic responsibilities. Look out! cried the man. I went to see that film yesterday. Be careful whispered Rob or we’ll wake the giant. Second there was a questioning of the ways in which knowledge was conventionally obtained with the associated criticism that the methods concepts and theories deployed were irrelevant to and in fact helped to conceal the lives and experiences of women.

BRIAN [straightens up and looks directly at Julia] : And you were wondering if I would give you a lift? JULIA: Absolutely! Would you mind? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 68 .Hello Adam called Mr Butcher peering over his front gate just in time to see the tall boy walking past Adam smiled Hi Mr Butcher How are you Not so good Adam its hard work gardening with my bad knees the old man added sadly Would you like some help asked Adam Well that would be grand said Mr Butcher gratefully Lucy yelled Adam as his sister ran out of the house next door Hi Lucy shouted back what’s happening ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Playing with speech Read the following extract from a play. using inverted commas and the correct punctuation. and spots Brian cleaning some riding equipment. [Enter Julia. It’s been in the garage for a service. walks over to Brian] : Well.] JULIA: Are you busy today.. Is there something you want? JULIA [cautiously. Then write it out as a story with direct speech. Brian? BRIAN [looks over shoulder at Julia] : I’ve got to get everything ready for the show on Saturday. Wanders into the stable yard. I’ve got to go into town later to fetch my car.

Punctuate the passage given below: It was a bright cold day in april and the clocks were striking thirteen winston smith his chin nuzzled into his breast in an effort to escape the vile wind slipped quickly through the glass doors of victory mansions though not quickly enough to prevent a swirl of gritty dust from entering along with him the hallway smelt of boiled cabbage and old rag mats at one end of it a coloured poster too large for indoor display had been tacked to the wall it depicted simply an enormous face more than a metre wide the face of a man of about forty-five with a heavy black moustache and ruggedly handsome features winston made for the stairs it was no use trying the lift even at the best of times it was seldom working and at present the electric current was cut off during daylight hours it was part of the economy drive in preparation for hate week the flat was seven flights up and winston who was thirty-nine and had a varicose ulcer above his right ankle went slowly resting several times on the way on each landing opposite the lift-shaft the poster with the enormous face gazed from the wall it was one of those pictures which are so contrived that the eyes follow you about when you move BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU the caption beneath it ran ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________ VIII. The question was. 1. revise. Correct or incorrect? If incorrect. Should she vote for Jane Doe? _____________________________________________________________ 3. The question was whether she should vote for Jane Doe? _____________________________________________________________ 4. Should she vote for Jane Doe? _____________________________________________________________ 2. The question was: Should she vote for Jane Doe? _____________________________________________________________ 69 .

_____________________________________________________________ 4. The question was: Did she sleep? _____________________________________________________________ IX. however Jane Doe was not running for office. The question was did she sleep? _____________________________________________________________ 8. _____________________________________________________________ 7. She changed her mind and voted for Josie Doakes. and a winner was declared. She intended to vote for Jane Doe. The votes were counted. The votes were counted and a winner was declared. Some of the sentences given below have been wrongly punctuated. The wind blew. _____________________________________________________________ 3. the rain fell. 1. She slept? _____________________________________________________________ 6. She wanted to vote for Jane Do. Rectify. however poor a candidate Jane Doe was. _____________________________________________________________ 5. Did she sleep? _____________________________________________________________ 7. but Jane Doe was not running for office. She intended to vote for Jane Doe.5. The question was. _____________________________________________________________ 70 . _____________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________ 6.

they left. _____________________________________________________________ 10. _____________________________________________________________ 11. _____________________________________________________________ 3. They came. _____________________________________________________________ Punctuate the following: 1. _____________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________ 9.8. they drank. The Canadian Centre for Studies in Publishing CCSP is located at 515 West Hastings Street Vancouver BC V6B 5K3. It wasn’t her fault—she was asleep. they drank every bit of beer they could find. They came. It is not to be confused however with Neil Gaimans dark graphic The Sandman a finely crafted series. Please study the list of dos and donts. they drank. The song Mr Sandman is one of my all time favourites. They came to the party. _____________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________ 4. I read fiction non-fiction poetry and literary criticism. _____________________________________________________________ 12. It wasn’t her fault: she was asleep. they staggered out at midnight to look for another party. Marys office is on the third floor. 71 . _____________________________________________________________ 2.

_____________________________________________________________ 8. Ice and Fire. _____________________________________________________________ 72 . On February 2 2007 Ground Hog Day will be celebrated in Topeka Kansas and in Winnipeg Manitoba among other places. _____________________________________________________________ 13. That dinner is so important (to Dinah anyway) that no one should miss it. She approached her work in a thoughtful conscientious careful fashion. He wrote a book. _____________________________________________________________ 9. _____________________________________________________________ 11. Most of the time she slept heavily occasionally she stirred._____________________________________________________________ 7. The playlist included such hits as Up On the Roof and Midnight Train to Georgia. I read fiction non-fiction poetry literary criticism everything. Dispatches from the New World. _____________________________________________________________ 15. They visited Phoenix Arizona Las Vegas Nevada and Dallas Texas _____________________________________________________________ 14. She jumped a foot that gunshot was loud. The sign said Keep Off the Grass _____________________________________________________________ 12. _____________________________________________________________ 16. _____________________________________________________________ 10.

Write sentences using appropriate punctuation to express the emotions visible in the pictures :PIC 1 __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ PIC 2 __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 73 ..Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. Pictures for Punctuation :1..

PIC 3 __________________________________________________________________________ PIC 4 ___________________________________________________________________________ PIC 5 __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ PIC 6 ___________________________________________________________________________ 74 .

PIC 7 ___________________________________________________________________________ PIC 8 ____________________________________________________________________________ 75 .

spelt A absence abundance accessible accidentally acclaim accommodate accomplish accordion accumulate achievement acquaintance acquire acquitted across address advertisement advice advise affect alleged amateur analysis analyze annual apartment apparatus apparent appearance arctic argument ascend atheist athletic attendance auxiliary B balloon barbecue bargain basically beggar beginning belief believe beneficial benefit biscuit boundaries business C calendar camouflage candidate Caribbean category cemetery challenge changeable changing characteristic chief choose chose cigarette climbed clothes clothing cloth collectible colonel column coming commission committee commitment comparative competent completely concede conceivable conceive condemn condescend conscience conscientious conscious consistent continuous controlled controversial controversy convenient correlate correspondence counselor courteous courtesy criticize criticism D deceive defendant deferred definitely definition dependent descend describe description desirable despair desperate develop dictionary difference dilemma dining disappearance disappoint disastrous discipline disease dispensable dissatisfied dominant drunkenness E easily ecstasy effect efficiency eighth either eligible eliminate embarrass emperor encouragement enemy encouraging entirely environment equipped equivalent especially exaggerate exceed excellence exhaust existence existent expense experience experiment explanation extremely exuberance F facsimile fallacious fallacy familiar fascinating feasible February fictitious fiery finally financially fluorescent forcibly foreign forfeit formerly foresee forty fourth fuelling fulfill fundamentally G gauge generally genius government governor grammar grievous guarantee guardian guerrilla guidance H handkerchief happily harass height heinous hemorrhage heroes hesitancy hindrance hoarse hoping humorous hygiene hypocrisy hypocrite I ideally idiosyncrasy ignorance imaginary immediately implement incidentally incredible independence independent indicted indispensable inevitable influential information inoculate insurance intelligence interference interrupt introduce irrelevant irresistible island J jealousy judicial K knowledge 76 . LECTURE – 7..Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. 11 Words Commonly Mis .

L laboratory laid later latter legitimate leisure length likelihood likely loneliness loose lose losing lovely luxury license lieutenant lightning M magazine maintain maintenance manageable maneuver manufacture marriage mathematics medicine millennium millionaire miniature minuscule minutes miscellaneous mischievous missile misspelled mortgage mosquito mosquitoes murmur muscle mysterious N narrative naturally nowadays nuisance necessary necessity neighbor neutron ninety ninth noticeable O obedience obstacle occasion occasionally occurred occurrence official omission omit omitted opinion opponent opportunity oppression optimism optimistic orchestra ordinarily origin outrageous overrun P pamphlets parallel particular pavilion peaceable peculiar penetrate perceive performance performance permanent permissible permissible permitted perseverance persistence personal personnel perspiration physical physician piece pilgrimage pitiful planning pleasant portray possess possession possessive potato potatoes possibility possible practically prairie precede precedence preceding preference preferred prejudice preparation prescription prevalent primitive principal principle privilege probably procedure proceed profession professor prominent pronounce pronunciation propaganda psychology publicly pursue Q quantity quarantine questionnaire quizzes R realistically realize really recede receipt receive recognize recommend reference referring relevant relieving religious remembrance reminiscence repetition representative resemblance reservoir resistance restaurant rheumatism rhythm rhythmical ridiculous roommate S sacrilegious sacrifice safety salary satellite scary scenery schedule secede secretary seize sense sentence separate separation sergeant several severely shepherd shining siege similar simile simply simultaneous sincerely skiing sophomore souvenir specifically specimen sponsor spontaneous statistics stopped strategy strength strenuous stubbornness studying subordinate subtle succeed success succession sufficient supersede suppress surprise surround susceptible suspicious syllable symmetrical synonymous T tangible technical technique temperamental temperature tendency themselves theories therefore thorough though through tomorrow tournament towards tragedy transferring tries truly twelfth tyranny U unanimous undoubtedly unforgettable unique unnecessary until usable usage usually utilization 77 .

V vacuum valuable vengeance volume vigilant village villain violence visible vision virtue W warrant warriors weather Wednesday weird withdrawal woman women worthwhile writing wherever whether which wholly Y yacht yield young 78 .

and “acknowledge” means to gain knowledge (see “knowledge” below).” It comes from the Latin word. acquit .Any college basketball fans out there? If so.“Accumulate” wanted to accumulate a few more [c]s. this word is large enough to accommodate both a double "c" AND a double "m". A 1. you want to say the word fast. a lot .Most verbs that start with “ac-” refer to something being gained.” It was originally applied to bullfighting fans. 13. ist "one who believes. anoint . argument . 17.It is no accident that the test for adverbs on -ly is whether they come from an adjective on -al ("accidental" in this case). 18. Then.This word comes from the Spanish verb. After all. 20. apparent . acquaintance .” this one just means to gain. especially oil in connection with a religious ceremony. 7.Again with the “ac-.” 14. just like in the word “speed. 10. would you? 12. 4.Several words made the list because of the suffix pronounced -êbl but sometimes spelled -ible. you wouldn’t say “asecond” or “aday. WORDS COMMONLY MISSPELLED Dr. acceptable . but the Letter Rationing Authorities said two was plenty. aficionado . you won't have to allot a lot of time to this problem. 5. there are two [e]s in the middle of the word.Two words! Hopefully.When you rub or smear something. amateur . across . but just think of “while” as a period of time like any other. you mean “a cross. accumulate . perhaps. Each word has a mnemonic pill with it and. accommodate . accelerate .It’s time to get acquainted with the word “acquaint.but the [d] converts 2.The letter [e] is the only one repeated in this word. sometimes -able. absence .How long is it exactly? A second? A minute? A day? It’s a tad vague. UNC. that’s anointing. which means “to become fond of. to [c] before [q].Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. 15. If so. Here are the 100 words most often misspelled ('misspell' is one of them).See the previous discussion.. if you swallow it. Just remember to accept any table offered to you and you will spell this word OK.Amateurs need not be mature: this word ends on the French suffix -eur (the equivalent of English er)." 11. accomplish . it will help you to remember how to spell the word.” but if you mean “on the other side of a defined space.Remember. 6. you’ll be well aware of the accomplishments of ACC teams. acquire . and you’ll know that “a while” is two separate words.If you’re talking about an ancient Roman means of capital punishment.Try to acquire the knowledge that this word and the next began with the prefix ad. which is a combination of ad (“to”) and cognoscere (“come to know”). aficioner. a while . “accomplish” means to gain status or achieve a goal.A parent need not be apparent but "apparent" must pay the rent.One [c] makes the /k/ sound while the other [c] makes the /s/ sound.. accognoscere.Let's not argue about the loss of this verb's silent [e] before the suffix -ment. Duke and UVA. 21. No publical. so don’t waste time on any extra [l]s. 79 . so remember this word always has the rent. Language has provided a one-stop cure for all your spelling ills. the -al has to be in the spelling. accidentally . And finally."not" + the "god" (also in the-ology) + 9. atheist . You’ll notice the absence of any other recurring letters. well. then publicly. 3. anything. You can remember that it only has one [n] by thinking that you might rub an ointment onto your body. 19. 8. across.” now.” then it’s just one word. acknowledge . “Accelerate” means to gain speed.Lord help you remember that this word comprises the prefix a. 16. acquire .

a rack and some balls. • changeable .) • • • collectible . And Axl was the lead singer of Guns-N-Roses. “I don’t know what in the world a carburetor does. Get it? Conducts? Business? Get it? C • • • calendar . category . cemetery . B • believe . He’s handsome. (The "i-before-e" rule has more exceptions than words it applies to. but with plastic surgery 80 . it’s only the best bean on earth. especially after [m].” people will be appalled. apology . but that imaginary island would be located in the Caribbean. then the [i] would have to say its own name. not hard." Also take a look at "foreign" below.The bus driver conducts his business all day long. • barbecue .Better than E.You must believe that [i] usually comes before [e] except after [c] or when it is pronounced like "a" as "neighbor" and "weigh" or "e" as in "their" and "heir.This word uses all the vowels once.Many believe that elderly people should only drive a car ‘til age 75 or so. the cantaloupe gets its English name from Cantaluppi.This word is not in a category with "catastrophe" even if it sounds like it: the middle letter is [e]. so you can play it while riding in your Honda Accord. the Italian town where it was first grown in Europe in the late 18th century. • carburetor . eat some pulled pork and play some pool.” • Caribbean .Another -ible word.Often misspelled "bellweather. • candidate . so behind the bar. The CA Rib Bean can only be found on a remote island about half-way between Cuba and the northern coast of Honduras." A wether is a gelded ram. but if you put two of each into “apology. 24. • cantaloupe . accordion . • beginning .What? You’ve never heard of the California Rib Bean? Why. The last vowel is [a].This word has an [e] between two [a]s.) • bellwether . camouflage . coli any day. even if you hate vegetables. except for [i]. An axel is a jump done by a figure skater. there’ll be a cue. Don’t let the name fool you. You can save that one for when you say.22. She might even marry him one day.) • cartilage . column . (That is also why "judgement" is the correct spelling of this word. but you have to get the gear from the bartender. and then we’d be saying “be guy ning.Well if it only had one [n].Silent final [e] is commonplace in English but a silent final [n] is not uncommon.You go out.Candi has a date. 23. of course. business . and you’ll need to apologize.Originally from Armenia.An axle is a rod on which two wheels spin. • • broccoli .This is what we get for stealing words from French – extra letters and [g]s that make a soft /j/ sound.The accordion is portable. intelligent.The verb "change" keeps its [e] here to indicate that the [g] is soft. though.Don't let this one bury you: it ends on -ery—nary an -ary in it. You already know it starts on [c]. and he can bench press 300 pounds – a strong candidate indeed. gentlemanly and funny. no matter what anyone says. You just have to remember. (*Note: There is no such thing as a CA Rib Bean. axle .“Appall” has two [p]s and two [l]s. chosen to lead the herd (thus his bell) due to the greater likelihood that he will remain at all times ahead of the ewes.” which is just silly.

. Fondly. (*Note: This is yet another fabrication. chocolaty .” and this is exactly what he does. and • • you’ve forgotten your binoculars. criticize . has more or less become synonymous with misogyny.” it would have to be done by a critis.) 81 .. “I see. The problem is that the word has been through so many changes. you add -ly.The giant one in Rome is the Colosseum.You would be surprised how many sober people omit one of the [n]s in this one. reassuringly. • congratulations . • • committed . “chilly” means cold.) • chili . Nicolas Chauvin. coolly.” coliseum .The problem most people have with this word is that they don’t know if there’s a [t] or a [d] in the middle. • • • discipline .Pronounced just like “kernel. English spelling! • conscious . drunkenness . and Chile is a long. it’ll give them away every time.Even smart people forget one of the [b]s in this one. The origin of the word is Italian. “Congrats!” Go with that. • • coolly . skinny country in South America. Well. it’s a coliseum.” as in company. this spelling doesn’t make any sense at all.Embedded here is the word “critic. we are commemorating it. its true definition is much broader.” • commemorate . and we’re still using a pronunciation that went with a spelling (coronel) that died 300 years ago. you will remember that this word doubles its final [t] from "commit" to "committed.” as in a kernel of corn. spelled with the [s] and the [c] will get you to the correct spelling of this one.” so if we come together (com) to be mindful (memor) or think about something." conscience . dumbbell .A chili is a hot pepper. A colonnello is a “column of soldiers. • colonel . (So be careful who you call one when you write.) • chauvinism .” That will help you remember to spell it with an [i] instead of an [o] and only one [s] instead of two with a u-m at the end.Drop the [e] to make room for the “Mmmmmm..To make an adverb out of an adjective. community and common.Memor is Latin for “mindful. • daiquiri .Although chauvinism. • definite (ly) . just think of this: You never say to someone.Work on your spelling conscientiously and remember this word with [ch] spelled two different ways: "sc" and "ti".This word definitely sounds as though it ends only on -it.Don't make yourself another daiquiri until you learn how to spell this funny word-the name of a D Cuban village. as it is commonly used. If you’re in one.um. amazingly. but anywhere else.and the ground-breaking technology employed by Oil of Olay. If it were “critisize. Like rings inside a tree trunk.If you are committed to correct spelling.Com is Latin for “together. It has to do with aggressive patriotism and is named after an extreme patriot from Napoleon’s army. which does not exist. • consensus . but it carries a silent "e" everywhere it goes.Try to be conscious of the "sc" [ch] sound and all the vowels in this word's ending and i-o-u a note of congratulations.. how are we truly to know a person’s age? Check out their cartilage. you have probably said. (*This one’s really true. you might look down on a basketball court and say. • conscientious . since they are not related.A little discipline.The census does not require a consensus.Don't let misspelling this word weigh on your conscience: [ch] spelled "sc" is unusual but legitimate. “Congrads!” However. quickly.

There is no “par” in desperate.” not “excercise. it will be exhilarating! • • exceed 0 Remember that this one is -ceed.No word like this one spelled with an [a] is in existence.You may be tempted to spell Dalmatian with -on at the end. but “ecstasy” has its roots in religious mysticism and selftranscendence. and soon it will all have disappeared.This word is spelled pretty much exactly the way it sounds.Once you get past the “diff.• Dalmatian . He excels at Lent. diorama . you can imagine that the Pope is very good at fasting before Easter. • especially .Don't experience the same problem many have with "existence" above in this word: -ence! ecstasy . • • deceive . development . • defiant . • excellent .This word is misspelled "equiptment" 22. not -cede.” there’s no difference in the vowels.The same goes for “disappoint. E • embarrass (ment) . [I] before [e] except after [c].If you’re playing the worst game of golf of your life. but if not. master the spellings of this word. so leave the [x] out of ecstasy. but the law is the law. chances are you can spell it already.Doug is sadly squandering innumerable provisions at the eatery. it has taught the world how to spell “excel.Take the [i] out of “explain. but doing so will only make your spelling reliability disappear. (To exceed all expectations. Di-o-ra-ma. People tend to think of it more and more in conjunction with sex and illegal amphetamines.” Once you have that down.The main part of “especially” is the word “special.” And you can remember that there are no [z]s in “exercise” because the middle of your workout is not the time for catching Zs.If you actually know this word.Remembering that [h] when you spell this word will lift your spirits and if you remember both [a]s.We say “Jazzercise.In recent years.If Microsoft has done nothing else.[E] is the only vowel in “deterrence. • deterrence .” not “Jazzcercise. • exercise .” but don’t let that deter you from putting two [r]s in it.Do ants need defending? You’d think an insect that can lift such relatively heavy loads could take care of himself. it’s because you’ve shot way over par on every hole. “ecstasy” has sort of taken a dirty turn. • explanation . Maybe that’s why ants find themselves in court so often. kids. disappear .” and add -ation.” This is especially important to remember when you’re trying to spell “especially. Excellent. desiccation may be necessary. now. but just remember that the only [o] you need is the zero in 101. which literally means “standing outside oneself.) existence . • • equipment .” E + special + ly. just keep in mind that in case of condensation. disappoint . It comes from the Greek ekstasis.There’s no [e] on the end of “develop. 82 .This one won't embarrass you if you remember it is large enough for a double [r] AND a double [s].It’s tempting to add an extra [s]. dissipate . defendant .” because it’s “exercise.932 times on the web right now. He’s wasting all of his restaurant’s • • • • • food.When you change the verb “defy” to an adjective.” There is nothing X-rated or illegal about it. • desiccate . • • experience . and you’re desperate to catch up. • difference . exhilarate . "precede" and "supersede" below. This word is a menage a quatre of one [i] with three [e]s.” so just add the -ment for successful word development.” Adding an extra [s] will only disappoint your sixth grade teacher.Remember your rhyme rules. you change the [y] to an [i] and add an ant. • desperate .

