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• Unification of the Interactions • Interrelation between Gravitation and Electromagnetism • Incorporation of the Mach's Principle in the Gravitation Theory • Elimination of the Initial Singularity in the Friedmann Cosmological Model • Explanation for the White-Holes • Explanation for the Anomalies Verified in the Red-Shift of Stars and Galaxies • Explanation for the Quasars • Gravitation Control; Applications in Spacecraft • Explanation for Levitation; Applications Resulting from the Self-Control of the Gravitational Interaction • Gravitational Motor • Cold Nuclear Fusion and Transmutation of Chemical Elements by Gravitational Process • Superconductivity at Ambient Temperature by Cooper's Pairs Formation via Intensification of the Gravitational Forces
The GravitationalElectromagnetic Field Theory, by author Fran de Aquino, describes in a consistent and rigorous way the unification of the four interactions: strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational. It establishes still the interrelation between gravitation and electromagnetism, showing that it is possible to control the gravitational interaction by means of the action of electromagnetic fields. It is an extensive theory in which a great number of different things are interconnected. We can meet in it the incorporation of Mach's principle in the gravitation theory; the elimination of the initial singularity in Friedmann's cosmological model; explanation for anomalies verified in red shifts of stars and galaxies. It explains also the bases for the control of gravitation leading to some technological applications such as: gravitational propulsion, nuclear cold fusion, transmutation of chemical elements through gravitational process, superconductivity at ambient temperature by Cooper's pairs formation through intensification of the gravitational forces, and so on. In addition to these, we have to emphasize two other important aspects: It is possible to deduce directly from this theory the expression of the uncertainty principle that means the incorporation of quantum mechanics in GravitationalElectromagnetic Field Theory. It is foreseen the existence of a fifth interaction, the psychic interaction, identified in the ascertainment of the apparent parity violation in beta decay reactions.
................................................................5 I.....75 IV....... 87 V...................................... Experimental...............................111 VII............................................................................ 21 II.................................. Levitation.... 119 .......................................... Cosmological Applications................................................1 Introduction ......... Gravitational Spacecraft ....SUMMARY Preface................................... Superconductivity .......63 III.............................................. Energy Conversion .......................................................................... Theory .................. 99 VI...............
"There are those who cross the forest and only see firewood" Leon Tolstoi (1828/1910) .
as opposed to pure gravitational interaction. Strong and weak nuclear interaction. In pratice. We use the General Theory of Relativity as the basis for our study. of gravitational interactions. The Unified Field Theory as stated herein establishes the interrelation between gravitation and electro-magnetism. this means . herein introduced to complement the well-known concepts of gravitational and inertial mass. gravitational interaction in the presence of electromagnetic fields may be attractive. The second group. magnetostatic and electrodynamic interactions.PREFACE In this book we shall show that interactions may be described in a unified manner in a single classical theory. and pure electromagnetic interaction (absence of electromagnetic fields). null or repulsive. gathering in two large groups gravitational and electromagnetic interactions. To conclude from the new equations obtained herein. which is known to be always attractive. showing that interaction described by the Newton-Einstein theory is a particular case of gravitational interaction that occurs in the absence of electromagnetic fields (pure gravitational interactions). make up the electromagnetic interactions group. as well as electrostatic. after having established the concept of gravitational-electromagnetic mass. encompasses two types of interaction: gravitational interaction in the presence of electromagnetic fields.
The Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field Theory furthermore makes it possible to explain cosmological phenomena of great interest. In that application. as well as the anomalies recorded in recent analysis of the red-shift in certain galaxies and stars. From the theoretical viewpoint. Among these are gravitational spacecraft and the gravitational motor. which should eventually yield important technological innovations. because the gravitational forces that act on it may be cancelled by the action of the external electromagnetic fields. In addition to these cosmological applications. It may thus be possible to observe the disappearance of the inertial forces in a given particle. whose basic features are described in this book. these findings lend a wider significance to gravitational interaction. Furthermore. such as permitting the incorporation of Mach's principle in the theory of gravitation. the application of electromagnetic control to gravitational interaction in the nuclear fusion process deserves special mention.2 GRAVITATIONAL . According to that principle. it should be possible to make . the theory makes it possible to identify a number of applications of a pratical nature. such as the final stage of the Universe's gravitational contraction process at each cycle.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY precisely that the gravitational interaction may be controlled by the action of electromagnetic fields. local inertial forces are nothing but the gravitational influence of the other particles of the Universe.
FRAN DE AQUINO Sao Luis. (MA). directly or indirectly. contributed to this work. in particular to my friend and colleague Selisio Santiago Freire for his many valuable suggestions.FRAN DE AQUINO 3 the nuclei come close to each other and react. simply by raising the gravitational forces between them. By the same process we can intensify the gravitational forces between electrons of atoms of a given substance to obtain the formation of pairs of electrons (Cooper's pairs) which is an essential requisite for the substance to get into the superconductor state. I wish to express my thanks to all those who. Brasil .
H. Thus. Weyl1 published a study on the subject. Einstein's Theory rekindled hopes of unifying the interactions. d. Weyl proposed to modify the metrics connection used 1 Weyl. In 1918. (1918). Sitzungsber. p. Electromagnetic and gravitational. With this unification. mankind has sought to discover universal laws that might explain in a unified form the phenomena occurring in the Universe.In its desire to understand nature. viz. the unification of fundamental forces has been a constant theme in physics. he triggered in the scientific community of that time the ambition of unifying in one single theory the two interactions then known. H. In 1916 Einstein proposed his General Theory of Relativity which made it possible to describe gravitational interaction with a precision by far exceeding that of Newtonian Theory. described respectively by the laws of Maxwell and Newton. d. Akad. ever since Maxwell proved in the second half of the 19th century that electrostatic and magnetostatic forces were nothing but different manifestation of the same force. Preuss. . 465. Wiss.
which distinguishes it from Christoffel's symbols. While Weyl constructed a non-Riemannian geometry. after relating gravitation to spacetime. d. Kaluza increased the number of components of the metric tensor. d. Einstein himself. However. which did not have a direct physical meaning. Kaluza2 also tried.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY by Einstein in describing gravitation. 2 Kaluza. Akad. in spite of all the efforts . in 1921. Wiss. p. raising the number of dimensions: he believed that in addition to the four dimensions (three spatial and one temporal) there was a fifth. by an equivalent connection in which the electromagnetic field would be contained in the tensor associated with the connection. Th.8 GRAVITATIONAL . to unify the two interactions.these ended in failure. 966 .by Einstein as well as his successors . Preuss. The Unified Field Theory was the result of that conviction. was convinced that there also had to be some relation between electromagnetism and gravitation. Sitzungsber.(l92l). The attempts to unify the two interactions proved fruitless.
proposed in 1934 by Fermi . was the result of the theory that nuclei were made up of protons and neutrons.FRAN DE AQUINO 9 In the thirties. and gravitational. starting in 1958) be called the weak interaction. whose relative intensities varied in the ratio of 1: 1/137:1012 : 10-39. Thus there were known. In the forties. electromagnetic. to which were attributed known radioactive phenomena such as beta-decay. The first force . The second force. They had been proposed in order to explain several physical phenomena observed after the discovery of radioactivity. called the strong interaction. the four types of fundamental interactions in nature. respectively. two new forces were added to the known fundamental forces of nature. while some workers were trying to unify the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions. physicists who were investigating elementary particles started to get involved with another type of . weak.would later (after the work of Feynmann and Gell-Mann. respectively: strong. by the end of the thirties. and that the nucleus' stability derived from the existence of this new kind of force.
and electromagnetic forces. Yang-Mills' theory became known as Gauge Quantum Electrodynamics. weak. W+ and W-. and finally.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY unification . in the case of weak interactions between leptons. responsible for weak interactions with neutral lepton currents. This achievement encouraged physicists to search for explanations for the other interactions. According to the Salam-Weinberg theory. a pair of charged bosons. introducing Gauge Symmetry and thus explaining interactions communicated via quanta. electromagnetic and weak interactions are communicated via the exchange of four quanta: photons.that of the strong. of spin 1 (bosons). and not massive. charged or not. . and would later supply the foundation for the Salam-Weinberg theory that explains the origin of the weak interaction. in the case of electromagnetic interaction. the neutral Z0 boson.10 GRAVITATIONAL . Yang and Mills generalized quantum electrodynamics. With the advent of renormalizable quantum electrodynamics it became possible to explain electromagnetic interaction. In 1954. showing that it is of an electromagnetic nature.
FRAN DE AQUINO 11 in which the scattering between neutral and charged leptons occurs without the exchange of electric charge. can describe them precisely. this is an overly ambitious designation for theories that do not even include gravitation. on the other hand. utilizing them in their efforts to explain the strong interaction. and is described by a classical theory. makes it clear that quantum theories are effective in explaining interactions. In view of the success of the Salam-Weinberg theory. Classical theories. even though they are unable to describe them. In fact. physicists took a fresh look at theories of the Yang-Mills-Salam-Weinberg type. It is therefore to be 3 As yet incompletely identified . and that confine themselves to explaining the origin of strong and weak interactions without being able to describe them. The fact that gravitational interaction can also be explained by a quantum theory (involving the exchange of "virtual" quanta3). though unable to explain interactions. Theories that explain the strong and weak interactions as electromagnetical are known as Grand Unification Theories or GUTs.
etc.12 GRAVITATIONAL . In Chapter I we state the theory of the GravitationalElectromagnetic Field based on the ho-mogenization of the quantities responsible for the interactions. So far as concerns the gravitational mass of an elementary particle. pole intensity p. which we call gravitational-electromagnetic mass. would be a classical theory. Gravitational-electromagnetic mass is nothing but the sum of the particle's gravitational mass mg and electromagnetic mass me (the latter defined so as to homogenize the quantities responsible for electromagnetic interaction). allows a unified description of interactions.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY expected that a unified theory of interactions. by means of Einstein's equations from the General Theory of Relativity. The new quantity. designed to describe all interactions in a unified manner. electric charge q. we show that it is related to the inertial mass through the following factor: . such as: gravitational mass mg.
while refers to the volumetric density of the particle's rest inertial energy. What is more. W refers to the geometric media of volumetric densities of external electromagnetic energy in the interior of the particle. In the case of macroscopic bodies. The new equations for gravitational interaction that result from the introduction of the said factor give a wider meaning to gravitation and make it possible to explain a number of physical phenomena of great interest. From the new expressions for the gravitational forces in a system of two isolated particles we conclude that the gravitational forces that act on an elementary particle may be not only reduced. we note that by means of a process we call electromagnetic reversion it is possible to obtain . In this expression. we find that gravitational interaction may be controlled with lesser volumetric densities of external electromagnetic energy. but also inverted and intensified by the action of electromagnetic fields.FRAN DE AQUINO 13 which only differs significantly from unity under conditions of extremely high electromagnetic energy density.
