HVAC GREEN BUILDING Resource Guide
for green building design
Healthy buildings are vital to the world’s economic and social development. Unfortunately, high energy and other resource use means they create a signiﬁcant environmental impact. Trane has been a leader in this ﬁeld, promoting more sustainable alternatives to conventional building design and equipment. This practical guidebook to energy efﬁcient and green HVAC design will make an important contribution to reducing the environmental impact of energy use in buildings, while making them healthier and more productive places to live and work. Rob Watson Founding Chairman LEED Green Building Rating System Board Member, US Green Building Council
As the environmental impact of buildings becomes more apparent, a new ﬁeld called green building is gaining momentum. Green or sustainable building is the practice of creating healthier and more resource-efﬁcient models of construction, renovation, operation, maintenance, and demolition. Research and experience increasingly demonstrate that when buildings are designed and operated with their lifecycle impacts in mind, they can provide great environmental, economic, and social beneﬁts.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency www.epa.gov/greenbuilding
Trane values guide us in our commitment to corporate social responsibility. We are driven by customers; we recognize the importance of our people; we operate with integrity; we strive for excellence; we deliver on our promises. By following these values - by living them every day - we get closer to our goal of being a model corporate citizen in the communities where we work and a responsible resident of the planet where we all live. Since 2004, Trane has published an annual global citizenship report to substantiate our commitment and desire to be measured not only by our ﬁnancial performance, but also by our environmental stewardship and social responsibility. As a worldwide leader in the HVAC industry, Trane helps create environmentally responsible building solutions that deliver energy performance, reduce power consumption, and save lifecycle cost. We execute programs to reduce our own impact on global climate change and help others do the same. And, we support green building initiatives by investing resources in the various industry committees and expertise in designing and manufacturing energy-efﬁcient systems for buildings. Whether it is designing, operating or maintaining high-performance buildings, Trane can help. This pocket guide is intended to provide quick reference on various HVAC design practices and technologies so that building professionals can make sound decisions in meeting or exceeding the technical requirements of a green building. Green options are provided along with the corresponding criteria and beneﬁts. References for further reading can also be found at the end of the guide. Since system performance ties closely with individual components and the integration among them, when combining various system strategies or applications to achieve a desired outcome, please consult your local Trane professionals. Trane compiled this publication with care and made every effort to ensure the accuracy of information and data provided herein. However, this offers no guarantee of being error free. Trane shall not assume any risk of the use of any information in this publication; nor shall Trane bear any legal liability or responsibility of the subsequent engineering design practice.
.................................................22 Modeling Steps for LEED............................................. 6 CONTROL STRATEGIES Energy Management ...............16 LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance (EB) 2008 . Self-Contained ....................................... 14 Atmospheric Life .......................1..........25 REFERENCES .1................................................1A ........................................................................................ 2 Air Handling Systems .20 ENERGY MODELING Features .......... 4 Water-Source Heat Pump and Geothermal Heat Pump ...........................18 LEED for Core and Shell Development (CS) 2...................26
....... 14 Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) ...........0 ............. 8 Measurement and Veriﬁcation ... Split.................. 10 Unitary Air Conditioner.....1-2004 APPENDIX G Table G3..........1B ............................. 14 Global Warming Potential (GWP).............. 12 REFRIGERANTS Theoretical Efﬁciency ......................... 8 Commissioning .............................................. 14 WHERE HVAC IMPACTS USGBC’s LEED® RATING SYSTEM LEED for New Contruction & Major Renovation Version 2...23 ASHRAE 90...... 11 Electric Chiller ........ 5 DX/Unitary: Rooftop........................2 ......CONTENTS
EARTHWISE™ SYSTEMS Chilled-Water Systems ............................................................................................................................... 8 EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCY Unitary Heat Pump .24 Table G3............. 14 Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) ..................................
for example.EARTHWISE™ SYSTEMS
CHILLED-WATER SYSTEMS (CWS)
green options Reduce waterﬂow rate in chilled-water loop (12-20˚F or . fan) • Reduce water pipe sizes. save cost and material Reduce system materials required. reduced • piping connections • strainers • electrical connections • valves and specialties • pump starters • space required Improve system efﬁciency modestly by reducing pumping energy. using fewer pumps than the common primarysecondary system. 6. • Improve system efﬁciency • Optimize the condenser water system by balancing the chiller and tower power • Iterate for the best condenser water temperature to minimize the combined chiller-tower energy use at all time • Reset the pump operating pressure to ensure that the control valve needing the highest pressure is about 90% open • Save pump energy Select systems that require less refrigerant charge to operate • Less refrigerant means less impact on the environment in case refrigerant leaks from the system • Use ASHRAE Standard 147 to further minimize leakage or overall refrigerant emissions reference
(3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
System optimization controls Condenser water temperature reset and optimization Pumping pressure-speed reset
Refrigerant charge per ton
.710˚CΔT) Variable ﬂow chilled-water systems Vary the water ﬂow rate through the chiller evaporators during system operation green criteria • Increase efﬁciency of chilled-water plant so that pumps and cooling towers consume less energy • Reduce building materials (smaller pump.7-11.1˚CΔT) condenser water loop (12-18˚F or 6. cooling tower.