• handkerchief .” fourth . Any questions? flabbergast .” in which the order is the same.This is 4th (as opposed to “forth”). • • • • Imagine his name is Vern. A handkerchief. gross .Humor us and spell this word "humorous": the [r] is so weak.Get your mind out of the gutter. foreign .F • • • fiery . • • • flotation .I guarantee you that this word is not spelled like "warranty" even though they are synonyms.The i-before-e rule works here.General + ly.This temperature scale was named after a German physicist.Your Gramma would be very upset if you used incorrect grammar. H • • • • harass . and spell “guttural” with two [u]s and an [a].You should be grateful to know that keeping "great" out of "grateful" is great. and he needs your encouragement. is a piece of fabric held in the hand for wiping things off or blowing your nose (or dropping from a train if you’re a woman leaving her lover in the Old West).The [a] from “float” floats to the other side of the [t] in “flotation. they are in alphabetical order (though not the [e]). • grateful .” didn’t you?) 83 . it needs an [o] on both sides to hold it up. government . governess.A kerchief is a piece of fabric used to cover the head.” you’ve just proven that you aren’t one.Final + ly. Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit.Here is one of several words that violate the i-before-e rule. you were flabbergasted. just keep the [r]s down to one.” but adding another [f] would just be awful. or perhaps tied around the neck (or face if you’re robbing a bank in the Old West). Go. height . (See "believe" above. three [l]s is plenty for one word. governor.Govern.The silent "e" on "fire" is also cowardly: it retreats inside the word rather than face the suffix -y. guttural .Spelling it any other way just makes me sick. so what is the problem? humorous .English reaches the height (not heighth!) of absurdity when it spells "height" and "width" so differently.Look. wouldn’t you say? G • gauge . (You thought I was going to say “horrific.When your high school sweetheart showed up at the reunion all flabby and talking about gastrointestinal issues.You must learn to gauge the positioning of the [a] and [u] in this word. fulfill .If you try to put an [o] in “genius. guarantee . • horrific .It’s got two [r]s just like “horrible.) Fahrenheit . Vern! • • • grammar . Now you just have to remember to put in that crazy [h] at the beginning. generally . hierarchy . genius . Remember. • • finally .This word is too small for two double letters but don't let it harass you. You can remember that the [e] comes before the [i] at the end because it’s pronounced just like the English word “height. It’s the number four + th. government – all these words are about someone being in charge.

imitate . judgment is still preferred and judgement is considered incorrect by many American style guides. immediate . share something else in common besides meaning. its/it's . the spelling judgement (with e added) largely replaced judgment in the United Kingdom in a non-legal context. 5.The apostrophe marks a contraction of "it is. it is made by a jeweler but the last [e] in this case flees the scene like a jewel thief.Spelling Bee champions the world over may be irascible when people misspell words like “irascible.Using two [l]s in this word and ending it on -ence rather than -ance are marks of . I look in a mirror and see myself (another I).Sure.This one sounds like a shot in the eye. 13. just like there’s only one [m] in “imitate. but it would all boil down to the simple fact that “ingenious” has an [o] and “genius” doesn’t.If someone is imitating me. incredible . There’s only one mirror. [i] .Don’t cause an incident by misspelling “incidentally." "jewellery. 4. K • kernel (colonel) . incidentally . J 1. In the context of the law." 8. there aren’t any at all.[e] 12.A classic case of a [y] acting like a vowel when it’s really not.[i] . Either English is crazy (which is true). which were rejected in the UK. In the US at least.” 11. however. 6."not" which becomes [m] before [m] (or [b] or [p]).” 14. They all have -ent. irresistible .The immediate thing to remember is that this word has a prefix.) 2. I + M + I.• hypocrisy .Please be independent but not in your spelling of this word. One [n] the eye is enough.There is more than a kernel of truth in the claim that all the vowels in this word are [e]s. . judgment is preferred.Accidental and unintentional. it’s like I’m looking in a mirror.You may be asking. jewelry . the word has been spelled judgment in all forms of the English language.Knowing that this word ends on -able is indispensable to good writing. independent . inadvertent .” 9. inoculate . irascible . I could give you a lengthy explanation. ingenious ." Something that belongs to it is "its. indispensable ." 3.Traditionally. then when I look at them.Although it may feel irresistible to put an [a] in this word. both synonyms of inadvertent.The vowels in “incredible” alternate.[e] ." (See also pronunciation.Don't show your ignorance by spelling this word -ence! 2. However. sure. However. “Why does ‘genius’ not have an [o] while ‘ingenious’ does?” There are two possible answers. How hypocritical! I 1. intelligence . in. "Not mediate" means direct which is why "immediately" means "directly. or they are completely different words (also true). so let’s just leave it at that. you guessed it. It ends on -ent. remember to double the [l]: "jeweller. 7. if you prefer British spelling.in them. 10. This spelling change contrasts with other similar spelling changes made in American English. . judgment . So 84 . ignorance .

the second [i] has a son. [I] already occupies one spot. they’re all in there. the price you pay for borrowing from French is high.As much as the [i]s would like to have a romantic liaison.All those three-letter words – tie.“Lose” is commonly confused with “loose. • lieutenant .Here is another big word. vie. • Knight – pronounced as night. as the British would write. The legendary men known for their chivalry. but I just have to keep telling myself. lie – drop their [e]s and change their [i]s to [y]s before adding -ing.The general rule is that when a two-syllable word ends in a single consonant. mediaeval. • lose . too.” “Lead. but just remember that “loose” has more room for an extra [o] (it’s not too tight).Yet another violator of the i-before-e rule.why is the military rank (colonel) pronounced identically? English spelling can be chaotic. You can be sure of the spelling of the last syllable but not of the pronunciation. you would know where the ledge is with your knowledge of the park. • • • license . • library . L that sounds like a [z].Since that [a] is seldom pronounced. it’s not about what I want." English orthography at its most spiteful. That's an [s]. This one is a "mini 85 .” meaning not tight. M • • maintenance .If you were a park ranger. • liaison . This one goes back to French main + oeuvre "hand-work.Learning how to omit the [e] in this word should lighten the load of English orthography a little bit. • liquefy . • knowledge .I want that [e] to be an [i]. • liaison .Where does English get the license to use both its letters for the sound [s] in one word? lightning . maneuver . large enough to hold two double consonants. so it only has one. which doesn’t allow for much time for secret get-aways. too. "manoeuvre.” pronounced the same way as “led. but if you slow it down. the rule goes out the window. bravery. honesty and patriotism. it is.Another French word throwing us an orthographical curve: a spare [i]. if the first syllable is the one that is stressed when you pronounce the word. die.The main tenants of this word are "main" and "tenance" even though it comes from the verb "maintain. and “lose” has lost an [o]. miniature . However. just in case. they can’t because of that blasted [a].The medieval orthography of English even lays traps for you: everything about the MIDdle Ages is MEDieval or. The first three vowels happen so quickly that they come out sounding like one /u/ sound. It has nothing to do with being a leader. • lying .This is one of those rare words in English where you really do pronounce all the letters." • medieval . and furthermore. it is seldom included in the spelling.Man. it needs to give the [e] a turn too.This is the past tense of the verb “to lead. labeled . • led . • • • memento .Why would something to remind of you of a moment be spelled "memento?" Well. • leisure . millennium . you double the final consonant to add suffixes like -ing or -ed. That first [r] should be pronounced.” is the metal. and you just add the suffix without doubling the final consonant. double [l] and double [n].It may be as enjoyable as a berry patch but that isn't the way it is spelled." a spelling better retained in the British spelling.

Remember not only the occurrence of double double consonants in this word. there’s no way you’re saying any vowels other than [a] and [o].What is more embarrassing than to misspell the name of the problem? Just remember that it is mis + spell and that will spell you the worry about spelling "spell.” Any more than that is unnecessary. • necessary . Don't you ever do it." • nauseous . and “pus” comes from the Greek pous. means badly. which means foot.Only two [e]s and two [s]s are necessary for spelling “necessary. but “no one” is two because if you put them together. • neighbor . • • occasion . The second part (gyny) comes from the Greek word for woman. Four of the five vowels in English reside here.Almost every word that starts with o + c-sound + a has two [c]s. just the English language keeping us on our toes. unsuitably or with negative force. or "minus cule.The [e] is noticeably retained in this word to indicate the [c] is "soft. marshmallow . as in "applicable. just think of your OB/GYN. No reason. • • octopus . If you use British spelling. it is usually only followed by one [c]. official .It has the same final three letters as “projectile. if you’re having trouble remembering whether it’s g-I-n-y or g-Y-n-y. usually one of the [l]s. but that the suffix is -ence. it’s just the adjective. not -ance.“Nobody” is one word. Well that wouldn’t be very chief-like.ature.” So. occur/occurred . you experience nausea.” If you’re seasick. shouldn't they be spelled similarly? Less than cool.This mischievous word holds two traps: [i] before [e] and [o] before [u].Office. we hope it will miss. but if you’ve ever played Chubby Bunny. and that’s all the word has." • mischievous ." like [k]. magical plus -ly.” and we all know it’s not.“Octo” means eight." • • magically . you know that once you pop six or seven marshmallows in your mouth.” and when one is fired." pronounced like [s]. Without the [e].“Nauseous” uses all the vowels except [i].Again. it would be pronounced "hard.Since something minuscule is smaller than a miniature. so when you apply that to a prankster chief. • occurrence . that word would want to be pronounced just like “noon. mis-. officious. it will cost you another [u]: "neighbour.The first part (miso) is spelled exactly the way it sounds. • mischief . there are usually two [c]s." remember that. you have him doing all kinds of mischief." • noticeable .Let’s say the chief went around short-sheeting everyone’s beds and putting blue Kool-Aid in all the shower heads when he was supposed to be making tribal decisions and governing. It’s the same root you find in the word “gynecologist. If the second syllable is stressed.It’s pronounced as though it’s spelled m-a-r-s-h-m-E-l-l-o-w. now would it? The prefix. official – If you can remember that related words tend to have a lot of spelling 86 . and comes from the same Greek root we see in the word N “nautical. If the [o] is stressed.Writers occasionally tire of doubling so many consonants and omit one. • misspell . • no one . O • occasionally .The word "neighbor" breaks the i-before-e rule and invokes the silent "gh". • missile . • minuscule . This is fraught with error potential.Words that start with o + c-sound + u change depending on which syllable is stressed. • misogyny .

No tricks. • piece .Possession possesses more [s]s than a snake.for the /f/ sound. he opened the box.It starts out just like “particle.” • particular . “I have something to say.) • privilege . has all kinds of tricks up his sleeve.It’s like when they were trying to come up with a word for this phenomenon.Funny Story: The assistant Vice-President of Personnel notices that his superior. • onomatopoeia .Nouns often differ from the verbs they are derived from. In it was a single piece of paper which said: "Two Ns. and the -lar is spelled exactly as it sounds.E.” Although.Since a pastime is something you do to pass the time. as here. the [u] just says its name. everyone says.What did you think the [p] in P. succeeds. there is only one. Expectantly. Well. pharaoh . • pronunciation . • personnel . Remember that a play writer in Old English was called a "play worker" and "wright" is from an old form of "work" (wrought iron. was for? (Hint: It stands for Physical Education. too. someone made a suggestion while yawning. no. a superfluous • [a] stuck in there. The second [s] was slipped through the cracks in English orthography long ago. In this case. Remember: two [i]s + two [e]s in that order.” and then after the [c]. you don't. P • pastime .) • possession . Nothing • confuses English spelling more than common sense. just remember that inside the word “parallel” is the word “all. a piece of cake could go a long way toward bringing about peace. they decided to go with it. • perseverance . and in the name of onomatopoeia itself. and locks it back again. if not.Spelled exactly as it sounds. smiles.These foul beasts (Get it? Foul? Fowl?) have been making pigs of themselves in cities the world over 87 . “Hey Pharaoh.What follows. This is one of those.) Not that dodgeball is all that educational. "Succeed" but "precede. upon arriving at his desk in the morning opens a small. Some years later when he advanced to that position (inheriting the key). • parliament . The suffix is -ance for no reason at all. and a silent [h] on the end.The spelling principle to remember here is that the school principal is a prince and a pal (despite appearances)--and the same applies to anything of foremost importance.") • principal/principle . • publicly .Don’t confuse “piece” with “peace. the pronunciation is different. one L.You have to have at least two things in order for them to be parallel. what? No." • playwright .’ You can remember that it has an [i] in it because in the parliament. so what goes before should. and if you’re confused as to whether the double [l] comes in the middle or at the end of the word. A "principle" is a rule. no. they should be "play-writes." (Wait until you see "supersede. • pigeon . Meghan Cope.This word comes from the Old French word meaning ‘speaking. you are using logic. that middle vowel could be anything.” • physical . an important clue. since they write plays. no extra letters.” and all lines or planes that have the same distance between them continuously are parallel. Well. can be a (near-)perfect speller.Let me publicly declare the rule (again): if the adverb comes from an adjective ending on -al. too. parallel . Ph.similarities. let all those extra letters go.According to the pronunciation (not "pronounciation"!) of this word. etc. such as a principal principle." wright right? Rong Wrong. you include that ending in the adverb. locked box. precede . on the other hand. (Thank you. he came to work early one morning to be assured of privacy. Just a suggestion. you can remember to spell “official” with two [f]s and a [c]. you would expect a double [s] here. not playwrights. the VP himself.All it takes is perseverance and you. Maybe Moses should have said. for help on this one.This guy.Those who play right are right-players. • peninsula .

Q • questionnaire .and ends with -eon.If you are presumptuous enough to take something before it is offered. you! Remember. • raspberry .g.Refer to the last mentioned word and also remember to add -ence to the end for the noun.for eons.” plenitude .” you write the final [e] and then proceed on to the [d]. • • preferable . • • pursue . • receive/receipt ." "buffered" and not containing a diphthong." Why? No rhyme nor reason other than to make it look like "rhythm. these two words when you spell "restaurant. then you owe us (u + o + us) a replacement. "rebelled. it’s not talking about the purity of children. pleasant . but you spell it with [ch].It starts out just like “please. one [r] or two? One of each is preferable." or even "relevent. one [t] is plenty." They are in the middle of it. egg-heads began spelling it like "rhythm.The French doing it to us again. Maybe someday we will spell it the English way. e. e.” And in this case. .” but just to be on the safe side. it’s best that they not be crushed by your broken gate. recommend .Final consonants are often doubled before suffixes (remit: remitted. • proceed . this rule applies only to accented syllables ending on [l] and [r]. However.Although this word is all about childishness. • puerile .g. rhyme . it’s not that terrible. ." • rhythm .Never forget the rule. so when you think of “putrefy." • • reference . if you put an extra [t] in.I hope you have received the message by now: [i] before [e] except after .Actually." [l] before [v] and the suffix -ant. and it should not be spelled the same way. but it’s a delicious one.The two [u]s will remind you that anyone who wants to get to you (2 u) is pursuing you." "referred" but "traveled. presumptuous .Is it one [f] or two. “Plentitude” is on its way to becoming an acceptable alternate spelling of “plenitude. After that.'Ey. It’s a mystery. Double up on the [n]s in this word and don't forget the silent [e].A lot of bad calls by the referee can make a game rotten.” as in. then your plants can propagate. remitting). eating any crumb or pizza slice or Thanksgiving turkey dropped in the street. "prevailed. Perhaps that’s why their name starts with pig.This one was borrowed from Greek (and conveniently never returned) so it is spelled the way we spell words borrowed from Greek and conveniently never returned. • • restaurant . relevant .You pronounce it like it has [sh].” In “precede.” That’s fine for chemically generated flavors." "coiled.I would recommend you think of this word as the equivalent of commending all over again: R • re+commend. “[I] before [e] except after [c].The relevant factor here is that the word is not "revelant." "revelent. "rime" was the correct spelling until 1650. 88 . but the natural fruit is a raspberry. putrefy . • referred . “I am pleased with how pleasant the weather is today.Don’t let sports drinks and bubble gum flavors confuse you with their “Rockin’ Razzberries. • receipt . • propagate .If you want your plants to propagate properly.Honestly.” the [d] precedes the second [e] while in “proceed. That would be recommendable. but if you prop a gate up.” just remember that it has a “ref” in it. toss a [p] in there too. • • • pistachio . .Don’t get this word confused with “precede.

) straight in our minds.” and “kebab” (or “kabob”) means ‘roast meat. • • salary . meaning ‘to sense’ or ‘to feel.This word supersedes all others in perversity. • siege .” but you do owe him the respect of spelling his title correctly.” but “salary. sheriff .“Shish” means ‘skewer. and you can write your sergeant without fear of misspelling his rank.It has nothing to do with witches.If perfecting your spelling is on your schedule. violating or misusing the sacred.This is what you may come under if you spell it wrong. • • • savvy .The [a] needed in both syllables of this word has been pushed to the back of the line.” • ridiculous . Remember that.It’s not cool to misspell “refrigerator. Now you just have to remember to separate them by putting two [a]s in the middle. “age” is right there in the middle of the word.Sensitive. and the fact that [e] is used in both syllables. • remembrance .Who knows why it has two [v]s.) • • separate .Well you know there’s an [e] at the beginning and another at the very end. but it is most definitely not savvy to leave one of them out. who is reported to have eaten sandwiches so he didn’t have to leave his poker games to go to the dining room.” When you shorten it to “fridge.” from the Latin salarium.• refrigerator ." (If you S use British or Canadian pronunciation. sergeant .You may think it’s related to “religious” and that it ought to be spelled the same way." etc. sandal .” you have to add a [d] just to follow English spelling rules. we wouldn’t have this problem.You won’t get thrown into the county lock-up if you put too many [r]s or not enough [f]s in “sheriff. why do you pronounce this word [shedyul] but "school. I say we start a petition. referring to a Roman soldier’s salt allowance.Referring to someone in their 70s. desensitize and sensible all have “sensi-” in them.It’s related to the word “ridicule. keeping words on -ceed and -cede ("succeed. I 89 .” • sandwich . so unless you’re ready for a hunger strike. sensitivity." [skul]? That has always puzzled me.“Renowned” is renowned for not having a [k] in it like you think it should since it’s related to the word “know. This portable meal was named after the fourth Earl of Sandwich. • religious .” there’s no [e] between the [b] and the [r] in “remembrance.’ so you could have kebab without the shish or vice versa.Hopefully you’ve seen enough TV commercials for various Sandals resorts by now to remember how to spell “sandal.If we’d just pronounce the [c]." "precede. but in the full-length version. aside from being certifiably insane. even though it’s related to “remember. remember the [sk] is spelled as in "school. so there’s no extra [h].’ So “sacrilegious” literally has to do with stealing. one meaning ‘sacred’ and the other meaning ‘to steal. As if we don't have enough to worry about.” so it starts with ri-.” • renowned . there’s no [d].’ • separate . • • septuagenarian .Remember. but “religious” comes from roots meaning ‘to bind’ while “sacrilegious” has two roots. The good news is: this is the only English word based on this stem spelled -sede. not re-.If you made a daily practice of writing “religious” 100 times. seize . this one has to be different from all the rest. • sacrilegious . people might say that you wrote “religious” 100 times every day religiously.How do you separate the [e]s from the [a]s in this word? Simple: the [e]s surround the [a]s. so there’s no [t]. scissors .Argh! A miscreant! Let’s seize “seize” for breaking the “[i] before [e] except after [c]” rule and make him walk the plank! • sensible . and we’re not confused about which one.Not “celery. • schedule . • supersede . • shish kebab .

Please.' Too is an adverb meaning 'in addition. 90 . “tragedy” comes from two Greek words. “Come to court.Just move the silent [e] to the end. you must face the problem of [y] inside this word. this means ‘under penalty. as far as.This one can push you over the threshold. one meaning ‘song or ode.” • until . overly." (Don't forget to double up on the [n]s. • usage . which literally means ‘appearance. where it shouldn't be. it starts out with the same two letters as “tax.’ Why. form or beauty. It looks like a compound "thresh + hold" but it isn't.” special ." Everywhere else.' Two is the number 2.In Latin. extremely. or else. superfluously.From the Latin species. The guy is a "tyrant" and his problem is "tyranny. • tariff .“Today” literally means ‘this day.Apparently. but we can all agree that writing odes to goats is pretty tragic. clap. clap. • tyranny ." • threshold . and their syllables U • sometimes repeat themselves.Ready! OK! S-U-C-C-E-S-S! (clap. it is retained in T the spelling. also. clap. • tomorrow .) • tableau .’ subpoena . pause.Hawaiian words tend to be spelled pretty much exactly the way they sound. and put an [a] and a [g] in the middle. to the extent of.” which is exactly what it means.From the Latin similis.suggest you get it right. meaning ‘like.They're all pronounced the same but spelled differently. more than enough. we don’t know. clap. • • • • similar . and then imagine a group of figures representing the story of how you met him. • truly .To is a preposition meaning 'in the direction of and reaching. clap.’ and the other (tragos) meaning ‘goat. clap.’ “Morrow” means ‘the following day. Two [h]s are enough. pause.” a simile is a comparison using the words “like” or “as. it is "there. clap) That’s the way we spell “success!” (clap.If you are still resisting the tyranny of English orthography at this point.This is a combination of the same word in three different languages – Dutch (tong). clap.Also from the Latin similis.I will never stop harping on this until this word is spelled with an extra [l] for the last time! ukulele . • twelfth . Possessive is "their" and the contraction of "they are" is "they're.’ as in. as well. Latin (lingua) and German (Zunge). clap. but just think of your beau. oh please.’ “tonight” means ‘this night.The tricky part is obviously the ending. meaning ‘like. besides.Even if you omit the [f] in your pronunciation of this word (which you shouldn't do). don’t put an [e] in “truly. too.” • their/they're/there . clap) • simile . • too/to/two . • tragedy .” success .’ • tongue .Even though it rhymes with “sheriff” and has the same single [r] and double [f].’ and “tomorrow” means ‘this morrow. to a regrettable extent.