Another important agreement between the theory of the gravitational-electromagnetic field and experience is to be found in the gravitational interaction between atomic nuclei. At room temperature. Next.14 GRAVITATIONAL . Donoghue of the University of Massachusetts. however. Here. Fortunately. the gravitational mass will become smaller. At higher temperatures. Holstein and J. experiments at such a level of precision are possible and have recently been carried out by B. such variations are very small and require very precise instruments for determination (1 part in 1016). who found that electrons have about 10-14% less gravitational mass at room temperature than at absolute zero.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY analogous effects with electromagnetic energy densities that are much smaller yet. we check the effect of thermal radiation on the gravitational mass of elementary particles and find that the gravitational mass of these particles will be equal to their inertial mass only when T = 0°K. we find that the relations .
which led some authors to think of the existence of a fifth interaction. In Chapter II we present cosmological applications derived from the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field Theory. Recently. with respect to the final stage of gravitational contraction of massive stars and systems of greater mass. At the outset we show.FRAN DE AQUINO 15 for their nucleons can reach magnitudes of the order of 10-2 as a consequence of the high densities of electromagnetic energy. reciprocally determined in the interiors of the nucleons by the intense electric and magnetic fields of these particles. this means that in gravitational interactions at such levels there may occur intensity variations of the order of 1%. of the same order of magnitude. that at a certain stage of gravitational contraction the neutrons' magnetic spin fields may reduce the gravitational forces of attraction among them to a point such that the gravitational pressure falls below the thermal pressure. variations in the intensity of subatomic gravitational forces. In accordance with the new equations obtained for the intensities of the gravitational forces. . were found experimentally .
as is normally done . the shifts calculated through Einsten's formula must be multiplied by a dimensionless electromagnetic coefficient. the huge red-shift of quasars should not be interpreted as a Doppler shift . obtained in this study. We show how . analysing the problem of the anomalies found in the red-shift in the spectrum.but instead as a gravitational red-shift. which should be calculated in accordance with the new expression for gravitational spectral shifts. the spectrum differences should be interpreted as being the result of intense volumetric energy densities in the observed bodies.16 GRAVITATIONAL . According to this expression. Chapter III is devoted to a study of the control of gravitational interaction in the specific case of utilization by gravitational spacecrafts. Next. According to the same explanation. Everything suggests that the Universe itself must pass through this kind of stage in the final moments of compression that culminate with the Big Bang.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY causing the explosion of the system. we conclude that such anomalies may be explained through the new expression for the gravitational spectrum-shift.
developed for spacecrafts. in the case of atmospheric travel. made us seriously consider the possibility that the human body may possess means of controlling gravitational interaction on itself. under certain circumstances. in the case of travel in outer space. In Chapter IV we show that the phenomenon of levitation may be the result of a bioelectromagnetic process. become greater than 1 .we find that the performance of a gravitational spacecraft may . The study of control systems for gravitational interaction. without the crew's undergoing any of the inertial effects caused by the enormous rates of acceleration required to reach velocities close to that of light. as a result of the fact that the ratios for such molecules may.in which water molecules are subjected to a gravitational force that is repulsive in relation to Earth. allow them to reach relativistic velocities. On the basis of this process . allow them to move with various degrees of freedom and. involving the nervous system's neurons and the body's water molecules.FRAN DE AQUINO 17 spacecrafts may be endowed with unique performance characteristics which.
18 GRAVITATIONAL .ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY even be further improved. for the purpose of atracting crew members to its floor (in cases of travel in outer space). Among the gravitational effects that can be produced we should mention the production of artificial gravity inside the spacecraft. This makes for a rotary flow of water in the chamber that impels the rotor. By coupling a conventional electric generator to the gravitational motor. In Chapter V. gravitational energy may be converted in electrical energy. Still in this chapter we shall focus on the gravitational process for nuclear . We start by describing the Gravitational Motor that essentially resembles a hydraulic turbine and whose operating principle consists of causing to become repulsive the gravitational force between Earth and the water molecules on one side of the toroidal chamber of the turbine. we study applications of electromagnetic control to gravitational interaction for purposes of energy conversion. That could be done by intensifying the attracting gravitational force between the water molecules in the human body and those purposely placed in a reservoir below the craft's floor.
in order to make nuclei come close and react. consequently allowing the substance to enter the superconductor state at room temperature. which may turn out to be very important for energy production purposes. . a process which basically consists of using gravitational in lieu of thermal energy. this is a process of cold fusion.FRAN DE AQUINO 19 fusion. in chapter VI we show that by the electromagnetic control of the gravitational interaction we also can intensify the gravitational forces between the electrons of atoms of a given substance and form the so called Cooper's pairs. Obviously. Finally.
I. THEORY .
mge. to be called gravitational-electromagnetic mass. Since the Einstein's equations have bigger chances to lead us to an unified theory than Maxwell's equations. since these latter are formulations corresponding to our experiences with very weak electromagnetic fields. we can write: me = mq + mp + mF + mf (1. we must at first homogenize the quantities in charge of interactions. so they can be united in a single expression.. we can write that mq = and mp = where and are . in turn. is made up by the sum of the electric mass mq.. such as: the gravitational mass mg. Accordingly.In order to formulate a unified theory on interactions.e. strong mass mF and the weak mass my. magnetic mass mp. respectively. the pole intensity p. let us unify all the quantities standing for the interactions into a single quantity. given by: mge =mg + me (1-01) where me is the electromagnetic mass which. i.02) and the electric and magnetic masses can be expressed as functions of q and p. These latter two masses are respectively responsible for the strong and the weak interactions. electric charge q. etc.
He tried experiences with simple pendulum. Proc. trying to verify variations in the m/mg ratio. W.A. (1975) Phys. 487. By the way. P.. Osborne e Pinsky3 showed the possible existence of a magnetic monopole with inertial mass about two hundred times greather than the proton mass. experiments carried out by Price.02) presuppose the existence of magnetic monopoles. Rev. It was verified that inertial mass of the magnetic monopoles can be some hundred times greater then the proton mass.Z. L. Shirk. Roy. 276. from the well-known expression 1 2 3 Dirac. The equation (1.S. E.A....2 In the seventies. Phys. Nucl. A 133.24 GRAVITATIONAL .ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY coefficients of proportionalities. P. Dirac1 only have had their masses evaluated in 1967 with the advent of the Salam-Weinberg Theory. So far as concerns the gravitational mass mg. 60. B 79.M (1931). (1974). . Pinsky. Lett. G. Osborne. Hooft. Price. Shirk. Newton was the one to try to verify the existence of a difference between said masses. Soc. the experience has not revealed any difference between mg and the inertial mass m. 35.B. Such monopoles foreseen by the first time 58 years ago by P..K. The expression for mF and mf will be obtained later on.M.
Eotvos. Akad. Subsequent repetitions of the Eotvos experiment were further performed 4 5 6 Eotvos. Proc. Math. H. Wet. Naturwissen. It was the well-known experiment of Eotvos4 later on repeated by P. Phys. R. Pekar and E. Ungarn 8. 68. by R. (1890). H. More recently. Ber. Newton inferred that the inertial and gravitational masses were equivalent among each other. between the inertial mass and the gravitational mass. and once again.V. 20. Experimental Relativity in "Relativity. experiments were made towards finding a difference between m and mg. (1917). V. Nevertheless. no difference could be found. 185 . In the late XIX Century. Groups and Topology" (Les Houches Lectures). Ned. also in said experiments. p. Zeeman5 and Eotvos. (1963). Fekete (1922). D. science had already at its disposition very precise measuring instruments. Since no variation was found. 542 R. 65 Zeeman. Ann. 11 7 Dicke. the experiment was repeated with an even better precision. Pekar and Fekete6 (with precision better than 1 part per 109). R.FRAN DE AQUINO 25 for the simple pendulum period. Dicke7 (variations of 1 part per 1011 could be detected). P.
making use the formal methods of Quantum Mechanics. 8. J. Phys. H = and. and that is precisely the most important factor to be considered. These experimental results express by no means the lack of existence of a connection between gravitational mass and inertial mass to the contrary.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY by Roppl. Braginskii and V. Zh. that the mass renormalization at T > 0 leads to the following expressions 8 P. 442 9 V. they just indicate that said relation is very difficult to be found experimentally. 873 10 Donoghue. European Journal of Physics. H. then.R. I. under the conditions the experiments were performed. Krotkov and R. NY. Teor. (1986).26 GRAVITATIONAL . 105 .. Krotkov and Dicke8 and by Braginskii and Panov9 the result was the same: no difference between the inertial mass and the gravitational mass could be found. G. B. 61. Donoghue and B.F. Eksp. Dicke (1964) Ann. Holstein10 that in 1986 showed. We are to notice. and Holstein. that all said experiments were made under low external electromagnetic energy density conditions. that the mass renormalization at T = 0 is expressed by mr = m+ with (a is defined by the conventional Dirac Hamiltonian. R. Fiz. Panov (1971). B. Roppl. 26. A very important theoretical contribution for this question was obtained by J.
) and gravitational (mg). we must obtain the generalized equation of for any type of electromagnetic energy. and the volumetric density of rest inertial energy of the particle by = pc2 = (m/V)c2. particularized in the thermal energy case by W = = . we have the following expression for mg : mg = mi — Consequently. Then. comparing the inertial mass (mi) and gravitational mass (mg) equations. therefore. Then. the generalized equation of the gravitational mass for an elementary particle will be The equation (1. mi = m + and mg = m + where is the temperature dependent mass shift given by obtained by Donoghue and The expression of Holstein refers only to thermal energy. We can still verify that is generic for the any type of electromagnetic energy. we verify that the expression reduce to the form obtained by Donoghue and Holstein. that the gravitational mass of a particle will be equal to its inertial .FRAN DE AQUINO 27 for inertial mass (m.04) says. If we express the geometric media of volumetric densities of the external electromagnetic energy withing the particle by W.
GRAVITATIONAL - ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY
mass only in the absence of electromagnetic fields external to the particle (W = 0). On the other hand, as the value of is very high then, for small values of W the ratio becomes so small that detecting it experimentally is very difficult. This fact, no doubt, led Newton's Eotvos' and other's experiments not to verify the difference between gravitational and inertial mass. The gravitational mass of a given atom can be obtained by effecting the sum of gravitational masses of its elementary particles with the gravitational mass from the interaction energy of said particles. When the velocities of all particles of the atom are small in comparison with the light velocity, the gravitational masses of particles can be considered equal to their rest gravitational masses, in such a way that we can express the rest gravitational mass of an atom through the following expression
In this expression, Wi, Wj and Wk refer respectively to the geometric medias of the external electromagnetic
FRAN DE AQUINO
energy densities of each electron, proton and neutron of the atom; are the volumetric densities of rest inertial energies of said particles, and m0e, m0p and m0n are their rest inertial masses. Just as the interaction energy between electrons, protons and neutrons is distributed within the atom itself, we can say that the inertial mass m0x created by the interaction energy of its particles is also distributed in the atom's volume, Va, and will be a fraction of the atom's mass, i.e. m0x = k-1m0a, (k > 1). Thus, the gravitational mass from the interaction energy between the particle is equivalent to the gravitational mass of an elementary particle of inertial mass m0x and volume Vx = Va, i.e., according to the equation (1.04), given by:
mg0 (interaction) = (1.06)
In this expression, Wx is the geometric media of volumetric densities of external electromagnetic energy within the mass particle m0x, i.e., (Wx = Wa), and = m0xc2/Va; Va is the middle volume of the atom. On the other hand, we can write that
GRAVITATIONAL - ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY
where rewritten as follows:
mg0 (interactions) = m0x -
Thus, equation (1.06) can be
Considering now the equation (1.08) in (1.05), we have:
Within the elementary particles that we can write
In turn, within the mass particle m0x (interior of the atom) the values of and will depend on the type of atom. Thus, (1.11)
is given by where is the volumetric density of rest inertial mass of the atom's. the expression of mg0 (body) can have all its small parts in respect to the a mg0 (atom) neglected. if the summation contained in the equation (1.FRAN DE AQUINO 31 where and It can be seen then that. . i. the index x of W was omitted in order to abbreviate the writing.09) is reduced to In this expression. As .. In regard to the gravitational rest mass of a macroscopic body made up of atoms of a same type. as already seen.e. and with W equal in all of them.09) become neglectible in respect to in a way that the equation (1. we can write Let us now make use of the Einstein's equations to formulate the description of the unified interaction. as said atom's velocity is small in comparison to the light velocity. it is seen that.