counter-ﬂow the chiller and tower power • reduce water ﬂow rate.000.green options Heat recovery
green criteria Recover heat from the condenser of a water-cooled chiller • to reheat air (for humidity control) • to preheat outdoor air • to heat make-up water entering a building ASHRAE 90. 20˚F or 11. lower chillerpump system energy • lower life-cycle cost for larger plant • chilled-water-leaving end is condenserwater-entering end. half of ARI standard rating conditions • Equal lift for each chiller • load shift.3˚C ΔT Series-series counter-ﬂow chilled-water loop.1-2004 requires heat recovery for service water heating when • The facility operates 24 hours per day • The total heat rejection capacity of the system exceeds 6. 20˚F or 11. 15˚F or 8.000 Btu/h of heat rejection (about a 450-ton chiller) • The design servicewater heating load exceeds 1.1˚C ΔT condenserwater loop.1˚C ΔT
• maximum 2 chillers in series • place heat recovery or more efﬁcient chiller upstream • reduce water ﬂow rate. create source energy savings and reduce emissions • standby capacity for non-regular peaks • reduce overall energy cost
(43) (44) (45) (46)
.e. i.000 Btu/h (293 kW)
Series chillers chilled-water loop only.000.
52˚F(11.9˚C) • rooftop/VAV. a dirty ﬁlter light is on.2˚C) • screw chiller. 365 days per year Use standard air conditioning equipment Reduce energy cost of dehumidiﬁcation
High efﬁciency fans Factory-mounted and factory-commissioned controls
• Energy efﬁciency improvement • Reduce operating time for boiler • Reduce the human error and amount of time spent installing and commissiong the system • Efﬁciency beneﬁt as compared to AC motors.fan-powered VAV terminals for those zones that require heat
• Reduces heating energy • Increases air motion during heating season
Series desiccant wheel (Trane CDQTM)
• • • •
Improve the dehumidiﬁcation ability of a cold coil Humidity control 24/7. 45˚F(7.1˚C) Add an air-to-air heat exchanger for exhaustair energy recovery
• Reduce fan energy • Improve indoor humidity control • Reduce air duct materials
(47) (48) (49)
• Permits downsizing of cooling and heating equipment • Reduces cooling and heating energy use • • • • Provide appropriate system-level ventilation Adequately protect the coils from freezing Control space humidity over a wide range of loads Control building pressure
(19) (17) (23) (32) (49)
Parallel. • Min. or ﬁlter media is absent. dilution. efﬁciency MERV 6 and located upstream of all cooling coils Gaseous • Originated from building materials or VOC of cleaning agents • Source control: negative pressure. absorption • Disable fan operation when a dirty ﬁlter alarm is present.EARTHWISE™ SYSTEMS
Brushless DC motor (ECM) for VAV boxes
Electricallyenhanced air ﬁlters
(36) (37) (38)
. air • high-efﬁciency centrifugal chiller. 48˚F(8. particularly in series VAV terminals • Factory ﬂow-rate preset reducing air balancing expense • Precise speed–torque control • Reduce air pressure drop to increase energy efﬁciency Particulate • 10 microns or less generally pose the greatest health hazard because they are small enough to penetrate the natural defenses of the body’s respiratory system.
WATER/GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
green options Water-source heat-pump system variable water ﬂow 1 green criteria At non-design load conditions.126 l/s per ton) reference
(13) (14) (56)
Reduce the ﬂow rates in the condenser water system Consider using a geothermal well ﬁeld
Perform a life cycle cost analysis on a geothermal heat pump system Recover energy from the water loop • Reduce operating time for cooling tower • Reduce operating time for boiler Consider using the highest efﬁciency heat pumps available
Heat recovery High efﬁciency (Greener) products Deliver conditioned outdoor air cold directly to the spaces Add an air-to-air heat exchanger for exhaust-air energy recovery
• Permits downsizing of heat pumps • Reduces cooling energy use
(30) (56) (17)
• Permits downsizing of cooling and heating equipment • Reduces cooling and heating energy use
. reduce water ﬂow rate in the heat-pump system • Install two position valves at each heat pump that close when the heat pump turns off • Install a pump that can reduce its energy consumption at reduced ﬂow rates • on large applications install a variable speed drive on the pump Use a ﬂow rate of 2 gpm/ton (0.