Well. “Your” is a possessive adjective (Your great-grandmother is also great). as enjoyable as it might be in the moment." vicious . 91 . Anyway. spell this word with two [u]s and not like "volume. remember that the silent [e] on this one married the [u] and joined him inside the word where they are living happily ever since. you have to write the [a] after the [e] when you spell it..This is one time when two words are combined and nothing is lost. village . WXYZ • • weather .Whether you like the weather or not.V 7. • • weird .A vice. the evidence is suggestive but not conclusive. vacuum .If your head is not a vacuum. 9.? (It isn't [w]!) you're/your . withhold . can lead to vicious consequences.What starts out as just one villa can easily turn into an entire village.“You’re” is the contraction form of you + are (You’re great).. 8.It is weird having to repeat this rule so many times: [i] before [e] except after. Keep both of those [h]s in the one word.

you must simply remember this word follows the "-i before -e" rule.There are 2 C's accompanying this word.... Where do planes fly? In the air.This one is simple.don't be absurd. acknowledge -|. acquit -|.The AC quit. address -|.Remember. 2 B's everytime. advice -|.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….affect/effect: Use the word RAVEN to remember when to use "affect" versus "effect". affect -|.. use the first letter of each word: A Good Girl Rarely Aggravates Visitors At The Estate airplane -|. this word keeps both C's when adding an -ing achieve -|.according to spelling rules. and effect a verb. an abundance of A's when trying to think of the ending of this word. Air + Plane = airplane. aggravate -|.kind of. accompanying -|. abundance -|.To prevent an accident on the field. you need an ally on your team.To acknowledge this word's spelling.Don't let this word aggravate you. accidentally -|. but they are very rarely used that way.. according -|.To achieve spelling success.no need to abbreviate this word.I would advise you be careful giving out too much advice. you must have previous knowledge. absurd -|.Please add your address. spell this word with a U. A ffect V erb E ffect N oun affect can be a noun. abbreviate -|. See affect 92 .

a lot -|.Unlike the word ‘batch'. allot -|. so don't allot a lot of time and energy worrying. don't allot a lot of time and energy worrying.Don't amend this word.Be mature. amend -|.Remember. alcohol -|. balance -|. It's spelled with one m every time.It's always 2 words. just remember there's an –a in the middle to balance the baland the –nce.Drink a large cold orange juice for a cold.Argue will always lose an 'e' in an argument.this word follows the plural rule for words ending in –y. babies. you must drop the – t and add -ce accommodate -|.vs. you drop the –y and add –ies.Age is more than just a number in average. again. argument -|. not alcohol. so.A parent must always pay the rent and you must always remember 2 P's and -rent when spelling apparent. arithmetic -|. it isn't spelled how it sounds.A Rat In The House May Eat The Ice Cream average -|. Once baby is made plural. balloon -|.No tricks here. in order to make absent a noun. use the french suffic -eurto move past amateur status. bachelor -|.It's always 1 word with 2 L's. the G's and S's are so aggressive they each get two. amateur -|. babies -|. to accommodate this word.Imagine the two O's in this word are balloons holding the ball away from the – 93 .from the root word absent. you'll need 2 C's. effect aggression -|. allege -|. absence -|. apparent -|.Don't jump off a ledge trying to spell this word. just remember you need 2 L's and an -ege to allege something. bachelor doesn't use the –t to create the same effect. M's and O's.>>> Remember.

bureau -|.Breakfast Is Semi-Complete Unless I Taste biscuits. bare -|. bankruptcy -|.Regardless of how it sounds.This word is spelled pretty much how it sounds. barbarous -|.Split it up into 2 words to remember it. Barbarous repeats the –bar twice and then adds the suffix.meaning 2 and cycle. you drop the -e.Beg at the Inn belief -|. 94 .Both belief and believe follow the -i before -e rule.You must truly believe to call it a belief.Bookkeeper's take care of the numbers. bookkeeper -|.The short version of this word may be bike with a -k. it's actually a type of Ram. believe -|. bicycle -|. this word is spelled pretty much how it sounds with a –cue to achieve the "kyoo" sound at the end.tiful or try thisbare elegant arms are usually beautiful. bellwether actually has nothing to do with the weather.Bureaus Usually Require Energy And Understanding beautiful -|. becoming -|. wheels.As with most words. when adding an -ing.Be environmentally aware and a better speller and remember to always take the bus to your business. and 2 E's all in a row. bellwether -|. it should be for a cause.Easy easy.ous. 2 K's. -. because -|.A bear without fur would be a bare bear.Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants or If you are going to fight. just don't forget the –p before the –t. business -|. but this word is spelled closer to it's origin: bi. beginning -|. b-e-a-u .There's always a lie in believe. barbecue -|. but when it comes to spelling always remember there are 2 O's.n.Although often spelling Bar-B-Q or even barbeque (which would sound similar to unique). biscuit -|.

Chili. cellophane -|. Remember. concede -|.Camo may keep you hidden. this word follows the ‘-i before -e rule'.The only thing to remember about this word is the -ch makes a "k" sound. but to spell it you must remember there's an -e between 2 A's. 2 c's and 2 e's.While there is nothing casual about the meaning of this word.Your chief concern with this word.If you experience a burglary at you house. chaos -|. calm -|.No tricks here. but it starts with a –c with a –ph thrown in the center.burglar -|.If you need to know the date you can check the calendar.Clothing Labels Often Tell Humans Exactly where to Shop. The end of charity and celebrity are the same.A rough campaign may cause pain but it isn't spelled that way. you must simply memorize the suffix of this word.Stay calm. not to be confused with chilly. campaign -|.Celebs do lots of charity. is a food and is spelled with 2 I's and one l. children simply adds an –ren to show there's more than one. Camp + Aign. just take off the -y to find the burglar. chief -|. the spelling is simple. but you can't camouflage the -u when you spell this word. IF it helps.The plural of child. choose -|. this word is just like clam except you reverse the L and the A. split it up. 95 . casualties -|. but the rest is just like it sounds. chili -|. camouflage -|. should be remembering it follows the ‘-i before –e rule'. but it's spelled like loose.No need to be confused.Choose rhymes with lose.It may sound like there's an –s and an –f in this word. the word ‘casual' + the word ‘ties' catalog -|ceiling -|. clothes -|. celebrity -|. calendar -|. children -|.

the N is silent. To spell this 96 . committed -|.If you want to spell this word coolly. collectible -|. but just like fruit it's spelled with a -u.You don't have to change a thing. it's an -ible word. conscience -|. changeable -|.No tricks here. cemetery -|.Don't let this fruit throw you for a loop.it isn't a catastrophe to spell category with two as.This word does not collect A's. caribbean -|. commitment -|. 2 T's.Be a conscientious speller. but always there.cantaloupe -|. committee -|.Consensus doesn't take a census. 2 M's. so we spell them differently. the end may sound like -lope. don't omit an L.A committee has many folks and the word has a lot of doubles. it's just like it sounds contro-versy coolly -|. just remember cemetery has 3 E's.Don't let the spelling of this word bury you.There shouldn't be any controversy over the spelling of this word. just add an -able.No matter how you say it. controversy -|. colonel -|.Be committed when spelling this word.It may sound like the word ‘size' is in there. just remember keep the 2 m's in commit and just add the suffix –ment. i-o-u a congratulations. category -|.This word is simple. remember the "sh" sound is made two ways in this word: "sc" and "ti" conscious -|.If you get all the vowels in the ending correct. criticize -|. but it is pretty bad. and 2 E's. column -|. consensus -|. it's just con + science conscientious -|. cantaloupe.Don't let spelling this word weigh on your conscience.They may sound the same. but you eat a kernel of corn and you respect a colonel in the army. this word always has 1 r and 2 B's. but don't be fooled. 2 M's and 2 T's when you add the ed.

defendant -|.Dalmatians are covered in spots.There's no debating. simply add the –ize to the root word ‘critic'. 97 . disease -|.This word definitely takes an -ite everywhere it goes. deceive -|. and this word is spotted in A's. To remember the suffix –ant.The –b is silent like the –t in mortgage.word.Oh the English language. debater -|. desperate -|. the –b in this word is just as silent as in debt. decathlon -|. discreet -|. debt -|. Decaffeinated -|. disastrous -|. dealt -|.Abs are desirable. this word has no O's. it follows the rule"i before e except after c" definite -|.Disastrous comes from the word disaster. making and breaking rules.Perhaps you will learn to spell desperate. move the r over and add an –ous.There's no doubt.the prefix deca. desert -|. This word does not follow the –i before –e rule.The desert is sandy. dilemma -|doubt -|.a defendant muse be defended.This word won't deceive you.means 10 and that's the only –a in the word. just break the word apart: defend + ant descend -|desirable -|.The e's in this word are not discreet. and to avoid one. the are doubled. dalmatian -|. It's the verb debate with an –r on the end to make it a noun.Spell disease with ease. so you must simply remember 2 F's followed by an –ei. you drop the –e.The dealer dealt the cards.

drunkenness -|.I am eligible. encyclopedia -|. Remember the I's in this word. disappoint -|. deterrence. deterrence -|. Use the –ough to create the "uff" sound.Espresso is especially good at waking you up.Don't be a dumbbell.Don't like the end of this word deter you.vel. 1 word. echo adds an –e when it's plural. espresso -|.Don't disappoint your proud papa. there is an excess of of N's and S's in this word. Otherwise. develop -|. dependent -|. 98 . 2 B's. eligible -|.This word definitely takes an -ite everywhere it goes.eight plus an –h.With a little discipline.Alcohol in excess causes drunkenness. Drop the –e in endure and add the – ance.The only tricky thing about spelling ‘develop' is remember the –o make a short –u sound.En – viro – n. there is no F in this word.It may sound as though there is an –x in this word but the x sound is made by ecst eighth -|.op echoes -|. environment -|. dumbbell -|. only E's. ecstasy -|.dessert -|. you will remember to add a -c after the -s. spell it.Desserts are sweet stuff and Strawberry Shortcake. discipline -|. Break it up: de. definitely -|. there are no A's.ment. enough -|. it's spelled like it sounds. emphasize -|.Let me emphasize this. so keep that –ent ending every time.Break this word down to it's roots: En – Cyclo -Pedia endurance -|.like potato and tomato. add an -r and keep the e theme.Spelling this word is easy.To spell enough isn't tough.Don't just endure this word.

forehead -|.There is no word like this one in existence spelled with an -a. especially -|. foresee -|.Keep you experience with this word simple.The only extreme thing about this word is all the E's.for + ward – the vowel + -r combinations may sound the same. extraordinary -|.First Is Right before Second & Third.This word is extraordinary. existence -|.excitement -|. exceed -|. it's all E's:experience. just add an –e to the front and an –ly to the end.foresee means to see something before it happens.This words is easiest if broken up. so to make it especially. 99 .extreme + ly embarrass -|.final + ly first -|. exaggerate -|.Every Mother's Boy Acts Rather Rudely After Soccer Sturdays embarrass -|. Fore + see forward -|. experience -|.Family is familiar. so don't add a -t after the -p. equipment -|. it's 2 words combined: extra + ordinary extreme -|.Your neck comes before your head.femi.excite + ment extremely -|.This word has enough equipment. feminine -|.All you have to remember for this word is the ending: -ceed exhilarate -|.Remembering the -h and 2 A's will exhilarate you.means woman.I am flexible. ex-agg-erate familiar -|.She was rosy red with severe shame.The middle of this word is special. but one is spelled with an –or and the other is an –ar. Femi + nine finally -|. flexible -|. but remember there are 2 g's.

gruesome -|. Hall + O +Ween 100 .Generally Entertainers Need Radio Exposure genuine -|. friend -|.ium guidance -|.gym – nas.You may fill things full but you won't need as many L's to fulfill the spelling of this word. this word would be foreign. government -|.You wouldn't want a fiend for a friend. Halloween -|.I guarantee there are 2 A's and 2 E's. start it with a -g and end it with –ure. grateful -|.You only want A's in grammar. be she'll never be forty. genre -|.February is cold. gauge -|. the -e hid behind the -r. but only one -r. 2 E's and an O in the middle. foreign -|. forty -|. remember how you r.Spell this word without jest.2 L's.grue + some gymnasium -|. brrrr.Four can't wait to turn fourteen. grammar -|.The -y in this word is so Fiery.fundamental -|.genu + ine gesture -|.Who ate the L in grateful? guarantee -|.Guidance Ultimately Is Direction And Neverending CaringEncouragement.Geniuses Eat Noodles In Unusual Spaces.To spell this word you must gauge the -a and the -u.spelling is fun And mental february -|. fiery -|.If the -i before -e rule were a country. fulfill -|. generally -|.the government governs us.general + ly genius -|.

This word reaches new heights. but only one -r.You hear with your ear. hypocrite -|. drop the –y and add an –ily.Although the root word is ‘happy' when you add the –ness. Don't add a –w. hierarchy -|.Hippos are full of hypothetical hypocrisy. 2 S's. heard -|. The city puts fences around the whole hole in the park. hear -|.When hope becomes hoping.h + eight (8) herd -|.The spelling of this word shouldn't harass you.Hoarse needs an ‘oar' as much as a row boat. you drop the –y and add an –i. drop the –e and add an –ing. hungrily -|.The -d is silent. this word is simple enough: hand + kerchief harass -|. height -|.A hole is what you dig. unless you mean all of something.Hulk Eats Rice On Every Saturday 101 . hoarse -|. 2 A's. handkerchief -|.Humor us and add another -o to this word.handkerchief -|.hand + ker + chief haphazard -|.Split this one up and make the I's long to help your remember: hypo . heroes -|. but still there. hygiene -|.the -i before -e rule applies here.Herds of Elephants Run Daily.Help Your Granny In Ever Need Expressed. hole -|. just remember h + 8s.crite hoping -|.you heard it with your ear.hier + arch + y -. humorous -|. height -|. hypocrisy -|.To make ‘hungry' an adverb.Hal And Phil Had A Zany Afternoon Riding Dirt-bikes. happiness -|.

there's only one. interesting -|.The -m in this word doesn't imitate immediate. imaginary -|.interest + ing interpretation -|.interpret + ation irresistible -|.Imagine the suffix –ary flew in a took the –e's place. ignorance -|.In no century is murder an innocent crime. 102 . don't add an -a to the -ible in this word. every time.Be both credible and incredible. I's and E's.Immediate may mean right now. il + legal = illegal meaning not legal.Use your intelligence with this one. -yoda reference information -|. keep the original spelling of the word and add an –il to the beginning.At the inn. incredible -|. intelligence -|.I can insure you this word is spelled with an –i. but spelling this words will take enough time to add an -m. it's only got 2 vowels.same as illegal. ideally -|.ir + resist + ible or I am irresistible.To make an A in spelling you must spell ignorance with an -a. il + literate = illiterate meaning not literate. imitate -|. This rule includes words that begin with –l.ice cream -|.When adding the prefix –il to make a word ‘not'. insure -|. indispensable -|. illiterate -|.Being able makes you indispensable. Imaginary innate -|.She was an independent agent with the FBI. innocent -|. immediate -|.inform + ation or the soldiers were in formation.One N is enough. inoculate -|.2 words .ideal + ly illegal -|. independent -|. like illegal. we ate.

To make jump past tense.Let's is a contraction for "lets us". kindergarten -|.This is another of those words you just have to remember.Another word that is easiest to spell if broken up.lan + guage lasagna -|.Remove the –e in judge and add the suffix – ment. let's -|. Lengthwise. legible -|.jewel + ry judgment -|.Incidentally. simply add a –y.There isn't a kernel of truth to spelling this word with any vowels other than -e. just add –ed. immediately -|.My handwriting is legible. led is a verb.Lasagna And Spaghetti Are GoodNourishment Also. lengthwise -|. you need an ally for this incident. Example: The map led me to the treasure. jumped -|.An island is land itinerary -|.lead with an –a is a metal. jealousy -|. led -|.Although each word can stand alone. they are not spelled the same. the –h is silent and the –i makes a long –e sound.To make the adjective ‘jealous' a noun.There is nary an -ery on our intenerary.island -|. when used to describe something it is one word.Knowledge is what you know. kernel -|. laboratory -|. khaki -|. im-med-i-ate-ly incidentally -|.Although –garten in kindergarten sounds like garden.Like a lot of larger words. knowledge -|. jewelry -|. it helps to break this word down: labor + a + tory language -|. but don't forget both M's. Example: Let's go to the store. 103 .

Lose lost an O leisure -|.lightening -|.Another –able word. lieutenant -|. marriage -|. liaison -|. loneliness -|.It may be tempting to put a second –i in this word. but you must remember to liquefy liquid. you drop the –id and add an -efy luxurious -|. li. licence -|.Lie U Ten Ants loose -|.on lightning -|. As with most words ending in –y. in order to add the suffix –ness to lonely. to add a suffix you change the –y to –i and add the suffix. never forget the I in marriage.Laugh And You Get Happy liaise -|.To make luxury luxuios.As with most words ending in –y.Even though it occurs between two people.This word is so relaxed. you must drop the y and add an –i. change the –y in magnify to –i and add the suffix –cent. make the –y an –i and add the suffix –ous.You must maintain the –ai twice in this word. Again. it's decided not to follow the –i before –e rule. In this case.ais.My Automobile Never Uses Automatic Locks. magical -|. manual -|.There's no real trick to learning this word. laugh -|. 104 .You don't have to be magic to spell this word. it might be helpful to break it up and remember it's parts.Loops are Loose. Likable is another word that requires you to drop the –e and add the –eble.Lightning lightens the sky.You must liaise with colleagues in Italy and Ireland. just add an –al.Consider the root word magnify when you spell magnificent. lose -|. likable -|. maintain -|.16 year old's with all C's shouldn't get a driver's licence. magic + al = magical magnificent -|.Lightening lightens the sky. liquefy -|. just memorization.

2 S's every time. the complete spelling is easiest to remember if you break it up: math – e. the –ee on the end of this words creates the same sound.Be sure not to misspell this word.I .I misspell -|.Move And Nudge East Until Victory Everywhere Remains 105 .I . not great. it is always spelled "medieval" memento -|.Yet another big word to remember.There is nary and –ary in monastery.I . medieval -|. murmur -|. it won't be so hard to remember the –ance on the end. to spell this word use the prefix mediwhich means middle and you just have to remember the –ocre.When referring to the Middle Ages. mischievous -|. it's the study of women.Although it sounds like it should end in –nay.mathematics -|. mnemonic -|Mnemonics Now Erase Man's Oldest Nemesis. This one is easiest broken up too: mis + cell + ane + ous It also helps to say the syllables out loud as you spell the word.It may remind you of a moment in time.PP .However mellow a marshmallow may be. mediocre -|.million + aire miscellaneous -|. millionaire -|. just remembergynecology.This word can be broken up in a very memorable way: Main – Ten – Ance If you can remember Main & Ten.matics matinee -|.Don't let this word fool you.M . it's the same 3 letters repeated. only monks. but it's spelled memento.2 L's and 2 N's and the rest is just like it sounds. mississippi -|. millennium -|. maneuver -|.Usually shortened to ‘math'. monastery -|. mur + mur marshmallow -|. misogyny -|. it is spelled with an a.Double S .If you can't remember the -y in this word. InsufficientCerebral Storage maintenance -|.This mischievous words has all but one vowel and holds the -i before -e rule and the -ou rule.Double S .Mediocre means midlevel.

noticeable -|.Don't be naive about this word. no one -|. when spelling it drop the –e to add the suffix –ally.From the root word origin. necessary -|.Like lengthwise and nowadays. your drop the –e and add the suffix –ial. often -|.The narrator gives the narrative.The -e in this word is very noticeable.Naturally means occurring in nature. neighbor -|. drop the –ate and add the – able. night -|. 106 . nowadays -|. this word requires you to put the -e before the –i nevertheless -|. think: it's eight (8) with the –e replaced with an –n. the –t is there but not pronounced.Like mortgage.Although some poets prefer the for ‘nite' the correct spelling of this word uses an –igh to creat the long –i sound.Like lengthwise and nevertheless the 2 words and an article that make up this word stand alone just fine. it's all one word. obedience -|octopus -|. Although there's an –n and no –c. the words that make up nevertheless can be used alone but when you use them all together.The root word is ‘office'.To negotiate the offer must be negotiable. Again. naive -|. oneself is always one words when used together. it's necessary your coat have one collar and 2 sleeves. however.Yet another word made up of 2 words. so to add the suffix. and octopus has 8 legs. opportunity -|. official -|.No one can make this one word. Drop the –tor and add the –tive. Also.Neighbors never seem to follow the rules and neither does the spelling of this word. original -|.To keep warm in the winter. naturally -|. it's n-a-i-v-e.octo means 8. all an –al to make it an adjective.narrative -|. oneself -|.2 O's and 1 U. negotiable -|. Same as nowadays. but when used all together it is one word.

omission -|. Break it up and sound it out carefully. 107 .This words isn't phenomenal.There is no need for an Ass in Occasion. penitentiary -|. pamphlet -|. but there's an –i in there to keep those A's in check.para + lyze . people -|. but there is still on one -s in this word. parallel -|.It sounds like parala-. prejudice -|. personnel -|. pneumonia -|. phenomenon -|.replaces the f. patience -|.You can't perceive it any other way.and sound it out. no tricks here. so remove the –gment and add the –ice.overrun -|.The C's in this word are the only letters that occurs twice. just remember the ph.Sorry. Keep the outrage and add an -ous. outrageous -|.and tenti. parliament -|. A prejudice is a pre judgment.Don't run over the spelling of this word. pastime -|.People Eat Oranges People Like Eating perceive -|. paralyze -|.rhyme.Personal relationship with personnel are strictly prohibited. remember the y takes the place of an –i here because it can. the p in this word is silent. Peni + tenti + ary Say it out loud so the penti.Think of the meaning of this word when trying to spell it. just remember the –t makes a ‘sh' sound and it follows the ‘i before e' rule.Spelling this word any different would be outrageous.Like the k in knife.This is another word where the –ph stands in for the –f.Remember the 2 L's in the middle are parallel.The book has many serious and significant omissions. occur -|.You may use your pastime to pass the time. this word follows the -i before -e rule. overrun. combine the words over and run and make it one word.You don't need patience to spell this word. occasion -|.