GRAVITATIONAL - ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY
we know, said equations, for mixed components, can be written as follows: (1.15) where the energy-momentum tensor particles, is given by: (1.16) In the General Theory of Relativity, the gravitational and inertial masses are considered equivalent, so that express indistictly the particle's mass density (the mass in the particle's "own volume" unit). One must make here a distinction between the particle's gravitationalfrom the other mass electromagnetic mass density densities. For such equation (1.16) will have changed for and from now on, will be used to assign the inertial mass density. Accordingly, the equations (1.15) will express the gravitationalelectromagnetic field. The theoretical complementations appearing as a result of the introduction of the new concept of gravitationalelectromagnetic mass can be better seen in the nonrelativistic case. In the limit case of small velocities, the component g00 for the metric tensor is, as we know, related to the for elementary
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non-relativistic potential (now for the gravitationalelectromagnetic field), through the following expression (1.17) In addition, regarding the 4-velocity , we must disregard all the spatial components and just leave the temporal component i.e., we must write = 0, = = 1. Thus, out of all components of the energy-momentum tensor we have just (1.18) The zero index of was omitted in order to abbreviate the writing. Therefore, from now on, refers to the density of rest gravitational-electromagnetic mass of the particle (rest gravitational-electromagnetic mass at the particle's "own volume" unit.) It is further verified that the scalar T will be equal to the same quantity, i.e., T= = (1.19) =0, and by
Taking then the equations (1.15) to = substituting =T= in the obtained expression, it results
GRAVITATIONAL - ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY
On the other hand, by making use of the general formula (1.21) we can demonstrate that
(1.22) By comparing then the equations (1.20) and (1.22), it results (1.23) which is the expression of the unified field equation, in nonrelativistic mechanics. We can observe that it has the Poisson's equations form. We can then write the general solutions of (1.23) by analogy to the Poisson's equation i.e. (1.24) Particularly in the case of a single particle of rest gravitational-electromagnetic mass mge creating the field, we will have (1.25) which is the non-relativistic potential of the gravitational electromagnetic field produced by the particle.
m. In this case. As verified. the equation (1.26) which expresses the non-relativistic potential of the particle's pure gravitational field. Pursuant to equation (1. the equation (1. mf refer to the rest masses ( for v = 0).25) is reduced to (1.FRAN DE AQUINO 35 When me = 0 and W = 0 (absence of electromagnetic fields) the gravitational-electromagnetic mass of a particle is reduced in its rest inertial mass.25) can be further written as follows: where mg. the second member of such an expression is made up by the sum of potentials mp = . mq = mF.02).
36) and (1. on the order of 1015 m.34) and (1. Thus. the following forces: This equations just are applicable. are the expressions of the weak and strong forces between two . equations (1. Only quarks possess masses mF and mf. up to the limits of the respectives fields.37). In the case of (1. obviously. respectively.36 GRAVITATIONAL . (1. so this is also the limit of applicability of the equations (1.33).ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY which determine severally. seeing that this fields extend themselves indefinitly.36) and (1. as we know. in particles with masses respectively.35) they are valid for all r. But in the case of the strong and weak fields the reach is.37).
so that the strong and weak nuclear interactions. leptons. are nothing but manifestations of more fundamental forces. since in this type of movement centrifugal forces will act upon the quarks by modifying their relative position. the distribution of quarks in the elementary particles11 must certainly depend on the rotational motions of the particles. which can obviously make the nuclear forces non-central. will depend on the distribution of 6 quarks. On the other hand. but as fundamental particles. commonly observed among them. are made up of quarks. with the experience. elementary particles. . as well as resultants and relative to the weak interaction between them. we will have 6 quarks in interaction. Only quarks suffer the effects of all interactions. Quarks will not considered here as elementary particles. in order to establish the appropriate distinction. in agreement. consequently.FRAN DE AQUINO 37 quarks. as we know. resultants will also depend on the magnitudes and relative orientation of the angular momentums of spin and 11 Hadrons. Hadrons. those determined by the strong and weak masses. Thus. it becomes obvious that resultants and relative to the strong interactions between two hadrons. in the particular case in which only two hadrons interact isolatedly. are made up of three quarks. etc. as we know. Thus. as we know.
this calculation is simple: the force between them is given by equation (1. the intensities of and obviously. The calculation of the strong and weak resultants is certainly very difficult. We do not know the expression of the strong mass. but from the known expression of the fine structure constant.39) Recalling now that the relative intensities of the strong and electrostatic forces respectively vary in a ratio of 1:1/137 and by comparing the first member of equation (1. will not be simply inversely proportional to the squared distance between the elementary particles. although equation (1. given by (1. we can write (1.39) with the second member of equation (1. However.36). we cannot solve them even for three in Newton's gravitational theory.38) we can write (1.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY orbital of the elementary particles. since we are dealing with simultaneous interactions between various particles and we know. On the other hand.36).38 GRAVITATIONAL .40) . in the specific case where only two quarks with masses mF and interact.36) is a function of r2.
40) is satisfied for (1. On the other hand. we will start from the expression of coupling constant Gw of weak interaction.45) As we can observe. the equation (1.FRAN DE AQUINO 39 where Z is an admensional coefficient.44) or else. given by: (1. by comparing the second member of this equation with the expression . From the experience it is possible to conclude (measurements of strong nuclear forces) that Z 1. In order to obtain the expression of the weak mass.41) and (1.43) We can rewrite this equation as follows (1. (1. As we can easily verify. both members of this equation have the mass dimension.42) where KF = Z.
we conclude that coefficients Kf and KF for each quark must be interrelated with the local metrics of space-time. but not the space-time geometry at the sites of the quarks. i.e. This explain why the relative intensities of the strong and weak interactions are in the ratio of 1 : 10-12. (1. for non-zero weak mass particles (quarks). they may even become zero when subjected to certain confinement conditions. according to the above mentioned facts.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY of the strong mass. the quarks of the particles must have zero weak mass (Kf = 0). 1. 2) which do not interact weakly. Recalling now equation (1. Since the quarks of these particles are structurally identical.. It also shows that there are particles (such as mesons K+ and K0) which do not interact strongly. Experience shows that there are elementary particles (such as those with spin 0. In the former case. Kf = K / 10-6. for it depends on the conditions of confinement of the quarks in the elementary particles. we can by analogy conclude that it is the expression of the weak mass.37) of the weak interactions.46) where. Under different conditions (free . such as those which must occur in the previously mentioned elementary particles.40 GRAVITATIONAL . we see that Ff . In the latter case. they must have KF = 0. Thus.
48) Therefore. thus causing strong and weak forces to reappear. the equation (1.FRAN DE AQUINO 41 quarks or in a new group forming another particle). an uncertainty in the r co-ordinate results in a uncertainty in the p momentum. according to the formula (1. rewritten in the following form: (1. we will consider the equation (1. Therefore we can say that the uncertainty principle is incorporated in the GravitationalElectromagnetic Field Theory. coefficients Kf and KF may take non-zero values. exchanging it by p. The expressions of mF and mf are quantum equations and indicate the inclusion of the Quantum Theory in the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field Theory. the term between parenthesis has the same dimensions of the linear momentum. We can confirm this fact by verifing if the Uncertainty Principle can be directly deduced from Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field Theory.47) is reduced to (1.40) with both members divided by r and .49) This is the uncertainty principle relation for position and momentum. and reminding that Z 1. So. When we combine this .47) As we can see.
as we know. The simplest example of -decay is that of neutron instability where Q = 0. and the half-life is of 12 min. in this new context. but it contain. A) (Z + 1. A) + e. the uncertainty principle. according to single properties commons for all waves.+ + Q. the own substratum of quantum physics. seen that we can deduce from it the De Broglie-Einstein relations. The emission of natural radioactive substances are of this same class with general reaction of decay (Z. Everything started. two particles called and were involved. The violation of the parity conservation principle in reactions of -decay was one of the more surprising facts in Physics. responsible for the ratioactive phenomena known as -decay.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY relation.78 MeV. we obtain the equations and E = that are the so called De Broglie-Einstein relations. when in the middle of the fifthies the physicists Yang and Lee were particularly interested in the meson K decay. with the expression derived from Fourier analysis and. At that time they believed that in this process. It is than. directly obtained from theory. The strange fact was that such . The weak interaction is.42 GRAVITATIONAL . that express the wave-particle duality. it is not only the basis for the Heisenberg-Bohr probabilistic affirmation. As we can verify. in fundamental level. the own wave-particle dualism.
Wu et al. in reactions of -decay that it results to an apparent violation of the parity conservations in weak interactions? . one can conclude that the parity was not conserved in the -decay reactions. isn't it precisely by the fact that we don't consider the possibility of such actions. that in fact. as well ? In physics.was violated. parity conservation principle . it resulted therefore. there was only one particle. an experiment realised by C.that estipulate that brute matter must be unable to distinguish its right from its left . isn't there by definition a psyche. where choosing exist. The experiment consisted of measuring the intensities of particles emited (by Co Nuclei) perpendicularly towards a magnetic field and after repeat the measurement with the orientation of the magnetic field inverted. Now. that in the course of weak interactions. as a consequence of this proposition. A few months after the publication of Yang and Lee work. indicated the non-conservation of parity in the -decay reactions. They ad-mited then.S. As the intensities differed in both cases. The non-conservation of parity implies that electrons be able to "choose" between their right and their left. we want obstinately ignore the influence of psyche.FRAN DE AQUINO 43 particles showed exactly the same properties..
the reversibility of the psychic mass. This addition imply in a new potential in the equation (1. we have the source of psychic field responsible for the psychic interaction. Thus. If we add the psychic mass with the gravitational-electromagnetic mass given by (1. brute matter acquires conscience and therefore do not conserve the parity anymore.e.01) we will have the expression of the unified mass. The parity nonconservation solely occurs after the decay. that . Wu verified was only that the particle emited do not conserve the parity.44 GRAVITATIONAL . In the psychic mass.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY Let us consider the hypothesis that in reactions of decay the particles emited carry. i. for some time.27) and. we will have for the intensities of the forces and between two isolated psychic mass and the following equation: If we admit. based on the energy conservation principle. Thus. in the course of the weak interactions. a certain quantity of psychic mass originated from the transformation of equal quantity of nucleus inertial mass. there is no violation of the principle of parity conservation. consequently. And this is because of the fact they are bearers of psychic mass. S. Consequently what the experiment of C. for the emited particles endowed with psychic mass..
35). this way. we will have as a consequence.36) and (1.FRAN DE AQUINO 45 psychic mass can be originated not only from inertial mass but.33). weak and gravitational) can be the result of transformation of part of a gigantic initial psychic energy or Supreme Conscience and. respectively.35). i. When we . (1. can be increased by the transformation of the psychic field energy in the corresponding mass type and vice-versa. (1. (1.37). means precisely the possibility of psychic control of the four interactions and explain how the psychic field act on brute matter. electromagnetic. in a psychic field.34) and (1. also from any kind of mass and vice-versa.. A very great quantity of psychic mass can have been always present in the Universe and remains in it for an indeterminate time. In addition.e. the Universe would be originated from the "will" of this Supreme Conscience. Let us now the go back to equations (1.34). which are nothing but Coulomb's laws of electrostatic and magnetostatic. according to the equations (1. that any type of mass. the genesis of all masses of the Universe (strong. This.
