1.

Raw Material
Noodles can be made from wheat flour alone or in combination with buckwheat flour. Wheat flour noodles include Chinese and Japanese type noodles. There are many varieties in each noodle type, representing different formulation, processing and noodle quality characteristics. Noodles containing buckwheat are also called soba, meaning buckwheat noodle. These noodles are typically light brown or gray in color with a unique taste and flavor. Chinese type noodles are generally made from hard wheat flours, characterized by bright creamy white or bright yellow color and firm texture. Japanese noodles are typically made from soft wheat flour of medium protein (discussed later). It is desirable to have a creamy white color and a soft and elastic texture in Japanese noodles.

defects. flour particle distribution and milling yield. noodle wheat should not be too hard. One of the important noodle flour specifications is ash content. The Falling Number test is done to determine wheat sprout damage level. high in test weight. For example. and uniform in kernel size and hardness. The uniformity of wheat kernel hardness appeared to improve milling performance (2). Low ash content in flour is always an advantage for noodles since flour ash is traditionally viewed as causing noodle discoloration. Quality Requirements In many cases. and. possibly. weight and their distribution can be measured using a Single Kernel Characterization System. physical quality measurements of wheat and wheat test methods are similar and independent of end products made. wheat of other classes present and other contamination. These characteristics result in efficient milling and high flour extraction. Wheat kernel hardness. Damaged starch not only absorbs more water but may also reduce noodle cooking and eating quality. although there is no guarantee that low ash flour can always . Accordingly.2. and milling processes should be controlled to avoid excess starch damage. Wheat kernel hardness deserves particular attention since it affects the tempering conditions. wheat should be clean and sound. diameter. flour starch damage level. The US Federal Grain Inspection Service grades a wheat according to the test weight. optimum quality end products.

. it may be useful to measure the activity of this enzyme in the wheat. Wheat protein content is often determined. noodles can be classified as white (containing salt) noodles or yellow (containing alkaline salt) noodles. The presence of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the flour is believed to be partially responsible for noodle darkening. 3. Chinese raw noodles or dry noodles. Cantonese noodles. Different noodle types require different protein contents and dough strength (discussed later).make desirable color noodles. Generally speaking. Thus. and gluten strength can be evaluated by a sedimentation test. chuka-men. Chinese type noodles need hard wheat of high protein content and strong gluten. Thai bamee. hokkien noodles. and Japanese noodles require soft wheat of medium protein content. Chinese wet noodles. Salt Used Based on the absence or presence of alkaline salt in the formula. Alkali gives noodles their characteristic yellowness. White salt noodles comprise Japanese noodles. and instant noodles fall under the yellow alkaline noodle category.

7-1.4. so-men and hiya-mughi noodles are usually served cool in the summer. Name Characteristics So-men Very thin Hiya-mughi Thin Udon Standard Hira-men Flat 0. Japanese noodles are classified into four types.8 mm wide 5. and udon and hira-men are often eaten hot in the cool seasons.3-1.7 mm wide 1. Other noodle types also have their own typical size. (Table I). Size According to the width of the noodle strands.9-3.0-6. .0 mm wide Since the smaller size noodles usually soften faster in hot water than the larger size.2 mm wide 1.

5. Noodle machines are best suited to mass production. This series of processes remains constant among countries for all noodle types. Thai bamee. dough sheeting. were prevalent before the automatic noodle machine was invented in the 1950s. however. stretching noodles by hand is considered an art rather than noodle making. Processing The simplest way to classify noodles based on processing is hand-made versus machine-made noodles. compounding. chuka-men. still available in Asia because of their favorable texture. Handmade types. udon noodles. In some places. NOODLE PROCESSING Noodle Type Processing Fresh Noodle strands coming out of slitting rolls are cut into certain lengths for packaging without any further processing. Typical examples are Chinese raw noodles. Cantonese noodles and soba . Noodle strands are further processed to produce different kinds of noodles. sheeting /rolling and slitting. Noodle processing operations include mixing raw materials. This is too generalized. and this can be a means of classification (Table II).

Cantonese noodles. Fresh noodle strands are either parboiled (90% complete cooking) or fully cooked. Noodle shelf life is dramatically extended. and soba noodles can be in dried form. These are often consumed within 24 hours of manufacture due to quick discoloration. udon noodles. hokkien noodles. and soba Boiled . Chinese raw noodles. Dried Fresh noodle stands are dried by sunlight or in a controlled chamber. Their shelf life can be extended to 3-5 days if stored under refrigeration. udon noodles. This type includes: Chinese wet noodles.noodles. chuka-men. but fragile noodles may have handling problems.

Steamed Fresh alkaline noodle strands are steamed in a steamer and softened with water through rinsing or steeping. wet noodles are parboiled in most of Asia. After parboiling. This type is also called “Yaki-Soba”. but are fresh. uncooked noodles in Japan. Chinese wet noodles and hokkien noodles are rinsed in cold water.noodles. For instance. drained and coated with 1-2% vegetable oil to prevent sticking. a possible . Boiled noodles are recooked for another 1-2 minutes before serving. Therefore. boiled noodles contain fully cooked and parboiled types. and it is often prepared by stirfrying for consumption None of the approaches discussed above are sufficient to define each noodle type. Parboiled types include both hokkien and Chinese wet noodles. In addition. Boiled udon and soba noodles are not coated with oil.

complete set of production line. drying process 4) Stick noodle production line 5) Fresh raw (or instant) noodle production line . complete set of production line. 6. Five of Our Major Noodle Production Lines 1) YFM-serial Frying instant noodle machines.nomenclature should incorporate key aspects such as formulation and basic processing to fully describe the nature of each noodle type. cup or bag noodles 3) Cooking noodle machines. complete set of production line. cup or bag noodles The line can also be modified to make dry noodle snacks 2) HFM-serial Non-frying (drying process) instant noodle machines.