Remember one tea. You must mainly remember the –ci makes the "see" sound. practice -|. possession -|. pursue -|.Please Say You Can Help Old Ladies Organize Great Yardsales probably -|. quantity -|. Once someone professes something he becomes a professor. potato -|. potatoes.to start it off. presence -|. two sugars. quiet -|. except the –e and –t switch places. again. but he spells it with a -gh. simply drop the –e and add a –y. queue -|. pro.queue mean to be in line.noun.Your principal is your pal.The presence of E's in "presence" is apparent. potassium -|.Just like with tomato.Focus on the root of this word.It's quite similar to quiet.piece -|. in order to make it an adverb. professor -|. profess. break it up.Yet another of those big words.ty quite -|.A Piece of Pie playwright -|.ci-ation. was quiet 108 .A playwright may write plays.The root of this word is probable.T. this word only has an -e when you make it plural. Beak it up and sound it out: quan – ti.People Usually Read Stories quarantine -|. pronunciation -|.E.Possession possesses more S's than a snake.Spelled exactly like it sounds with a qu. proceed -|.Proceed as normal with this word.The letter q will always be followed by a u to create the "kwa" sound. so just remember there are 2 -ue's in line behind q. psychology -|.Practice spelling this word with a -c. make sure you get both E's in between the – c ad the –d. principal -|.

but are separated by one letter each.Excessive rain will reign terror on crops. Raze or "to destroy" is always spelled with a z.It may be easier to remember the history of the renaissance than to spell it. This is another of those big words you just have to memorize. reserve. sorry. again drop the –e and add the suffix –ous. ridiculous -|.You'll be relieved to know. but if you raze it. this word follows the ‘-i before –e' rule reign -|.refer – red repetition -|. drop the –e and add the French suffix –voir.This is another word that is easier to spell if you remember it's root. receipt -|.You resend a letter. The e's.It's relevant to remember there are 2 e's followed by an -a in relevant. And don't worry. Reign also reigns terror on the –i before –e rule. this word follows the –i before –e except after –c' rule.Spelling roommate is a lot easier than having one.Rhythm Helps Your Two Hips Move really -|. rhythm -|. you just have to remember. the –p in receipt is silent.There's no question about it. reservoir -|. referred -|.Refer to the -e's in this word when trying to remember whether to put an ance or an -ence at the end of the word.Another easy adverb. relevant -|.Think of this word from it's origin. you'll be sad when it rains.questionnaire -|. relieve -|. ridicule.Like pneumonia. roommate -|. Just add an –ly.sance rescind -|.You can both raise and raze the roof. and i's repeat. but necessary. Try breaking it up : ren – ais . 109 . but you rescind an invitation. there's an ‘air' in this word. Just combine room + mate and keep both m's. t's. reference -|. Combine them in two parts: question + naire raze -|.There's definitely some repetition in this word. renaissance -|.

sincerely -|.Savvy is so savvy it needs to V's. When spelling sacrilegious.1 r. does not. subtly -|. follows the –i before –e rule and one. schedule -|. scissors -|. siege.Like with debt. supersede -|. just remember a shepherd leads a herd. siege / seize -|. it's the only word in the english language to use -sede sandal -|.Sometimes I Might Imagine Lurking And Roaming surprise -|. 110 . Education Delivers Unnecessary Lulls In Excitement sergeant -|.Break it up: serge – ant similar -|. the –b in subtly is silent.rest – aur – ant – keep in mind. simply add the –ly.Although it may sound as though religion is in this word. sheriff -|.restaurant -|.Sandals are perfect for the sand. the "aur" makes an "er" sound.No tricks here.This word is easy. drop the –n and add an –ous.3 S's in this word with a c tagging along. sandwich -|.School Causes Headaches.Your secretary will keep your secret! separate -|. sacrilegious -|. make a sandwich out of the words sand + wich which isn't actually a word. shepherd -|.This word supersedes other words.Your surprise won't be worth much if you forget there are 2 r's in this word and not a single z.If you split this word up you will separate the -sep and the -e with a rat. seize. there's no trick to remember that one. secretary -|. savvy -|. it's not. 2 f's and an –e making that –a sound.although they sound almost exactly the same with different consonants.To make sincere an adverb. invert the –e and –i from religion.

to make it noun. The ‘o' make a short ‘u' sound. Un means one and animus means mind & heart.heir -|. Just remember there's a q. threw/through -|. tomorrow -|. tragedy -|. theories -|.Only adding an -n can show the tyranny of a tyrant. unfortunately -|.In this word. you can truly leave the –e out. Keep the un. and the –u doesn't make a sound and need an –e to hold it up. hence the tri. tongue -|. If the –eo combo is throwing you off. you can actually hear the ‘o' in it.Another easy adverb.Rooted in theory. there -|. Example: After eleven come twelve and after eleventh place is twelfth place. unanimous -|.and the anim. tragic.Tomorrow i will go with Tom or Row.This is another word that helps to learn the origin. tomato -|.and add the –ous.The –nique in technique makes the "neek" sound.It is unfortunate if you get rid of the -e in this word when you add the ly.Don't let spelling this word turn your day into a tragedy. Simply drop the –ic ending and add the –edy.This one is simple it's here with a –t in the front. Enthralled Listeners Entertained.Ukuleles Keep Us Lively. ukulele -|. so keep the tang. triathlon -|. 111 . twelfth -|.This word seems all of out sorts. this word only uses an -e when you make it plural: tomatoes. tyranny -|. tangible -|.prefix.Like potato. just remember the root word.The beginning of this word is just like tangerine. drop the –y and add the –ies. One mind & heart. so there'll always be a -u and end it with an –e.He threw the ball through the window. just think of the word theorize. Just remember it's true. the F kicked out the V. technique -|.and add an –ible. truly -|.The inheritance is theirs because they are the heirs.Triathlon is spelled like decathlon except instead of 10 events there are only 3.

when used together they are one word. undoubtedly -|. there are 2 U's in between the -c and the -m. instead of the -ume that creates the same sound in volume. writing -|. valuable -|. just add an –ly. valleys -|. even though the two words that make up ‘warfare' can stand alone. Whether is a conjunction that introduces alternative or possibilities. don't.What's weird about spelling this word is the -e before the -i even though there's no -c.When spelling this word remember the –cious creates the "sh" sound.Since write ends with an –e. weather/ whether -|. vacuum -|. So. Example: The weather man tells whether to expect rain or shine. wed – nes – day.Until Now TV Inspired Lives usually -|. so you simply add an –s to make it plural.You may be tempted to keep the double l from villain to spell vilify.Weather is the temperature and atmosphere out side.It's adverbs as usual. you have to drop it to add the –ing. until -|. 112 . arfare -|. we're -|. vicious -|. remember the –b and add an ed before you make it an adverb.There's no trick.like lengthwise.Your electric bill shows the usage of your wattage.This word is spelled how it sounds except for that pesky silent –b.Don't be willful when spelling this word. Wednesday -|.usage -|.Because this word ends in an –ey.It would be valuable to remember there's no e.We're is the contraction for "we are". waste -|.waster is taste with a ‘w'. vilify -|.BREAK IT UP! Say it out loud. one is just enough. give up the urge to add that second –l to the end. you cannot drop the –y. weird -|. Weird! willful -|.

break it up: xy-lo-phone. Your shows ownership. you should be smart enough to spell it. zoology -|. yacht -|. Combine the suffix –logy which means a body of knowledge and zoo-: zoology 113 . Example: You're going to have so much fun on your new boat. Keep in mind the –xy make a "z" sound.xylophone -|. Try this: Yachts Are Costly &Huge Travelers.You're is a contraction for "you are". you're/your -|.If you're smart enough to study it. Again.No tricks here.It's spelling is as fancy as it's meaning. spelling this word is as difficult as mastering the instrument.

Transmit 2. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1.. Predicament _____________________________________________________________________ 114 . Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Investegate ________________________________________________________________________ 3. Efficiency 4. Constitute 4. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. PRACTICE EXERCISES: 1. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Intellectual 2. Embarassment 2. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Dissertation 4. Famous 4. Saggest 3. Harassment 4.. Commitment 3. Exhibit 3. Opportinity 3. Demonstration ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Desertion 3. Attribute 3. Seperation 2. Reference _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Depresion 4. Boundary 2. Sincerely _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Period 2. Responsibility ________________________________________________________________________ 6. Words over mis-spelt List No. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1.

Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Lineage 2. Magnificent 3. Grieve 3. compression 2. Recieve 4. Borne 4. Ceremony 3. Mutiny 3. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Besiege 2. Mileage 4.7. Besiege 3. Barrister _______________________________________________________________________ 115 . Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Depression _______________________________________________________________________ 12. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Deceive _______________________________________________________________________ 8. Tyrany ___________________________________________________________________ 10. Matrimony 4. Previlege _______________________________________________________________________ 9. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Ancient 4. Supression 4. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Begining 2. Benefecient 2. Adolescent _______________________________________________________________________ 11. Ceremony 2. Oppression 3.

The word in (brackets) tells you how many letters are missing (number of underscores). Statement _______________________________________________________________________ 14. Ocassion 3. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. Tracy works in the computer _____________________ (b_ _ _ _ess).13. Determination 3. Judgement 4. Example: There are seven _________ (cla_ _rooms) upstairs. Compass 3. Choose the correct option: 1. I _____________________ (u_ _ _lly) get up at 6 o'clock. Trespass 4. My friend found an _____________________ (a_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ship) as a car mechanic. Embarrassment 2. ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Do you like going to____________________(b_ _ _ _day) parties? My grandmother had three sons and four_____________________(d_ _ _ _ters). Choose the correct option 1. Ovation 4. He _____________________ (apolo_ _ _ed) for being late. Be careful! Skydiving is a _____________________ (dan_ _ _ _ _s) hobby. Erosion 2. Intemperation 2. Complementation _____________________________________________________________________ 17. Choose the word that has been wrongly spelt: 1. _____________________ (A_ _ _ _bly) starts at 8 o'clock every morning. 116 . Evasion _______________________________________________________________________ 15. Sedimentation 4. Write the missing words into the gaps. Answer: There are seven classrooms upstairs. Look! The _____________________ (t_ _ _ _er) is writing on the board. Merriment 3. William the _____________________ (C_ _ _ _ _ _ _r) won the battle of Hastings. Impass 2. Mistress _____________________________________________________________________ 16.

_____________________________________________________________________ 8. They (argu-d) last night for hours. Be (car-ful) when you light the furnace. Mr. Paint the (c--ling) before you paint the walls. _____________________________________________________________________ 10. _____________________________________________________________________ 3.18. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. We were criticized (sever-ly) by the sewing circle. The shed was (complet-ly) demolished. others are correct as they stand. A (w--rd) noise came out of the attic. Merdine was (sincer-ly) grateful for the reprieve. Gus is (tru-ly) sorry for keeping you awake last night. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. The Simpsons are (argu-ing) again. Gus has been (rec--ving) threatening e-mails. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ Some of the words require the addition of ie. Some of the words in parentheses require the addition of the letter e. 1. Maya is (writ-ing) her autobiography. ____________________________________________________________________ 6. Wolfe (com-ing) home. _____________________________________________________________________ 117 . I paid almost five dollars for that (p--ce) of pie. White is (judg-ing) the essay contest. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. 1. ____________________________________________________________________ 3. When is Mr. others require ei.

Have you (tr-ed) the dessert yet? _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. We compared two (theor-es) of evolution. I don't (bel--ve) in coincidence. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. She (fl-es) on broken wings. Linda (w--ghs) less than her collie. 1. You should be (stud-ing) for Friday's exam. _____________________________________________________________________ Some of the words require the addition of i. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. We waited for the (fr--ght) train to pass. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________________ 118 . The (n--ghbors) complained about our parents.5. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. The baby (cr-ed) throughout the church service. I have always (rel-ed) on my friends. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Peggy felt (betra-ed) by her manager. The guests brought (th--r) children to the wedding. _____________________________________________________________________ 10. (N--ther) of us can help you today. (Lonel-ness) was never a problem for Henry. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. others require y.

_____________________________________________________________________ 8. Professor Legree made another (irrelev-nt) remark _____________________________________________________________________ 119 . ____________________________________________________________________ 4. It was a (pit-ful) sight. My parakeet eats huge (quant-ties) of bird seed. He has a remarkably (unpleas-nt) disposition. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Flannery my (apolog-es). 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. We placed the puppies in (sep-rate) rooms. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. _____________________________________________________________________ 10. Please give Mr. _____________________________________________________________________ Complete each word with the letter a. Henry is an (independ-nt) thinker. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. I found an (excell-nt) excuse to resign from the committee. _____________________________________________________________________ 10. e. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. The tax cuts will (ben-fit) the wealthy. _____________________________________________________________________ 7.9. She chose items from different (cat-gories). It was a (priv-lege) to meet you. or i. I borrowed these flowers from the (cemet-ry).

She keeps (forget-ing) to call me. Some of these words require the doubling of a consonant. You are (prob-ly) going to be late. others are correct as they stand. His doctor (refer-ed) him to a dimple specialist. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. They were (sweat-ing) in the classroom. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. others are correct as they stand. Marriage comes without a (g-arantee). The bunny went (hop-ing) down to the abattoir. 4. That idea never (occur-ed) to me. Caley (su-prised) me. _____________________________________________________________________ Some of these words require the addition of one or more letters. The region is slowly (begin-ing) to recover. The sun was (shin-ing) down like honey. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________ 8.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________ Doug (pour-ed) sugar over Yoddy's oatmeal... _____________________________________________________________________ 10. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. 1. 1. The experiment was (control-ed) by a madman. Does she (reali-e) that her socks don't match? 120 . _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Gus (admit-ed) his mistake.

Summers should attend to his (bus-ness). Take two (asp-rin) and go to bed. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. She (a-quired) a good tan and a new boyfriend. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 10._____________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. _____________________________________________________________________ Some of these words require the addition of one or more letters. Mr. I wish Hansel would just (dis-pear). We must work together to improve the (envir-ment). _____________________________________________________________________ 121 . I was (dis-appointed) by the cranberries in dill sauce. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Gus is (basic-ly) lazy. others are correct as they stand. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. Merdine (recom-ended) a psychiatrist. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. We waited (until-) the mortician arrived. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. She supports a strong (ath-letic) program. (D-scribe) the man who hit you. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. The (tem-rature) reached 109 degrees in Yuma. 1. Alice Walker wrote an essay (sim-lar) to yours. The Red Sox have (fin-ly) won a ball game. _____________________________________________________________________ 3.

_____________________________________________________________________ Spelling it Right Print the crossword and answer the clues 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 122 . Doc Brown was working in his (lab-ratory). _____________________________________________________________________ 10.9. Baron Leibniz works for the (gover-ment).

10 Each word in this crossword obeys the rule about ie and ei: When you're saying -ee. This relation is the daughter of your sister or brother • • You expect to ------. Knights of old carried this to defend themselves 8. Washing your hands is an important part of personal ------- • Getting 9 out of 10 spellings right was quite an -----------for Sally as they were quite difficult words 3.from a headache 6. Across Down • If you're indoors you'll see this when you look upwards 1. chief brief believe relieved niece field piece diesel achieve priest siege hygiene receive receipt perceive deceive deceit ceiling 123 . or e before i? Here are some words which obey the "i before e" rule. Someone who steals your belongings Is it i before e. Ronny -------. Circle or use a highlight pen to show where these words are in the wordsearch grid.have a very high opinion of themselves 2.his mother by lying to her about where he'd been • People who are --------.greetings cards on your birthday Asprin will often give you some ----.it's i before e except after c.

p e r c e i v e a m a h r c e i b i h c c b c y i h c s i e g e h e h g e i e i f c h i i l i i s e i s d y z l e i e e t f p r e c e i v e v n b e t i c h s n e v e e n d e c e i t g n e p k i p b r i e f f i e l d e r e a v f d i e s e l c o n c e i t e d a c o e n t e r e l i e v e d The teacher spoke this poem in the class and the students noted it down in their notebooks. There are lots of examples in the English language.) Ode to My Spell Checker (author unknown) Eye have a spelling checker. beech/beach. Eye strike a quay and type a word and weight for it to say Weather eye yam wrong oar write. flower/flour. it shows me strait a weigh. rode/road. it came with my pea sea It plainly marks four my revue miss steaks eye kin knot sea. this is what she found. Here are a few: piece/peace. As soon as a mist ache is maid it nose bee fore two long 124 . Can you help the mother? (Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings and different spellings. rain/rein/reign. Back home when Sharon’s mother asked her to bring her notebook for homework.

Do write the correct the spellings given below: Beauty + Full = _________________ Plural of Book-shelf =_________________ Plucked – ed + ing = ______________ Begin + ing = _________________ Scarce + ly = ___________________ Plural of duty = ______________ Diverge + ed =__________________ Plural of itself = __________________ Miss + ed = ________________ Spoil + ing = ____________________ Pick out the phrasal verbs used in the poem. Write the meaning and make sentences. Eye have run this poem threw it I'm shore your pleased to no Its letter perfect awl the way. Complete the following. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________ Exercises based on Text :EVELYN HOPE 5. my checker told me sew.And eye can put the error rite its rare lea ever wrong. LETTERS OF BHAGAT SINGH The following words taken from the text have been misspelled. Rectify these: ¾ Prilude ______________________ ¾ Condenemd ______________________ ¾ Torturres ______________________ ¾ Revolutoinaris ______________________ ¾ Acqueiscing ______________________ ¾ Ungredgingly ______________________ ¾ Unparalelled ______________________ ¾ Exploitasion ______________________ ¾ Anksiously ______________________ ¾ Neverteless ______________________ 125 .

Correct the following: ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Repeserented Comunity Postiivly propsositon sensitivety considiration potpuris acomodated audeinces culturel protrayed rendeing popularty entertinment caricutures 126 .Find the word. Each alphabet should be used in the word and no alphabet can be repeated more than two times: ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ U S N T O P I ______________________ R C B I A T U E ______________________ E S O M C P I R ______________________ O G N T I A E ______________________ A G V R D N U ______________________ A Z L M O D T I E R N ______________________ E M T N S L ______________________ S I E L D O G ______________________ N A D T H M E C ______________________ U G E N I ______________________ ¾ Pi The following words from the text have been misspelled.

The only problem was that we often got into trouble as we made up stories that we acted out around town. Brown's house. but the idea of actually making off with a truck was too much for us to believe. we slowly went along the path until we were face to face with our enemy . We we were ready to set off on our attack.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. we really didn't have any idea about what we were going do next. so we got into his truck. LECTURE – 15 Phrasal Verbs:I was brought up in a small town in the countryside. Of course. Jack was all for switching on the motor and getting away with the stolen mail! Of course. We all ran for cover and picked up a number of rocks to use for ammunition against the ship as we got ready to put together our plan of action. We all broke out in nervous laughter at the thought of us driving down the road in this stolen Postal Truck. At that point. The radio was playing so we turned down the volume to discuss what we would do next. Phrasal Verbs -Make sentences with the following • to make out • to make off with • to drop off • to set off • to get out of • to get into • to get ready • to be up to • • • • • • • to take off to grow up to make up to set off to turn down to get into to bring up • to break out 127 . "What are you kids up to?!". My best friend Tom said that he made out an enemy ship in the distance. Luckily for us.the postman's truck! The postman was dropping off a package at Mrs. I can remember one particular adventure in particular: One day as we were coming back from school. the postman came running towards us shouting... Growing up in the countryside offered lots of advantages for young people. we came up with the brilliant idea to make out that we were pirates looking for treasure. we were just children. we all got out of that truck as quickly as we could and took off down the road.

_________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _. give their meanings and use them in sentences of your own: I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel the mystery. I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _. flying paper butterflies. There are at least 7 other phrasal verbs in the text. throwing pebbles in the air._________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ Q1. 128 . Can you find them? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ Exercises based on text :THE BIG BROTHER Pick out the phrasal verbs from the following sentences.

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . and the pace of volleyball all pulled me back to the playground. finish breakfast… 6 to 8 English. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . He would pass off all opportunities to pull my ears and generally kept off me. I set about running after colorful kites. The bouncing football. you will soon land with a thud. he was in real bad shape…face devoid of color. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . Making a time table is one thing. but back in the hostel room. 9 to 9. But all tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . the fervor of Kabbadi. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . _________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ . sticking to it is another. 9 to 10 Hindi. 6. 8 to 9 translations. 8 to 9 Math. 129 .30 to 7 English composition.30 History. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . Don’t float in the air. followed by dinner. Somehow. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . Get up at 6 sharp.I had great fun. my daily routine intact. followed by lunch and school. eyes sunk deep…I felt sorry for him. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . an eerie silence invariably unnerved me. One pleasant evening. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . 10 to 11 revision and then retire to bed. guilty that I was. I tugged along. I would burst into tears after this. This time.