(1971) Campos Eletromagneticos Modernos. we made. We see in this expression that the electrostatic force 12 See Silvester.34) from the law of transformation for the electric field. the electrodynamic force (Lorentz's force) disappear.. as a consequence of these particularization procedures.50) which is known to be a purely relativistic phenomenon. i. p.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY proceed with the particularization of the gravitationalelectromagnetic field equations for the non-relativistic case. Poligno. given by12 (1. 150-155. (1.46 GRAVITATIONAL . Sao Paulo. and we consider mge in equation (1. We thus obtain Coulomb's law in its generic form for free space. In spite of this fact. (1.. .24) as the gravitationalelectromagnetic rest mass of the particle.52) In which the motion of electrical charges is permitted.51) where is the so-called Lorentz factor. Ed. it is always possible to obtain it by means of a relativistic correction of equation (1.e. P.
53) where is the potential vector and is the potential scalar of the electromagnetic field.52) and (1. 65-66. Teoria do Campo. and Lifchitz. p. .. From the comparison between equations (1.52) with that obtained by var-ing the action S for an electrical charge in an electromagnetic field13 (by means of Lagrange's equations).FRAN DE AQUINO 47 is subjected to a relativistic correction (D varies with velocity). E. (1. but we cannot make it disappear by selecting a suitable referential. in turn.e. Sao Paulo. may be deducted by comparing equation (1. Hemus. Ed. We will then determine (1. allow us to obtain the equations containing and in a simple way. L.53) we obtain the following expressions for the electric field and magnetic flow density vectors: These expressions. in turn. (1974).56) 13 See Landau. i. Maxwell equations.
by varing action S for an electromagnetic field which contains rather than point we electrical charges a continuous density distribution obtain four equations in 3-dimensional 14 The reader may find the detailed calculations and results in Landau. equation (1. the rotational of a gradient is zero. we then obtain the socalled electromagnetic field tensor..58) Equation (1. Paulo. L. 81-82. p. which is the equation of the motion of a particle in a electromagnetic field.55). we must return to expression (1. it was obtained from Lagrange's equation written in a 3-dimensional form. we will have But since the divergence of a rotational is zero. we then have (1. From action S written in a 4-dimensional form. Teoria do Campo.58) constitute the first pair of Maxwell's equations. In order to obtain the other pair.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY However. . S. As mentioned earlier. therefore.14 On the other hand. E. Ed.48 GRAVITATIONAL . and Lifchitz.56) is reduced to (1.57) and (1.53). it is possible to obtain the motion equation in 4-dimensional formalism. Hemus.57) Taking the divergence of the two members of equation (1.
p. with equation (1.59) and (1. 15 Idem. we obtain equations which can been condensed into two vectorial equations. By substituting the respective values for such componentes. in vectorial form.61) Thus. . given by (1. By analogy the or.33). Let us return now to equation (1. 99-100. which expresses the intensity of the gravitacional force which acts on an placed in the is given by: elementary particle of rest gravitational mass intensity of force which acts on mg due to (1.FRAN DE AQUINO 49 form15 containing the components of the electromagnetic field tensor.60) which constitute the second pair of Maxwell's equations.04) in mind. we may write that gravitational field of particle with mass mg.
Assuming. As opposed to pure gravitational forces (W = W' = 0). oriented from m towards m'. for example. Under these conditions. (1.e. i.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY where versor has the direction of the line connecting the centers of both particles. given by: (1.. if we make and the force becomes an attractive one.65) In the case of interaction between macroscopic bodies made up of one single type of atom. the gravitational forces between them may be calculated through the same expressions.64) However. repulsive or null.50 GRAVITATIONAL . besides attractive ones.14) has the same form of expression of the gravitational mass for elementary particles. that but we see that the force between the particles will be a repulsive one. since the expression of gravitational mass for this type of body (equation 1. . simply changing and by and respectively. which are only attractive ones. we see now that gravitational forces may be.
i..FRAN DE AQUINO 51 we observe that ratios and rewritten in the following ways: may be where Considering the expression of given by equawe see that most tion (1. monoatomic solids present E0 and H0 given by (V/m). from quantum electrodynamics. but which can be reduced by the following process: we know.13).72) As one can observe. k> 1 . (A/m). these are very high values. (1. that may be increased by applying an oscillating electric field with a frequency equal to any of the frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum of the substance. The .e.
proportional to . (F = increases. thus increasing the middles volumes of the atoms and also the value of (paramagnetic) susceptibility turn.69). with the decrease of factors significantly and will decrease and. is proportional to proportional to since the magnetic is. which. and so. the eccentricities of the electrons and the nuclei of the atoms decrease the electrons orbits decrease. the middles radii ri of this orbits increase. Therefore. is directly the squared permanent atomic magnetic momentum. in The incresed middles volumes of the and the increase of and atoms obviously determines a decrease in the value of Therefore. the electric forces of attraction between ).52 GRAVITATIONAL . the value of When : and it is quite likely that. for certain frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum of the will considerably increase. according to equations (1.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY expression of value of without the dampening term (which makes the ) is (1. we see that the values of E0 and H0 may be .68) and (1. Due to this.73) finite in the case of The influence of the dampening term in the value of varies for each value of frequency substance. as we know.
a particle of a subatomic substance with mass m'. From the above we see that. when it is possible to make H = H0. the possibility of controlling the gravitational interaction by applying ultra-intense magnetic fields (H > 106A/m) becomes quite promising. thus enabling the control of gravitation by applying much less intense electric and magnetic fields (E 10l5V/m. or more accurately. In practice. H 1012 A/m). which fundamentally results from the action of oscillating fields. for example. we will see that the gravitational forces on the particle will cease. by reducing the values of E0 and H0 by means of the electromagnetic reversion process. This process. That is.FRAN DE AQUINO 53 reduced. taking. for which we have W'/ = 1 (by means of the electromagnetic reversion process and with the aid of superconductor inductors). we will experimentally prove the truthfulness of Mach's Principle. especially now that our technology already foresees the production of magnetic fields thousands of times more intense than the maximum produced in conventional inductors. according to equation . since they. from the periodical inversion of electric and magnetic energy upon matter will be hereinafter called electromagnetic reversion process.
the inertial properties of the particle must also disappear. As we can observe.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY (1. According to the law of distribution of radiation energy of a black body. according to Mach's principle.62) herein. We can thus express the average amount of thermal energy in the .54 GRAVITATIONAL . such incorporation was greatly pursued by Einstein. as we know. as it is known. we know that thermal radiation contains photons of all frequencies. incorporates Mach's principle to the gravitational theory. when the intensities of the gravitational forces acting on the particle become zero ( = 0). A propos. It is common to relate the energy of such photons to temperature by means of the expression < > kT. We will now deal with the verification of the influence of thermal radiation on gravitational mass. who. states that the local inertial forces are determined by the gravitational interaction of the local system with the distribution of cosmic masses. This principle. are expressed by (1. the electromagnetic factor postulated in the beginning of this work. the inertial properties of the particle must also cease. which relates gravitational mass to inertial mass. introduced the cos-mological term into his equations with this purpose.74) Under these circumstances. Consequently.
we can easily conclude that. considering equation (1. for example. The term ( kT/moec2)2 for room temperature (T 300° K) is smaller than 10-15. As we have already seen. to experimentally ascertain variations in the gravitational mass of the electrons (due to thermal radiation).76). the expression of W. At any higher temperature the gravitational mass becomes smaller.75) and (1. in the case of atoms.75) From this expression we conclude that the gravitational mass of the electron will only be equal to its inertial mass when T = 0°K.76) From equations (1. may be written as W = kT/V where V is the particle's "own" volume. their rest gravitational mass can be expressed by (1. highly accurate instruments are necessary. Consequently.04). at the same temperature T. Thus. due exclusively to the thermal radiation. .FRAN DE AQUINO 55 interior of a microscopic particle by kT. where is an absorption coefficient which depends on the particle. In the case of an electron. the difference between inertial and gravitational mass is much larger than in the case of elementary particles. we have (1.
The fact of thermal radiations containing photons of all frequencies means that they must contain radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum of the substances. and thus. only these atoms will have their E0. since the densities of the power flows of such radiations are very weak (for T 300°K). Holstein and J. however. Thus. In the case of electrons. This. the radiations of appropriate frequencies to significantly reduce the E0. it was possible to verify that they have 10-14% less gravitational mass at room temperature than at absolute zero. and that only at absolute zero were gravitational and inertial masse equivalent. using instruments a hundred thousand times more accurate than those utilized by Dicke. from the Massachusetts University.56 GRAVITATIONAL . In the case of atoms the difference is even smaller. practi- . B. in the case of our applying an ultra-intense magnetic field H to the body. we see that in a given body only a very small amount of atoms (as compared with the total) will be subjected to the action of said radiations. observed that the gravitational mass of an elementary particle decreased with the increase of temperature. making H > H0.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY In a recent research work. Donoghue. Therefore. However. H0 of the atoms (electromagnetic reversion process). H0 decreased. these atoms will have their resulting gravitationals significantly altered.
Therefore. in the gravitational interactions of said The inertial rest masses of the elementary particles are well known16 They from the sum of all inertial masses arising from all the internal energies of the particle. Initially. such kind of radiations have low matter penetration. we can 16 The experiments used to determine the masses of the elementary particles intervene). it is necessary to evalutate the magnitudes of the volumetric densities of rest inertial energies of the elementary particles to be able to determine the rations W/ particles. H0 of an atom. We will now consider the gravitational interaction at the subatomic level. if is the volumetric density of the rest inertial mass of an elementary particle. . the disadvantage of radiation is high: besides the need of intense flows to attain the largest number of atoms. generally constitute inertial processes (in which forces Therefore. we may significantly reduce the values of E0. In practice. what we measure is the inertial masses of the particles. In principle.FRAN DE AQUINO 57 cally does not influence the resulting gravitational of the body if H is not much greater than H0. both by means of suitable radiations of the elecromagnetic spectrum of the atom and by stationary electromagnetic fields of the same frequency.
In view of the above. Very little is known about the geometric structure of the elementary particles. it has been often proposed by several authors. our own Universe and Einstein's model of the universe.between the microuniverses of the elementary particles and our universe. but under the clear understanding that space has no boundaries. in its very essence. which. the volumes of the elementary particles may be calculated through the same equation that expresses the volume of Einstein's universe.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY then express its volumetric density of rest inertial mass by However. besides the knowledge of the rest inertial mass of the particle. the knowledge of the "own volume" in which such mass is contained.in the spatial sense . That is. the idea of similarity . which in our opinion constitutes a strong indication that similarly to the elementary particles. our universe is also closed. This possibility leads us to see a spatial correspondence between the micro-universes of the elementary particles. their volumes are finite.58 GRAVITATIONAL . Such hypothesis contains. . the calculation of requires. The hypothesis that such particles may actually be true micro-universes contained in our Universe is not new.