DX UNITARY SYSTEMS
green options 1 Avoid oversizing supply airﬂow and cooling capacity Avoid using hotgas bypass unless it is absolutely required Select high-efﬁciency equipment Consider using an air-to-air heat pump equipment (may not be suitable for extreme cold climates) Include an airside economizer (or waterside) Add an air-to-air heat exchanger for exhaust-air energy recovery Use variable air volume (VAV) in a multiple-zone system Directly control space humidity by overcooling and reheating supply air using refrigerant heat recovery
green criteria • Improves comfort control • Improves dehumidiﬁcation performance • Reduces overall energy use • Minimizes the risk of refrigerant leaks in a DX split system due to less ﬁeldinstalled refrigerant piping • Reduces overall energy use • Reduces heating energy use during mild outdoor conditions because a heat pump is a more efﬁcient heater than hot water. SELF-CONTAINED . gas or electric heat • Reduces cooling energy use during mild non-humid outdoor conditions • Permits downsizing of cooling and heating equipment • Reduces cooling and heating energy use • Reduces energy use at part-load conditions • Improves part-load dehumidiﬁcation performance • Improves comfort and IAQ by allowing direct control of space humidity (below a desired upper limit) • Avoids the use of “new” energy for reheat
(17) (21) (49)
cooling only • Example: ofﬁce. full airconditioned • Area >215. hotel.000 m2). thereby reducing cooling energy use during mild outdoor conditions • Helps minimize risk of moisture-related problems in the occupied spaces or building envelope • Reduces fan energy use by minimizing the operation of the central exhaust fan
• Area >430. hospital
.000ft2 (20. Provide modulating central exhaust for direct control of building pressure in a VAV system with an airside economizer.000 m2). Avoid using DX system for large building with low diversity or high utilization
• Maximizes the beneﬁt of the airside economizer.green options Provide “powered exhaust” (on/off central exhaust fan) for control of building pressure in a constantvolume system with an airside economizer.000ft2 (40.
do not allow HVAC system to operate • Start the HVAC system as late as possible while still reaching the space setpoint when it will be occupied • Stop the system to allow space conditions to “ﬂoat” prior to all occupants leaving the space • Optimal start is required for systems with air ﬂow rate >10. standard protocols • reduce on-site time and errors reference
Fan pressure optimization
(10) (25) (49)
Wider indoor temperature range Operable window with HVAC override
Optimal start and stop
(20) (25) (49) (56)
Water loop optimization for watersource heat-pump system Wireless zone sensor temperature
. COMMISSIONING. • Reduce fan operating pressure and power • Required feature for DDC/VAV systems • Control deadband of 5˚F or 3˚C • Open windows to provide natural ventilation when outdoor conditions are appropriate • When windows are open.000 cfm (4.72m3/s) • Use system level controls to determine the optimal loop water temperature to minimize energy consumption of the water-source heat pump units and cooling towers. MEASUREMENT AND VERIFICATION
green option green criteria • Allow cooling setpoint to be set up to 90˚F (32˚C) during unoccupied times • Allow heating setpoint to be set down to 60˚F (16˚C) during unoccupied times • Reset the fan operating pressure to ensure that the control damper needing the highest pressure is nearly wide open. • enhance comfort controllability • better ﬂexibility in space layout • use factory mounted/calibrated controllers • compatible with open.CONTROL STRATEGIES
as indicated by (any of): • Occupancy sensors • Carbon dioxide sensors • Occupancy schedules • Use factory-mounted piezometer ring to enhance the accuracy of the airﬂow measurement
Measurement and veriﬁcation
(20) (29) (30) (49)
Supply Airﬂow measurement
.green option 9 3D graphics
green criteria • build interactive display for visitor’s center • visualize system operation • trend log by the building energy consumption overtime • compare and benchmark the energy performance to the original design estimates • Regulate the outdoor air-ﬂow rate based on the actual need for ventilation.
3 COP @47˚F db and 43˚F wb (8.6 COP @ 50˚F (6. (greener)
11.6 COP @70˚F (21.3˚C db.0 EER @ 85˚F (29.1˚C wb) 2.3˚C db.4 IPLV
heating efﬁciency (greener)
3.6kW) and <240.8 EER 11.0 EER 11.3˚C db.1˚C wb) 2.6kW)
Btu/h (19.1˚C) entering water
16.1 COP @47˚F db and 43˚F wb (8.1 COP @47˚F db and 43˚F wb (8.0 EER 10.0 COP @17˚F db and 15˚F wb(-8.2 COP@ 17˚F db and 15˚F wb (-8.0kW) and <65. 6. 6.3˚C db.4 COP @47˚F db and 43˚F wb (8.3˚C db.0 COP @17˚F db and 15˚F wb(-8. 6.3˚C db.2 EER @ 59˚F (15˚C) entering water
3.1˚C wb) 2.0 EER
3.2 COP@ 17˚F db and 15˚F wb (-8.0kW) <135.1 EER
heating efﬁciency (green)
3.0kW) and <135. -9.000
Btu/h (70.4˚C wb)
≥240.1˚C wb) 2.EQUIPMENT
UNITARY HEAT PUMP EFFICIENCY
equipment test procedure size ≥65.3kW)
10.1˚C wb) 2.3 COP @47˚F db and 43˚F wb (8.000 Btu/h (70.3˚C db. 6.3˚C db.3˚C db.3˚C db.7˚C) entering water
. -9.4˚C wb)
cooling efﬁciency (green)
10.2 COP @ 68˚F (20˚C) entering water
14. 6.4 IPLV
3. -9.4 COP @17˚F db and 15˚F wb (-8.4˚C wb)
cooling eff.2 COP @17˚F db and 15 ˚F wb (-8.0 EER @ 86˚F (30˚C) entering water
ARI 340/ 360 Btu/h (39.000 Btu/h (39. -9.3 EER
Watersource ISO13256-1 Btu/h (5.3˚C db.4˚C wb)