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . We were oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother. "Look at our headmaster. do away with that false pride. " ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ . This truth will prevail and even God can’t challenge it. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ .” ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ .whether you get into my grade or even move ahead. 130 .. "So you see. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _______ ..

• Winter thinks we can ever have enough of it. • ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ . and others who are quite used to poverty. and the new-poor. give their meanings and use them in sentences of your own: • It is the month when the new-rich depart to sun themselves in their new-found sun. • ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ . • ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ . and comes back saying "Hello!" to us right into Summer. • ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ . • If you can't be pure and good and generous and altogether delightful in the Spring. • But the three years when they had to wait to be asked have usually taken all their courage out of them. • ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ . • February always reminds me of the suburbs--appalling but you've got to go through them to get to London.. • ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ . • One simply lives through it as one lives through a necessary duty.. • It is a month which brings out the very worst in everybody. FEBRUARY Pick out the phrasal verbs from the following sentences. • ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ . you might as well write yourself off for evermore among the ignoble army of the eternally disgruntled. swear at them in secret. • ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ . • But everybody else has since done their best to rob it of its one little bit of anaemic joy. 131 .Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….

Could you ___________ a moment while I see if Marek is in his office? 132 . Have you ____________ if you won the competition yet? I need to ____________ from work and take a holiday. It's ready to leave... So I have to _________ my baby-brother. The boy ___________ the man and returned his wallet. she really _____________ her mother. Can you _____________the radio a little. So I have to look after my baby-brother. Where can I (see if it fits) _______________ the sweater? 5.. try) and the prepositions (away. 5) I need some new clothes. Mary ______________ me at the party last night and introduced herself. in. get. 8. Why don't you _______________ these jeans? 6) It's warm inside. _____________ your coat. turn.. Shall I (consult a dictionary) _______________ the word in a dictionary? 9. do not wear) _______________ your shoes.. (remove. I have to _________________ it. look. Example: My parents are out. Complete the phrasal verbs according to their meanings in brackets. fill.. She still hasn't __________ the death of her cat.. please? 4) _________________ the form. 10) Does your little brother_____________________ ghosts? II. My daughter is a great cook. take. Use the following verbs (believe. 2) I don't know where my book is. Fill in the phrasal verbs: ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Make sure to _____________ pick-pockets when you go to the market. off. switch. Could you (do not leave it on) _______________ the radio? 4. Practice Exercises : - I... (be quick) _______________ . for. When do you (rise from bed after sleeping) _______________ in the mornings? III. please. 8) It's so loud here. Why don't you (take a seat) _______________ ? 7. throw. Answer: My parents are out. on.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. 1) Quick!________________ the bus. 3) It's dark inside. 2. 3. 6. Somebody has to (take care of) _______________ the baby. 7) This pencil is really old. I will (enter) _______________ the train now.. 9) The firemen were able to ______________ the fire in Church Street. You can ________________ it___________________. Can you ______________ the light. put. out) an form meaningful sentences. down. 1.

She still hasn't _________________ the death of her cat. Can you explain to me what dancing chickens __________ sport shoes? (with) 9. I'm afraid your story is not believable. which is relatively high.(out) 7. It just doesn't __________________.(off) Pick out the phrasal verbs from the list given below and complete the sentences: 1. Could you _________________ a moment while I see if Marek is in his office? Extension 28? I'll _________________ . 2. 14. and focus on its quality as a selling point. 13. Can we _________________ our work? If you really want to lose weight. Donata_______________ my cats while I was away on holiday. We're going to __________ the advertising campaign if we can't get any TV or radio time. This poster is horrible and can't be used. 16. 10. Have you __________ any other interesting product features that we could emphasize in the ads? (across) 4. 9.¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Extension 28? I'll _______________. 7. We will have to __________. She promised to ____________ her cigarette smoking to six a day. 4. She promised to _________________ her cigarette smoking to six a day. I was __________ an old t-shirt when I __________ this photograph of my high school class. Given below are few sentences along with the preposition. We've decided to __________ billboards and use more double-page spreads instead. I'm tired of waiting for Jacek. you need to __________eating desserts. Add an appropriate ion or verb to make a phrasal verb: 1. she really _________________ her mother. 5. Has the advertising agency __________ the new promotional material yet? I need it by this afternoon. I'm afraid your story is not believable. 6. 17. I like that magazine.(in) 10. My new assistant needs to be __________ before I trust her to run an ad campaign like this one. It just doesn't______________. but I think we should __________ advertising in it until its circulation has increased. 8. Do you know it? Mary _________________ twenty minutes late for the party. He spent the entire night thinking and in the end ____________ a brilliant idea. 12. (in) 2.(on) 5. Have you _________________ if you won the competition yet? I need to _________________ from work and take a holiday. Let's __________the grammar one more time before the test. 15. I'm _________________ Simon's address. He spent the entire night thinking and in the end ______________ a brilliant idea. We're not ready yet. 133 .(down) 3. This commercial doesn't seem to promote the product. 11. 3. The colors and images are all wrong. (do) 6.(off) 8. My daughter is a great cook. we are going to have to _______________ the meeting until next week. We had to reorder the printed advertisements because the printer completely forgot and __________ the free sample coupons. We need to ________ the price of the product.

Complete each gap with a suitable word: "I'm afraid I haven't got enough copies of this exercise. on the whole. cut down. 23. come up with. We __________at six in the morning on our drive to the coast. hold on. 20. We'd better stop soon. Well. 21. turn up. set off. put up with. look after. When the father saw what had happened he __________ and shouted at his son. go over. He did ring_________________ to say he'd been held ________________ unexpectedly. We'll have to __________some new employees. I had to __________ her offer of a job. but that's the second time that company has let us _______________ recently. I want you to __________ every bad word you've said about my brother. Look Magda. I tried to have more run ________________ but the photocopier had broken________________ and the repairman didn't turn _____________________ when he was supposed to. They just weren't happy together. there's nothing else for it: you're just going to have to look ____________ with your neighbour. 25. the results were good. The salary on offer was just not good enough. get on with. but. come across 1. While you're doing that. Some of you slipped _________________ in a few places. turn down. take back. If you carry _____________________ as you've been doing. I've __________your bad behaviour long enough! There is just too much work to be done. give up. break up. Jacek and Gosia __________last week. add up. put through. make up.18. run out. blow up. take on. put off. get away. 19. I'll just ___________________ the test you did last week. take up. tell off. Otherwise. take after. look for. you should do fine!" Exercise based on Text :BOLLYWOOD AND THE MUSLIM MOVIES Write the meanings of the phrasal verbs and use these in sentences of your own: o Pick up o Focus at o Reduced to o Fallen in o Move to o Pushed towards o Stand out o Married off o Make up o Spread over o Set in o Eloping with o Dressed in o Bursting at o Brought in o Made with o Break away o Churning out 134 . get over. we'll __________of gas. Find out. 22. 24.

Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. LECTURE – 17 Phrasal verb + Revision ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 135 ...

Anth bhala to sab bhala – All’s well that ends well (almost. Doodh ka jala chaas bhi phook-phook kar peeta hai – Once bitten twice shy 13. Ab pachatae kya jab chidiya chug gayi khet – No use crying over spilt milk 9. kabhi nahin se der bhali-better late than never 18. Lecture -21 Idioms / Proverbs 1. Garajne wale badal baraste nahin hain – Barking dogs seldom bite 8. Bandar kya jaane adrak ka swad . Pick 2-3 idioms and build a short story or a paragraph on it.Sour grapes (also. vaisa bhes – In Rome do as the Romans do 14.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. aagan tedha – A poor worker blames his tools 5. Aage kuan peeche khaee – Between the devil and the deep sea 7. 20.Empty vessels make more noise 16. Relate the above given idioms with the movie names for example-Ladla.Casting pearls before swine 3.Apple of one’s eye. 136 . Jaisa desh. Khatte angoor . there’s a way 12. Dal mein kaala . literally) 2. Khayali pulao banana-To build the castle in the air Activity 1. Ek myaan mein do talawaren nahi samaati – No man can serve two masters 15. 17. literal) 10. Jalti par tail dalna. Match idioms with the pictures[ to be given by the teacher]. so shall you reap. Jaisa karoge waisa bharoge. 19. Naach na jaane. Door ke dhol suhavane lagte hain – The grass seems greener on the other side 6. Khotta chana baje ghana .. 3. 2.Add fuel to the fire. Aanko ka tara-Apple of one’s eye.More to it than meets the eye 4.. Quiz based on idioms. Jahan chaah wahaan raha – Where there’s a will. Taali ek haath se nahin bajti – It takes two to quarrel 11.As you sow.

friends tend to An empty purse frightens away friends. and can do as he wishes. It's easier to give advice than to act. Accidents will happen. People are undistinguished until they have made a name. disappear. A cat has nine lives. A bad workman blames his tools. A burnt child dreads the fire. A bad experience will make people stay away from certain things. enjoys privacy An Englishman's home is his castle. Blaming the tools for bad workmanship is an excuse for lack of skill. you love them even more.. Advisers run no risks. All good things come to those who wait. A bird in hand is worth two in a bush.Proverb A Absence makes the heart grow fonder. When a problem is serious. When you work you avoid temptation. All things are difficult before they are easy. Explanation / Meaning When you are away from someone you love.* It is easier to prevent something from happening than to repair the An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of damage or cure.* serious problems. Other interpretation : A small preventive treatment wards off An apple a day keeps the doctor away. A burden of one's own choice is not felt. Something bad or unpleasant today may bring good things in the April showers bring May flowers. Anger is the one thing made better by delay. Things that are done in love or war can often be excused. people often do not follow the advice given. future. It doesn't cost anything to offer advice. It's better to keep what you have than to risk losing it by searching for something better. it is best not to speak or act immediately. What look good on the outside may not be so in reality. Some unfortunate events must be accepted as inevitable. When you are angry. As time goes by. Eating an apple every day can help to keep you healthy. *A humoristic version of "an apple a day. Any time means no time. 1) Cats can survive many accidents because they land on their feet 137 . An Englishman's home is a place where he feels safe. cure the disease later. All cats are grey in the dark. Time goes by slowly when you have nothing to do. All is fair in love and war All's well that ends well All that glitters is not gold. All things grow with time . With practice things become easier. Appearances can be deceptive. Everybody needs a certain amount of relaxation. It is not good to All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.except grief. Patience brings rewards. There is a solution to everything even though there are doubts. work all the time. Actions speak louder than words. All days are short to Industry and long to Idleness. All that glitters is not gold. A bad tree does not yield good apples. A bad parent does not raise good children. Advice is cheap. If the date of an event remains vague." An onion a day keeps everyone away.. What a person actually does is more important that what they say they will do. Something difficult seems easier when it is done voluntarily. A broken friendship may be soldered but will never be sound. An idle brain is the devil's workshop. Friendships can be rebuilt after a dispute but will never be as strong as before. Advice is least heeded when most needed. When one's financial situation deteriorates. grief subsides little by little. it will never happen.

A man is judged by his actions. from getting worse. A tree is known by its fruit. it seems to take a long time. A flower blooms more than once. they spend their time. A man is as old as he feels himself to be. to prevent it A stitch in time saves nine. after supper walk a mile. special. If you wait anxiously for something. A person's character is judged by the type of people with whom A man is known by the company he keeps. Someone who is a friend to everyone makes none of them feel A friend to all is a friend to none. A change is as good as a rest. Describes something that will be helpful to all. If you miss an occasion. A smooth sea never made a skilled mariner. Ask me no questions. A loveless life is a living death. pleasant. there's a better chance that it will be A good beginning makes a good end. A friend's eye is a good mirror. A friend in need is a friend indeed. they gain neither friends nor possessions. Overcoming adversity leads to competence. After dinner rest a while. It's better to deal with a problem at an early stage. Giving an example is better than giving advice. It is not possible for a bad or unpleasant person to become good or A leopard cannot change its spots. Someone who helps you when you are in trouble is a real friend. an old beggar. Correcting a small mistake may help you to avoid making a bigger A stumble may prevent a fall. they never will. A dry March. If a person hasn't matured by the age of 40. A watched pot never boils If you don't work. A fault confessed is half redressed. A real friend will tell you the truth. one avoids being tied down! A dishonest or immoral person can have a bad influence on a A rotten apple spoils the barrel. A man can die but once. you can avail of it at another time. one. A young idler. Really wealthy don't talk about money. If a task is carefully planned. so shall you reap There are subjects I'd rather not discuss. A new broom sweeps clean. A fool and his money are soon (easily) A foolish person usually spends money carelessly. done well. 2) Three lives = 3 years to play. it's the same person underneath. by moving often. 138 . you won't have any money when you're old.without injury. group. A guilty conscience needs no accuser. A good conscience is a soft pillow. If a person keeps moving from place to place. fill barn and cellar and bring much hay. 3 years to stray. A newly-appointed person makes changes energetically. 3 years to stay. A change in routine is often as refreshing as a break or a holiday. Confession is the beginning of forgiveness. As you sow. You sleep well when you have nothing to feel guilty about. A chain is no stronger than its weakest link. A rising tide lifts all boats. a wet April and a cool May Harvest predictions according to the weather. You have to accept the consequences of your actions. Another interpretation is that. A rolling stone gathers no moss. parted. The strength of a group depends on each individual member. One good event does not mean that everything is alright. A fool at forty is a fool forever. A loaded wagon makes no noise. A swallow does not make the summer. A good example is the best sermon. I'll tell you no lies. A monkey in silk is a monkey no less. No matter how someone dresses.

It's better to stop and accept a small loss. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy. It's better to avoid disputes with stupid people. Don't complain if you can't enforce your point of view. frost may form. E A person's first duty is to help and care for his own family. Listen carefully before speaking. Refers to two people equally matched in wit or cunning. risk losing everything. When you are separated from the person you love. Easier said than done. Dead men tell no tales Diamond cuts diamond. Don't bark if you can't bite. 139 . A person's background or education will eventually show. What is suggested sounds easy but it is more difficult to actually do it. lion. Children and fools tell the truth. Don't do something yourself which causes your own downfall. illness etc. frost soon. than change and risk dealing with somebody worse. Don't judge a book by its cover. Better be the head of a dog then the tail of a It's better to be the leader of a small group than a subordinate in a bigger one. rather than continue and Better lose the saddle than the horse. When you work you avoid temptation. your feelings are even stronger. Don't count your chickens before they're hatched. Don't dig your grave with your own knife and fork. A dead person cannot cause difficulties by revealing something that it would be preferable to conceal. Distance makes the heart grow fonder. A person's character is more important than their appearance. Birds of a feather flock together. Better the devil you know than the devil you It's better to deal with somebody difficult but familiar. People of the same sort are usually found together. It is useless to take unnecessary risks. Hard work brings rewards. You must not be too confident that something will be successful. People from the same background have the same behaviour. Be careful in the choice of the people you associate with. A clean body is just as important as a pure soul. Diligence is the mother of good fortune. than not do it at all. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Blood will out. Dogs of the same street bark alike. Better safe than sorry It's better not to be taught at all than to be taught badly. Better late than never. Family relationships are stronger than relationships with other Blood is thicker than water people. Beauty is the wisdom of women. If the atmosphere is clear. Discretion is the better part of valour Diseases of the soul are more dangerous than those of the body. Constant occupation prevents temptation.B Bad news travels fast. Better flatter a fool than fight him.) very quickly. Better untaught than ill-taught Don't trust your enemies. Different people have different tastes. wealthy and wise. don't know It's better to do something. slow to speak. Beauty is only skin deep. even if it's late. Better be alone than in bad company. It's better to be too careful than to be careless and regret it later. Be swift to hear. Appearances can be deceiving. Clothes don't make the man. Wisdom is the beauty of men. Cleanliness is next to godliness. Clear moon. C D Charity begins at home. Don't judge by appearances. People tend to circulate bad news (accidents. Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.

First come. Inexperienced people act in situations that more intelligent people would avoid Friendship is love with understanding. Every path has its puddle. first served. it may be done carelessly and need to be redone. God helps those who help themselves. Everything is satisfactory. Everything in the garden is rosy. There is a positive or hopeful side to every unpleasant situation. fool me twice. Hard words break no bones. Give someone enough rope and they will hang themselves. If something is done too quickly. Experience and knowledge result in better judgement. Hatred is a blind as love. You must think of your own interests before the interests of others. Empty vessels make the most noise. You should be grateful for something. Good management is better than good income. Every rose has its thorn. G H Gardens are not made by sitting in the shade. Large successful operations can begin in a small way. Progress is rarely without difficulty. Give someone a little and they will want more . Great oaks grow from little acorns. Give someone an inch and they will take a mile (or yard). Great minds think alike. Every why has a wherefore. Every man is the architect of his own fortune. shame on me. Familiarity breeds contempt Fine words butter no parsnips. The first person in the line will be attended to first.Elbow grease is the best polish. F Facts speak louder than words. Every cloud has a silver lining Every man for himself.some people are never satisfied. rather than by what they say. Life is what you make it. A well-done job takes time. No amount of talking can replace action. Every man has his price. The least intelligent people are often the most talkative or noisy. even if it's not as much as you wanted. Every good thing has an unpleasant side. Haste makes waste. Failure teaches success. People like to listen to themselves talking. A person who feels hatred does not see any qualities in the person he/she hates. False friends are worse than open enemies. Give someone enough time and freedom and they will get into trouble. Experience is the father of wisdom. Every ass likes to hear himself bray. Hard work gives the best results. shame on you. There is an explanation for everything. He has enough who is content. Everyone's loyalty can be bought for a price. Nothing is achieved without effort. One should learn from one's mistakes. People show what they are really like by what they do. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread Knowing somebody very well may lead to a lack of respect for them. Grief divided is made lighter Half a loaf is better than none. 140 . Good and quickly seldom meet. Fool me once.

If in February there be no rain. Misfortunes usually come in large numbers. you will avoid 100 days of sorrow. It is always darkest before the dawn Don't express regret for something that has happened and cannot It's no use crying over spilt milk. You can obtain more cooperation from others by being nice. J Justice delayed is justice denied. and the other will be the subordinate. In the land of the blind. You have many friends when you have no difficulties. What you learn when you are young will be invaluable when you grow old. you may miss a good opportunity. his body If you let something intrusive enter your life. When two people do something together. be remedied. in for a pound. K Knowledge in youth is wisdom in age. It's not good to do too many things at the same time. If you delay your decision too long. and this is a good thing. your life will become will difficult . it's better to spend the time or money In for a penny. Bad things don't last forever. However long the night. 141 . He who is everywhere is nowhere. I In times of prosperity friends are plentiful. If wishes were horses. you won't succeed in either doing either of them. one will be the leader If two ride a horse. If you are determined to do something you will find a way. you must act as well. Honesty is the best policy. Home is where the heart is. the dawn will break Hunger is a good sauce. He who plays with fire gets burnt. Possible interpretation: What you do not know causes no worry or Ignorance is bliss. Kill one to warn a hundred. too soon! It's better to be in good health than to be rich. If a camel gets his nose in a tent. one. Don't express your joy. you will not catch If you try to do two things at the same time. Warn many by punishing a few. It takes all sorts to make a world. Knowledge makes it possible for you to act. He who pays the piper calls the tune. the one-eyed man is A man of even limited ability has an advantage over a person who is less able. Knowledge is power. ride. He who knows nothing. or your triumph. be a friend. If you want a friend. Knowledge leads us to make choices. Health is better than wealth. necessary to complete it. you are likely to have problems.He who hesitates is lost. He who wills the end wills the means. 'tis neither Plants and crops will grow badly if there is no rain in early spring. Honey catches more flies than vinegar. People vary in character and abilities. good for hay nor grain. there is no justice. The person who provides the money for something should control how it is spent If you behave in a risky way. It never rains but it pours. sadness. If you chase two rabbits. All food tastes good when you are hungry. angrily. If the law is applied too late. king. If you start something. You call home the place where the people you love are. The most difficult time is just before a problem is solved. It's always better to be honest. He laughs best who laughs last. doubts nothing. then beggars would Wishing alone is of no use. Avoid regrets by taking time to think before speaking or acting If you are patient in one moment of anger. one must ride behind. follow.

Loose lips sink ships. we can assume that all is well. Least said soonest mended. No man can serve two masters. Let bygones be bygones. Similar to : 'no smoke without fire'. Look before you leap. Need teaches a plan. We should not try to control our destiny. Memory is the treasure of the mind. Man proposes. Love is blind. finders keepers. M Make a silk purse out of a sow's ear Man is the head of the family. Marry in haste. no waves. Disclosing important information ( to the enemy or a competitor) could result in large losses.L Kill the goose that lays the golden egg. If you are kind to people. No man is an island. You shouldn't waste money because it is not plentiful. Let the chips fall where they may. If you have money you can make more money. 142 . Manage to produce something good using poor material. they will be kind to you. woman is the neck that turns the head. Let's forgive and forget past quarrels. Learn to walk before you run. Possibly: a person's manners show their origins. you might as well commit the greater offence. Destroy something that would be a source of wealth or success. If the news was bad. like son. If the penalty is going to be the same. An unusual event is not likely to occur again in exactly the same circumstances. The need for something forces people to find a way of obtaining it. Lightning never strikes in the same place twice Like father.. Consider possible consequences before taking action. Manners make the man. Education is something you keep forever. the less damage you cause. Little strokes fell great oaks. Money doesn't grow on trees. Never put off till tomorrow what can be done today Never say die. A person in love does not see the faults of the person he/she loves. Liars need good memories. If you divide a task into small parts.. Don't rush into doing something until you know how to do it. if you find something you keep it. Money is the root of all evil. Nobody is perfect. Losers weepers. If you lose something you weep. It's impossible to follow instructions from two different sources. If you get married too quickly. Our destiny depends on God's will. nothing gained. A son's character can be expected to resemble his father's. You cannot expect to achieve anything if you don't take risks. There could be some truth in the rumour. Might as well be hanged for a sheep as (for) a lamb Money begets money. Necessity will make you find a solution. Many hands make light work. we would hear of it. No smoke without fire. Money is the main cause of wrongdoing and problems. repent at leisure. Men make houses. Sharing work makes work easier. you may spend all your life regretting it. Nothing ventured. We all need other people. Don't postpone something you can do now. No news is good news. Laughter is the best medicine. Learning is a treasure that will follow its owner everywhere. women make homes. N Necessity is the mother of invention. The more discreet you are. God disposes. it becomes easier to do. No wind. Kindness begets kindness. Never give up. Since we have heard nothing.