FRAN DE AQUINO 59 as a consequence of (1. due to their spin magnetic momentum. W.77) is written as (1. in each nucleon (reciprocally produced by electric and/or magnetic fields of the nucleons themselves) determines a marked reduction in the gravitational mass of these particles. that is. R = 1. so that for these particles the volumetric density of the rest inertial energy is given by (1. We know that the magnetic field of the nucleons.80) .4 x 10-15m.78) In the case of elementary particles.79) In the nuclei with high atomic mass the geometric media of the volumetric densities of external electromagnetic energy. for example. as we will see later on. in the case of protons. R refers then to the respective curvature radii of these micro-universes. is given by (1. which in turn reduces the intensity of the gravitational interaction between the atomic nuclei.
we may consider that the distance r between nucleons is of the same order as the diameter of these particles. Rev. H. they present an electric field (due to their electric charge e) with intensity (1. according to equation (1.5851 for the proton and -3. taking equations (1. Aronson. is the spin angular is the so-called gyromagnetic factor.Y. Fischbach. Letters 116B. 48. this means that in the gravitational interactions between the atomic nuclei. that the ratios W2 / for the nucleons may reach values in the order of 10-2! Thus. Bock.81) In the atomic nuclei.62).L. besides the spin magnetic field. momentum.80) and (1.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY where is the spin magnetic momentum of the particle. it is possible to verify. 1306 and (1983) Phys. 476.H. Thus.Y. in a first-approximation evaluation.8256 for the neutron. 495. Lett.L.60 GRAVITATIONAL . Fischbach (1982). the value of which is 5. Cheng. D28. E. Phys.H. Rev. In the case of protons. 73. G. Cheng and E. S. H. Variations of such magnitude have been experimentally detected17 having even led some authors to 17 S. there may occur intensity variations in the order of 1%. Aronson and G. Bock (1982). Phys. .81).
by analogy movement give origin a additional magnetic field (equation 1. In this last case. D. for example. The density W. Fischbach.H. W = 0. The sign (—) indicates the opposite. The centripetal force acting in these particles it places in a precession movement. Lett.Fc/S = R/S. therefore. within particle can be related with its rotation kinetics energy. opposite orientation at its translation in the orbit of radius R. A. It is the case. Phys. when in orbital movement of radius R. 3. S. 1 8 . 56. Sudarsky. of the protons. the translation movement is opposite at E. The sign (+) in equation (1. can be expressed by = r. Rev.80) can expressed by: with spin magnetic field (1.FRAN DE AQUINO 61 believe in the possible existence of a new type of interaction18 (hypercharge field).82) indicates that the spin of the particle have the same orientation that its precession movement and. neutrons and electrons. we know. This that. C. Aronson (1986).82) where is the precession gyromagnetic factor and the precession angular moment. the field will have opposite orientation at . Szafer. so that the density of electromagnetic energy within particle doesn't increase. If however. given by = = as seen that rp rpartic. Talmadge. So.
The geometric media of that densities will expresses the value of W for the body. therefore. and given by: (1. will have the same orientation that and. with the utilization of mechanical devices! . in each one of that particles will have a density Wpartic. We are therefore. the density W within particle will be Wpartic = The atomics electrons spin in the same orientation of its for these translation around the nucleus (s == +1/2). the repulsive can become very great than rest weight force of the force sphere (P = msg).62 GRAVITATIONAL . In this case.63). neutrons and electrons. and so electrons is opposite to so that.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY the spin.83) As we see. if the sphere have very high rotation. for great values of will be repulsive. if a body turn in opposite orientation at the spin of its protons. Let us consider now a sphere with density that turn with angular velocity The gravitational forces between the sphere and the world. In macroscopic case. in front of another possibility of gravitational contro. in this case W = 0. according to equation (1.
II. COSMOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS .
is less than 1. the pressure generated by the degenerate state of matter no longer counterbalances the gravitational pressure. . Such systems are the so-called neutron stars.4 (the Schemberg-Chandrasekhar limit). its becomes a white dwarf. its mass exceeds that limit.8 and 2. There then occur reactions between protons and electrons (capture of electrons). at the moment of its birth. however. There is also a critical mass for the stable configuration of neutron stars. and the contraction proceeds. The collapse continues until the system regains stability (when the pressure generated by the neutrons is sufficient to stop the gravitational colapse).The Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field Theory suggests explanations for interesting cosmological questions. forming neutrons and anti-neutrinos. in a star's gravitational contraction process its fate is directly linked to its mass.4 Thus. This limit has not been fully defined as yet. If the star's mass. As is generally known. but it is known that it is located between 1. If. Initially we shall discuss the problem of the stars' gravitational contraction. such as that of the final stage of gravitational contraction of massive stars (M ) as well as of the Universe itself in each cycle and for the anomalies observed in recent analyses of the red-shift in galaxies and stars.
which become neutron stars at the end of their existence. since such systems are generally endowed with great velocities of rotation around themselves (because of the conservation of the angular moment of rotation. In that case. the Hn magnetic fields of the neutrons given by (2. causing a systematic reduction of the distances between their centers of mass. during the contraction of the star). diminishes Nonetheless. for instance. which rotation causes centrifugal forces that run counter to gravitational contraction. the collapse may continue.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY should the mass of the star exceed above-mentioned critical mass (massive stars). The continuation of gravitational contraction also occurs in the remnants of neutron stars1. In that case. . There thus exists a natural convergence of massive systems towards a state in which the neutrons are continuosly compressed. the process is slow.66 GRAVITATIONAL . Therefore. the contraction continues.01) 1 This is the case with pulsar. progressively the velocities the of star rotation emits because electromagnetic radiation whose energy is taken precisely from its rotational energy. however slowly.
i.FRAN DE AQUINO 67 determine reciprocally. The phenomenon progresses up to a certain critical point. in their interiors. at which the gravitational pressure falls below the internal pressure produced by the neutrons. the ratio W2/ for each neutron undergoes a progressive increase as the gravitational compression of the star proceeds. the Universe too exploded due to an identical process in the final . With that.62). the attracting gravitational forces between them also keep on progressively diminishing (equation 1. the gravitational mass of the neutrons keeps on diminishing: as a result. This phenomenon has been noted in recent astronomical observations and clearly shows what on a much greater scale . In other words.than Consequently. (where rn is the "radius" of the neutrons). Since WHn r-6 and the rest inertial energy density of the neutrons is proportional to . there starts an oscillatory catastrophic process that culminates in the star's explosion. the total density W in the interiors of the neutrons grows much more rapidly .with the decrease in the volumes of neutrons . When this occurs.e.happened at the Big Bang. densities of magnetic energy WHn = 1/2 which increase in magnitude as the distances between neutrons decrease. just as massive stars and systems of greater mass explode when they reach a critical point in the gravitational contraction process.
That is the so-called Schwarzchild radius. which means that nothing. Sitz. Preuss. Physik 10..02) It will be seen that for (2. Akad. does not prevent the existence of black holes. 377. not even light. (1918). The singularity in Friedmann's cosmological model is thus eliminated. Schwarzchild.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY instants of its contraction periods. as is predicted in the solution of Einstein's equation obtained by Schwarzchild3 which allows us to write (2.as occurs in the final stage of the gravitational compression process 2 3 PYiedmann. any mass mg placed in a sphere of radius rs = 2G mg/c2 would be a black hole. (1916). However. Wiss. Z.03) there occurs a singularity. if its matter became an ensemble of supercompressed neutrons . 189.68 GRAVITATIONAL . in the final stage of contraction of massive stars and greater-yet systems. as well as with the Universe itself in the final instants of its contraction periods. K.2 The possibility that this process may occur. A. Thus. can escape from a body with mass mg if the latter is contained in a sphere whose radius is rs. .
the black hole would explode for the same reason that they (massive stars) explode upon reaching the critical point. For some time the existence of so-called white holes has been debated. and if we assume that the red-shift resulted from the Doppler-Fizeau effect. Several authors have suggested that these may represent regions where matter is spurting in our Universe. If is the frequency of light at the moment of its emission. As we know. Let us now consider the problem of anomalies in the spectral red-shift of certain galaxies and stars.FRAN DE AQUINO 69 of massive stars . or massive stars of greater-yet systems that exploded because at a given moment their internal pressure overcame the gravitational pressure. the frequency that we will observe will be expressed by the following: .the Doppler-Fizeau and the Einstein (or gravitational) effects. following the process described above. From all the preceding. we may infer that white holes represent either black holes that exploded. The former is associated with the relative velocities of the source and of the observer. that phenomenon is generally explained as resulting from a combination of two effects . while the latter is caused by the difference in gravitational potential between source and observer.
Recent determinations have assigned the value of 2. respectively. If we assume that the red-shift was caused by the Einstein effect.06)..70 GRAVITATIONAL . v is the velocity of the source in relation to us which. is given by (2. Both the red-shift caused by the Doppler-Fizeau effect and that caused by the Einstein effect are generally accepted as having been experimentally confirmed. the relation between and is expressed by (2. the point of emission and the point of observation of the spectrum. < 0. the shift occurs in the direction of lower frequencies (red-shift). according to Hubble's law.e.06) where and are the gravitational field potentials at.5 x 10-18 s-1 to Hubble's constant. the according to equation (2.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY (2. i.05) where is the so-called Hubble's constant and is the distance from the source in question.04) In this expression. If we observe on Earth a spectrum emitted by the Sun or stars. .
It was furthermore found that galaxies of the spiral type feature a red-shift greater than that of galaxies located at the same distance. when measuring the velocity of each galaxy by the redshift it produced. where galaxies that belong to the same cluster feature great differences in their velocities of expansion. They are the result of the fact that we disregarded the influence of electromagnetic energy in gravitational interaction. for some years a number of observers have been noting red-shift values that cannot be explained by either the Doppler-Fizeau or the Einstein effect. Thus.FRAN DE AQUINO 71 Nonetheless. the case of the so-called Stefan quinted (made up of five galaxies discovered in 1877). as deduced from their red-shifts. However. All these anomalies in red-shifts are easily explained by the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field Theory. The Sun. the expression for the grav-tiational spectrum shift supplied by Einstein's theory is . according to very reliable and precise measuring methods. whose galaxies are all located at approximately the same distance from Earth. one finds that four of them move away at velocities much greater than that of the fifth. That is. shows a red-shift that is greater than what would have been predicted by the Einstein effect. Similar observations have been made on the Virgo constellation. for instance. too.
for convenience's sake.07) refers to the volumetric density of the rest inertial where energy of the atoms of body 1. the potential at point of emission will be given by (2. we obtain: .ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY nothing but a special case of a more general expression. that the emitting body (Body 1) is made up of atoms of the same kind with W1.14) and (1. In that case.06).07) and (2.72 GRAVITATIONAL .28). which now can be easily obtained on the basis of the explanations provided in Chapter I.08) Transferring equations (2.08) to (2. being equal in all of them. By analogy we may write for the observation point (body 2): (2. Let us admit. in accordance with equations (1.
It will also eliminate the hyphotesis that. .10) That means that the shifts computed by the Einstein effect in this case should be multiplied by the factor (W1/ )2.as is normally done . at such a distance. and (2. the large red-shifts of quasars should not be interpreted as Dopper shifts .09). the latter equations is reduced to 1. in order to appear as brilliantly as we see them.but as gravitational red-shifts calculated according to equation (2. Furthermore. quasars must possess a very special kind of energy source. We may thus conclude that the anomalies found in abovementioned cases should be interpreted as having been caused by the existence of an enormous density of electromagnetic energy in the observed bodies.FRAN DE AQUINO 73 If we assume that m1 m2. W1/ W2/ 1. They are simply closer to us. This will eliminate the fantastic hypothesis (which would result from assuming a Doppler shift) to the effect that quasars are moving away from us at velocities close to the velocity of light and are therefore the located a fabulous distances from Earth.
