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Compiled and Edited by

Asma Abdullah Ph.D and Azian Ali
October 2007
InsyaAllah this free handbook is updated yearly, so please e-mail
your suggestions/contributions to or
Disclaimer: This compilation is based on the experiences, opinions and limited
knowledge of the editors and contributors. Please refer to your Ustaz/ah as you
go through this handbook.
Hajj/’Umrah Handbook 2008 Book 3 of 5: PERFORMING THE HAJJ/’UMRAH

Part 1: Spiritual Challenge 3

1.1 Be Grateful 3
1.2 Practise Humility 3
1.3 Surrender to Allah 5
Part 2: Mental Challenge 7
2.1 Positive Mental Attitude 7
2.2 Think Before Speaking 7
Part 3: Physical Challenge 9
3.1 Purity and Cleanliness 9
3.2 Play It Safe 10
3.3 Take Care of Our Health 15
Part 4: Social Challenge 17
4.1 Give Without Expecting 17
4.2 Be Compassionate 18
4.3 Be Helpful 20
4.4 Caring For The Elderly 20
4.5 Caring For Those Who Need Wheelchairs 22
4.6 Avoid Non Mahram Interaction 24
Part 5: The Locality 26
Part 6: Locations Pertaining to Hajj/’Umrah 29
6.1 The Masjidil Haram 29
6.2 Arafah 42
6.3 Muzdalifah 48
6.4 Mina 49
1. Brief Words of Advice 53
2. Virtues of Makkah 54
3. The Blessings of al-Masjid al-Haraam 58
4. Women in Islamic Society: Rules to Observe in Mosques 64
5. Do’s and Don’ts In HAJJ 67
6. Fifty Things To Do @ HAJJ 74
7. A Woman’s Guide to HAJJ 77
8. Tawaf Is A Cosmic Law 106
9. Supplications at Mina, Arafah, Muzdalifah 108
10. Zam Zam 115
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And spend in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad of all kinds) and do
not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your
wealth in the Cause of Allah) and do good. Truly, Allah loves the
Al-Muhsinun (the good-doers). (Al Baqarah: 195)

And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the

ways of Prophet Muhammad ), the Hajj and ‘Umrah (i.e. the

pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allah…And fear Allah much and know
that Allah is Severe in punishment. (Al Baqarah: 196)

…And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best
provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness). So fear Me, O men
of understanding. (Al Baqarah: 197)

…Then when you leave ‘Arafat, remember Allah (by glorifying

His Praises, i.e. prayers and invocations) at the Mash’ar-il-
Haram… (Al Baqarah: 198)

Then depart from the place whence all the people depart and ask
Allah for His Forgiveness. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-
Merciful. (Al Baqarah: 199)

The journey is about to start and you may have 20 to 50 days ahead
of you to be spiritually, mentally, physically, and socially challenged.
The following reminders may help you plan ahead.

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1.1 Be grateful to Allah always, for whatever He

bestows upon us.

• Upon arrival in Jeddah, Medinah, Makkah, give thanks to

Allah for choosing you as His guest. Remember that

only the fortunate are invited to visit Baitullah (Allah's

• Preoccupy ourselves with the remembrance of Allah ,

the recitation of Qur'an, and imploring Allah to shower

His blessing on Prophet Muhammad .

1.2 Practise humility and remember that we are all

slaves of Allah

• Be alert of solat times and perform solat as soon as it is due,

even on a moving vehicle if need be.

“I arrived at Medinah airport a few minutes before Subuh.

After immigration clearance, I went to the restroom and
performed wudhu’. There was no surau available and we
were hurriedly chased to our buses. My bus was the first to
leave for our hotel. As we moved on, Subuh was coming to
an end. So we decided to solat in the bus. Luckily we did
because we only arrived at our hotel after Subuh. It seems
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that many pilgrims missed their Subuh and had to qadha’

that day. After chatting with pilgrims who had arrived days
earlier, they had the same experience too.

• Seek Allah ’s permission always.

“Acknowledge that this world is His Creation, more so such

proof will be clear in Makkah and Medinah - Remember to
always say “InsyaAllah” “By Permission of Allah”.

• Acknowledge our inadequacy and ask Allah for


“At Masjidil Haram after ‘Asr one day, I asked Allah to lead
me to the best place for me and found myself wandering
towards Hijir Ismail even though I had no intention to visit the

“I was with my parents and was afraid that I would do things

to displease them so I asked Allah to make me behave so as
to please Him and my parents. I was then moved to buy a
book, “Kindness to Parents” which was a helpful guide.”

“I felt irritated when people kept bumping their bags or

bodies against my head so I asked Allah to enable me to
respond in a way that pleases Him. Later when the same
thing happened I didn’t even feel any irritation. Amazing!”

“If it gets to be too much to think of what to ask Allah for

even in Malay, you could recite Al Fatihah or any simple ayat
– this is to help us to feel tawadhu’ and focused on the task
at hand. It’s alright not to read any supplication, but your
mind may wander.”

• Acknowledge our mistakes quickly and istighfar immediately.

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It takes more effort to watch our heart than our mouth. If a

bad intention or feeling surfaced in our heart, then quickly
istighfar. If you can, perform solat taubat there and then.

• We need to see ourselves as not being better than others

“At Masjid Nabawi, I saw women carrying their footwear into

the masjid and silently wondered why they couldn't have left
them outside as I did. After solat, would you believe I
actually forgot where I left my slippers (and I had always
remembered before this) -- after some moments of frantic
searching, I realised my mistake and istighfar and begged
Allah to let me find my slippers. Allah being the Most
Merciful then let me find them.”

• Ladies who are with their husbands, be sure to obey and

please your husband as commanded by Allah .

“I remember my friend told me she bought a necklace in

Makkah and didn't tell her husband, maybe because he
didn't approve of her spending. When she got home, the
whole necklace had disintegrated into bits but the
other things were OK.”

1.3 Surrender to Allah

• Do your best, and then leave it to Allah (tawakkal).

“Before doing something, practise saying 'BismIllah

alhamdulIllah amantubIllah tawakkaltu’alAllah' ... and in your
heart make the intent to leave all affairs to Allah. This can
be very helpful to prevent the notorious loss of slippers at the
masjids. Another practice is to say with strong faith
“insyaAllah it/they will be safe.”
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“One of the people in my party left the footwear at the shoe

rack in Masjidil Haram and forgot to say "InsyaAllah safe" as
was done before. The slippers couldn't be found

• Be patient. You may be required to wait for the bus, people,

elevator, etc. Carry a folding chair (SR15) if you cannot
stand for long periods. Always have reading material with
you to occupy your time or a tasbeeh to remind you to do
dhikrullah. Never complain.

• Be patient while in transit. A bus ride from Makkah to

Medinah & vice versa usually takes about 6 hours, but
during Hajj season, the journey may take up to 8 hours or
even more.

"I remember having to wait on the bus at Kelana Jaya, then

waiting at Jeddah airport, then waiting again on the bus to go
to Makkah, then waiting again on the bus to go to Arafah.
There were so many instances when I had to wait patiently
and I kept reminding myself to not utter a word...."

" The ‘Umrah/ Hajj challenge begins the minute one sets
his/her mind to perform this ibadah, therefore things may not
go as planned. Otherwise the journey begins from the home
to KLIA (‘Umrah) or to Tabung Hajj (Hajj).”

“Go to your rooms first to freshen up. Do not be too eager to

proceed to the masjid but prepare yourselves - body, mind
and soul for the upcoming ibadat. Rest.”

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2.1 Have A Positive Mental Attitude

• Remember that in Makkah, we are His guests, so be

MINDFUL and RESPECTFUL of the Divine Host at ALL
times. In Makkah, unlike other places, even the mere
THOUGHT of committing a sin is a sin.

• Choose to view everything from a positive perspective. Look

for the goodness in anything and do not dwell on the
badness, even dirty toilets or anything strange. Keep your
thoughts and speech POSITIVE. What ever you expect or
say tends to be fulfilled in Medinah or Makkah, be they good
or bad.