After an unpleasant experience. Spare the rod and spoil the child Sticks and stones will break my bones but names Refers to a person who is careful about spending small amounts of money. What is useless to one person could be valuable to another. What you have today is better than what is promised or hoped for. Poverty waits at the gates of idleness. you will spoil his character. One man's meat is another man's poison One man's trash is another man's treasure. face is dirty. Debts paid quickly encourage friendship. Practice makes perfect. Physical attacks may harm me. out of mind. P Penny wise. One of these days is none of these days. If you don't object to something it can be assumed that you agree with it. Sickness in the body brings sadness to the mind. People don't always do what they announce. 'One of these days' remains vague. Delaying an action for too long is a waste of time. Procrastination is the thief of time Punctuality is the soul of business Put all your eggs in one basket R Revenge is sweet. Rome was not built in a day. Out of sight. Doing something repeatedly is the only way to become good at it. You should always be on time for your business appointments. Friends can be more dangerous than enemies. One should not criticize others for faults similar to one's own. Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings We tend to forget people or things that we do not see. One today is worth two tomorrow. Opportunity seldom knocks twice. One good turn deserves another. as good. It takes a long time to do a job properly. Saying is one thing. Risk everything by relying on one plan (by putting all one's money in one business). You should be helpful to someone who helps you. A single satisfactory event does not mean that all the others will be One swallow doesn't make a summer. 143 . One father is more than a hundred schoolmasters. Practise what you preach Prevention is better than cure Pride comes before a fall. People who live in glass houses should not throw stones. It is easier to prevent something from happening than to repair the damage or cure the disease later. People don't always like the same things. Don't be too self-confident or proud. Silence gives consent. If you do not work you will not make money. You should not expect to do it quickly. Don't miss opportunities that come along. but cruel words will not. Feeling very comfortable. pound foolish. There is satisfaction in returning an injury. Only real friends will tell you when your Only a real friend will tell you the truth. Snug as a bug in a rug. S Save me from my friends. If you don't punish a child when he does wrong. Short reckonings make long friends.O Once bitten. but not careful about spending large amounts of money. twice shy. Do yourself what you advise others to do. people are careful to avoid something similar. Children often speak wisely. something may happen to make you look foolish. doing is another.

intentions. If too many people are involved in something. Time has wings. The apple doesn't fall far from the tree. People who have no work. A quiet person can have much knowledge or wisdom. Time goes by quickly. The more haste. It is human nature to make mistakes. A person makes more progress if they do things less quickly. Two wrongs don't make a right U Union is strength. therefore one should forgive. The most difficult thing is to begin. Time and tide wait for no man. the more you want. The real value of something can be judged only after it has been The proof of the pudding is in the eating. A stitch in time saves nine Stolen fruit is the sweetest. because if you don't. The mouse that has but one hole is quickly If you depend on just one thing. Wrong or unfair methods may be used if the result of the action is good. The road to hell is paved with good It's not enough to intend to do something. The best advice is found on the pillow. 144 . and it fails you. stomach. taken. tried or tested. it will not be done (Humoristic version : Too many clicks spoil properly. The devil makes work for idle hands The die is cast. There is hope even in the worst of times. to forgive divine Too many cooks spoil the broth. or are idle. The devil looks after his own. The tongue wounds more than a lance. The more you have. the less speed. you should do it as soon as you can. What is forbidden is the most tempting. There is a black sheep in every flock. The early bird catches the worm. T Tall oaks grow from little acorns. Words and communication have greater effect than war and The pen is mightier than the sword fighting. often get into or make trouble. It is wrong to harm someone because they have harmed you. Being in a crowd makes you feel more confident. The way to a man's heart is through his Feed a man well and he will love you. A decision has been made and it's impossible to change it. A group has more force than an individual. The truth is in the wine. The darkest hour is just before dawn. Great things may come from small beginnings. The first step is the hardest. Children resemble their parents.will never hurt me Still waters run deep. There is a trick in every trade. To err is human. A older person is expected to behave more sensibly. It's better to deal with a problem in its early stages. After a good night's sleep we may find an answer to our problem. you must actually do it. There is an established way of doing things. Events in real life are sometimes stranger than in fiction. There is no fool like an old fool. The wish is father to the thought. Success comes to those who deserve it least . People speak more freely under the influence of alcohol. Time is money. Truth is stranger than fiction. Insults can be more hurtful than physical injuries. it will get worse. If you want to do something successfully. The end justifies the means. you will have no alternatives. There is always one who doesn't behave or perform like the others. You think that something is true because you want it to be so. There is safety in numbers Delaying a decision will not prevent events from taking place. Time is valuable and should not be wasted. the browse!) Trust not a horse's heel nor a dog's tooth.

When the cat's away. People could be listening. You should not expect praise for acting in a correct or moral way. he thinks sober. Where there's a will. A person with determination will find a way of doing something. 145 . A person who doesn't want to do something always finds a reason to avoid it. Be careful. Who makes himself a sheep will be eaten by the wolves. Where there's life there's hope. You are never too old to learn. What a man says drunk. You can lead a horse to water but you can't You can offer someone an opportunity to do something but you can't force them. People speak more freely under the influence of alcohol. the mice play. You never know what you can do until you Try first before deciding not to do something. want not. You are what you eat. Virtue is its own reward. Expresses surprise at an unexpected pleasure or event (ironic). Possible interpretation: an easily influenced person can be mislead. You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours. What you eat has an effect on your well-being. When poverty come in the door. make it drink. you will have it when you need it. What the eye doesn't see. do as the Romans do. is absent. or the person in authority. You can't teach an old dog new tricks. drunkenness reveals. Wisdom is better than strength. What soberness conceals.Unwillingness easily finds an excuse. People are less discreet under the influence of alcohol. You help me and I'll help you. Worrying over small details can make them seem worse. try. A person who is used to doing things a certain way cannot change. If you never waste anything. there's a way. When in Rome. the heart doesn't grieve over. You should adopt the customs of the people or country you are visiting. Doing a lot of different things makes life more interesting. W Walls have ears. and behave in the same way. People misbehave when their boss. Wonders will never cease! Worry often gives a small thing a big shadow. Waste not. it cannot hurt them. love goes out the window. V Variety is the spice of life. Y If a person doesn't know about something.

Practice Exercises : PROVERBS I. you may have studied and some of them may be new to you. Pain is so close to pleasure _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ . They Brag Most That Can Do the Least _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ .Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. Absence makes the heart grow fonder _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ . I had no shoes and complained. 146 .. Given below are some commonly used proverbs. until I met a man who had no feet _____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________. Better an open enemy.. Some of them. Better bend than break _________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ . A bad workman blames his tools _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ . than a false friend _________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________. Try to locate the meaning of each proverb: The first step is the hardest _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ . Never say die _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ . Make hay while the sun shines _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ .

like father __________________________________________________________________ k.II. Once bitten __________________________________________________________________ c. a stitch in time __________________________________________________________________ h. promises __________________________________________________________________ 147 . a friend in need __________________________________________________________________ g. what the eye does not see __________________________________________________________________ j. never put off until tomorrow __________________________________________________________________ i. it never rains __________________________________________________________________ e. too many cooks __________________________________________________________________ f. one swallow __________________________________________________________________ l. You can't teach an old dog __________________________________________________________________ b. In for a penny __________________________________________________________________ d. Find the correct endings to the proverbs: a.

1. Which of the proverbs mean the same as these sentences. __________________________________________________________________ o. It is not a good idea to decide if a thing is good or bad just by how it appears at first or by its outward appearance. __________________________________________________________________ 2. When a bad thing happens there is always a positive aspect to it. You should be happy with what you have got even if it is less than what you want. If you don't see someone for a long time you like them better. __________________________________________________________________ 5. __________________________________________________________________ 3. better safe __________________________________________________________________ n.m. __________________________________________________________________ 148 . __________________________________________________________________ 4. listeners __________________________________________________________________ III. out of sight. When you are in a strange place (temporarily) it is better to follow the local customs.

Don't become very upset by trivialities. Feelng very comfortable. __________________________________________________________________ 9. • • • • • • • • • • • Column B You should not expect praise for acting in a correct or moral way you can’t expect to achieve anything if you can’t take risks A decision has been made and it's impossible to change it You should adopt the customs of the people or country you are visiting Try first before deciding not to do something If the law is applied too late. there is no justice. All food tastes good if you are hungry Words and communication have greater effect than war and fighting. nothing gained You never know what you can do until you try When in Rome. _________________________________________________________________ 8.6. Those who cast threats are seldom man enough to carry them out. The pen is mightier than the sword The die is cast. do as the Romans do Virtue is its own reward. __________________________________________________________________ 7. Don't take risks. __________________________________________________________________ 10. __________________________________________________________________ IV. A clean body is just as important as a pure soul. In many areas in life if you do not confront a problem when it starts it can deteriorate rapidly therefore it is much better to act soon. a person's manners show their origins 149 . Match the proverbs given in Column A with their meanings in Column B: • • • • • • • • • • Column A Justice delayed is justice denied Hunger is a good sauce Cleanliness is next to godliness Manners make the man Nothing ventured. This proverb was probably written by someone who owns his own house and doesn't stay up all night dancing.

_____________________________________________________________________________ 2. use the proverbs given below in sentences of your own: 1. Better lose the saddle than the horse _____________________________________________________________________________ 8. Every path has its puddle _____________________________________________________________________________ 10. Need teaches a plan _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Wonders will never cease! _____________________________________________________________________________ 7. A watched pot never boils _____________________________________________________________________________ 9. Hatred is as blind as love _____________________________________________________________________________ 150 . Spare the rod and spoil the child. One today is worth two tomorrow _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Put all your eggs in one basket _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. The end justifies the means _____________________________________________________________________________ 6.V.

______________________________________________________________________________ _ 5.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. ______________________________________________________________________________ _ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________ 151 ... VI. ______________________________________________________________________________ _ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________ _ 4. Look at the following pictures and write proverbs that explain the picture: 1.

6. ____________________________________________________________________________ 152 . ______________________________________________________________________________ _ 8. ______________________________________________________________________________ _ 9. ______________________________________________________________________________ _ 7. ______________________________________________________________________________ _ 10.

Between the devil and the deep sea BETWEEN 2. 1..Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. Faint heart never won the fair lady 153 . Empty vessels make the most noise 5. an idle brain is the devil’s workshop 6. hungry man is an angry man 4. Find pictures that describe the following proverbs.. burnt child dreads fire 3.

A rolling stone gathers no moss 9. birds of a feather flock together 13.7. as you sow. so shall you reap 10. A penny saved is a penny gained 8. call a spade a spade 154 . a bird in hand is worth two in the bush 12. barking dogs seldom bite 11.

charity begins at home 15. there’s a way __________________________________________________________________________ discretion is the best part of valor __________________________________________________________________________ any time means no time __________________________________________________________________________ dead men tell no lies __________________________________________________________________________ better late then never __________________________________________________________________________ an ounce of discretion is worth a pound of wit __________________________________________________________________________ a friend in need is a friend indeed __________________________________________________________________________ first come. all that glitters is not gold Use the following proverbs in sentences of your own where there’s a will.14. first served __________________________________________________________________________ a man is as old as he feels __________________________________________________________________________ great talkers are little doers __________________________________________________________________________ 155 .

“The cat (give / only) ______________ me back my tail if I fetch her some milk.” 3. And the cow said. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. 2. Phil____________ (decorate) the house. Some friends are planning a party. 10. Once upon a time the cat bit the mouse's tail off.. Everybody wants to party. “Give me back my tail. The mouse. 1. LECTURE – 25 Conditionals Practice Exercises :I. Sue ______________ (let) the guests in. Jane ______________ (hoover) the sitting room if Aaron and Tim ____________ (move) the furniture. 5. If Alan and Rebecca ______________ (organize) the food. but nobody's really keen on preparing and organising the party. I would give you milk if you (get)_____________ me some hay. Elaine ______________ (buy) the drinks if somebody _________ (help) her carry the bottles. Complete the Conditional Sentences Type I. If they all (do) their best. Frank _______________(play) the DJ if the others__________ (bring) along their CDs. “Well. however.” 2. just to make sure that the others will also do something. 8. the party (be) success. Anita ____________ (clean) the toilet.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. If Sue _____________ (cut) the onions for the salad. And the cow (only / give) ______________________ me milk if I get her some hay. went to the farmer. The mouse. If Bob _________ (looks) after the barbecue. “Well. And the cat said.” 156 . And the farmer said. 3. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. If Bob _______________ (tidy) up the kitchen.” 4. So everybody comes up with a few conditions. 4. however. “Well. Complete the story “The Cat and the Mouse” using conditional sentences: 1.” said the mouse. 6. If Caroline and Sue_______________( prepare) the salad. Mary and Conor ____________ (make) the sandwiches. II. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. 7. I would give you hay if you (bring) _____________ me some meat. 9. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give)_________________ me some milk.” 5. Caroline______________ (peel) the mushrooms.. went to the cow. I (give)_______________ you back your tail if you fetched me some milk. Alan ___________ (mix) the drinks if Jane ____________ (give) him some of her cocktail recipes.

1.” 9. 7. you (love) __________ New Orleans. they (call /not)__________ the place Nouvelle-Orléans in honor of him. If you (ask) ____________. Do you like jazz music? Because if you (like)_______ jazz. And the cow (give / not) ___________ me milk if I don't get her hay. But unfortunately I don't have time. the butcher (refuse) ______________ to give her meat for the farmer. 157 . The cow gave the mouse milk. 11. the farmer (not/be) __________willing to give the mouse hay. “Well. But that's impossible to do for a little mouse like you. And the farmer will only give me hay if the butcher (have)__________________ some meat for him. and so the baker gave the mouse bread.” 7. “The cat (give / only)____________________ me back my tail if I fetch her some milk. however. 5. And the cow will only give me milk if she (get) __________ some hay. The farmer gave the mouse hay. And the farmer (only / give) _____________ me hay if I get him some meat.” 8.6. If the mouse (not/receive) _________________ milk from the cow. “The cat will only give me back my tail if the cow (give) _____________________ me milk. If the butcher (refuse) _____________her any meat. the baker (not/give)____________the mouse bread. If the founders of the city (hate) ___________the King of France. . the mouse gave the cat milk. I (do) _________a course in jazz dancing if I (have)________more time. The mouse promised not to steal. But imagine what would have happened otherwise: 12. She'd have taken me to the station if her car (break) ____________ down. Complete the sentences according to the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. 16. Vanessa hates boat trips. If the farmer (not/be)______________willing to give the mouse hay. 2.” 10. the mouse gave the farmer meat. The mouse. however. And the butcher said. I would give you meat if you (make) ________________ the baker bake me a bread. she (enjoy) ___________ a riverboat cruise on the Mississippi. And the cat gave the mouse her tail back. he won't help you. I (watch) __________ the film only if the reviews are good. “Well. The mouse. It (be) _____________ silly if we tried to walk there. And the butcher will not give me meat if you (bake / not) _______________ him a bread. And the baker said. 14. The butcher gave the mouse meat. 6. 15. 8. If the mouse (promised/not) _______________ never to steal corn or meal. But if she (hate / not)______________ boat trips. went to the butcher. I (give) __________ you bread if you promise never to steal my corn or meal. 13. If the baker (not / give) _______________ the mouse bread. she (not/get) __________back her tail III. 3. the mouse gave the butcher bread. 4. the mouse (not/receive) _________________milk from the cow. the mouse gave the cow hay. went to the baker.

29. I (earn) __________a lot of money if I (get)_________ that job. If we'd seen you. If we (listen) __________to the radio. Would you mind if I (use) _____________ your mobile? 12. I wouldn't go to school by bus if I (has) ___________a driving licence. Even if I (have) _____________. you (fall / not) ____________over the chair. 30. I (watch) ___________the football match on TV. we would have gone sailing. I wouldn't go scuba-diving. we'll say hello. 18. he (reach) __________his goals. I (travel) __________to London if I don't get a cheap flight. a wet-suit. 10. (be) _____________ that strict if you'd known the truth? 15. 16. him tomorrow. She (come)_________to our party if she (be / not) ____________on holiday. (Look) ______________after their dog again if they go on holiday this year? 11. It (surprise / not) ____________me if he (know / not) ____________the answer. If you drop the vase. 20. If you (go) __________out with your friends tonight. 17. 25. we (stop) _________________. 23. I (open) ________________ the mail if it had contained a virus. 21. yesterday. we (hear) ___________the news. I (buy) ________these shoes if they (fit) _______________ 22. 13. 14. 24. If she (hurry / not)__________. 26. it (break) ________________. If we (meet) __________. 19. He would have repaired the car himself if he (has) _____________ the tools. If it (rains) ____________. 27. If I (be) _______________ stronger. If you (switch) __________on the lights. I'd help you carry the piano. 158 . 28. we (miss) ________the bus. If he (try) ________harder.9.

My friend Amy does a lot of sports. What do you do for a living? ______________________ 15. Is the bold verb an auxiliary or a full verb? 1. ______________________ 5. It ______________________not matter. These students never have classes on Fridays.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. Where have you been? ______________________ 19. ______________________ 16. Did you see him? ______________________ 17. LECTURE – 29 AUXILIARY VERBS Practice Exercises : I. ______________________ 12. How much is it? ______________________ 6. ______________________ 18. Dad is working in the garden. The door is closed. Will you be there? ______________________ 8. We do not know his address. Does he speak English? ______________________ 10. Who ______________________ eaten my biscuits? 7. ______________________ 9. The lesson ______________________ not started yet. They will help you. Complete each sentence with the correct auxiliary verb 1. I had just finished my breakfast when the phone rang. We do the shopping once a week. I am hungry. ______________________ 20. They have a cat and a dog. ______________________ 4.______________________ 2. ______________________ 7. ______________________ 11..____________________ II. I am reading an interesting book at the moment. ______________________ you drink milk? 6. 8. I ______________________ not like this song. She has never been to London. They ______________________not want to play outside. ______________________ she know that you are here? 4. 5. ______________________ 14. 159 . 3.. ______________________ 13. The kids were dancing to the music. My parents are on holiday. What ______________________ you done? 2. ______________________ 3.

I ______________________ not live here. 14. the room/clean/not (Passive Voice .Present Perfect) ______________________ 8.Past Progressive) _____________________ 160 .Present Progressive) ______________________ 7. 17. Decide whether or not to use an auxiliary. Amy ______________________not go by bus very often. 10. they/help/not/you (Active Voice . Write negative sentences in the tenses given in brackets. She ______________________not play the piano. The boy ______________________playing with his toys. What ______________________ you doing at the moment? 29. ______________________you heard that? 15. 25. 19. I ______________________not working today. Where ______________________ he live? 21. Where ______________________ he go to school? 28. 12. 16. ______________________she given you the book yet? 24.will-Future) ______________________ 4. My uncle ______________________ not eat fish. she/see/not/us (Active Voice . we/eat/not/meat (Active Voice . ______________________you understand? 13. 30. We ______________________not seen you for a long time. How ______________________we get there? 20. III. Who ______________________ told you to do this? 27. The train ______________________just arrived. ______________________ you usually send postcards home when you are on holiday? 22. Marc ______________________ never travelled by plane before. They ______________________been learning English for two years. 26.Simple Past) ______________________ 3. they/read/not (Active Voice . My friend ______________________sent me some photos 11.Present Perfect Simple) ______________________ 5. he/send/not/the parcel (Active Voice .Simple Present) ______________________ 2. the car/steal/not (Passive Voice . 23.9. I ______________________not seen that film yet. 1. ______________________ anybody rung up for me? 18. you/do/not/your homework (Active Voice .Simple Past) ______________________ 6.

9. the test/write/not (Passive Voice - will-Future) ______________________
10. he/go to school by bike/not (Active Voice - Simple Present) ______________________
IV. Write questions in the tenses given in brackets. Decide whether or not to use an auxiliary.
1. you/know/this girl (Simple Present) ______________________
2. who/say/that (Simple Past) ______________________
3. why/she/want to do this (Simple Present) ______________________
4. he/go home (Present Perfect Simple) ______________________
5. she/come/to our party (will-Future) ______________________
6. they/travel/by train (Simple Past) ______________________
7. they/buy/the present (Present Perfect Simple) ______________________
8. you/sleep (Present Progressive) ______________________
9. they/be/there (Simple Past) ______________________
10. where/he/be/from (Simple Present) ______________________
11. you/read/that book (Active Voice - Present Perfect Simple) ______________________

V. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs 'to be' and 'to have'. (Present tense only!)
1. Your father ______________ a doctor..
2. _____________ I your best friend?
3. This animal _____________black eyes.
4. The boys ______________ a tennis match on Saturday.
5. _______________ we on the right way?
6. It ______________ a white rose.
7. You _______________ something on your hair.
8. _____________ Mike Tyson a boxer?
9. The teacher _____________ a yellow book.
10. They _______________ a lovely garden.
VI. Complete the short answers which follow the questions.
Example: Is he angry with me? No, _____. (key = he is not) (key = he isn't)
1. Have they been here before?' 'No, _______________
2. 'Was your mother angry with you?' 'Yes_______________
3. 'Are Peter and Jane married?' 'Yes, _______________
4. Would he be able to pay for all that?' 'Yes, _______________
5.