≥135.4˚C) entering water N/A
9.000 Btu/h (19. -9.3˚C db.1˚C wb) 2.000 Btu/ h(39.2 IPLV
3.2 COP @47˚F db and 43˚F wb (8. -9.
3kW) and <760.0 EER 11.3kW) ≥240.0 EER @ 77˚F entering water
heating efﬁciency (greener)
3.6kW)l ≥135.000 Btu/h (19.7kW)
9.6kW) and <240.000 Btu/h (39.3kW.000 Btu/h (39. (greener)
16.000 Btu/h(39.000 Btu/h (39.4 IPLV 10.0 EER
cooling efﬁciency (green)
≥240.000 Btu/h (70. IPLV: Integrated Part-Load Value.4 IPLV 10.000 Btu/h(70.8 EER 11. Notes for Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Efﬁciency tables: 2.4 EER @ 77˚F(25˚C) entering water
heating efﬁciency (green)
9.000 Btu/h(39.3 EER efﬁciency (greener) 11.000 Btu/h
9.1 COP @ 32˚F (0˚C) entering water
cooling eff.6kW) ARI 340/360 ≥135. part-load efﬁciency based on single unit operation conditions 5.0 EER 11.0 EER 10.000 Btu/h(222.7 IPLV
11.2 EER 9.6kW) and <240.000 Btu/h(70. EER: Energy Efﬁciency Ratio at full-load 4. (26) for greener 3.45 COP @ 32˚F entering water
<135. Efﬁciency reference: (25) for green.0kW) and <135.5 EER 9.0kW) and <135.6kW)
UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER EFFICIENCY
equipment test procedure size ≥65.000 Btu/h (19. COP: Coefﬁcient of Performance at full-load
Watercooled or evaporatively cooled
≥65.5 EER 14.0 EER 10. Aircooled ARI 340/360 efﬁciency (green) 10.2 IPLV 10.
10 COP 6.60 IPLV 5.40 IPLV
6. centriugal ≥300 and <600
6. Efﬁciency reference: (25) for green.90 COP 5.45 COP 5. All chillers in this table use ARI-550/590-1998 as their test procedure 2. Integrated Part-Load Value (IPLV).45 IPLV 4. with condenser Air-cooled. Coefﬁcient of Performance (COP) at full-load 4.00 COP 5.26 IPLV 4. not for south Asia with warm winter) • Refrigerant migration “free” cooling (see ref. southern China. 39) • Partial sized (auxiliary) heatrecovery condenser • Variable-speed drive if the chiller experiences many hours of operation at both low load and low condenser water temperatures.89 IPLV
Note: 1.51 IPLV 3.10 COP 6.86 COP 7 IPLV .EQUIPMENT
ELECTRIC CHILLER EFFICIENCY
equipment Air-cooled.39 IPLV 5. positive displacement (screw/ scroll) size (tons) All efﬁciency (green) 2.89 IPLV • Condenser water may be used for heat recovery • Condenser water may be used for “free” cooling under certain outdoor conditions (eg.55 COP 5.17 COP 6.76 COP 6.15 IPLV 5.50 COP 6.39 COP 6.18 5.25 IPLV 5.10 COP 3.76 COP 5.40 IPLV efﬁciency (greener) 2.g.26 COP 3.90 IPLV 6.82 COP 6.20 IPLV 4. This does not occur in plants with three or more chillers or in climates that remain humid most of the year (e.96 COP 6.80 COP 3. Florida.28 IPLV 6. without condenser Watercooled. Miami. part-load efﬁciency based on single operation conditions
.89 IPLV 5.67 IPLV 5.93 COP 3. Hong Kong and Singapore) energy-saving options
<150 ≥150 and <300 ≥300
<150 ≥150 and <300 Watercooled. (26) for greener 3.05 IPLV 3.