“I took the opportunity to check on myself and my deeds

every time something ‘bad’ happens, eg. not being able to
solat in the masjid, being too tired to solat, any form of

“I had to walk through some rubbish and decayed food and

kept muttering in my heart “suci & selamat” (clean & safe).”

2.2 Think Before Speaking

• Watch what you’re about to say. If it’s not positive or doesn’t

solve problems, then don’t say it. If you have blurted it out,
then quickly istighfar. If you can, perform solat taubat there
and then.

“When my friend complained of the heat, she felt hot the

whole trip but her friends didn't.”

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“In Makkah, I was upset with someone and blurted a remark

in public that could have caused this person embarrassment.
That was just before ‘Isya’ & tarawih. Serves me right and I
didn't get to solat in Masjidil Haram. I stopped short of
entering the Masjid and joined others outside. My husband
told me later there was plenty of space inside. SOB!!!”

• We need to control our tongues from backbiting and slander

“Please, please, avoid gossiping. Sometimes, we see

something which is not very nice happening inside our
jema’ah. We are not supposed to gossip; we are supposed
to stop such things [either by hand, words or in the heart, the
last being the lowest degree]. You are not Scully and
Mulder, you are a servant. There is no need to draw
conclusions and say to people: “Such and such a thing
happened to such a person because he did such and such a
thing” when a calamity happens to a person.”

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We should keep in mind that this journey of pilgrimage is in
obedience for Allah, that we need to leave behind comfort, luxury and
pleasure. InsyaAllah our reward will be in proportion to our endurance
of Hajj rites and restrictions. Truly, Hajj is an opportunity to change
our entire lifestyle.

This is when we need to adapt ourselves to sleep anywhere and eat

anything. This is when we need to be ready to sleep on the ground or
thin mattress. This is when we need to be able to suffer stifling heat
or chilling cold.

We need to withstand a disruption in our comfortable routine. The

time of our daily meals may change – we might eat earlier or later
than what we are accustomed to. We might find our favourite cuppa
and we might not. We might find someone to help and serve us or we
might have to do everything ourselves.

Expect the worst and refrain from complaining or using obscene

language. Those who slip up may return home worse than they were

3.1 Maintain a state of purity and cleanliness

• Preferably, always be with wudhu’.

“We were surprised to be brought to Masjid Quba' for solat

Subuh by the bus driver, before reaching Medinah from
Makkah. On the way we had stopped at a rest area and I
had taken my ablution there. InsyaAllah, pahala ‘‘Umrah will
be given to those who perform solat at masjid Quba' with
wudhu’ taken from home.”

• Know how to perform wudhu’ on the plane without upsetting

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“What I usually do is use a spray bottle to avoid drips. Then

I perform wudhu’ using just enough water to cover all the
parts of the body which are wajib, i.e. face, hands till elbow,
at least 3 strands of hair (Shafiee) and both feet (place
shoes/sandals beneath the feet to catch the drips if any.
This way, you hardly wet the floor, insyaAllah.”

"I use a paper cup to collect water first instead of fumbling

with the tricky water faucets – that way I could mix the hot
and cold water for nice water temperature. For the feet, I
rinse over the toilet bowl so my shoes don’t get wet.”

• Always bring a full length solat mat, whether you solat inside
or outside the Masjid. The ladies section MAY be
contaminated with babies’ fluids or others’ incontinence, so it
is advisable to have your sejadah over the carpet or floor.

• Even if we can maintain cleanliness, however, we still need

to be prepared to use public washrooms that may not meet
our standard of hygiene.

• Pick up after ourselves and not leave rubbish behind us.

“I noticed that the many pigeons kept the masjid clean by

confining their droppings on the clock tower. Yet, after iftar,
the area surrounding the masjid is full of litter. If birds can do
this, we humans too can take the trouble to keep the masjid

3.2 Play it Safe

Important Phone numbers during Hajj In Saudi Arabia:

(please refer to your travel agent for the most updated info)

Ajyaad Hospital - Makkah 025730070

Arafaat Hospital 025521716
Heera General Hospital - Makkah 025203535
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Jabal-ur-Rahmah Hospital 025280063

Meena Hospital 025520468
Meena Al-Waadi Hospital 025572886
Meena New Road Hospital 025584039
Nimrah Hospital - Meena 025561864
Noor Speciality Hospital - Makkah 025665000
Traffic Police 996
Red Crescent service 997
Fire services 998
Patroling 999


• Wear your ID tag/bracelet AT ALL TIMES AND ENSURE

ESPECIALLY. Carry in the ID tag or your wallet/pocket the
names of the travel agents’ contact persons and their
telephone numbers as well as the hotel business card.


• Keep most of the cash in the hotel safe or somewhere safe

(eg. A locked bag in your hotel room). If you must carry
valuables with you, then hide it on your person rather than
keep it in your sling bag. Carry small change for sadaqah
and/or shopping in your zippered pockets. Identify the
amount for sadaqah and have the cash readily available so
that you won’t fumble while a crowd of the needy gather
around you. Do not open your wallet or purse in public.

“Keep just a bit of money in your pockets and sling bag.

Keep most of the money (e.g. for shopping) in your pants
pockets and wear a jubah over the pants. Or you can use a
neck pouch (please see next bullet point.)

Thieves can be quite nasty. I was hit by one of them (female

pickpocket) when I prised her fingers away from my
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husband's arm. (he was holding some money in his hand

and she was trying to get it). If they do get your money,
shout at the top of your voice. Any language will do. Makkah
and Medinah are multilingual cities and people will help you
to nab the thief.”

“Be careful of men, possibly in ihram, who approach you and

ask “do you speak English?” They come up with a sob story
and ask for money. The first time I was approached, I had
only a few riyals. He grabbed it from my hand and seemed
upset that I had so little to give.”

“I just want to warn others to be very careful with their

wallets/purses/handbags. l was "attacked" by 2 ladies, one
asking for sadaqah pulling my right arm while the other was
quietly pulling my handbag on the left under my “telekong”.
Fortunately l was alert as another friend from my same
group was robbed earlier and warned us. It seems there is a
syndicate now.”

“…Instead I looked for the little boys and girls who were
made to sit in the hot sun begging for alms. I know this is a
syndicate too but I feel pity for those little ones.”

“AlhamdulIllah I found a neat way to keep cash and credit

cards safely and within easy reach. I use a flat double sided
card holder. On one side I place my credit/charge cards, my
i/c and a few pieces of high value denominations. On the
other side I keep neatly folded cash, organized by
denominations. I then slip this rather flat piece inside the
arm glove on my left hand. It is hidden from view because of
the long sleeves. I did, however, constantly remind myself
that I still needed to ask Allah to keep my valuables safe.”

• For the times when you need to carry important documents

and large amounts of cash on you, use a t-shirt with a
zippered chest pocket or a pouch that you can hang around
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your neck, under your clothes. (The neck pouch is usually

available at the travel section of pharmacies and department
stores.) This, however, is no guarantee of security – always
make supplication to Allah and then tawakkal.

• Always be alert and keep up the supplications for protection


"Not everyone who is there has good intentions. A lady in my

group lost SR1600 in the Prophet's masjid. Her robe was cut
with a sharp razor."

“During tawaf, I felt someone opening my backpack zipper

as well as the zipper of another bag I was carrying under my
arms. The thief managed to get away with a pouch
containing cash.”

• Forget about retrieving anything you have dropped when in a

crowd. It may be better to lose the item than to bear the risk
of being trampled if you stop or bend down.

• Always have your telekong and important documents handy

and near you even in your room when you sleep.