III. GRAVITATIONAL SPACECRAFT .
With such a distribution. 3. the distribution of these fields depends on the objectives to be attained with gravitation control. However. the value of only suffer significant increases for certain frequencies of said spectrum. object of experimental determination. among them. In a spacecraft. the objective of which is to use gravitation to its full extent. we may attain. we conclude that the oscillating fields to be used in the electromagnetic reversion process must be of extra high frequency.1).In the electromagnetic reversion process. as we shall see later on. an unheard-of performance for spacecrafts. as the low levels of generally correspond to frequencies in the infrared and microwave spectrum. there will certainly be a critical frequency for which the maximum value of These critical frequencies must be the will occur. we may position a source of such fields in the center of the spacecraft and others conveniently distributed on its outer surface (Fig. . On the other hand. for example. In practice. the oscillating fields applied to a given substance may have a frequency equal to any of the frequencies of the electromagnetic must spectrum of the substance.
78 GRAVITATIONAL .ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY Fig.Gravitational Spacecraft .1 . 3.
we may actuate the ultra-intense magnetic field He together with the sources of oscillating fields positioned in the front portion of the spacecraft (Fig. descend or incline as to its vertical axis. the ratio He/HON to nitrogen in the region of actuation of the activated oscillating fields may become greater than 1. Consequently. If frequency of the electromagnetic fields produced by said sources equals (critical frequency of the electromagnetic frequency spectrum of nitrogen). thus permitting the spacecraft to rise. To propel the spacecraft in the longitudinal direction. one is able to control the gravitational interaction on the nucleus of these reactors. 3. produced by the central source.FRAN DE AQUINO 79 These sources may be able to produce oscillating fields in the various critical frequencies of the substances in which we intend to control gravitational interaction. according to equation (1. the gravitational force between the Earth and the nitrogen in this region becomes strongly repulsive. One of these fields.2). with nitrogen being subjected to an acceleration aN.01) . must have a suitable frequency to reduce the value of H0 of the nuclei of reactors R1 and R2 (gravitational reactors) in such a manner that. given by (3.62). with an ultra-intense magnetic field HR.
80 GRAVITATIONAL . the velocity of air (relative to the spacecraft surface) increases. the more rarefied it is. the atmospheric pressure in this region must decrease. Another important fact to be observed is that the spacecraft can be braked in its displacement simply by inactivating the front sources of its oscillating fields and at the same time activating the sources distributed on the back part of the craft. the thermal effects resulting from this attrition will also be reduced. In this manner. the process is reversed. Under these circumstances. Thus. Consequently. a force contrary to the displacement of the craft begins to act upon it. the spacecraft will be able to travel in the atmosphere at hypersonic velocities without undergoing excessive heat. in the front region. according to Bernoulli's equation. . the higher the air velocity. a force capable of propelling the spacecraft is created. thus causing it to brake. therefore. the attrition between the front region of the spacecraft and the atmosphere will be reduced and. Consequently. the continuity equation establishes that the increased velocity of the air in the front region of the spacecraft must cause the air density in this region to decrease. as a consequence. A pressure gradient between the back and front part is thus established and.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY Thus. On the other hand.
FRAN DE AQUINO 81 Fig.Propulsion in the Atmosphere .2 . 3.
Thus. It is initially necessary to determine in the electromagnetic spectra of the substances which make up the spacecraft the frequencies for which it is possible to reduce the H0 of these substance to the same value. Another gravitational effect likely to be obtained is that of controlling the inertial properties of the spacecraft.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY The spacecraft can be displaced to the left or to the right by the same process. to displace it to the left we must activate sources distributed on the left surface of the craft. simply make Hi/H0 103. and those located on the right to displace it to the right. we may generate a repulsive gravitational field around it by simply activating magnetic field Hi (Fig. Under these circumstances. since it is expressed by: (3. making Hi/H0 = 1. we see that. We can also have it rise by activating sources distributed on its top (Fig. When the spacecraft is parked on the surface of the Earth. according .82 GRAVITATIONAL . 3.3-c). in order to stop any individual from approaching the spacecraft. the repulsive gravitational force between the spacecraft and any body close to it may become very intense. 3.2) and making Hi/H0 1.02) Thus. that is. if the central source produces oscillating fields at these frequencies and field Hi is activated.
4). . 3. Therefore. as a consequence of Mach's principle. must be positioned towards their destinations and activate their gravitational reactors positioned on the rear part (Fig. when leaving the atmosphere of the planet.FRAN DE AQUINO 83 to equation (1. All these possibilities demonstrate that gravitational spacecrafts are exceptionally advantageous in many instances.03) where HR is the magnetic field of the reactor. we will be able to design spacecrafts not only for transportation in the atmosphere (small and large distances) but also for interstellar trips. The nucleus of the reactor is then subjected to a gravitational acceleration due to the planet. and so must its inertial properties. They could be designed with the most varied forms and according to the most varied objectives. This allows the crew not to suffer the inertial effects derived from maneuvering the craft.62). the gravitational forces upon the spacecraft cease and. given by (3. Spacecrafts of this kind. HOR the value of H0 for the nucleus of the reactor and M the mass of the planet.
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY Fig. 3.84 GRAVITATIONAL .Secondary Displacements .3 .
FRAN DE AQUINO 85 Fig. 3.Propulsion in the Outer Space .4 .
therefore. the spacecraft may be strongly accelerated (an g) for several hours. offset the inertial forces upon it. We have already seen that.86 GRAVITATIONAL . . We then observe that. This means that under these conditions we can impart the spacecraft with high accelerations without subjecting it or its crew to the inertial effects of such accelerations.04) where mR is the mass of the reactor nucleus and mn the spacecraft mass. the spacecraft is subjected to an acceleration (3. In this manner. starting from rest. in this way.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY Once propelled by the reactor. By travelling at such velocities. with the aid of magnetic field Hi we can make the gravitational interactions upon the spacecraft become zero and. may be accelerated up to velocities close to that of light within a matter of a few minutes. it is easy to see that gravitational spacecrafts. the distances in the Universe are significantly shortened for the crew members. This is what is known as Lorentz's contraction.
IV. LEVITATION .
When the nervous impulse reaches the axon's ramifications. our purpose is to show that the human body has at its disposition some resources. The distance between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. let us say something about the neurons and the way they might give rise to extra-high frequency electromagnetic fields. towards controlling the gravitational interaction on itself. A neuron contacts another by means of ramifications that are developed at its axon's end. something we name synaptic transmission of the impulse is performed. however.In this chapter. It is made up by the nucleus and cytoplasm. usually named synaptic cleft. necessary for the electromagnetic reversion process. First of all. The main portion of a neuron is the so-called cell's body. which leave the cell body and get thinner. and does not differ widely from that of the other cells. named axon. which might have over a meter of length and is branched only at its end. In a given place within the cell body there is a particulary long extension. What renders the neuron different from the other cells are the ramifications (the so-called dentrites). as they elongate. is usually . The synapsis is the functional contact between the membranes of two excited cells.
while acetylcholine remained within it. which results from the reaction of acetic acid and choline. In these cases. of a chemical substance named acetylcholine. two componentes of the cells. sometimes even touching themselves. when the cleft is large. otherwise no repolarization of the cell would exist. There are also synapsis with presynaptic an postsynaptic membranes quite close to each other which. the direct electronic transmission of the impulse is renderred possible. its existence is for a short length of time. which starts with the synthetization. ranging from 50 to 100 nm. Most of the times. by the cell itself. The acetylcholine is able to alter the sodium pump1 work by producing the cell membrane dispolar-ization. The acetylcholine being formed in the cell.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY from 15 to 20 nm. Said cleft is even larger in myoneural unions. however. . giving rise to the membrane polarization. In fact. the transmission of impulse is made through a chemical process. nervous cells have an enzyme 1 A mechanism through which sodium ions are moved within the cells.90 GRAVITATIONAL .
as in the beginning. the dentrites (or even the cell body) in the other neuron are affected by means of acetylcholine release. Thus. . Thus. if also the cell's polarization and dispolarization rythm so becomes. to overcome the following synapsis. and then the repolarization proceeds.FRAN DE AQUINO 91 named cholinesterase. With the decomposition process. reaching the critical frequency of the water's electromagnetic spectrum. The impulse then runs up the second neuron. and so on. the cell membrane alters once again. dispolarization and repolarization cycles suceed. the oscillation frequency of which may become very high. until the chemical effect comes into play again. so starting a new electric impulse in the neighbour neuron. This possibility suggest us that the levitation might occur under special circumstances in which the polarization and dispolarization frequency for the nervous system's neurons becomes very high. the frequency of which depends on how fast the acetylcholine composition and decomposition take place. at the axon's end. The electric charge densities at the axon ramifications' ends during said process give rise to reasonably intensive oscillating electric fields. which produces the decomposition of acetylcholine into acetic acid and choline.
92 GRAVITATIONAL . We also know that the H2O molecules are a part of the so-called polar group of molecules. Younger and slimmer individuals have a higher water contents in their bodies. by renderring E4/ 1. then the values of E0. Two electric dipoles are then established (with intensities of 5 x 10-30C. with electric fields through the water molecule. if the oscillation frequency of the electromagnetic fields produced by the neurons equals the frequency (the critical frequency of the water's electromagnetic spectrum). consequently. which are featured by a permanent electric dipole. we must at first In order to evaluate the magnitude of observe that we can express the rest gravitational mass for a given molecule through the following expression: 2 Depends on the fat contents of an individual and his age. because of that.m) in the molecule and. H0 for the human body's water molecules might be reduced significantly. at the order of 109 V/m. In case of a H2O molecule. which possibilitates the levitation. Accordingly. . becomes slightly negative in respect to the hydrogen atoms. the electrons tend to agglomerate around the oxygen atom which.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY We know that nearly 45 to 75%2 of the human body is made up by water molecules.
e. i. (n > 1)... moy = n-1m0M..e. also here. the gravitational mass due to the interaction energy between the atoms is equivalent to the gravitational mass of an elementary particle with inertial mass moy and volume Vy = VM. (Wy = WM) and = moyc2 / VM. On the other hand. Thus.04) given by: (4.FRAN DE AQUINO 93 (4. according to the equation (1. Wy is the geometric media of volumetric densities of external electromagnetic energy within the mass particle moy. we can. admit that the inertial mass moy created by the interaction energy of the atoms is distributed within the volume VM of the molecule and it will be a fraction of the molecule mass.e.01) Since the interaction energy between the atoms is distributed within the molecule itself. i.02) In this expresion. i. we can write that .
02).03) By taking this expression to equation (4. we can write (4.06) 3 Interatomic interaction energy in the molecule is very small in relation to the molecule's rest inertial energy.04) and taking equation (1. can be rewritten as follows: (4.12) into account. we obtain (4.01). therefore. we can write In case of light molecules.94 GRAVITATIONAL . n is very large3 so results and. thus. .ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY where The equation (4.
resulting E4/ 1. this does not occur because the oscillating electric field produced by polarization and dispolarization of neurons is sufficiently intense only in the surroundings of the nervous system's ramification ends. only the water molecules close to said ends will have .. if is reduced (by means of the electromagnetic reversion process) to a given value lower than the electric field through of the water molecules (due to the electric dipole). the repulsive gravitational force in the body would be very intense. we can then write: (4.07) where is given by (4.e.09) If all the water molecules of the human body are subject to such an acceleration. they will be subject to a gravitational acceleration (4. Accordingly. in the absence of magnetic fields (H = 0).08) Thus. said molecules will be subject to a gravitational force that is repulsive in relation to Earth. i.FRAN DE AQUINO 95 For water molecules. However.