9. R410A is a mixture (blend) of R32 and R125 with atmospheric life 4.02 ~0 ~0 ~0 life cycle climate performance (LCCP) [kg. 1999 efﬁciency level. default of 10% unless otherwise demonstrated) Rc: Refrigerant Charge (0. 3.0 lbs of refrigerant per ton of gross ARI-rated cooling capacity) Life: Equipment Life (10 years.69
1.2 lbCFC11/lbr) Lr: Refrigerant Leakage Rate (0.89 10.9 and 29 years respectively.000 lbCO2/lbr) ODPr: Ozone Depletion Potential of Refrigerant (0 to 0.0%. ref. which has been adopted for LEED® Green Building Rating System™ starting in 2006. For refrigerant selection.312. (ref. 7-9.3 14. default of 2% unless otherwise demonstrated) Mr: End-of-life Refrigerant Loss (2% to 10%.900 N/A (27) (28)
theoretical efﬁciency (COP)
atmospheric life (years)
global warming potential (GWP)
R123 R134a R410A R407C
11. consider all ﬁve environmental factors above PLUS equipment leak tightness.38 10. unless otherwise demonstrated)
. An integrated environmental assessment of refrigerant selection is as follows.5% to 2.REFRIGERANTS
ozone depletion potential (ODP) 0. LCCP for 350 ton (1200 kW) chiller in Atlanta ofﬁce building.000 8. 27) 2.5 to 5.51 10. R407C is a mixture (blend of R32.812. R125 and R134a with atmospheric life 4.997 . 29 and 14 years respectively. default based on equipment type. (see p. 31): LCGWP + LCODP x 105≤100 Where: LCODP = [ODPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life LCGWP= [GWPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life LCODP: Lifecycle Ozone Depletion Potential (lbCFC11/Ton-Year) LCGWP: Lifecycle Direct Global Warming Potential (lbCO2/Ton-Year) GWPr: Global Warming Potential of Refrigerant (0 to 12.400 8.CO2 equivalent] 7 .0 blend blend
76 1320 1890 1700
5% leakage rate. With this 0.80 2.60 2.71 1.11 23 year life (Centrifugal.26 1.35 2.41 2. as listed in Table 2 of the LEED-NC Reference Guide). CDHF or CDHG).com/LEED
LEED®-NC 2. Green Building Council allows the use of a 0.S. (model numbers CVHE.95 1.57 1.2 Reference Guide EAc4.92 2. based on equipment life* 15 year life (Unitary.03 3. rather than the default assumption of 2%. CVHF CVHG.15 lb/ton (rather than 1.98 20 year life (Reciprocating compressors & chillers) 0. split and packaged AC and heat pumps) 0.02 2.20 1.10 4.64 1.97 (note Trane is 5. the maximum allowable refrigerant charge for Trane HCFC-123 centrifugal chillers is 5. used in the calculations for achieving Energy & Atmosphere Credit 4 of LEED-NC (version 2. Table 2 ** An ofﬁcial Credit Interpretation Ruling issued by the U.97 lb/ton.17
*Values shown are based on LEED-NC 2.92 3.69 1.For multiple equipment at a site.
.2).52 3. screw & absorption chillers) 0.80 3.2 REFERENCE GUIDE
refrigerant 10 year life (Room or window AC & heat pumps) R22 R123 R134a R245fa R407C R410A 0. a weighted average of all base building level HVAC&R equipment shall be applied using the following formula: [ (LCGWP + LCODP x 105) x Qunit] / Qtotal ≤100 Where: Qunit: Qtotal:
Gross ARI-rated cooling capacity of an individual HVAC or refrigeration unit (tons) Total Gross ARI-rated cooling capacity of all HVAC or refrigeration
Note: A calculation spreadsheet is available for download at www.76 maximum refrigerant charge lb/ton. This value is .trane. .15)** 3.60 2.5% refrigerant leakage rate for Trane HCFC123 CenTraVac centrifugal chillers.
LEED-NC credit WE1.2: Recycled Content MRc5. 4. 5. HVAC equipment building control reference (57) (65) (20) (49) (56) (57) (58) (59) (61) (57) (60) (20) (49) (56) (57) (58) (59) (61) (62) (65) (57) (60) (68) (57) (57) Preq Preq 1 1 1 (20) (57) (57) (57) (57)
EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning EAc4: Enhanced Refrigerant Management EAc5: Measurement & Veriﬁcation MRc4.1.HVAC IMPACT on LEED®
LEED FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION (NC) 2.1.2: Regional Materials EQp1: Minimum IAQ Performance EQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control EQc1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring EQc2: Increased Ventilation EQc3.
EAp3: Fundamental Refrigerant Management
Preq.1: Construction IAQ Management Plan: During Construction
1 1 1
.2: Water Efﬁcient Landscaping: no potable water use or no irrigation EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems LEED points 1 Preq.
1: Controllability of Systems: Lighting EQc6.4: Innovation in Design IDc2: LEED Accredited Professional
LEED points 1 1 1 1 1 4 1
(37) (67) (67) (53)
Note: Main component in gaining LEED point Assist in gaining LEED point p: Prerequisite in LEED rating system: a must perform item without exceptions. c: LEED credit
LEED-NC 2.1: IDc1. Gold: 39-51. Silver: 33-38.1-1.2: Controllability of Systems: Thermal Comfort EQc7 Thermal Comfort: Design .2 POINTS THAT TRANE CAN IMPACT
LEED-NC category Sustainable Sites Water Efﬁciency Energy & Atmosphere Materials & Resources Indoor Environmental Quality Innovation & Design Process SS WE EA MR EQ ID TOTAL Certiﬁed: 26-32.2: Construction IAQ Management Plan: Before Occupancy EQc5: Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control EQc6.LEED-NC credit EQc3. Platinum: 52-69 LEED points 14 5 17 13 15 5 69 Trane assists 1 13 8 5 27
. no points for the prerequisites.
EAc1: Optimize Energy Efﬁciency Performance
EAc2. 3.3: Performance Measurement – Building Automation System.3: Existing Building Commissioning: Investigation and Analysis.HVAC IMPACT on LEED®
LEED-EB O&M credit WEc3. 2.2.