"I always thought that once you get to your room, you just
lock your room door and that's it, you're safe. Until my recent
‘Umrah trip in September, when someone knocked on my
room door at 1 a.m. while I was sleeping; telling me to get
out. I got another shock when I took a peek outside and saw
a fireman and the corridor was already full of smoke! If I had
been alone I could have panicked, but I had to take care of
my mother, so I had to keep my cool. I got hold of my
telekong, put on my mother’s telekong, and then had to lead
my mother down the staircase from the 4th floor. When I got
down, I saw some women who only had a small towel on
their head. Some had not covered their heads probably
because they panicked and simply ran for their lives.”
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• When taking ablution, keep your watch, spectacles,

sunglasses, etc. on your person, whether in your pockets or
a waistpouch/backpack/slingbag. Do not leave anything
“lying around.”


• Ladies need to be constantly alert in protecting their aurat.

• Recite the Talbiyah quietly so as not to attract attention

of non-mahrams.

• When applying wudhu, be careful to avoid uncovering

any part of your body, especially within sight of non-

• When performing tahallul, do not expose your hair as

you cut it.

• Check your posture when you are resting in a public

place. Be sure not to lie down in a supine position or
assume other provocative positions. If you need to
sleep, do so in your room or in your tent.

• Keep among the ladies and away from non-mahrams.

• Ladies who are “uzur”, DO NOT stay in the room alone by

yourself during solat times. Sit in the hotel lobby or a public
area, in public view.

• Always have your male mahram travel with you -- be the last
to enter a vehicle and the first to exit.

“I went for Hajj with my mother and aunty. Most important

thing is, just make sure you always stay in a big group.”
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• Avoid going into those narrow shops or narrow alleys alone

because there have been cases of kidnapping there. Be
suspicious of parked vehicles. Remember, we are there on
different turf.

“I have always been independent but when I was there,

walking in a crowded street alone, I could still sense ‘eyes’
following me.”

• Have a friend with you when you go shopping; do not be by

yourself in a shop with a male shop attendant. There are
men who tend to get cheap thrills touching your hand or
body “accidentally”, SO be careful. You may want to wear a
niqob and cover your face (when not in ihram) to reduce the
attractiveness factor.

• Stay calm, istighfar when there are men who are tempted to
hug you during saie or pinch bottoms during tawaf, etc., Ask
Allah for protection and forgive the offender. Take care if you
are bringing pretty teenage girls.

• Advise your spouse/parent/sibling not to enter the quarters

of the opposite gender. If possible, they should remain at the
main door and ask someone to call you. It would be difficult
to watch one’s 'aurat’ when one is resting or sleeping. If you
need to have any discussion, have it outside of the quarters.


• Never carry children on your shoulders in crowded places,

esp. during Tawaf or Saie. Should the child fall, it might be

“An Iranian 2 year old was trampled to death during Tawaf in

Ramadhan 2002. “

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3.3 Take care of our health

• Always take a shower (depending on availability of

washroom and water), blow your nose and clear any phlegm
after performing tawaf or being in a crowded place.
InsyaAllah you will flush out germs and virus.
• If your skin is prone to dryness, do not use soap. This
dries up your skin and may cause chaps and broken skin
which can be infected.
• Do, however, conserve water -- WE ARE IN A DESERT
“When you need to do washing, use as little water as
possible. Unlike in Malaysia, water in Saudi Arabia is
delivered by trucks daily into the building tanks. If you
waste, you might find you don't have any for purifying
yourself later. You might want to store some in bottles just
in case.
Another point to note, especially in Arafah and Mina –– do
not waste water. If you do not have to bathe in Arafah,
please do not. When taking ablution, use a spray bottle or
a cup to reduce the amount of water consumed. In Mina,
shorten your bath and conserve water.”
• Sleep when it is time to rest as you need the energy to do
your ibadah. This also helps you to be alert. Don’t overdo
• At the first sign of illness, drink zam zam & supplicate, take
habbatussauda oil with honey, take extra doses of Vitamin
C, etc. Drink plenty of water.

• For breastfeeding mothers, carry around a paper/plastic cup

so that you may express the milk undercover and keep up
the supply. You need to quickly discard the milk at the
nearest sink/drain. One of the contributors was able to
continue feeding her child after being away for 10 days.
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We need to put ourselves at the service of others. This is when we
need to challenge ourselves to show the utmost selflessness, self-
denial, and human compassion. This is when we need to think about
others and sacrifice some of our needs for their sake. This is when
we need to preoccupy ourselves with worship and good deeds which
benefit others.

Note that if you are performing Hajj, then insyaAllah you will be
spending the first 10 days of Dhulhijjah in Makkah. Righteous deeds
during this period are far better and more rewarding than those done
on other days.

1249. Narrated Ibn 'Abbas (R) Allah's Messenger said, "There

are no days during which the righteous action is so pleasing to Allah
as righteous action done during these days (i.e., the first ten days of
Dhulhijjah)." He was asked: "O Allah's Messenger, not even Jihad in
the Cause of Allah?" He replied, "Not even Jihad in the Cause of
Allah, except in case one goes forth with his life and his property and
does not return with either of it." [Al-Bukhari]

4.1 Give Without Expecting Anything From Anyone

Other Than Allah

• Take this opportunity to perform sadaqah of various kinds:

o donate money to smaller masjids, madrasahs,

students, the poor, orphans;
o feed those fasting during Ramadhan, Thursdays,
Mondays, 13th-15th days of the hijri month, etc.;
o waqaf Qur’an and/or Qur’an translations in the
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“For those who plan to ‘waqaf’ Al-Qur’an in the Masjids,

please get the seller to stamp on the Al-Qur’an the word
Waqaf. Otherwise, it may be taken out of the Masjid. I
realised that most jema’ah are not aware of the above when
I attended the "Reunion" last Saturday at LUTH, Kelana

“Get ready with Saudi Riyals for sadaqah every time after
solat. If you don’t favour the panhandlers who line the
streets, you can sadaqah to organizations (in the boxes
provided, also on the streets). Or to the Ustaz teaching
hafazan groups in the masjid...they usually are around in the
mornings when you go for your solat dhuha.”

4.2 Be compassionate, empathetic and courteous

• Talk only when necessary. Before we open your mouth, ask

ourselves "Would it matter if I do not say what I am going to
say?" If the answer is no, then it’s better to keep quiet. Do
not boast, gossip, argue, lie, etc.

• Ask Allah's Forgiveness not only for ourselves, family and

friends but also for the ummah. We need to let go of grudges
against others. Supplicate for others.

Abud-Darda' (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:

I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

"Whenever a Muslim supplicates for his (Muslim) brother in
his absence, the angels say: `May the same be for you too'.''

• Be alert against the mischief of Satan, who likes to cause

disputes among us. When we travel in groups and have daily
contact with each other, we expose our hidden self. So we
need to learn to love each other as brothers and sisters in
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Islam. Rasulullah (saw) said, None of you has truly

believed unless he likes for his brother what he likes for

• Think well (husnu zan/baik sangka) of others

“If I don't empathise with others, I will be made to. Several

weeks or months ago my eldest son had a few mouth ulcers
and complained he had difficulty eating. At that time, I
thought he was "playing it up." So for the first time in years
(as far as I can recall), I developed a mouth ulcer in Medinah
and found out for myself how DIFFICULT it was to eat. I
realised then the reason for my ulcer and apologised to my

• Please note that the entrances to the Masjid and

passageways are for traffic and should not be blocked by
people praying there, even if it is to join the congregational
prayer that is in progress. You may find the guards chasing
you away from such places at both Masjids in Makkah &
Medinah. When there is overcrowding, however, people do
get to pray at these places just before the start of the
congregational prayers. As soon as the prayers are over, do
hasten to clear the way for traffic.

• Be careful not to harm others in order to perform a sunnah

(eg. Kissing the Black Stone, performing solat behind
Maqam Ibrahim). It is haram (prohibited) to harm a believer.

• Recite the Qur'an or do dhikrullah without disturbing others.

Loud recitation can cause others to lose concentration.

• Remember that for women, it is better to solat in the last saf

and BEHIND the men. When crowds are large, it can get
chaotic and some women may want to push their way
through to solat in the front. What can happen is the space
around the Masjid gets taken up and men do end up
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performing solat behind the women. This can be a little

“challenging” to the men.