'Do you live in Paris, Jacquie?' 'No, _______________
161

6.

'Could Peter read when he was four?' 'No, _______________

7. 'Sir, are you going to buy that CD?' 'Yes, _______________
8.

Does Mr Brown speak French?' 'Yes, _______________

9. 'Did she understand you?' 'No, _______________
10. 'Is there much water in the glass?' 'No, _______________
VII. Complete the following sentences using the modals on the list below:
can / not
must / not
should / not
ought to
have to / don't have to
has to / doesn't have to
1. If someone faints, you _______________ loosen their clothing, not tighten it.
2. You _______________ use this ticket any time. You _______________use it today.
3. If you want a table for ten, you_______________ phone the restaurant.
4. You _______________ wash lettuce before making a salad.
5. We _______________take a taxi. We don’t have enough money.
6. In my country, students _______________wear uniforms at school.
7. People _______________. brush their teeth after every meal.
8. Sue gave me a letter to post. I _______________ forget it.
9. You _______________. anything before asking your father.
10. We _______________ walk on the grass in the park.
VIII. In this exercise, we focus on the uses of auxiliary verbs. There is only one error in each
sentence. Rewrite the sentences rectifying the error.
1. Many second language learners are confuse the use of 'must' and 'should'.
_________________________________________________________________
2. I think high income earners must pay more tax.
_________________________________________________________________

162

3. He was a natural tennis player so he must not train much.
_________________________________________________________________
4. I must to do some more work on this project before tomorrow.
_________________________________________________________________
5. I am pleased to hear that you are enjoyed reading our periodicals and wish to attend our
seminar.
_________________________________________________________________
6. Before an aircraft takes off, the pilot should go through the regulation safety checks.
_________________________________________________________________
7. Some students are not care about politics.
_________________________________________________________________
8. This grammar exercise maybe a little difficult for some people.
_________________________________________________________________
9. Many people are experience problems when they first climb high mountains.
_________________________________________________________________
10. Some parents think that if they have a lot of children they mustn't worry about money.
_________________________________________________________________
IX. . Fill in each blank space with the correct auxiliary verb:
1. ________ he as mean as people say?
2. ________ he know how to cook well?
3. ________ you upset?
4. ________ you told her yet?
5. ________ they ever been here before?
6. ________ that a good movie?
7. _______ she in love with Marco?
8. ________ you stopped smoking?
9. ________ you play tennis on weekends?
10. ________ your grandmother 80 years old?

163

X. The following sentences are taken from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Underline the
auxiliary verb in each sentence.
1. Tom was swimming in bliss.
2. Well, I’ve been pretty much so, too, Huck.
3. I been creeping all over, ever since I got here.
4. The boys were subdued by these solemnities, and talked little.
5. Now the raft was passing before the distant town.
6. Well, he’s mended kites for me, Huck, and knitted hooks on to my line.
7. Daily Muff Potter’s gratitude made Tom glad he had spoken; but nightly he wished he had
sealed up his tongue.
8. Aunt Polly was vexed to think she had overlooked that bit of circumstantial evidence, and
missed a trick.
9. They’re coming right toward the door.
10. The family were still at table, but they had finished breakfast.

XI. Fill in the blanks with the correct auxiliary verb. If there is more than one tense possible,
indicate both options. For example: She was/is going to the prom. Remember,
auxiliary
verbs are forms of be, have, and do.
1. I ______ spending my money.
2. We _______________ going fishing.
3. They ________________ dancing all night.
4. He ___________ washed the car.
5. I ____________ eating a jelly donut.
6. Six hot dogs ___________ eaten by them during the game.
7. Bill _____________ gone to the doctor.
8. Ms. Keyser _______________ not teaching today.
9. We _______________ teaching instead.
10. I _____________ finished with auxiliary verb sentences.

164

XII. Bert was at the movie. I am eating an egg. Negate the following sentences. Sally has danced all night. 165 . You are cleaning your room after school. She is going to the store.

9. 17. group of ants _____________________________ group of hens _____________________________ group of fish ______________________________ group of sheep ____________________________ group of geese ____________________________ group of lions _____________________________ group of bees _____________________________ group of eggs _____________________________ group of dogs _____________________________ group of kittens ____________________________ group of soldiers ___________________________ group of sailors ____________________________ group of ships _____________________________ group of churches __________________________ group of chicks ____________________________ group of birds _____________________________ group of stars _____________________________ group of policemen ________________________ group of owls _____________________________ group of elephants _________________________ Complete the following: 1. 7. 8. 13. 10.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. 6. 19. 3. 16. 12. 6. 20. Aggressor – __________________________________ Amateur – __________________________________ __________________________________ – A person appointed by parties to settle the disputes between them __________________________________ – The period between childhood and adulthood Bibliophile – __________________________________ Botany – __________________________________ __________________________________ – A person who speaks two languages __________________________________ – A list of books Centenary – __________________________________ ______________________________ – A co-worker or a fellow-worker in the same institution Contemporaries – __________________________________ __________________________ – A person who readily believes whatever is told to him/her. 13. 7. 12. 15. 4. 8. 11. 14. 10. Callous – __________________________________ __________________________________– A man with a broad and international outlook 166 . 4. 14. 16. 15. 18. 11. 9. LECTURE – 33 Language and Vocabulary Game Practice Exercises : Give one word for the following: 1.. 2. 3. Abdicate – __________________________________ __________________________________– Life story of a man written by himself. 5. 5. 2.

23.17. 25. 18. 24. for the people. 22. root out an evil or bad practice ____________________________________ A person difficult to please ____________________________________ A person who believes that all events are pre-determined ____________________________________ A post which doesn’t carry any salary ____________________________________ That which is against law ____________________________________ A person who cannot read or write ____________________________________ Intense aggression or anger. somebody who loves sensual pleasure and luxury ____________________________________ Free somebody from blame or guilt. 20. 21. somebody who is selfish or self-centered Epidemic – __________________________________ __________________________________ – A speech or a presentation made without previous preparation ___________________________ – Established rules of conduct. state of antagonism ____________________________________ Impossible to change ____________________________________ A man who is easily irritated ____________________________________ Not applicable ____________________________________ That which cannot be seen ____________________________________ That which cannot be heard ____________________________________ That which cannot be believed ____________________________________ That which cannot be practiced ____________________________________ That which cannot be conquered ____________________________________ Something that is essential and cannot be dispensed with ____________________________________ 167 . 19. rules of acceptable behavior Can you substitute one word for the following: Somebody who has refined taste for food. free somebody from an obligation ____________________________________ Destroy or get rid of something completely. Celibacy – __________________________________ Deteriorate – __________________________________ ____________________________ – Government of the people. by the people Monarchy – __________________________________ __________________________________ – A game in which neither party wins __________________________________ – A person who always thinks of himself.

possessing complete power and authority One who is present everywhere One who looks at the bright side of things. killer of one’s own mother ____________________________________ Killing of one’s own father. somebody positive A supposed cure for all diseases or problems The custom of having more than one husband at a time The custom of having more than one wife at a time • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Column B Panacea Synonyms Medieval Optimist Polygamy Namesake Postmortem Postscript Polyandry Veteran Manuscript Venial Matinee Pessimist Novice Vegetarian Smuggler Omnipotent Notorious Omnipresent Treasury 168 . usually for ransom ____________________________________ The branch of biology dealing with the study of animals ____________________________________ Match the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Column A Belonging to the Middle Ages A cinema show which is held in the afternoon A person with an evil reputation Handwritten book Somebody or something with the same name as somebody or something else One who is new to a trade or profession All-powerful. killer of one’s own father ____________________________________ To take somebody away by force and hold him or her prisoner.That which cannot be avoided ____________________________________ That which cannot be changed ____________________________________ That which is considered wrong or unacceptable by prevailing social standards ____________________________________ Incapable of being dissolved in a liquid ____________________________________ Something that quickly catches fire ____________________________________ The act of killing an infant ____________________________________ Killing of one’s own mother.

_ _ _ o _ _ o _ _ a _ _ _. T _ _ _ _ t. Answer the following: ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ A person who writes pamphlets is called a -----------------A person who looks after his wards is called a ----------------An unmarried woman is called a --------------A person who plays tricks on others is called a -------------------A person who spreads rumors is called a ---------------------A person who sells fish is called a --------------------A person who writes plays is called a -------------A person who makes wheels is called a --------------A hastily erected barrier across the street is called a --------------A person who leaves in a rented building is called a -------------A place where birds are kept is called a ---------------A place where monks live is called a ----------------169 .• • • • • • • Medical examination of a dead body Very negative person. _ t _ _ _ s _. Story with a happy ending _ o _ e _ _. Study of relation of plants and animals to their surroundings. One who does not believe in god. One who is full of high spirits. _ c _ _ o _ _. e _ _ _ p _ _. somebody who always expects the worst to happen A short message added on to the end of a letter after the signature Words which have the same meaning A person who imports or exports goods into or from a country secretly because they are illegal or in order to avoid paying duty on them Somebody who doesn’t eat meat or fish Somebody who is considerably experienced in something • • • • • • • • Importer Herbivorous Experienced Polyglot Immeasurable Archaeology Medicine Tragedy Complete the following: ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Story of a person written by someone _ i _ _ r _ _ h _ . One who believes in god. _ o _ _ o _ o _ _. Story of a person written by himself/herself. _ b _ l _ _ e _ _. Blocking of light from one heavenly body by another. Government rule by a king/queen _ o _ a _ _ _ _. Science of origin of universe.

Half our troubles are over.. and label weather these have been used as helping verbs or the main verb: 1. please. The hunter was almost upon them. My brother was five years elder to me. ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. Remember now.. can we rest a bit? ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. He was happy to see that it was his friend. ___________________________________________________________________________ 9. chose the auxiliary verbs. who was talking to him. his was obviously the final word ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. the dove King. Nor did I dare to ask him ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. but only three grades ahead _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. We are caught in a trap. unity is our only hope. ___________________________________________________________________________ 12. ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. LECTURE – 36 Revision UNION IS STRENGTH I. ___________________________________________________________________________ 11. Pick out the auxiliary verbs in the following sentences: 1. He was carrying a huge club. ___________________________________________________________________________ 10. O King. My upbringing was solely his responsibility and for me. Union is strength ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. they were flying over a forest. We must do something immediately. My brother would fling the first question rudely “Where were you?” _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. I was happy being a dullard but god save me from this struggle… _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. Tired and hungry. All the doves were trapped in it. The annual results were out 170 . ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________________________________ THE BIG BROTHER II. In the sentences given below. All the doves were struggling to get out of the net. ___________________________________________________________________________ 7.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. ___________________________________________________________________________ 6.

____________________________________________________________________________ 7. besides myself. you will have to show to the world that the revolutionaries not only die for their ideals but can face every calamity. If Bob were here. I would call her. What did you learn from his story? _____________________________________________________________________________ 9. The only prayer of these people is that somehow or other they may escape the moose. _____________________________________________________________________ 171 . This is nothing but anarchy. they will go whale-watching. LETTERS OF BHAGAT SINGH Underline the auxiliary verbs The judgement has been delivered. Death should not be a means to escape the worldly difficulties. If they go to Australia. I will climb the gallows gladly and show to the world as to how bravely the revolutionaries can sacrifice themselves for the cause. Those revolutionaries who have by chance escaped the gallows for the ideal but also bear the worst type o tortures in the dark dingy prison cells. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. while living. Are you out of your mind? _____________________________________________________________________________ III. CONDITIONALS :Type I or Type II Decide whether the following Conditional Sentences are Type I or Type II. If she had a mobile. Perhaps I am the only man amongst them who is anxiously waiting for the day when I will be fortunate enough to embrace the gallows for my ideal. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. In these cells. he would have a solution for our problem. You will live and. there are many others prisoners who are waiting to be hanged. I will condemned to death. _____________________________________________________________________________ 10. he had guessed it _____________________________________________________________________________ 8. I am condemned to death. 1. Probably. but you are sentenced to transportation for life.

_____________________________________________________________________ 5. we must bank it. I'll be furious. we're going to be in real trouble. we will see each other more often. 172 . I wouldn't buy that computer if I didn't need it. Fill in the blanks with ‘if’ or ‘unless’: • ___ you are caught drinking and driving. • I won't be able to do it ____ you help me. I will only dance if they play my favorite song. • ____ you're late. If Sarah didn't go with John. he'll make a fortune. you'll be seriously ill. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________________ V. _____________________________________________________________________ 9.I hate getting wet. • She'll never agree to that ____ you accept her suggestions. • ____ he gets caught. she will see a doctor. he'll go to jail. I'd lend you money if I had any. If she doesn't feel better tomorrow. you will lose your licence. • ___ he gets caught. I'm not doing it alone. • We'll be in trouble ____ it goes wrong. • I don't want to go out ____ it's raining. You'll live longer if you stop smoking. _____________________________________________________________________ 10. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. I'll call the police. Anna would try to become his girlfriend. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. • ____ they're late again. If you move here.4. • ____ we get the cheque today. • ____ you stop making that noise. • ____ you stop smoking. I'll leave without you. • ___ she pays up. • I won't do it ____ you agree to help me.

I ____ her straightaway. _____ her to call me? • will you tell • would you have told • would you tell • will you have told 6. VI. • would be • would have been • will be • will have been 4. If you did that. • • • • wouldn't do wouldn’t have done won’t have done won’t do 3. If I'd known. If I were you.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. • shall tell • will tell • would tell • should tell 2.. Should you see her. Choose the correct option: 1. it ______ cause trouble • would probably • might probably • will probably • shall probably 7. If I'd been there. things _____ different now.. If you did that. I ______ that. • will help • would help • would have helped • will have helped 5. it ______ cause trouble • will • would • shall • should 173 . If I were you. I ____.

If you are there. _____ you buy it? • will • would • shall • should 9. there _____ you have helped? • will • could • would • should 14. what ____? • • • • will you do would you do would you have done will you have done 11. Were you to fail. If you'd been. Were you _____ the job. ___ you want to do it? • will • would • shall • should 10. If you liked it. • go • have gone • went • have to go 12. _____ you do me a favour? • will • would • could • should 13. I would ____ there. how would you feel? • get • to get • getting • will be getting 174 .8. If it took all day. If I'd known.

Choose the correct answer. • This could well happen • This is unlikely to happen _____________________________________________________________________ 7.' _____________________________________________________________________ 5. should you see her. If I were you. • This is about something that is unlikely to happen • This is about something that has a good chance of happening _____________________________________________________________________ 6. I'd get in touch with a solicitor • This is about something that is likely to happen in the near future • This is about something now _____________________________________________________________________ 3. tell him I've got the video he was looking for • This is less likely to happen than if the speaker had said 'If you see him. If the weather stays good. If you should see him. But for Jane's help. they'll be top of the Premier Division. 1. If you'd arrived on time. John. It might not have been Sally • The speaker thinks that it probably was Sally • The speaker is fairly sure it wasn't Sally _____________________________________________________________________ 9. I'd never have got it done on time • Jane helped the speaker • Jane didn't help the speaker _____________________________________________________________________ 8. I'll play a round of golf tomorrow. If I won the lottery... If they win.. none of this would have happened • This sentence is about something that happened in the past • This sentence is about something that is very unlikely to happen _____________________________________________________________________ 2. could you ask Helen to give me a quick ring? • John is likely to see Helen • John might possibly see Helen _____________________________________________________________________ 175 .Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………... I'd go on a cruise • This is about the present • This is about the future _____________________________________________________________________ 4. • This is as likely to happen as if the speaker had said 'If you see him.

you'll never stop being so tired. If you see him. • The person should stop working late • It's alright to work late _____________________________________________________________________ 15.10. would you keep it to yourself • The speaker is definitely going to tell the person what happened • The speaker might tell the person what happened _____________________________________________________________________ 11. I'll tell her if she comes. If I drink tea in the morning. As long as you do what the doctor told you. will you tell him that I need to talk to him • There's a reasonable chance of seeing him • There's a reasonable chance of seeing him. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 176 . Unless you stop working so late. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ IDENTIFY THE CONDITIONALS 1. I'd make sure that it is paid on time • The speaker is giving an order • The speaker is giving an order _____________________________________________________________________ 14. I'd be celebrating • This is unlikely to happen except in the distant future • This is describing an imaginary present situation _____________________________________________________________________ 13. If I were in your shoes. you should be better in a few days • The person will probably get bette • It is unlikely that the person will get better _____________________________________________________________________ 12. If I told you what happened. it makes me feel sick. If I were in your shoes.

If I had the time. I'd buy it as soon as possible. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 6. I'd have helped had I been there. could you tell him that I really need to speak to him. If he's there. • • • • • Zero Conditional First Conditional Second Conditional Third Conditional Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 5. If I were you. I would have handled things differently if I'd been in charge. • • • • • Zero Conditional First Conditional Second Conditional Third Conditional Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 177 . I'd help you. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 7. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 4.3.

8. If she went. she could report back to us all. If we fail. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 11. Water boils if you heat it to a hundred degrees celsius. If you work hard enough. you may well pass. she might have succeeded. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 10. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 178 . • • • • • Zero Conditional First Conditional Second Conditional Third Conditional Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 9. If she'd tried harder. who will be held responsible? • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 12.

• • • • • Zero Conditional First Conditional Second Conditional Third Conditional Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 14. he might have got a better grade. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 179 . we deal with it immediately. just ask me. If he'd studied at a good college. • Zero Conditional • First Conditional • Second Conditional • Third Conditional • Mixed Conditional _____________________________________________________________________ 15.13. If you ever need help. If anyone complains.

WRITING SKILL 180 .

Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short story or paragraph which they will share in the class. Keeping in mind the relationship of the brothers in the lesson relate any story based on the relationship shared by two siblings 3. Relate / Comment on the relationship you share with your brother / sister Vocabulary exercises based on text: 1. Write in your own words the summary of the story. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts. 2.. LECTURE – 4 Big Brother Text based Questions :1..Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. Points for the Story ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 181 .

Beautify[verb]. 2. Beautifully[adverb] ____________ ______________ ________________ ____________ ______________ ________________ ____________ ______________ ________________ ____________ ______________ ________________ ____________ ______________ ________________ ____________ ______________ ________________ ____________ ______________ ________________ ____________ ______________ ________________ ____________ ______________ ________________ Exercise based on Vocabulary-Pick any ten words of your choice and write key points of a short story or paragraph which they will elaborate in the class. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________ 182 . Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs. Make more words from the picked verbs : For example.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 3. beautician[noun]..beautiful[adjective]. After listening other students will be asked to tell the mistakes done by the speaker and teacher will point out common errors on the board.

. 4. ________ 2. __________ 4.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. ________ 2. ____________ 5. _________ 3. SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings 1. _________ 3. ________ 2. Synonyms 1. Spellings 1. __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ 4.. __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ 2. Sentence formation ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. ____________ 5. Use the word as-Noun/Verb/Adverb [eg illusion-illusionist-illusioned –illusionism] Noun Verb Adverb Adjective ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ 7. __________ 4. Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 183 . ____________ 5. Forms (if verb) ________ _________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ________ _________ __________ 6. __________ 4. __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ 3. _________ 3. Antonyms 1.

drip. for “4-letter verbs. 3-letter adjectives 5-letter verbs 3-letter verbs 5-letter adjectives ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ______________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ 184 .” an appropriate sequence of words would be grow. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________ 9. In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place Eg Humour . deal. however. haul. No word can be repeated in any column.Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir Witty ______________ Beautiful ____________ Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________ 11.Raju Srivastav Strength. want. loan. Write words that fit the description. Guess the word. lend. you must start the next word in the column with the last letter of the previous word. and so forth.A_m_ _e practice) __ __ __ __ __ answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ 10. For example. etch. take.8. prod. Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual vocabulary starting from the first letter of the name.

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________ What would you change if you have to rewrite the story. distribute them among Students and randomly pick any two for role play. Summarize the story ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________ Prepare a short skit on the text . ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 185 . ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________ Who is your favorite character in the story and why? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________ Write the names of the characters on play cards.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Batting and Bowling Batting (Questions) Bowling (Answers) 186 .____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ What touched you the most in the story? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Tense check based on textGD .Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.

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The teacher can write facts from the text and ask the student to say same in past or vice versa
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Questions Based On Text :Role Play- The narrator and his brother.
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Discuss-Wisdom comes with age not with education
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Discuss-Degree is not important to be successful.
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Discuss-Elders should allow the youngsters to learn from their own experience.
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LECTURE – 8
February
Text Based Questions :1. Describe in your own words the weather in the month of February
2. Compare and contrast the month of February with the any other months of the year and
comment on the celebrations that fall in this month
3. Why do you think the month of the february has less days than the other months. Discuss the
cosmic and any other reasons that you can think of
Vocabulary exercises based on text:

1. Each student will select 20 verbs from different prescribed texts.
Give their three forms Orally and using those selected verbs will speak orally a short
story or paragraph which they will share in the class. Points for the Story

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Give synonyms and antonyms of the chosen verbs.