.2.2: Cooling Tower Water Management EAp1: Energy Efﬁciency Best Management Practices – Planning. Implementation. and Opportunity Assessment
LEED FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS: OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE (EB) 2008
LEED points 1 1 HVAC equipment building control reference (57) (57)
EAp2: Minimum Energy Efﬁciency Performance
req. System Level Metering EAc5: Refrigerant Management EAc6: Emissions Reduction Reporting EQp1: Outdoor Air Introduction and Exhaust Systems
(65) (57) (60)
1 1 req.1: Water Efﬁcient Landscaping – 50% reduction WEc4.1. Documentation. Ongoing Commissioning EAc3. 2.
(20) (49) (56) (57) (58) (59) (61) (57) (60) (20) (49) (56) (57) (58) (59) (61)
EAp3: Refrigerant Management – Ozone Protection
Gold: 51-67. no points for the prerequisites.2: Occupant Comfort: Occupant-Controlled Lighting EQc2.1-1. c: LEED credit
LEED-EB O&M POINTS THAT TRANE CAN IMPACT
LEED-EB O&M category Sustainable Sites Water Efﬁciency Energy & Atmosphere Materials & Resources Indoor Environmental Quality Innovation In Operations SS WE EA MR EQ IO TOTAL Certiﬁed: 34-42.3: Occupant Comfort: Thermal Comfort Monitoring IOc1.1~1.5: IAQ Best Management Practices: IAQ Management Program. Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring. Platinum: 68-92 LEED points 12 10 30 14 19 7 92 Trane assists 2 26 7 5 40
. Management for Facility Alterations and Additions EQc2.
1 1 4 1
Note: Main component in gaining LEED point Assist in gaining LEED point p: Prerequisite in LEED rating system: a must perform item without exceptions. Reduce Particulates in Air Distribution. Increased Ventilation.4: Innovation in Operations IOc2: LEED Accredited Professional
LEED points req.LEED-EB O&M credit EQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control EQc1. Silver: 43-50.
HVAC IMPACT on LEED®
LEED FOR CORE AND SHELL DEVELOPMENT (CS) 2.
EAp3: Fundamental Refrigerant Management
EAc1: Optimize Energy Performance
EAc3: Enhanced Commissioning EAc4: Enhanced Refrigerant Management EAc5.2: Water Efﬁcient Landscaping – No Potable Water Use or no Irrigation EAp1: Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems LEED points HVAC equipment building control reference
req.2: Regional Materials EQp1: Minimum IAQ Performance EQp2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control EQc1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring EQc2: Increased Ventilation
(65) (20) (49) (56) (57) (58) (59) (61) (57) (60) (20) (49) (56) (57) (58) (59) (61) (65) (57) (60) (68) (57) (57)
EAp2: Minimum Energy Performance
req. 1 1
. 5. 4.2: Recycled Content MRc5. 5.1.2: Measurement & Veriﬁcation – Base Building.0
LEED-CS credit WEc1.1. req. Tenant Sub-metering MRc4.1.
Platinum: 45-61 LEED points 15 5 14 11 11 5 61 Trane assists 1 12 6 5 24
. no points for the prerequisites. Gold: 34-44.4: Innovation in Design IDc2: LEED Accredited Professional
LEED points 1 1 1 1 4 1
reference (57) (57) (37) (67) (67) (53)
Note: Main component in gaining LEED point Assist in gaining LEED point p: Prerequisite in LEED rating system: a must perform item without exceptions. c: LEED credit
LEED-CS POINTS THAT TRANE CAN IMPACT
LEED-CS category Sustainable Sites Water Efﬁciency Energy & Atmosphere Materials & Resources Indoor Environmental Quality Innovation In Design Process SS WE EA MR EQ ID TOTAL Certiﬁed: 23-27. Silver: 28-33.LEED-CS credit EQc3: Construction IAQ Management Plan: During Construction EQc5: Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control EQc6: Controllability of Systems: Thermal Comfort EQc7: Thermal Comfort: Design IDc1.1-1.
1 equipment library gbXML (green building XML) Weather ﬁles and templates ASHRAE 62.12004 • Auto-building rotations for LEED baseline building • Approved by the IRS for energy-savings certiﬁcation (Energy Policy Act 2005) • Compliance with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140–2004 reference (61)
FEATURES OF TRACE™ 700
green option Modeling functionality green criteria • All systems listed in this guide • All control strategies listed in this guide • • • • ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 Ventilation Rate Procedure • Building Information Modeling (BIM)and more • Complies with Appendix G for Performance Rating Method of ASHRAE Standard 90.
green option • • • • •
green criteria All end-use loads Energy-saving strategies Actual lighting power Energy-saving architectural features Not yet designed systems as identical to the baseline design
Model the proposed design according to Section G3
Model the baseline design in according to Section G3
• Set the lighting power density to the maximum value allowed for the building type per Table 9. as allowed by Table G3.2 • Entire year simulation required (8760 hours)
Calculate the energy performance of the proposed design Calculate the energy performance of the baseline design Calculate the percentage improvement and correlate number of LEED points attained
• Cooling and heating equipment is sized at 115% and 125%. based on the building type and size.1A (cooling) and 6.1E (heating). • Four orientation simulations (rotating 0°.126.96.36.199.2.1B. 90°.MODELING STEPS FOR LEED
(Peformance Rating Method in Appendix G of ASHRAE Standard 90. • Omit the economizer. • Oversize the cooling and heating equipment based on requirements in Section G3. 270°) and the average of the four results is the baseline building energy performance • Apply the formula:
(59) • Correlate number of LEED points gained from LEED-NC EAc1 table
. respectively.188.8.131.52A. • Change the HVAC systems type and description per Table G3. • Use the minimum efﬁciencies speciﬁed in Table 6.2.1A and G3. 180°.