• On Fridays, the Masjids tend to be packed because the local

men also solat there. This particular solat is not compulsory
for women, so if it is too crowded, do not add to the
congestion. Ladies can solat dhuhr in the hotel room.

4.3 Be helpful to others

• Share the space for solat. “Provide a place for others and
others will provide a place for you...especially in the Masjid.
Oh yes, extend your silaturrahim..I am blessed with a
Nigerian and a Pakistani sister and an old Indian lady named
Shah Jahan who gave me bangles..she doesn't speak
English, so we used sign language and amazingly she
understood me....”

4.4 Caring for the elderly

• Take care of the elderly, even if they're not supposed to be

under your care. As already mentioned, there are quite a
number of elderly people who don't have anybody
accompanying them.

“There was an elderly lady who was supposed to be taken

care of by her cousins, but they found it quite troublesome to
do so and always left her behind.”

"I find quite a number of people with the attitude "Difficult to

take care of myself, how to take care of others”. Trust me,
you'll find that things which are usually difficult to do become
much easier every time after you help someone in need.
Just to share my own experience, not that I did anything

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much... just things like helping them find their luggage, or if

they don't know how to call home, help them do so... bring
them along to the masjid with you and make sure they come
back with you... those kind of things. I didn't realise it then,
but during my "post-mortem" of my hajj, I realised that the
following happened AFTER I helped out the elderly in my

- There were many people in queue to kiss the hajarul

aswad, so I didn't plan to join them, but somehow right after
my tawaf sunat, I saw a clear passage to the hajarul aswad.
As a matter of fact, the police guarding the hajarul aswad
actually waved to me to get to the Hajarul aswad and
stopped others from pushing and shoving around. I
managed to touch and kiss the hajarul aswad easily.

- At Raudhah, a lady, a total stranger, actually "guarded" me

while I performed my solat, she put her arms around me so
that others didn't push me or walk in front of me. She
disappeared right after I completed my solat, I didn't even
have the chance to thank her.

- While waiting at the airport for our flight home, I went to

buy food for myself, my mother and my aunt. There were
many others who were in haste to buy food, so I just waited
there. One of the Arab men, selling drinks, saw me and
called out his friend selling the food to pack the food for me
first. So I managed to buy the food easily

• Under any circumstances, DO NOT leave an elderly person

by himself/herself outside the hotel at any time.

“ The 4 of us headed for Raudhah and grandma said she

would stay just outside Raudhah and look after our bags.
When we came out, she was not at the place where we had
left her. Apparently the crowd had displaced her and by
God’s will, someone managed to protect her. We had to
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hunt for the stuff we had left with her and could not retrieve

• ALWAYS accompany your elders. If say, you're doing your

tawaf/saie, and the elderly person you're accompanying
seems tired and you feel they need to rest first, accompany
them back to the hotel. Don't ask them to wait at a certain
place for you to finish your tawaf/saie. They may wander and
end up lost in the masjid. In the event that they do get lost,
and the only thing you find later on are their shoes/slippers
outside the masjid, leave the shoes/slippers there.

“This actually happened to someone in my group during my

recent trip. Two elderly ladies ended up lost in the masjid
while their family members completed their ‘‘Umrah. Worse
still, while searching for the two ladies, one of the family
members found their shoes outside the masjid and took their
shoes back. Apparently when these two ladies did get out
through that particular door and could not find their shoes,
they thought they had the wrong door and went back inside
the masjid to find another door out. The elderly ladies were
only found after 24 hours. They had to spend the night in
Masjidil Haram, without any food.”

4.5 Caring for those who need wheelchairs

• Wheelchairs are available for free at Masjidil Haram when

you deposit your passport. They are located in the Saie
area, 2nd floor at the Safa end. Self-driven motorized
wheelchairs are also available for SR40 per usage for tawaf
OR saie, (i.e. SR 80 for both tawaf and saie) during the low
season. The rate increases to SR 100 per usage during
peak season (i.e. Ramadhan, Hajj).

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• It may be preferable to buy one because although the

distance from hotel to Masjid is near, the compound of the
Masjid, which is cemented/tiled, is some meters away from
the entrance. If you rent, it is for a limited duration and is
subject to availability.

• You could buy one from any pharmacy (if you are lucky,
used ones are also available), use it and either sell it back to
the pharmacy or donate it to the hotel where future pilgrims
can borrow it for free. Provided a family member is available
to push the wheelchair every time, it is cheaper to buy than
rent in the long run.

• During the Hajj season, those unable to perform tawaf and

saie on foot can do it using a wheelchair. Renting a
wheelchair can be expensive. It can go up to SR150 per
session. Malaysians can borrow them from the Malaysian
Medical Mission for free or borrow one from Tabung Haji,

• Paying for someone to push the wheelchair can be

expensive. Ramadhan and Hajj season rates are higher than
those in the low season as follows (this is a guide only for
Malay speaking students in Makkah – please give with
Wheelchair & service for tawaf & saie SR 100
Ramadhan SR 150 minimum
Hajj season SR 300 - 350
Wheelchair & service for tawaf only SR 40
Ramadhan SR 70 minimum
Hajj season SR 100 minimum

Different rates may apply if you choose other than these


This service usually includes pick up from hotel to the Haram

and back.

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“During my recent ‘Umrah trip, I saw a place outside Masjidil

Haram which provides wheelchairs for free. We didn't get
any, though, because my mother only needed it for saie, not
for tawaf (for tawaf we could cut short the distance by doing
the tawaf nearer to the Ka’abah, but for saie there's no way
to cut short the distance). So, we rented the wheelchair at
the saie area. In this case, it was the aide who wheeled her
during saie, but both my sister and I promised to keep within
distance, so we did. If you intend to do this, it's advisable to
get the male in your group to follow the person being
wheeled... my sister and I had a tough time trying to catch up
with the aide... his one step was equivalent to 2 steps from
us!!! Phew!!!”

• Tawaf for someone in wheelchair would be together with

every one else. It is advisable for you to wheel your elderly
yourself and perform the tawaf together. He/she can read
the supplication aloud and you can end each with “amin”
since you are unable to hold the book. If you get someone
else to push the wheelchair, the aide may be in a hurry to
complete his job so that he can take in another customer.
He may push the jema’ah at high speed. Yes, the tawaf will
be completed but is it done correctly to the best of the ability
and in the end do you get the satisfaction that you have
completed it successfully? Again use the outer circle as to
avoid the crowd. During Hajj, some proceed to the 2nd and
3rd level of the masjid to perform tawaf.

NOTE: Please ensure that the wheelchair is not left empty and
that it is in your secure possession always. The person who
uses the wheelchair can perform solat in it.

4.6 Avoid Non-mahram Interactions

• Muslim women need to be careful in their dressing and their

speech (avoid soft speech with non-mahrams) so as not to
show off their ‘aurat. It is better to maintain a low profile to
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avoid attracting the attention of non-mahrams. A pilgrim

should not be distracted by anyone or anything from his
focus on Allah swt.

“Take care of your aurat (this includes the female voice). The
Saudi government requires a female to travel with a mahram.
This requirement is not for entry purposes only. It is the
prescribed way of behaviour. It is important that the adhab in
interaction with the opposite sex be observed. I feel that the
observance of this adhab is very important towards protecting
the “mabrurness” of your hajj.

For example, there is no need for a man to go to a woman (vice

versa), who is not an ustazah, to get advice on how to perform
a certain ritual. In this case, you go to a proper ustaz/ustazah.
From my personal experience, I found it bizarre that a man later
came to tell me that “such and such lady, she is so
knowledgeable about doing tawaf, and I learnt a few things
from her” when the lady is not an ustazah and he learnt those
“few things” when she was not with her mahram, and he, his

It is acknowledged that this kind or standard of behaviour is

tough to achieve when we are back home, but at the very least
we should try to achieve it in Makkah with its “much more”
conducive environment.”