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Make more words from the picked verbs :
For example- Beautify[verb], beautician[noun],beautiful[adjective], Beautifully[adverb]

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Based on Vocabulary-Pick any ten words of your choice and write key points of a short story or
paragraph which they will elaborate in the class. After listening other students will be asked to tell the
mistakes done by the speaker and teacher will point out common errors on the board.
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__________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ Sentence formation ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ___________ Forms (if verb) ________ _________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ________ _________ __________ Use the word as-Noun/Verb/Adverb [eg illusion-illusionist-illusioned –illusionism] ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ Give a sentence and ask the student to change the tense.. __________ 4. ____________ 5.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. SPEAKING ACTIVITY 2 [Quiz] Words to be chosen from the lessons for the followings Spellings ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ Antonyms 1. _________ 3. ____________ 5. __________ 4. ________ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 191 .. _________ 3. __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ Synonym 1. ________ 2.

3-letter adjectives ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ 5-letter verbs _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ 3-letter verbs _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ 5-letter adjectives __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ 192 .Raju Srivastav Strength. No word can be repeated in any column. For example. for “4-letter verbs. however. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ Guess the word. lend. loan. etch. prod.A_m_ _e __ __ __ answer: admire (words to be given by the teacher for practice) __ __ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ ________ _________ __________ ____________ __________ In a second relate the given word with a well know personality/thing/place Eg Humour . and so forth.Himalaya Beautiful-Kashmir Witty ______________ Beautiful ____________ Rest of the words to be given by the teacher from the lessons _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Write words that fit the description.” an appropriate sequence of words would be grow. deal.Ask the student the name of their favourite celebrity and say a word from the textual vocabulary starting from the first letter of the name. haul. want. you must start the next word in the column with the last letter of the previous word. drip. take.

.. Summarize the Essay February.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Tense check based on textGD . __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Batting and Bowling Batting (Questions) Bowling (Answers) The teacher can write facts from the text and ask the student to say same in past or vice versa __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 193 .Topics for Gd can be picked from textual questions.

Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. LECTURE -12 Summarizing speech visual Teacher to tell students to come prepared with at least one speech and students to summarize it (Home work) _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________________ (FD Roosevelt) Questions based on Text Q1. Name the axis powers and speak in detail on at least one of them and its role in the world war? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 194 ...

They say that if you want peace be prepared for war. Comment on this statement in the light of the above speech. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ 195 ._____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ Q2.

Q3. Discuss the role of America in preserving the balance of power in the presence of the present scenario.. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ (Martin Luther – I have a Dream) Q1.. Do you think that Martin Luther's Dream has come to discuss with reference not only to America but to the entire world.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 196 .

Do you find similarity with the dream of Mahatma Gandhi. What is the dream that Martin Luther talks about. Summarize the above speech in your own words. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 197 . _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ Q3._____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ Q2.

limited to one race . Compare this speech with your own views on Aids. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 198 .. or region but looms large. Do you agree with the speaker that the threat of Aids is not gender. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ Q2.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. country .. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ (Mary Fisher) Q1.

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Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's nationality? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice.) Write two examples. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Example two: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's occupation.. The form may be modified to include whatever characteristics the instructor desires. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ D. Write some dialogue which advances the action by relating to a conflict? (Include ____ vs ____ in the explanation. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 200 . *NOTE: Dialogue is a conversation between 2 or more characters. A.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ C. Write some dialogue that gives clues to a character's social position or social class? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. Example one: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice.. LECTURE – 16 Dialogue writing based on movie clippings and speech visuals The following dialogue sheet can be used to teach students to include the basic characteristics of good dialogue in their own writing.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 201 .Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. E. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Example two: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. Write some dialogue which reveals something about the character and personality of the speaker? Write two examples. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ F. Write some dialogue which contains conversational give and take? (Where the speakers talk back and forth.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Example three: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Example two: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice. Example one: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice.) Write three examples: Example one: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Explain your choice.

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 202 . Students to see the clippings of movie scenes and write the dialogues for the characters ? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________ Q2: Write down the fictitious conversation between the characters you have seen in the video clipping. Q1. At least 25 dialogues.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………...

LECTURE ...22 Cartoon Based Stories EXERCISE:1 Q1: write a story based on the pictures shown below Students to write sentence for each picture and make a complete story __ 203 .Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….

Picture1_______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Picture 2 _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Picture 3 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 4 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 5 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 6 _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Picture 7 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 8 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Picture 9 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Picture 10 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 204 .

.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. EXERCISE: 2 Picture1_______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Picture 2 _____________________________________________________________ 205 .

_______________________________________________________ Picture 3 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 4 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 5 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 6 _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Picture 7 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 8 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Picture 9 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Picture 10 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 206 .

Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………... EXERCISE: 3 Picture1_______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Picture 2 _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 207 .

Picture 3 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 4 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 5 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 6 _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Picture 7 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 8 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Picture 9 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Picture 10 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 208 .

. EXERCISE: 4 209 .Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………..

Picture1_______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Picture 2 _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Picture 3 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 4 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 5 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 6 _____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Picture 7 _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Picture 8 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Picture 9 _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Picture 10 _____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ __ 210 .

Slog for months and you barely get to reach the shore. but back in the hostel room...I had great fun. an eerie silence invariably unnerved me. poring over books.. He would then caution me in a flurry of kind and rude words. Nor did I dare to ask him.. I was happy being a dullard but god save me from this struggle… But all tension vanished the next moment to make way for some fresh resolve. even scholars never take it easy. This is no child’s play dear. Give the meanings of the underlined words. And despite this devotion. riding the hostel gate like a motorcar…. conveying the acceptance of my crime. He was in the ninth standard. It takes me two years. For a second. do you not see me toiling. fairs. Climbing up and down the stairs. cricket matches every day. And I ask. There are umpteen plays.. guilty that I was.. better go home and play Gulli danda* to your heart’s content. Why blow Dada’s** hard –earned money for nothing?” I would burst into tears after this. and you had it. 211 . throwing pebbles in the air. have you ever seen me taking a break. My brother would fling the first question rudely “Where were you?” My answer was a meek silence.. that’s your fault. a new time table sans fun and frolics. flying paper butterflies. I broke my head over this creation but failed to unravel the mystery.. I would be tempted to give up…why not go home. He would hurt me with such choicest words. If you want to waste your life thus. you will probably spend a lifetime. I was only in the fifth grade…how could I attempt to dissect such intricate stuff? I never lost a single chance to rush to the playground. LECTURE – 26 Comprehension passages from essays and text in reading module Comprehension Passage – Big Brother Q1: Read the following passage and answer the questions asked below: At the end of this trail was the image of a man. if you fail to see.. “Learn English in this fashion.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. I spend more than two years in each grade. to burn the midnight oil.

What was the speaker fond of? ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ What kind of relations were the two brothers sharing? Explain in 25-30 words. ‘to burn the midnight oil’ means ______________________________.Word Meaning (Contextual Meaning) Synonyms / Antonyms Pronunciation unravel dissect intricate pebbles Eerie unnerved meek flurry poring umpteen dullard ‘I broke my head’ means ___________________________________. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________ What did the speaker used to do after being scolded by his elder brother? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 212 .

but can we ever match their wisdom in worldly matters. leaders and scholars. He will first try some home remedy. You feel you have caught up with me and that I have no right to question you. . He was probably on his way back home from the bazaar. wives of Henry the VIII. "I have loads of worldly knowledge that’s way above academic grades. Passage 2 One pleasant evening. Word Meaning (Contextual Meaning) Synonyms / Antonyms Pronunciation Lads oblivious Bumped Tersely vagabond hooligans Wry constellations remedy 213 . We were oblivious of the surroundings when I suddenly bumped into my brother." Give the meanings of the underlined words. But you are wrong. have some respect for your grade.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. Did our Amma*** and Dada ever go to school? The government in America. " "And. constellations in space.. Our mission was to collect as many fallen kites as we could. He caught me by the wrist and asked tersely “Are you out of your mind? Roaming like a vagabond with these hooligans. if I fall sick. thanks to the kind of examiners we have these days. I was one among the army of 10-12 lads carrying bamboo sticks as weapons.. will he call for a doctor. editors..whether you get into my grade or even move ahead. would never react like that. but where's your self-respect?” “I can read your mind all right. they may not know. I am five years elder to you and will always remain so…This truth will prevail and even God can’t challenge it. If not anything. I know of several eight-graders of yester years who made name as magistrates. collectors." he added with a wry smile. but Dada in your place. Tomorrow. that's indeed possible. I set about running after colorful kites. . only if it fails. you will surely panic and send a telegram to Dada. And look at yourself? You are intelligent no doubt.

What happened when the narrator was playing with his friends? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Why can’t the big brother ever lose the right of scolding the narrator? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ What is more important for the big brother: bookish knowledge or worldly knowledge and why? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Vocabulary Exercise from Big Brother Match the following synonyms: ™ Grade ™ Dissuade ™ Motto ™ Defy ™ Flunk ™ Etched ™ Dissect ™ Intricate ™ Eerie ™ Flurry Fail Weird Complex Rule Engraved Level Challenge Outbreak Scrutinize Advise against Match the following: ™ Toil ™ Umpteen ™ Dullard ™ Breach ™ Penance ™ Crestfallen ™ Rage ™ Replete ™ Anarchy ™ Thud gap Dejected Chaos Drudgery Many Bang Dull Wrath Penitence Abounding 214 . ‘Are you out of your mind?’ means ________________________.‘you have caught up with me’ means_______________________.

staff. bounce. ooze __________________________________________________________________ Twine. flog. large. horrible. coil. miserably.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. concise. eradicate. dribble.. haul. frightful. sober. pithy __________________________________________________________________ Queer. scrawl. skip __________________________________________________________________ Remittance. stroke. payment __________________________________________________________________ Thrash. pleasing __________________________________________________________________ Terse. jerk. lash __________________________________________________________________ Hapless. allowance. Pick the odd one out of the following: Ghastly. debt.. wretchedly _____________________________________________________________ 215 . rope __________________________________________________________________ Scribble. eccentric __________________________________________________________________ Trickle. doodle __________________________________________________________________ Tug. bizarre. fortunately.

though the shortest. but generally only succeed in dribbling. Just as if we didn't know--just as if we ever wanted to know! The English Summer is far more modest. and we wait for it like we wait for a lover--a lover in whose embrace we may not yet be. March may be colder. so to speak. as it were. ________________________________________________________________________ How is April different from February? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 216 . washed our hands. whose skies are supposed to weep all day long. Thank Heaven! Somebody once made it the shortest! By the end of January most people have had more than enough of the English Winter even if the English Winter thinks we can ever have enough of it. to tell us it's coming back again as early as October.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. tidied our hair. but April belongs to Spring--even though our face and hands and feet are still in MidWinter. and starts ringing us up. he is here--and so we can endure the suspense of waiting for him with a grin. Why does one live through the month of February as it is one’s duty to do so? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ How does the English summer pass ? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Although February is the shortest month but it seems _____________________ . downstairs washing his hands. but the first day of Spring is marked on its calendar. But winter in England not only comes before it is wanted. April may fill the dykes fuller than February. as it were. he has arrived.Comprehension Passage Q1: Read the given passage and answer the questions asked below: One simply lives through it as one lives through a necessary duty. and dressed ourselves up to meet it. February. but outstays its welcome by weeks. And of all the months it brings with it. and comes back saying "Hello!" to us right into Summer. It's a month--and that's all.. but who is. seems to linger longest. February .. Usually it's gone before we have.

. So that. people have turned into a jeer. And this is about all the good that February does. _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Passage 2 To follow Spring round the world would be like following a mistress whose charms never palled. that is all part and parcel of February. whose friendship was never too cold to freeze further promise of intimacy.. whose welcome was never too warm to be sultry. the married people and others who are otherwise hooked and secure have turned even that benefit into a joke--and no woman likes to place all her heart-yearnings at the mercy of a laugh. once in four years it also allows old maids to propose. If you can't be pure and good and generous and altogether delightful in the Spring. Besides. say what you will. But the three years when they had to wait to be asked have usually taken all their courage out of them. what Leap-Year once allowed. the weather has a lot to do with that spotless robe of white which is supposed to envelop saints. then a hat would surely hide your halo. Give the meanings of the underlined words. True.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. And if you _can_ be all these things in weather that is typically English and typically February. Q1: Why is spring season liked? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Q2: What are the benefits of the month of February as shown in this passage? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 217 . But then. Word Meaning (Contextual Meaning) Synonyms / Antonyms Pronunciation Modest Outstays embrace Dribbling Use the word ‘spring’ as noun and as verb. so far as I can see. you might as well write yourself off for evermore among the ignoble army of the eternally disgruntled. What a delightful chase! and what a sweet-tempered man I should be! For.

. Word Meaning (Contextual Meaning) Synonyms / Antonyms Pronunciation palled intimacy chase Ignoble ignoble Halo Q5: Use the following words in sentences: Envelop Envelope _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Match the following: Scarcely tire Glad Annoyed Depart Ooze Dribble Hardly Appalling Despicable Mackintosh Muggy Pall Cheerful Sultry Anorak Ignoble Horrifying Disgruntle Leave 218 ..Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. Q3: What one should be in the month of February? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Q4: Give the meanings of the underlined words.

..Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. LECTURE – 30 Formal Letter Explain various parts of Letter as follows: Address of the sender Date Line Address recipient of the Subject: Salutation Body_1Paragraph Body_2 Paragraph Body_3 Closing line Complementary Close Signature Name 219 .

agreement Join November history. Total number Drop one and see if your sentence still makes sense.. General Consensus 11. Period of time 15.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. Added bonus 3. Close Proximity 6. Period Postpone refer Total 220 . 2: Arrange the following in order. First and foremost 9. experience time. Refer back 17. near Status full. Future Plans ` 10. City of Renton 5. words and phrases Avoid using words with similar meanings. For noon bonus notice Renton Close. filled first Plans Consensus. Past experience 14. 12 noon 2. Join together 12. Current Status 7. Postpone until later 16. Filled to capacity 8. Advance notice 4. Past History. example: 1. Name Salutation Address of recipient Address of sender Complementary Close Date Line Body of letter Signature Subject 3: Cut redundant ideas.. Month of November 13.

my university awarded me merit scholarship.G.E. Yours Faithfully Campbell Companies Cannaught Palace New Delhi 110005 As my enclosed resume indicates. 221 . Since I could maintain my high C. 2010.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….A. 10 Dear Mr John Amen I shall be pleased to provide any further information you may need and hope I may be given the opportunity of meeting you. in Manufacturing Engineering. After reading the required qualifications I believe I can meet your Firm’s needs as I have led various similar projects.. issue of the Times of India contained an advertisement for the Post of Project manager in your esteemed organisation. Rearrange the jumbled format of the given letter Subject: To apply for the post of Project Manager.E. XYZ Street Delawar Road Karnal 1122990 Om Parkash April 6. during the course of my B..P.. I have an M. I hope to meet you soon. The March 15.

Apply with particulars within 15 days. UP. Engineering Graduates with minimum 5 years experience in manufacturing industries as Plant Managers can apply. Salary is negotiable... ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 222 . draft Job Application Letters in response to the following advertisement: • Wanted a Plant Manager at our new factory in Gaziabad. Worksheet no 2 for letter writing Assuming that you have the requisite credentials.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….

You should hold a post-graduate degree in mathematics/physics/chemistry or Biology. apply for the post of Junior Research Associate in our R&D Division.Name ………………………… • Reg No…………………………. If you are a recent post-graduate in science and interested in research.. If selected you will be given a Research Assistantship of Rs 8000/..p. and you will have the opportunity to work in excellent laboratories. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 223 .m.

Have one group generate vocabulary and structures used when complaining. Each group should proceed by first reading. Formal Letter Letter Writing Instructions :. Go over each part in detail.. Here are some topics to discuss: • Business Letters are a formal way to communicate with a business or companies. ask the other group to generate vocabulary used when responding to complaints Have two groups write their generated vocabulary on the board Ask for further vocabulary and/or structures that the opposing group may have missed III. • “Formal English”. PR for preposition etc. or lined up on the left.. • Organized in a very specific way following exact format.e. Break into 2 groups to brainstorm and write a list of possible problems Have each group choose what they feel is an important and or regularly occurring problem Ask groups to write a quick outline of the problem II. S for syntax.Letter of Complaints I. and how important it is to follow the formal business letter format. • Neatness counts – no errors in spelling or grammar. IV.) While correcting the letter have groups mix and discuss their responses to the problem Redistribute corrected letters to original groups and have students try to correct their letters using the cues given by the correction \ BUSINESS LETTER WRITING LESSON PLAN Procedure: Teachers: discuss with your students the importance of proper. then correcting and finally. • All parts in the letter are “left justified”. no slang or casual chat.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. 224 . Ask groups to compose a letter of complaint about the problem they have previously outline Have groups exchange finished letters. Collect student letters and correct reply by pointing out which types of mistakes have been made (i. responding to the letter. clear communication to a business. Hand out the example business letter to students.

state and zip code. As well. • Closing – “sincerely”. province.. doctor. A simple thank you is polite and appreciated but a thank you letter is a little more personal and thoughtful. however too often it is a simple thank you. and country if being sent internationally. etc… • Space for a handwritten signature • Typed name of writer Thank You Letters Letter writing is not as common with the new technology of email. title. distribute the thank you letters to the students before commencing the letter writing lesson. Address: Includes street number. Near the end of the year. • The date • Inside address – of recipient (who you are writing the letter to) First and last name. city. First and last name. name. After the child reads their letter they will personally feel the value of the thank you letter. write each student a thank you letter over the course of the year. A thank you can be expressed with the simple click of a button. Writing a thank you letter requires a little more effort and reflection. the letter is being sent. However. the time required to write the letter is outweighed by other activities. and cell phones. Company. with more than one paragraph. as we age. Smith”. If a teacher is able to input the time. 225 . city. address. Students are to write a friend. Business Letter Parts (Block Style Format): In order from top to bottoms: • Return address – address of letter writer. teacher.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. The date should be written in full with no abbreviations. Often younger children are very willing to write to their doctor or dentist to thank them for an enjoyable experience.. you may say “Dear Sally”. Teach students the basics of letter writing and give them a sample of a thank you letter. all the information is written in full with no abbreviations. policeman or other person in the community a thank you letter. The sender must think about why they are thankful and what the person did to make their day a little more enjoyable. or “best regards”. city. texting. The letter is to express the students’ sincere gratitude for their service. • Body of Letter – this is the purpose of the letter. If a student feels the impact of the letter they may be more willing to write a letter. state and zip code. postal code. “yours truly”. If the person is a friend. Letter Writing Lesson Plan Teach students the art of writing letters and the impact they create. Letter Writing Etiquette Date: List the date. • Salutation – If the person is not a friend. Should be clear and concise. address. write “Dear Mr.

Proofread: It is imperative to proofread your letter to ensure it is free of grammatical and spelling errors. Choose paper size to match your envelope.Greeting and Salutation: For a thank you letter it is best to address it Dear Mr. do not crumple the letter into the envelope. Be sure to fold the letter with care. Questions to Answer in the Body What service they provided and why you appreciated it? How their service made you feel? Why you want to thank them? Best Regards Theodore Rainbow 226 . Best regards is suitable for this type of letter writing. Closing: Write an informal closing as you are writing a thank you letter. The letter is sent with good intent but it should show that you have put effort into writing the letter. If the letter has spelling errors it suggests it was rushed and written carelessly. M9M 1C5 Dear Mr. Body Text: Write your letter as if you are speaking to them in person. Folding: After you have written an excellent letter. A conversational tone but refrain from slang. Signature Lines: Everyone should sign their letter. Thank you Letter Template May 30. On. If the letter is informal you may wish to write their full name. Smith. 2007 Johnny Gage Paramedic 123 Sunshine Lane Toronto. Gage: Body Paragraph: 3-4 paragraphs thanking the recipient for their service to you.

What is the problem? The park needs fixing up. A Persuasive Letter Idea Web What is the problem? Who gets our letter? Why are changes needed? How can we fix the problem? Writing a Persuasive Letter Idea Web You can use this graphic organizer to model how to begin organizing ideas. Why are changes needed? The play equipment is dangerous. How can we fix the problem? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 227 ..Children can make a similar planner for their own work.Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. Who gets our letter? The mayo..

. • N..Name ………………………… Reg No…………………………. This is where you write your message. Sign your name at the end of the letter under a closing word such as Sincerely followed by a comma. Write for your reader! The closing is the ending of your letter. Do I give supporting details? 4. south • E. Do I tell how the problem can be fixed? 3. The greeting is the opening like Dear Mom followed by a comma for a friendly letter or a colon for a business letter. Have I clearly stated the problem? 2. Have I used persuasive words and phrases? 5. north • S. Have I used the correct Letter form? The Parts of a Letter A letter usually includes the following parts: The heading of the letter usually includes the address and date at the top of the letter. east • W. The body is the heart of the letter. Here are some common abbreviations that you may need when you have small spaces to write a word. A Persuasive Letter Revising Checklist Questions yes no not sure 1. Remember to keep your writing clear and easy to read. west • St. street 228 .

avenue • Blvd. highway • I interstate 229 . lane • Cr.• Ave. drive • Ln. boulevard • Rd. road • Dr. Circle • XING crossing • Hwy.

.34 General writing Practice based on the speeches and text given in the reading module Q1: Compare and contrast the theme and mood/style of the poems ‘Casabianca’ and ‘Evelyn Hope. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ 230 ..Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….’ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ Q2: Bring out the chief traits of the personality of Shaheed Bhagat Singh after reading his letters. LECTURE .

’ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________ Q4: Summarize the ideas of Gandhi about the existence of God.Name ………………………… Reg No………………………….. Q3: ‘February is the month of beauties and hostilities. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 231 .’ Justify on the basis of the text ‘February..

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