000 m2) fossil fuel. hotel.PTHP
System 3 .VAV w/PFP boxes
Notes: Residential building types include dormitory. private living space. use the predominant condition to determine the system type for the entire building.PTAC electric and other System 2 . fossil/electric hybrid.Packaged VAV with reheat
System 6 .000 ft2 (14.PSZ-HP
System 5 . and multifamily. use the “Electric and Other” heating source classiﬁcation.1A BASELINE SYSTEM TYPES
buidling type Residential Nonresidential & 3 ﬂoors or less & <75.
. Where no heating system is to be provided or no heating energy source is speciﬁed. Where attributes make a building eligible for more than one baseline system type.000 ft2 (7000 m2) Nonresidential & 4 or 5 ﬂoors or less & <75.000 ft2 (14. motel.000 ft2 (7000 m2) or 5 ﬂoors or less & 75. Residential space type include guest rooms.PSZ-AC
System 4. and sleeping quarters. living quarters.Packaged VAV w/PFP boxes
System 7 .ASHRAE 90.1.000 m2) Nonresidential & more than 5 ﬂoors or >150. & purchased heat System 1 .1-2004 APPENDIX G
TABLE G3. Other building and space types are considered nonresidential.VAV w/reheat
System 8 .000 ft2 (7000 m2) to 150.
Packaged VAV w/PFP boxes 7 VAV . VAV w/PFP boxes
Chilled water Chilled water
. PSZ-HP 5.1.1 B BASELINE SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS
system no. PTHP 3. Packaged VAV w/reheat 6. PTAC
2. system type Packaged terminal air conditioner Packaged terminal heat pump Packaged rooftop air conditioner Packaged rooftop heat pump Packaged rooftop variable-air volume with reheat Packaged rooftop variable-air volume with reheat Packaged rooftop variable-air volume with reheat Variable-air volume with reheat fan control Constant volume Constant volume Constant volume Constant volume VAV cooling type Direct expansion Direct expansion Direct expansion Direct expansion Direct expansion heating type Hot water fossil fuel boiler Electric heat pump Fossil fuel furnace Electric heat pump Hot water fossil fuel boiler Electric resistance Hot water fossil fuel boiler Electric resistance
1.TABLE G3. PSZ-AC 4. w/reheat 8.
Trane. Primary-Secondary Variable Flow Systems” ASHRAE Journal. HVAC Engineering. J. 10. Trane Applications Manual. ” Trane Engineers Newsletter. and Schwedler. . 2000. 18. “Energy-Saving Control Strategies for Rooftop VAV Systems” Trane Engineers Newsletter. “An Idea for Chilled-Water Plants Whose Time Has Come: Variable-Primary-Flow Systems. Trane Engineers Newsletter. “The Three E’s of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems. ” 5. Schwedler. “Self-Contained VAV System Design. Vol. T. (February). Applications Manual. 35-4. 11. “Air-to-Air Energy Recovery in HVAC Systems. 6:30-31. . M. 2001. 1998. 2003. “ Vol. W. 4. Schwedler. Trane. Trane. CoolTools™ Chilled Water Plant Design Guide. “Campus Cooling: Retrofitting Systems. CoolToolsTM Chilled Water Plant Design Guide. 21. “Refrigerant Heat Recovery. Kelly. “Dehumidification in HVAC Systems” Trane . Trane. Stanke. Vol. J. 2002. Trane. “Water-Source Heat Pump System Design” Trane Applications . 2002. TRG-TRC015-EN 17 Trane. 16. 1994. J. ” Trane Engineers Newsletter. Trane Applications Manual (Au” gust) SYS-APM005-EN 13. “Water-Source Heat-Pump System. D. 1999. Waltz. (April) ” 7 Kreutzman.40. 14. ASHRAE ” Journal. Reducing Release of Halogenated Refrigerants 12. and Chan. ” “Variable-Primary-Flow Systems Revisited. Murphy. Solberg. “Primary-Only vs. SYS-APM003-EN 20. 6. “VAV System Optimization: Critical Zone Reset” Trane Engineers Newsletter. (July). “Optimizing Chilled Water Plants” HPAC Engineering. 1997 “Don’t Ignore Variable Flow.REFERENCE REFERENCE
1. AM-SYS-9 22. Vol. 2002.30-2. . SYS-AM-7 . 2. 2002. SYS” AM-5
.32-2. 1999. HVAC Engi. Schwedler. “Waterside Heat Recovery. 1984. 20-2. ” Trane Applications Manual. Manual. Bahnfleth. and E. Vol.28-3. . 2003. ASHRAE Standard 147-2002. 2002. SYS-APM004-EN. Vol. M. “Take It to the Limit … or Just Halfway?. 145-147 . M. ASHRAE GreenGuide. Contracting Business. T. Trane Air ” Conditioning Clinic. Taylor.7 (July) 32-29. pp. 3. 15. . 19. 1991. 1983. No. (January) pp. 8. ” Trane Applications Manual. “Comparative Analysis of Variable and Constant Primary-Flow Chilled-Water-Plant Performance.31-4. Peyer. 2006. (July). 2001. Vol.W. ” neering. Trane. P 2003 “Hot Gas Bypass: Blessing or Curse?. 9. D. M.