It would be the same principle as that of levitation.1) must produce then an electromangetic field with a so that E / 1 results. we can conceive a "gravitational elevator" to hoist human bodies into a spacecraft. 3. the oscillating electric field with the frequency would be produced in a given place of the spacecraft by means of a source specifically designed for such a purpose. the repulsive force on the human body should not be intense.96 GRAVITATIONAL . The production of artificial gravity within a spacecraft for the purpose of attracting the crew to be spacecraft's ground is another example of control on the gravitational forces acting on the human body's water molecules. In this case. Based on the aforementioned in this chapter. This can be achieved by intensifying the gravitational attraction between the human body's water molecules and those intentionally placed into a reservoir beneath the spacecraft's ground. only a small part of the H2O molecules in the human body will be subject to a repulsive acceleration and. The central source of oscillating fields (fig. For example. either for the frequency water . however. This way.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY their reduced by the electromagnetic reversion process. consequently. the performace of a gravitational spacecraft can be improved even further. but sufficient to make it levitate.
So. according to equation (1.10) In order to obtain the desired gravity. must be previously estimated. the gravitational forces between the water into the reservoir and that in the crew members' bodies will be attractive. the human bodies' water molecules. . or those contained in the crew members' bodies.62).FRAN DE AQUINO 97 molecules placed beneath the ground. being subject to the following acceleration: (4. the water mass within the reservoir. . therefore.
ENERGY CONVERSION .V.
which moves the rotor of the motor. Thus. when the source A is turned on and the value of molecules to the left of the chamber become very lower than the electric fields through these latter (as a result of the permanent electric dipoles) the gravitational forces between the Earth and the water molecules at that place will become repulsive. so that the water cannot escape from the rotor chamber (fig. in a system we name gravitational motor. making H / source A >E/ In addition. by turning off the . With this. In order to increase the motor power. H. it is seen that the rotation direction of the rotor can be inverted. Simultaneously. Quite similar to a water turbine. therefore. by providing it a given movement quantity.The gravitational energy can be directly converted into rotational kinetic energy. A and B. A rotational water flow is then established. 5. entirely sealed. tends to displace downwards. the water mass in the left side of the motor tendes to move upwards. the water mass to the right of the engine. the gravitational motor is. with electromagnetic fields with frequency to reduce the values of for the water for the water molecules. for example. It has two sources. under the effect of the attracting gravitational force.1). as already seen. an ultra-intense magnetic field. can be applied to the water chamber's left side.
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY Fig.1 .Gravitational Motor . 5.102 GRAVITATIONAL .
i.. its relatively simple construction will allow this type of engine to be used for the most different purposes. In opposition to the hydroelectric plants.FRAN DE AQUINO 103 and turning on the source B. contrarily to those at the left side.e. the water molecules at the right of the motor will be repealed by the Earth. In this case. the gravitational motors must be close to relatively massive celestial bodies. its position in relation to the distribution of masses throughout the Universe. whose operation demand rivers. They will be silent and demand no special installations for their operation. since its operation will depend just on the control of gravitational forces acting on the water volume. at the rotor chamber. On the other hand. Gravitational motors are not airpollutant as the conventional combustion engines. An important feature of the gravitational motor is the fact that the impact of its utilization on the environment will be virtually neglectible. such as planets.will make up a gravelectric unit. for instance. In the conversion of gravitational energy into electric power. said engine connected to an electric generator . and in order to achieve a better performance. It is obvious that the intensities of gravitational forces acting on the water molecules will depend on the motor's relative position. Consequently. . the graveletric units are able to run at whatever part of the Earth surface.
Let us consider.3 x 10 . The atomic nuclei. a given amount of hydrogen atoms.01) . for which we reduce significantly the (by means of the electromagnetic respective value of reversion process). a gravitational motor might have a considerable power available. can be found in a nuclear fusion gravitational process. then. according to equation (1. At Earth surface. Another important utilization of the gravitation electromagnetic control for the energy conversion.62). in a way to allow the action of strong forces. If. get close to each other. so that their intensities surpass the intensities of electrostatic repulsive force between them.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY for instance. that the gravitational attracting forces between the hydrogen atoms nuclei (for E = E' = 0) are given by (5. for example. an extra-intense magnetic field H is applied to the system.104 GRAVITATIONAL . then. able to supply our energetic needs. so causing the nuclear fusion. so that the ratio H/ becomes 4 very greater than 3. basically consisting in intensifying the gravitational forces acting between atomic nuclei. Said process is a simple one. one verifies.
and such reactions as those of the type are able to accur. which. It is also important to observe that the gravitational attracting forces between hydrogen atoms can be . the need of thermal energy (high temperatures) is obviously eliminated. independently from the electrostatic respulsion.FRAN DE AQUINO 105 By comparing the intensities of said forces with the intensities of electrostatic repulsive forces between said nucleus. the hydrogen atoms will be subject to strong gravitational attraction.02) it is seen that. might become relevant for energy production. as given by (5. a process where cold fusion is achieved. under said circumstances. therefore. in order to have the reactions processed. In this process. It is. in the practice. where the gravitational energy is used to make the nuclei to unite and react.
This way. we must at first calculate the value of k = moa / m0x = As we know. contained in the thermal radiation.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY intensified not only due to the action of magnetic fields.01). We have seen in chapter I of this book that some atoms of a given body could have their E0.. H0 considerably reduced by the action of electromagnetic fields of the electromagnetic spectrum radiations of the substance. atoms with significantly reduced are able to occur.07) for E/ 3. in a given volume of hydrogen. as easily verified.e.3 x 104.09) . In this case.08) and (5. for instance. (5. the attracting gravitational force expression (for H = H' = 0) is similar to equation (5. the nuclear fusion is likewise caused. i.106 GRAVITATIONAL . but because of electric fields as well. In order to evaluate the magnitude of for hydrogen atom. (5.
07) that the gravitational fusion of hydrogen atoms can occur.FRAN DE AQUINO 107 so that. can be reached.. the value of i. From early this year (1989).2-a). (5. Recent experimental results confirm our forecast that.10) Thus. if the value of E0 for these atoms is reduced to such a level that < 1010V/m (see chapter IV). the geometric media of the volumetric densities of external electromagnetic energy. A favorable situation for this to occur is when two hydrogen atoms are so close to each other that the distance between them is similar to their electrons' radii orbits (fig. as a result of the electromagnetic reversion process (herein determined through the thermal radiation). 5. in case of hydrogen atom.5 x 107.68). W. if they are within a region wherein the geometric media of volumetric densities of electromagnetic energy. the fusion of nuclei might occur by the gravitational process of nuclear fusion.e. is such that E > 1014V/m. by means of the equation (1. is such that E ~ 1015V/m. under said situation. reactions of nuclear fusion . Now. then it is easy to verify (equation 5. Under these circumstances. as caused reciprocally within each atom by the electric fields of electrons. we have k = 3.
That is because. contained in the thermal radiation and therefore. it is always possible to increase the attracting gravitational force . However. It is then created. by the tensioning resulting from the presence of high deuterium contents locally concentrated within the paladium structure. Finally. it is important to point out that. therefore. of course. when an atom of deuterium displaces towards the octaedrical site of the other in the paladium crystalline structure (with all the octaedrical sites being occupied). not only the transmutation of light chemical elements might be produced. being with their reduced to values of nearly 109 V/m.108 GRAVITATIONAL . 5. where the distance between the deuterium atoms is sufficiently small (fig. In addition. in case of high atomic mass (although the nuclear electrostatic repulsion is higher). In this process. a favourable situation for the gravitational fusion of the deuterium atoms. a situation results. for occur the fusion it is also necessary that said atoms have been reached by critical frequency radiation from the deuterium electromagnetic spectrum.2b).ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY have been detected between deuterium nuclei placed within paladium. but also that of high atomic mass elements. the inertial masses of nuclei will be also higher and. through the gravitational process of nuclear fusion. the attracting gravitational forces between them will be higher.
(b) Cubic layout of paladium atoms (larger circles) and the localization of deuterium atoms (smaller circles). If a deuterium atom displaces to the site of another one.2 .FRAN DE AQUINO 109 Fig. in a situation where these latter occupy all the octaedrical sites. . 5. a favorable situation for the gravitational fusion of nuclei occur.(a) A favorable situation to gravitational fusion of hydrogen nuclei.
110 GRAVITATIONAL . either the transmutation of light elements or the heavy ones will have practically the same rate of difficulty.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY by means of increasing the field Accordingly. . in said process.
VI. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY .
Cooper and T. in which all pairs travel at the same velocity. However. In the metal conductors. all Cooper's pairs must move at the same velocity. While in common metals the electrons form a gas (Quantum Gas) in the superconductor materials they join together in pairs (Cooper's pairs). for instance. the quantum character of the electrons make the superconductor state to become more than just a gas in pairs. This theory which is called BCS. in the important conclusion that the superconductor state is a coherent one. Bardeen. the physicists J. N. the erratic trajectory of the electrons obey one restriction only and that is: the . L. Besides explaining the origin of superconductivity in the traditional substances. therefore. manage to formulate a theory for it.The origin of superconductivity remained unknown for almost half a century after it had been discovered by Kamerlingh Onnes. The laws of quantum physics determines amazing consequences like. Only in 1957. incurring. it explains all the effects observed so far and allows us to understand the origin of this phenomenon. named after its authors is considered one of the most elegant theories of condensed matter physics. BCS' theory shows the behavioral differences seen in the electrons of superconductors and on those of the common metals. Schrieffer.
very weak and a temperature of a few degrees can destroy the pairs. being not subject. to the exclusion principle. which applies to single electrons. As far as Cooper's pairs formation is concerned the BCS' theory shows that. recently. To detain the current. which does not allow more than two electrons to share identical states. Cooper's pairs can be destroyed getting back. however..114 GRAVITATIONAL . in certain circumstances. in the crystalline structure. Such forces are. i. attracting interaction between electrons may occur. that similar state to that proposed by BCS' theory occurs. In a superconductor with electrical current the pairs of electrons can occupy the same quantum state.e. to the normal state. therefore. then. From all the preceding and considering the Electromagnetic-Gravitational Field Theory it is easy . except that the atracting interaction has a different origin. has been demonstrated that interaction of magnetic origin or those of transference of charge between ions could originate in these complex materials stronger attracting interactions than those caused by the displacement of the ions. In the case of ceramics superconductors it was verified.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY Pauli's Exclusion Principle. This interaction is mediatted by the displacement of the ion crystalline structure when a electron passe through.
(6. according to the equation (1. so that the intensities of these forces surpass the intensities of the eletrostatic repulsion forces between them.72) and. the ratio E/Eoa will be. the electron furthest from the nucleus is suficiently near (r < 10-12m) of the most external electron of the neighboring atom (fig. the electric field of each one of these electrons inside the other will have intensity E = > 1015V/m. In these if the value of Eoa is in the order of 1014 V/m. if by the electromagnetic reversion process it is reduced to a value in the order of 109 V/m then. On the other hand. If a substance has an atomic structure in such way that in each of its atoms.1).FRAN DE AQUINO 115 to see that we can utilize the electromagnetic control of the gravitational interaction to intensify the gravitational forces between the electrons.01) So. making it possible the Cooper's pairs formation. in order for the gravitational forces intensity be greater than the electrostatic repulsion forces we must .62) we can see that gravitational atraction forces (atomics) between the two electrons (for H = H' = 0) will be given by. as it occurs to most of the monoatomic solids (see equation 1. as a result. 6. greater than 105.