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Source: To be identified
Map of area around The Haram in Makkah


When you arrive at your hotel be it in Medinah or Makkah, look

around the place and take a good look at the building you're in. Then
try to remember the surroundings. It’s very important to listen to
instructions of the guide because normally he will show the route to
and from the masjid. Get to know people in the same group. It does
not pay to be a loner out there.
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Solat times

Jot down the time for solat for planning purposes. Because of the
crowd during Ramadhan or the Hajj season, you may have to make
plans to be in the Masjid at least 60 minutes before solat time.


Take note of eating places – local, Indonesian, Indian, etc. Sample

the pure thick fruit juices (mango, orange, sugarcane, guava,
honeydew, etc.) at unbelievably low prices (SR 3-5)

“Go to the Cordoba Barakath hotel (one of the maktabs) after isya' for
a great roti canai and teh tarik.”

“If you like pomegranate juice/drink, look for it at the Royal Makkah
Food Court -- SR5 for a large glass”

NOTE: It is advisable to have food with you, especially on transit and

in case there is shortage of food for whatever reason. Consider
serunding, biscuits, fruits, etc.


If you are staying for more than a few weeks, it may be worthwhile to
get a local prepaid call card – Al Jawal or Mobily. There may be
current promotions on, so it’s best to check them out at their
respective outlets. You can then purchase top up cards from
international call cabins, money changers, mini markets.

Alternatively, you can use your Malaysian mobile postpaid phone line
if you have registered it for international roaming. The rates,
however, may be astronomical. If you have a prepaid roaming line,
then please check with your telco service provider what services are
available to you.

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“You can easily get Al-Jawal prepaid cards either in Medinah or

Makkah. But I felt that the line was clearer with our Celcom postpaid
service. Telekom has their Ring-Ring card that is very convenient to
use from a fixed line phone – just dial 180069 and follow the
instructions. And of course there are the international call cabins.
Very good reception but very long line…”

With a Malaysian mobile postpaid phone line that has roaming facility,
you can call Malaysia from your mobile phone using Telekom’s “iTalk
with mobile”. Dial 180069 and follow the instructions.


There are many laundry facilities available, probably one “around the
corner.” Take a walk around your hotel or find out from your mutawif
the one nearest to your hotel. Rates range from about SR4 per piece
of kain ihram or jubah, SR3 per piece baju melayu top/bottom, SR1
for a pair of socks. Add about another SR1 during peak season.

Check your mutawif for door to door laundry service, usually provided
by Indonesian mutawif/catering staff.

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6.1 The Masjidil Haram (please see Appendices 3 & 4)
Please note that conduct in all masjids and especially The Haram,
should be that of a humble slave before his Lord. Any action or
discussion on purely worldly matters have no place in the masjid.

6.1.1 Getting To Know The Haram: Doors

• There are about 100 doors (and more may be under construction)
at Masjidil Haram, so take note which door you enter. The main
doors are Abdul Aziz, Fahd, ‘Umrah, Fath. These can be identified
from afar by the minaret on either side of each main door. Only
Safa Gate has ONE minaret

Source: To be identified
Anticlockwise: Single minaret at top right hand corner is Safa Gate,
then Fath Gate at top left hand corner, Umrah Gate, Fahd Gate and
Aziz Gate, the latter four being the main gates as marked by double
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Hajj/’Umrah Handbook 2008 Book 3 of 5: PERFORMING THE HAJJ/’UMRAH


1. King Abdul Aziz Gate

2. King Abdul Aziz stairs
3 & 4. Basement Ajiad
5. Ajiad
6. Bilal
7 & 8. Ajiad Escalator
9. Hussain
10. Ismail
(From Safa to Marwa)
11. Safa (in front of the Palace) (Enter here for nearest
access to Rukun Hajarul Aswad)
12 & 13. Gate
14. Abi Qabis stairs
15. Bab Darul Raqir
16. Bani Hashim Flyover
17. Bani Hashim Gate
18. Ali Flyover (green light)
19. Ali
20. Al Abbas (green light)
21. Al Abbas Flyover
22. Al Nabi
23. Al Nabi Flyover
24. Bab As Salam
25. Salam Flyover
26. Bani Shaiba
27. Al Hajoon
28. Al Ma’ala Flyover
29. Al Ma’ala
30. Al Madda-a
31. Al Marwa (Morad)
32 - 34. Marwa Gates
35 & 36. Morad Escalator
37. Al Mohassab
38. Arafa
39. Mina
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40. Quraish Escalator
41. Qararah Escalator
42. Qararah Escalator
43. Al Qararah
44. Ramp Basement Haram
45. Al Fath Gate
46. Zubair Bridge
47 & 48. Haram (basement)
49. Omar
50. An Nadwa Bridge
51. An Nadwa
52. Al Shameia (Enter here for nearest access to the
Golden Spout)
53 & 54. Al Shameia Escalator
55. Al Qods
56. Al Medinah
57. Al Medinah Bridge
58. Al Hodaibia
59 & 60. Haram (basement)
61. Al Mahdi Al Abasi Bridge
62. Al ‘Umrah Gate
63. Al ‘Umrah stairs
64. Gate
65 & 66. Al Shebika Escalator
67 - 74. Gate
75-77. King Fahd (Haram basement)
78. King Fahd stairs
79. King Fahd Gate
80. King Fahd stairs
81- 83. King Fahd (Haram basement)
84-90. Gate
91 & 92. King Fahd Escalator
93 - 94. Gate
95 King Abdul Aziz stairs

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6.1.2 Getting To Know The Haram: Ka’abah

Note: There is no longer a brown marble line today.

• The Ka’abah is about 5-7 meters from the Masjid doors. Look at
the Ka’abah often and think of the history and what had happened
on this holy ground.

“The energy near the Ka’abah is incredible, especially at the

Multazam and at the Golden Spout -- you get reduced to tears

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Hajj/’Umrah Handbook 2008 Book 3 of 5: PERFORMING THE HAJJ/’UMRAH

easily and feel like how one could feel on “Padang Mashar” --
naked, tiny, full of sins -- enough to make one feel repentant.”

“I make it a point to do tawaf every time I enter Masjidil Haram and

before exiting. To me, this is more afdhal than doing ‘Umrah

“I like to khatam Qur’an in Masjidil Haram, so I read the Qur’an

during tawaf instead of the normal du’as. In the afternoon I do it
upstairs so that I don't get too tanned.”

“During Ramadhan, I make du’a while performing tawaf sunat.

Otherwise, I don’t get to make all the du’a for myself, family and
friends near the Ka’abah because of the huge crowd.”

• Hijir Ismail (this is considered to be the INSIDE of the Ka’abah)

Hijir Ismail (semi circle beside Ka’abah) is always crowded. Just

find any small space where you can sujud to perform two-raka’at
sunat and again use sujud akhir to take your time to make
supplication in your heart. The guard may not chase you if you are
in sujud position.

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Source: To be identified
The Golden Spout is right above Hijir Ismail.

An excellent area to perform solat or make supplication is right

underneath or the area extending from the Golden Spout.

“Going to Hijir Ismail is not compulsory for ‘Umrah. It can be done

at any time but personally I always follow this step to ensure that I
have completed everything should I not get a second chance. That
is why it has to be slow and steady, step-by-step.”

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6.1.3 Getting To Know The Haram: Rooftop

The Masjidil Haram rooftop is usually packed towards end Ramadhan
& during the Hajj season. One can also perform saie on the rooftop.

• During the hajj season, do take the opportunity to perform solat on

the rooftop of Masjidil Haram. It is so refreshing to do so for
Subuh and Maghrib solat. You can also tawaf on the rooftop. The
distance may be longer, but the crowd is less than that on the

6.1.4 Entering The Haram

• If you're travelling as a pair or a group, once you get into the

masjid, the splendour of it all normally astounds everyone and a
seasoned traveler is not spared. Be sure to identify a specific
meeting place to meet (eg. door name and number) in case

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anyone goes missing or when you split in the case of men and
women and especially with children.