Stanke. “Adden” dum 62n Breathes New Life Into ASHRAE Standard 62” Trane Engineers Newsletter. ASHRAE. Vol. D. 2002. 34.31-2. 2001. Solvent. “CO2 -Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation With ASHRAE Standard 62.23. LEED for New Construction version 2. Montreal Protocol Scientific Assessment of Ozone . SYS-APM001-EN 42. Groenke. (March 21) 28. Alternative Technologies for Refrigeration. Trane. 2005. “Managing the Ins and Outs of Commercial Building Pressurization. 1995. . 27
. “Design Tips for Effective. 2001. 2002. Trane Engi” neers Newsletter. Vol. 2000. New Building Institute. Trane Air Conditioning Clinic. (June) . Vol. “Multiple-Chiller-System Design and Control. Stanke. SYS-AM-14 37 ASHRAE Standard 62. (October) 27 Arthur D. 39. . (October) 32. Atmospheric Policy. Little. 41. Trane. and Brenda Bradley. and Mick Schwedler. “Global Comparative Analysis of HFC and . Stanke. D. D. ASHRAE Standard 90. 32-4. J. D. Humidity Control Design Guide for Commercial and Institutional Buildings. 2002 36. D. Trane Applications Manual. Trane Engineers Newsletter. ” AM-CON-17 24.1-2004 . 35.30-3. Eppelheimer. TRG” TRC016-EN 40. “Designing an IAQ-Ready Air-Handling System” . Vol. U. 2005.0. 31. S. Stanke. and Stanke. Green Building Council.S. 2002. “Don’t Overlook Optimization Opportunity in ‘Small’ Chilled-Water Systems. “Underfloor Air Distribution” Trane Engineers Newsletter. ” 30. 38. 2003. “Dehumidify with Constant Volume Systems. Murphy.1-2004 and User’s Manual 26. “Designing An ASHRAE 62-Compliant Ventilation System.24-2. 29-4. Trane. Foam. 33.Vol. Indoor Air Quality: A Guide to Understanding ASHRAE Standard 62-2001. Energy Benchmark for High Performance Buildings (eBenchmark) version 1. Trane Applications Manual. “Chilled-Water Systems. “Building Pressurization Control. D. Vol. 2001. Aerosol Propellant. 29. Trane ” Engineers Newsletter. and Fire Protection Applications” Final Report to the Alliance for Responsible . 2004. 30-4. Trane. ” 25. 2002. D. Air Conditioning. Trane Engineers Newsletter.33-1.34-5. UNEP January 2003.1-2004. Trane. Stanke. Vol. “Series-Series Counterflow for Central Chilled-Water Plants” ASHRAE Journal. 2001. Trane Engineers Newsletter. Inc. ” Trane Applications Manual. Vol.2. 2003. 1982. Efficient Dedicated Outdoor-Air Systems” Trane Engineers Newsletter. Depletion: 2002.
P and Jeanne Harshaw. S.REFERENCE REFERENCE
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Vol. Trane. Trane. Trane Engineers Newsletter. Trane Engineers Newsletter. cupancy 68. Trane Application Guide ” (March) BAS-APG003-EN 66. Murphy. 2005 “Advances in desiccant-based dehumidiﬁcation.63. 34-4. 2004. Trane Engineer” ing Bulletin (September) CLCH-PRB020-EN 64. and Brenda Bradley. Guckelberger. 2007 “VAV Control Systems with Tracer Summit™ . J. ” 67 ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. Software and Tracer™ VV550/551 Controllers. 2004 “Setting a new standard for efﬁciency: Brushless DC Motors. International Performance Measurement & Veriﬁcation Protocol (IPMVP) Volume III
. 33-4. ” 65. Thermal Comfort Conditions for Human Oc. D and Brenda Bradley. “Trane CDQ™ Desiccant Dehumidiﬁcation. Vol.
a “Bid Form” can help..cap-e. To work out how much more efﬁcient a chiller should be purchased in order to justify its energy cost savings over the lifetime (or any other span of time). result in life cycle savings of 20% of total construction costs — more than ten times the initial investment.
The Costs and Financial Beneﬁts of Green Buildings A Report to California’s Sustainable Building Task Force www.Care about Next Generations.
While the environmental and human health beneﬁts of green building have been widely recognized. (see ref..com/publications
Note: Electric chiller is typically the largest single energy user in the building HVAC system. Think about Life-cycle Impact. especially for all large chillers. this comprehensive report conﬁrms that minimal increases in upfront costs of about 2% to support green design would. on average. 55)
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