Once this is done. as we know.116 GRAVITATIONAL . electrons tunneling through the dieletric establish a alternate supercurrent whose frequency is function of V and. Electromagnetic field of extra-high frequencies. consist in two superconductors separated by a dieletric. to reduce Eoa. To produce the two superconductors of a Josephson Junction we may follow the tradictional way utilizing a superconductor material of low temperature such as a . the value of Eoa returns to its normal value and the gravitational forces between the electrons will become very small. may reach values in the order of 1012 Hz.02) Therefore we can conclude that in the conditions mensioned here the electrons can be subject of gravitational atraction strong enough for them to bound together forming Cooper's pairs. may be produced by Josephson Junctions that. necessaries in the electromagnetic reversion process. To stop the electric current we can destroy the Cooper's pairs by turning off the extra high frequency electromagnetic field used in the electromagnetic reversion process.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY have (6. When a difference of potential V is applied to the superconductors.
1 . 6.FRAN DE AQUINO 117 Fig.Cubic disposition of atoms of a substance capable of becoming superconductor by the gravitational process of Cooper's pairs formation. .
but also make other substances superconductors. which may be produced from conventional electronic keying (up to 1010 Hz. by means of superconductivity gravitational process the superconductors of the Josephson Junctions and then. search for a type of material that would become superconductor in higher temperatures.1) that would become a superconductor under the effect of an electromagnetic field of smaller frequency.118 GRAVITATIONAL . we verify that the utilization of the above mentioned process in the production of the superconductor for Josephson Junctions will be possible only if there would exist a specific substance (with atomic structure especificated in the fig. As the supercondutivity gravitational process described in this chapter also requires electromagnetic fields with extra-high frequencies. it will be possible then. produce oscillating fields with greater frequencies. and by this way making possible not only the gravitation control.). . as we have already seen. to produce.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY Niobio-Titanium alloy (which requires a liquid helium cooling system) or then. In this case. by means of electromagnetic reversion process. 6.
A 1G/100 KG magnetometer. An aerometer. When we devised such experimental set-ups. Two dynamometers (as illustrated). A centrifugal water pump (1 1/2"). A digital ohmmeter. Two volumetric flasks (glass balloons). The necessary equipament and the experimental layouts for each experiment are generally quite traditional and known by all those familiar with Experimental Physics. . sensitive to 1 A 0/200V DC power supply. 0-50 m/s. our intention was only to facilitate the work of the reader interested in the experimental verification of said phenomena. lMHz/100GHz AC source. in our opinion. will be sufficient for the experimental corroboration of the theory. 0-120°C. the following equipament will be necessary: An ± 800V. To build the experimental set-ups. All experiments proposed herein are relatively simple and. A neutron and gamma ray detector. A thermometer.In this chapter we will present the design of seven experimental set-ups which can be carried out in order to verify fundamental phenomena foreseen by the Gravitational Electromagnetic Field Theory.
making it much smaller than the intensity of electric field E reciprocally determined in the interior of the outer electrons. Experiment 1 .1. this may be the first of the substances to be experimentally tested. Thus. by means of the electromagnetic reversion process.A germanium rod must be subjected to an oscillating electric field with a frequency equal to the critical frequency of the electromagnetic spectrum of germanium.Superconductivity Gravitational Process In order to experimentally verify the superconductivity gravitational process explained in Chapter VI herein.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY . (Ge). germanium must become superconductive and then an ohm-meter connected to it (set-up 1) must indicate a null .One glass tube ( = 38mm) sealed at one end.122 GRAVITATIONAL . A substance with this characteristic is germanium. One thus strongly intensifies the gravitational attraction between said electrons and they may join each other to form Cooper's pairs. Method . one is able to reduce the value of Eo for germanium. Thus. it is necessary to discover a substance whose cubic arrangement of its atoms is analogous to that shown in Figure 6. Chapter VI. When this takes place.
FRAN DE AQUINO 123 SET-UP 1 .
in turn. Method .In this case the experimental set-up is extremely simple. Another form of ascertaining the superconductive state is to place a magnet on the germanium rod and observe its flotation (Meissner's effect). . as shown in set-up 2. from a conventional inductor. induce an electromotive force on the superconductive ring. Thus. will produce an ultra-intense magnetic field. thus giving rise to a supercurrent which.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY resistance.Production of an ultra-intense magnetic field Once the substance capable of becoming superconductive through a superconductivity gravitational process is discovered. The substance to be tested must be placed on an insulating base and the leads of the high-frequency voltage source must be positioned very close to the ends of the substance being tested. returning to its normal state when the oscillating field is deactivated.124 GRAVITATIONAL .The ring must be positioned between the ends of the leads from the high-frequency voltage source. it becomes superconductive when the oscillating field is activated. Experiment 2 . one may then build a ring with this substance and. Set-up 1. One must position the end of the magnetometer probe one meter away from the center of the ring .
On the other hand. it must have its center aligned with the superconductive ring. to prevent the oscillating field lines (in the case of a metallic conduit) from dispersing away from the region where their concentration is necessary. to calculate the magnitude of the field in the center of the ring (H0) through the known expression H = (r/d)3H0. d=l m). Regarding the placement of the magnetometer probe. Another important aspect to be observed is the placement of the leads from the high-frequency voltage source inside a dielectric material conduit. which would impair the concentration through the ring.The conventional inductor must be approximately 10 cm from the leads of the high-frequency voltage source to prevent the electric field lines of the oscillating field from deviating towards it. one must make sure that it does not contain ferromagnetic substances (which would be strongly attracted by the superfield).FRAN DE AQUINO 125 (vertical direction). from this value. The probe must be fixed to a dieletric stand void of parts made of ferromagnetic material. The objective here is to measure intensity H of the magnetic field produced by the ring at that distance and. Generally . Set-up 2 . as far as its location is concerned. where r is the ring radius and d the distance measured on the ring axis to the point being considered (in this case.
126 GRAVITATIONAL .ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY SET-UP 2 .
Thus. simultaneously subjecting them to an ultra-intense magnetic field. Experiment 3 . we must simply deactivate superfield H and subject a given volume of water to the action of an oscillating electric field whose frequency is equal to the critical frequency of water. one must remove from the experimental region any parts made of ferromagnetic material in order to avoid the action of the superfield on them. We will also verify in this experiment the levitation principle proposed in Chapter IV. we will subject several substances (for which the critical frequencies of their electromagnetic spectra have already been determined) to oscillating fields with a frequency equal to the critical frequency of the substance.In this experiment.FRAN DE AQUINO 127 speaking. we will be able to verify the accuracy of the new expressions for the gravitational force deducted from Chapter I herein. For this purpose.Gravitational Interaction Control The objective of this experiment is to verify the electromagnetic process of control the gravitational interaction by testing the theoretical assumptions. . Method .
GRAVITATIONAL - ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY
FRAN DE AQUINO
Since most substances must certainly have a critical frequency above 100 GHz, we selected Josephson junctions to produce oscillating fields with higher frequencies. It is noteworthy observing that the superconductors of Josephson junctions may be produced by the superconductivity gravitational process. Set-up 3 - The experimental set-up in this case is similar to the previous one, except for the addition of the device for the Josephson junctions and the device containing the test body and the dynamometer. Experiment 4 - Nuclear Fusion Gravitational Process In Chapter V herein we saw the nuclear fusion gravitational process. The process is simple and basically consists in intensifying the gravitational forces acting between the atomic nuclei so that their intensities exceed the intensities of the electrostatic repulsive forces between them. The nuclei will then get sufficiently close and nuclear fusion can occur. In the specific case of hydrogen atoms, as already shown, the necessary condition for the fusion to occur is that H/HOH > 3.3 x 104. That is, EOH must be reduced by the electromagnetic reversion process whereas the magnetic field H applied must be made sufficiently intense.
GRAVITATIONAL - ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY
On the other hand. we must also have a system to detect neutrons and gamma rays. something around 10-10m3/s. and the placement of a glass cylindrical container with water through the superconductive ring. for as we know.Considering the quantity of energy released in nuclear fusion reactions. which would make the experiment unfeasible. we see that. we have devised an experimental system where by very small hydrogen bubbles formed in a volume of water rise to a certain region where fusion will take place (fusion zone). . The lower portion of this container is fitted with the hydrogen inlet. in order for the total quantity of energy released during the unit of time (< 104J/s) not to be very large. we may easily evaluate the rate of energy released by heating the water.Similar to the preceding one.FRAN DE AQUINO 131 Method . except for the device containing the test body and the dynamometer. Thus. fusion must occur in very small volumes of hydrogen. Thus. besides controlling the volume of hydrogen. Set-up 4 . In the upper portion we conveniently position a thermometer and the gas outlet. The neutron and gamma ray detector must obviously be placed close to the fusion zone. reactions of this kind are characterized not only by a high production of heat but also by the emission of neutrons and gamma rays.
When E4/ 1.Two glass balloons containing water are rigidly fastened to two dynamometers which. Set-up 5 . are fastened to the system's structure. The phenomenon will be observed here by intensifying the gravitational attraction forces between the two volumes of water contained in two glass balloons fastened to dynamometers. Said gravity is obtained by intensifying the gravitational attraction between the molecules of water in the human body and those purportedly placed in a water reservoir below the spacecraft floor. The water molecules close to said junction have their Eo reduced. which then become much smaller than the electric field E ~ 109 V/m arising from the permanent electric dipole of the water molecules. the gravitational force between the water molecules is attractive (equation 1. with an intensity of F ~ (E/Eo)8Gmm'/r2.132 GRAVITATIONAL . as shown in setup 5. A Josephson . in turn.63).Principle of artificial gravity in spacecrafts The production of artificial gravity inside a spacecraft in order to attract the crew members to the floor of the spacecraft is another important phenomenon of this theory.A Josephson junction produces an oscillating electric field with a frequency equal to the critical frequency of water. Method .ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY Experiment 5 .
FRAN DE AQUINO 133 SET-UP 5 .
Control of gravity on atmospheric air (atmospheric propulsion principle) According to Chapter III herein. A suitably placed aerometer measures the velocity of air inside the tube. according to equation (1. Consequently. if an ultra-intense magnetic field is activated in a certain region of the atmosphere and if we simultaneously apply to this region oscillating fields of frequencies equal to the critical frequencies of the gases which make up the air. . we will see that relationships H/H0 for the air molecules in this region may become much greater than 1. the relationships H/H0 for the molecules of such gases will become much greater than 1. the gravitational force between the Earth and the air in this region will become strongly repulsive. as we know.134 GRAVITATIONAL .63).Two Josephson junctions simultaneously produce oscillating fields of frequencies respectively equal to the critical frequencies of nitrogen and oxygen (for.ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY junction placed close to them is activated to produce the oscillating field with frequency Experiment 6 . thus causing them to strongly accelerate inside the hard PVC tube placed through the superconductive ring. Method . the average composition of air in the trophosphere is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen). When we activate the ultra-intense magnetic field H.
FRAN DE AQUINO 135 SET-UP 6 .
a water flow is established in the piping. As a result. as seen above.Gravitational Motor Principle When an oscillating field of frequency equal to the critical frequency of water makes smaller than E (because of the permanent electric dipoles). except for the addition of the Josephson junctions and the PVC tube with the aerometer. which can drive a turbine connected to the circuit. Experiment 7 . the gravitational forces between the Earth and the local molecules of water become repulsive.With the application of an oscillating field with frequency equal to the critical frequency of water. a water flow is established in the circuit. we will then have < E for the water contained in the piping.Similar to that of experiment 2.Also similar to that in experiment 2. in the region where the oscillating field actuates. If these molecules are in a sealed tubular circuit. with a velocity which can be intensified by the action of an ultraintense field H. Set-up 7 . except for the addition of a Josephson junction and a closed tubular circuit containing a centrifugal water pump to act as a turbine. . when we make H/ E/ . Method .ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY Set-up 6 .136 GRAVITATIONAL .
FRAN DE AQUINO 137 SET-UP 7 .