" My advice is, once you get inside, take a look at the Ka’abah and
make sure which corner of the Ka’abah you see first, i.e. Hajarul
Aswad or Yemeni or whichever. Whenever you get lost, go back to
the Ka’abah and start your move from the particular corner of the
Ka’abah to find your way back."

• Bring a small backpack containing tissues, wet tissues (especially

helpful if you are breaking fast in the Masjid), pen, paper,
tumbler/water flask (so that you don't need to refill Zam Zam water
so often and you can take some back to your residence) when you
go to the masjid, and if performing ‘Umrah, a pair of scissors for

• You may also want to bring any or all of the following: Al

Maathurat, Manzil, Majmu’ Sharif. There is no restriction on
printed materials if it is to help us perform our Ibadah. Printed
material that is forbidden are those related to politics or other
unrelated writings that could adversely affect or change our

“You may want to consider carrying the backpack in front so that it

can also act as a shield in crowded places. Also backpacks can
remain on your back when you go to the toilet or take your

“I like the foldable Travelpak brand (about RM50) – it is lightweight

yet durable. It has bottle compartments at the sides (you can have
your zam zam water bottle on one side and spray bottle for wudhu’
on the other side.”

"The door guards will check your bags for weapons or camera as
well as phones with camera. So as you enter, just open your bag
and show them the contents. Sometimes they will not allow reused
water bottles, so a tumbler or proper water container is better".
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• When the masjid is not crowded, place your bag in front of you so
that others may walk in front of you as you solat. The bag should
be at least 5 “hasta” away from your feet.

• Pack your slippers in a shoe bag upon entering the masjid and
keep the shoe bag in your backpack if you don’t feel confident
leaving it at the shoe rack. Please check with your Ustaz/ah if it is
permissible to tawaf carrying shoes/slippers. In case you lose
your slippers, slippers are usually sold outside the masjids. If need
be, walk home in your socks.

“Travelpak has a thin lightweight shoe bag with a zippered pocket.

The travel/luggage section of major department stores should
have this brand.”

6.1.5 Ibadah Within The Haram

• The mutawif will inform the time for Jema’ah to get together and
perform ‘Umrah. For beginners, it is best to follow the Mutawif.
Mutawif is usually provided for the first ‘Umrah upon arrival in
Makkah. Thereafter, if you would like to engage a Mutawif to
assist you to perform ‘Umrah (accompany and guide you from
hotel to Miqat, through to tahallul) you can use the following rates
as a guide (for a group of less than 20 pax):
Low season SR 70
Ramadhan SR 100 minimum
Hajj season SR 150 minimum

• Remember ‘Umrah and Hajj comprise specific actions. It is

enhanced with supplications. Aim to do your best and try to recite
all the supplications you have learned. You don’t need to
memorise them and you can read from your reference book.

“Personally, I prefer to perform the ‘Umrah without the Mutawif

because a Mutawif will normally be too familiar with the procedure
and tends to proceed at a fast pace. I like to do it at my own pace
and perform it whole-heartedly, reading the supplication in both
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Arabic and Bahasa Malaysia/English and understand every word I

am saying. My advice is do not rush. Each ibadah needs to be
done without rushing and with tertib so that it is done properly
and with full concentration of body, mind and soul.”

• Tawaf (please see Appendix 8)

Perform the Tawaf by circumambulating 7 times around the

Ka’abah. Both males and females move in the same area. The
ladies are normally in black robes except for Malaysians and
Indonesians who are in white. Men are normally in white. If you
can, perform tawaf at night when it’s cool.

Please note that there is no longer a clearly marked line to denote

the Rukun Hajarul Aswad. Use the green light on your right and
the Rukun Hajarul Aswad on your left to approximate your

If you lose count, perform an extra round. There are many things
to watch for in tawaf.

1) Preserve your wudhu’. Keep hands underneath your telekong

and use the arm gloves.
2) Always harden your left shoulder to face the Ka’abah. The cycle
is anticlockwise.
3) Do not touch the Ka’abah until after you’ve completed your
4) Do not be afraid to walk alone in tawaf. If you’re afraid that you
may lose each other, select a checkpoint to meet after tawaf
before performing the next task. Reason: if you move in groups
or link hands, you are unable to be sure that you can walk in
the straight line without moving your shoulder. Tendency for
another group to crash in is high and your shoulder may move.
Then your tawaf may become invalid.
5) For better concentration it is wise to walk the outer circle,
further from the crowd especially at the starting line even
though it may take longer. I have done this many times and
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normally it will take approximately 30-40 minutes to complete

the tawaf.
6) The floor around the Ka’abah is covered with white tiles. If you
perform Tawaf after Dhuhr or ‘Asr when the sun is shining hot,
it is wise to use sunglasses to protect the eyes. You may also
want to wet your head with Zam Zam water to prevent

“There were a few of our ladies there who had performed solat
using the face masks, which is not permissible during ihram.
They also used the masks during tawaf, perhaps after looking
at female pilgrims from other countries.”

Once you have completed your tawaf, proceed behind Maqam

Ibrahim. Perform solat Sunat Tawaf 2 raka’at and recite the
supplication given in the book. If you are able to move towards
the Multazam, raise your hands and recite the supplication.
This is another place where supplications are “mustajab”.
Unless the guard chases you, use this opportunity to make
supplications as much as you can. If unable to go near, then a
distance away is okay as long as it is directly in front of the
Ka’abah door.

NOTE: If it is crowded, you can perform solat Sunat Tawaf

anywhere in the Masjid. Do not add to the congestion.

• Zam Zam (please see Appendix 10)

Once completed*, look for Zam Zam water which can be found
just about everywhere inside and around the masjid. Most of
the containers dispense cool/cold Zam Zam. If you would like it
warm, look for containers with Arabic letters in green. Take a
short break to drink. When you drink the Zam Zam water, face
the Ka’abah, recite the supplication and in your heart ask Allah
to help you in your ‘‘Umrah/Hajj and remove all illnesses from
heart, body, mind and soul.

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* Please note that you can drink Zam Zam water anytime. You
can use the tanks outside the Masjid to fill up big bottles.

In the book, “The Miraculous Healing by Zam Zam Water”

published by Dar Al-Ghadd Al-Gadeed (SR14 @ Da’awah
Bookstore, Hilton Shopping Complex), there are many
examples of what one could ask from Allah when imbibing the
Zam Zam water or when applying over various body parts.

“One of the ‘hikmahs of being uzur during Ramadhan was the

ability to drink LOTS of Zam Zam water. Having read the book
mentioned above, I now TREASURE my limited supply of Zam
Zam water back home.”

• Safa and Marwah.

When you have rested, proceed to Safa and Marwah for Saie. If
it is time for Solat Fardh, stop to perform solat and continue
Start at Safa -- face Ka’abah and Istilam. Then start walking to
Marwah. For ladies there is no need to jog a little at the Green
Light, but for men, yes. Use thick socks to walk the Saie.
Safa Marwah (1 count); Marwah Safa (2 counts) and
continue until 7 counts. If unsure, complete another walk. Better
more than less. You do not have to be in Wudhu’ for this task.
Here you can walk together as there are lanes that you can
follow. If there are more than 2 of you, it is better not to link
hands so that you don’t obstruct others from proceeding at their
own pace.
After you have finished the 7 counts, which will end in Marwah,
perform the Tahallul. Bring a small pair of scissors and cut a
few strands of hair recite the supplication. For men, it is
preferable to shave their hair. In ‘Umrah/Hajj Tamattu’, you are
now out of Ihram. However if in Ifrad, do not cut your hair, as
you will still be in Ihram till Hajj is completed. Thus your first
‘Umrah (which is wajib) is completed. Subsequent ‘Umrahs will
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be Sunat. You can do this as many times as you want by just

taking a short trip to Miqat. You may want to sadaqah the
‘Umrah sunat to a deceased family member or friend.