..Dashanjiang noodle machines in the world famous UNILEVER COMPANY (Vietnam). .

Flour conveying => 2. Mixing ingredient => 3. Steaming => 7. Aging => 4. The instant noodles will be ready to serve simply by soaking in hot water for 3-5 minutes. Cooling => 12. YFM-serial YFM-serial is the frying instant noodle production line. Cutting fold => 9. Inspecting conveying => 13. Slitting and ripple forming => 6. Flowchart Two popular serials of our noodle production lines 1. Process name: 1. Final Product The flow chart is: . Arranging => 11. Compound rolling => 5. Frying => 10. First cooling => 8.7. The dry instant noodles can also be consumed as snack.

2. it can also make low fat instant noodles. Final Product The flow chart is: . Compound rolling => 5. Flour conveying => 2. Process name: 1. under proper operation parameters. Aging => 4. Cutting fold and dividing => 8. Slitting and ripple forming => 6. However. Mixing ingredient => 3. This process is usually used to make dry noodles that should be boiled in water before serving. Steaming => First cooling => 7. Cooling => 10. HFM-serial HFM-serial is the drying noodles production line. Drying => 9.

So over the past two years. proprietary. Accelerated tests were done on noodle samples that were kept at ambient temperature—using the Oxygen Bomb Test and Oxidative Stability Instrument—on a regular . Kemin Food Ingredients has studied the efficacy of natural antioxidants in frying oil for instant-noodle production. the quality of the frying oils was evaluated pre. Read more to find out about the benefits. Kemin looked at replacing 200ppm synthetic TBHQ (tert-butylhydroquinone) in frying oil (RBD palm olein) with natural. Dated: 1 August 2006 BY GEOK TIN NEO AND HAN VAN DER BROEK KEMIN FOOD INGREDIENTS Recently.and post-frying through an analysis of decomposition materials—polar compound and peroxide values. and in the oven (45°C). alkenals. manufacturers have demonstrated an interest in naturally-occurring antioxidants because of the worldwide trend towards the reduction or elimination of artificial food additives. During the study. rosemary extract (Kemin's Fortium brand). Background In one recently-completed project. Shelf-life studies of the instant noodles were carried out at two storage temperatures: In ambient conditions (25°C).ANTIOXIDANTS CASE STUDY: Stretching Noodle Shelf-life Rosemary extracts offer manufacturers an alternative to synthetic products. and free fatty acids.

In comparison. Sensory evaluation was conducted with approximately 20 consumer panelists using the noodles samples stored at ambient temperature. Over the months. compared to other antioxidant treatments and . at the same time points.basis throughout the shelf-life studies. oxidative stability of the noodles dropped. oxidative deterioration of instant noodles fried in oil with 200ppm TBHQ was the least. Oxidativeindicator tests like peroxide values (PV) and alkenals were done on a regular basis for samples stored at both temperatures. noodles without any antioxidant treatment were the least stable. Test results As expected. which was most obvious after nine months of storage at room temperature.

In terms of taste. the rosemary-treated noodles were reportedly best preferred. the PV of the control noodles exceeded 10 milliEquivalent/kilogram. 200 ppm TBHQ and rosemary-extract treatments. With the right rosemary extract. when people in the industry hear about rosemary. the PV of the 200 ppm TBHQ and natural-rosemary extract noodles were still below 10 milliEquivalent/kilogram. In terms of smell.the control. a sensory panel judged no significant differences in the rank position of control. The most effective natural antioxidant was reportedly rosemary extract. their first concern is that ‘herbal odors’ might affect the sensory acceptance of their finished product. there was no significant difference in the rank position of all treatments. In this study. rendering the noodles unfit for human consumption. this should not be the case. followed by control and 200 ppm TBHQ respectively. at the appropriate dose rate. the inclusion rate of natural antioxidants can be increased to improve the . followed by the TBHQ treatment. By week 12 at storage temperature of 45°C. Findings Natural-rosemary extract was able to replace TBHQ without sacrificing quality. After 39 weeks of storage at ambient temperature. Usually. preference was given to rosemary-treated noodles. With no legal use limitations. In terms of color.

S/he may believe that switching to a natural antioxidant is an option too expensive to even consider. demand has grown. synthetic food antioxidants are holding onto market share owing to the fact that they are by far lower-cost products.000 MT in South Korea. By deciding to go the ‘natural’ route with instant noodles.stability and shelf-life of instant noodles—beyond what can be achieved with only 200 ppm TBHQ. 50. and 40.and bottomend instant noodle is far greater than the cost of switching to a natural antioxidant. Contrary to some popular beliefs. Still. about 700. premium. . it is worth noting that in the average retail market the price difference between the top.000 MT in Vietnam. if one looks closely. What is an additional cost of less than 1 cent per cake. Usually. Instant Noodle Trivia In 1958. Since then.000 MT in both Japan and Indonesia. Nissin Food Products created ‘Chicken Ramen’. cost at the retail level is negligible. However. 270. 80. a manufacturer's first reaction is resistance. In 2001.000 MT in Taiwan. the world’s first instant noodle.000 MT in Thailand. consumer-friendly product. Health/cost benefits Consumer awareness and growth in the premium-food market has contributed to the use of more expensive natural antioxidants. over 1 million MT of instant noodles were produced in China.000 MT in the Philippines. using a natural antioxidant to clean up one's label could be seen as an opportunity to introduce a healthy. in comparison to a company’s opportunity to take the lead in the market with a clean label? For comparison purposes. 200. marketing and sales departments need to be more actively involved in delivering the premium image of their product to market. Consumption has risen steadily since 1995 in several Asian countries.

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