• If you are well versed in English, look for the THICK Qur’an
translation (there's also a thinner, very readable version) in
English. You may be able to purchase this as well as other
translations at reduced prices at the Qur’an Printing Complex in
“This thick English translation is the most beautiful translation
I've come across -- and you can also purchase it for SR60 at
the bookstore. The thinner version, however, is easier to read
and the footnotes contain hadiths. It comes in hardback at
SR30 and paperback pocket size at SR20-25. The latter is one
I would ‘never leave home without.”

6.2 Arafah

Rest as much as possible 2-3 days before leaving for Arafah.

Resting can increase the probability for patience. If you can afford
it, send clothes to the laundry. Conserve energy for solat and

Source: To be identified
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Wuquf at Arafah on 9 Dhulhijjah is the climax of Hajj, a time of the

year when supplications are most mustajab, i.e. between dhuhr &
Maghrib. Plan carefully how to best utilize the limited precious time

at Arafah. Devote your time, energy, mind and body to Allah .

Avoid mixing tea and taking pictures in the midst of preparing to
move to Muzdalifah. Concentrate on istighfar, glorification, solat
and supplication

• Jabir reported that the Prophet said, "The ten days of

the month of Dhu'l-Hijjah are the best days in the sight of

Allah ." A man asked, "Are these days better than an

equivalent number of days that are spent fighting in the

Cause of Allah ?" The Prophet answered, "They are

better than an equivalent number of days spent fighting in

the Cause of Allah . And there is no day better in the

sight of Allah than the Day of Arafah. On this day

Allah , the Almighty and the Exalted One, descends to

the nearest heaven, and He is proud of His slaves on the
earth and says to those in heaven, "Look at My servants.
They have come from far and near, with hair disheveled and
faces covered with dust, to seek My mercy, even though
they have not seen My chastisement. Far more people are
freed from the Hellfire on the Day of Arafah than on any
other day."

• Ibn Al-Mubarak reported from Sufyan Ath-Thawri, from Az-

Zubayr Ibn Ali, from Anas Ibn Malik that he said: T h e
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Prophet spent the day at Arafah until almost sunset.

Then he said, "O Bilal, ask the people to be quiet and listen
to me." Bilal stood up and asked the people to be quiet and

listen to the Prophet . When the people were quiet, the

Prophet said, "O people, a little while ago Gabriel

(peace be upon him) came to me. Gave me salutations from

Allah and informed me that Allah has forgiven

those who spend the Day at Arafah and those who stop at
Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram, and that He has guaranteed their

At this Umar Ibn Al-Khattab stood up and asked, "O Allah's

Messenger, is this for us only?" The Prophet said, "This

is for you and for all those who will come after you until the
Day of Judgment." Umar exclaimed, "How plentiful and
blissful Allah's bounties are!"

• Muslim and others have reported from A’ishah that the

Prophet said, "Allah frees far more people from

Hellfire on the Day of Arafah than on any other day, and

Allah comes closer this day and proudly says to the

angels, "What do these people want and seek?"

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“My aunt advised me to come out of the tent upon hearing the
Dhuhr adhan and make supplication.”

“Prior to Arafah, I had compiled my supplications so that I could

concentrate and read them during that precious period in Arafah.”


A view of Arafah during the non-Hajj season, with Masjid Namirah

in the background.

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InsyaAllah, it will not be hard to find out the locations of your tent
in Arafah and Mina. In fact, it is possible now to get a map of the
locality. Prepare yourself for walking from Arafah to Mina.
Avoid bringing too many things to Arafah and Mina. Use bags with
rollers or a backpack as you may need to walk for a long stretch to
get to your camp.

For those staying on in Mina from Arafah, be sure to pack the

essentials for the stay in both Arafah and Mina.

Suggested Packing Checklist

Remember that “the best provision is taqwa.”

 Some cash, whether for food or sadaqah.

 Hand phone with new battery
 Extra battery (no electrical outlet to charge hand phone)
 Pen & paper
 Prescription Medication, if any
 Something for dehydration – eyes, lips, internal & external body
 Something for purging/vomiting
 Spray bottle for wudhu’, to freshen face, etc.
 Solat mat
 Qur’an
 Hajj/Solat guidebooks
 Supplications & wish list of what you would like to ask Allah for
yourself, family and friends
 Clothing (please note c o m f o r t a b l e shoes/sandals are
 Sweater for ladies, thick cloth for men
 Sarong for ladies
 Disposable undies/pantiliners
 Toiletry bag with hook
 Wet wipes
 Tissue packs
 Towel
 Waterless non-perfumed hand wash liquid
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 Miswak in lieu of toothbrush & toothpaste

 Sun protection – umbrella, non-perfumed sunscreen
 Ziploc bags to store food.
 Plastic bags for trash
 Water bottle carrier
 Ear plugs
 Small torch light
 Small pouch for at least 70 pebbles
 Combination locks
 Hand luggage with rollers/trolley or backpack
 “Swiss army” knife, which has scissors for tahallul
 Some food
 Mat/camp stool to sit on

“Make sure you have enough clothes for these 5 days. Bring lots
of panty liners and disposable panties.

Whether you go by package or muassasah, you will be crammed

in your tents and the toilets are not enough for us to indulge in
washing our clothes. In addition, we should not deprive others
who really need to use the toilets. If you can't get the toilet for
wudhu’, especially for Subuh, remember that you can perform
wudhu’ with a bottle of water. Some people missed their Subuh at
Mina because they couldn't get into the bathrooms and forgot that
they had another alternative.”

Take a walk around after you've laid down your stuff. Find out
• The nearest toilets are.
• The nearest clinic is.
• The nearest drinking water tanks are.

Pilgrims will be put in a tent with 20 or more people of different

ages. If you notice a person complaining of headaches and feeling
hot, cool her down by fanning her underneath her hijab or telekong
and sponge her especially her head. Most probably she's about to

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get heat stroke. And if you ever leave the tent, be sure to let
someone know of your absence.

Queuing for the bus as well as the bus ride from Arafah to
Muzdalifah may take 10 hours or more, so be prepared with what
you need on hand.

"Once on the bus to Mina, take a good look or get to know the
person who is sitting beside you if you're not traveling with family.
During my hajj trip, a lady on my bus went missing because she
got down again just before we left for Mina from Arafah to go to
the toilet without informing anyone. Unfortunately for her, the
person she sat with was too oblivious of whatever was

“For Hajj 2003, several thousand pilgrims missed mabit in

Muzdalifah, and even a lot more had to walk to their tents in Mina
by disembarking from their buses 4 – 6 kilometres away.
Prospective hujjaj, please take note of this scenario.

The total walk between Arafah and Mina InsyaAllah is about 10

kms (add 1 or 2 kms to your tent). By the time you are in Makkah,
gather a few “similar heads” and discuss the possibility of this
happening again. Then discuss this with your mutawif as to your
contingency plan, for e.g. are you going to walk? When do you
decide to walk? (For men) putting on an extra towel to deal with
the chill of nighttime? Energy bars? What things will you jettison in
order to make walking more comfortable [or you have a haversack
which can be kept in the bag, and if necessary, taken out to be
used to carry your things [and your spouse’s things].”

6.3 Muzdalifah

“If you are with Muassasah, do bring along a sleeping bag for
mabit at Muzdalifah. The system for Muassasah is that we will go
to Muzdalifah after Maghrib or Isya. We have to camp there at
least until midnight to be considered as mabit. At midnight buses
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will come and fetch and send us to Mina. If you decide to go to

Mina early, you'll have to line up quite early. There were more
than 3000 Malaysian pilgrims with me trying to get on the buses.
Many fainted due to exhaustion and cold. (There’s a need in
making sure the pilgrims can get on the buses systematically -- I
hope this will improve after 2005). Better to sleep first and wait
until the crowd has reduced before lining up for the bus. Your
energy is much needed for throwing at the jamarats in Mina.”

6.4 Mina

“Several large construction projects have been undertaken in Mina

with the aim of increasing the safety of pilgrims. The most notable
among them is the new multilevel Jamrat Bridge.

The underground level of the bridge is intended mainly for the

emergency services, such as taking the injured to hospital
through a connected tunnel without disturbing pilgrim
movements at other parts of the Jamrat.

Another important work is the lengthening of Souk Al-Arab and

Jawhara tunnels in the western side of Jamrat. A two-kilometer link
between King Faisal Tunnel and the Rabita Road has been
constructed. It starts from the Khayf Mosque in the east of the
Jamrat and ends at the Sedaqi Street in the western side.

The squares surrounding the Jamrat Bridge have been

secured in such a way that pilgrims will not be able to sleep
or camp there posing a serious threat to the safety of those
who go to or return from the Jamrat.
Two bus depots with a total capacity for 500 buses have been
constructed on the western side of the Jamrat. A considerable part
of the northern hills west of the Jamrat has been leveled to
facilitate the construction of a road starting from King Fahd Road
and leading to the west of the Jamrat.

An eight-story medical tower with a helipad has been completed.”

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(News sources-unidentifiable)

• Tent

“All those fireproof tents were air-conditioned -- Muassasah and

package. We switched on the aircond ourselves whenever we
needed to as the switches were very visible. And no, I didn't notice
a temperature regulator, so it was pleasant in the day and very
cold at night and early morning. The switch for the aircond in the
tents are on the pillars.

Courtesy of Faziatone

There are socket outlets on the beams that hold the pillars of the
fireproof tents in Mina. They are a bit high up but I'm sure ladies
can find a way to connect your hand phone chargers there. Or
easier, just ask your spouses to charge your batteries in their

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Hajj/’Umrah Handbook 2008 Book 3 of 5: PERFORMING THE HAJJ/’UMRAH

Courtesy of Faziatone

On the downside, resourceful thieves put their hands into the tents
through the fences and got away with quite a lot of things from my
tent last time (not mine though as my niche was in the middle of
the tent). If your niche in the tent at Mina is right next to the
gate/boundary/fence, please make sure your bags are kept away
from the fences.”

• Food

“The food packs for Muassasah Hujjaj contained rice, a gravy dish,
and vegetables. A fruit was given too and of course a bottle or a
box of drink.

Most of the time, you'll be getting more food than you can eat at
Mina. Do bring them along with you to the jamarats. You can
sadaqah them to the many needy persons along the way from
your tent to the jamarats (rather then let the food go to waste).”

• Washrooms

Look for toilets that have been used for bathing because these are
more likely to be clean and not smelly.

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“I think the greatest challenge was at the toilets in Arafah and

Mina...I had to garner plenty of patience and watch my mouth!”

• Jamarat

If you have a long way to walk to the Jamarats, bring water and
sweets. Many have fainted due to low blood sugar.

Try to get a few people (preferably male mahrams) to enclose and

protect you with their hands while you throw the stones, so that
you can get near to the pillar. Be sure you know HOW to throw
the stones.

When in doubt about anything, especially the ‘Umrah/hajj rituals,

always, always ask the Ustaz/ah.

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Appendix 1
Brief Words of Advice
By Shaikhul Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhalvi

Some brief words of advice which the late Shaikhul Hadith had
reminded his friends when they came to meet him before departure
for Hajj. (Reproduced from a leaflet published by the Waterval Islamic
Institute, P O box 1, Johannesburg 2000).

1. Always regard those moments of life which you are blessed

with as valuable, and not to be wasted. One cannot predict whether
one would be graced with another good fortune and opportunity or
not. Never waste one's time in vain, meaningless chatting.

2. During one’s presence in the Masjidil Haram and Masjid An-

Nabawi, a person’s conduct and behavior must be respectful,
graceful and exemplary. Neither indulge in uncalled for nonsensical
humor, joking and mocking, nor be occupied in staring and idolising
the decor and finery of those places.

3. Great care and due consideration must be exercised in the

required reverence, ethics and etiquette of both those holy places.
Any improper conduct is extremely harmful and disastrous. One
should neither criticize the things nor the inhabitants of both sacred
places. After all those dwellers are humans also. Everyone on earth
is prone to err and would make mistakes. In such circumstances
instead of taking note of others’ shortcomings one must in particular
focus and monitor one’s own failings.

4. One must abstain from all sins. Since many (men and) women
gather at these places, specific care must be taken to avoid "Bud-
nathariy". Bud-nathariy for men is to look with lust and ogle at non-
mahram females (for females it is vice versa). In addition, one is
required particularly to lower the gaze where females gather for
Tawaaf in Makkah and Salaat-o-Salaam in Madina.

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Appendix 2
Virtues of Makkah

1. While departing from Makkah, Rasullullah (sallallahu alaiyhi

wassallam) halted on a plateau, faced the Qibla and said: "By Allah!
You are the most beloved portion of Allah's earth to me, and verily
you are the most beloved portion of the earth to Allah too. Verily you
are the best, spot on the face of the earth. And the most beloved to
Allah. If your people did not expel me, I would not have departed from
you." (Al-Muatta)

2. Rasullullah (sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) stated in a Hadith-

"The best and the most beloved city on the face of this earth to Allah
is Makkah." (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

3. Rasullullah (sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) stated: "The earth

was rolled out from Makkah. Allah stretched (the earth) from
underneath it. Thus it is called the mother of all cities." (Sahih Al-

4. "The first mountain that was placed on the earth was Abu
Qubais." (Ibn Abi Shiba, Ibn Abi Hatim and Dailmi from Ibn Abbas.)
(Abu Qubais is the name of a mountain near Makkah.)

5. "The angels were the first beings to circumambulate around the

sacred house, two thousand years before Allah created Adam." (Ibn
Abi Duniya from Anas lbn Abi Shiba from lbn Abass/ Shafi from Ka-ab

6. "Around the Ka'bah lies the graves of three hundred prophets."

(Sahih Muslim / Bayhaqi)

7. "There is no city on earth to which all the prophets, the angels,

the holy messengers and all the pious servants of Allah, who reside
in the heavens and on earth, including the jinn, flocked to, except
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Makkah." (Sunan Ibn Majah)

8. "There is no city on earth through which Allah multiplies one

good deed by a hundred thousand except Makkah." (Sahih Bukhari ,
lbn Hibban)

9. "Whosoever offers a salat therein, then that salat is enhanced a

hundred thousand fold over." (Sahih Muslim / Sunan Nisai)

10. "Whosoever gives one dirham therein in charity, Allah writes for
him the reward of having spent a hundred thousand dirhams in
charity." (Ibn Abi Zubair in the Jamul Latif from Sunan Tirmizi)

11. "Anyone who completes the recitation of the full Qur'an once
therein, AIIah records for him the reward of a hundred thousand
recitations." (Baihaqi , lbn Majah)

12. "Whosoever glorifies Allah once therein, for him is recorded the
rewards of having glorified Allah hundred thousand times elsewhere.
Every good deed which a servant enacts in the haram is equivalent to
a hundred thousand deeds enacted elsewhere." (Sunan Nasai)

13. "Each pious deed performed therein is multiplied a hundred

thousand fold." (Sunan Abu Dawud)

14. "It is not known of any other city from which Allah will, on the
day of Qiyamah, resurrect as many Ambiya, Allah-fearing souls,
pious people, truthful ones, martyrs, religious people, Ulama, jurists,
sages, ascetics, devotees, pilgrims, chosen ones and mystics, both
males and females as Makkah. Verily they will be resurrected in a
state wherein they will be safe from Allah's punishment." (Sahih
Bukhari , Sahih Muslim)

15. Rasullullah (sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) stated: "The best,

purest, holiest and closest spot to Allah, is the place between the
Marwah and the Maqam." (Sahih Bukhari , Sunan Ibn Majah)

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16. Rasullullah (sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) stated: "The space

between the Ruknul Yamani and the Hajre Aswad is a garden from
the gardens of Jannah." (Sahih Muslim, Sunan Tirmizi)

17. Rasullullah (sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) stated: "A person who

passed away while performing the hajj or umrah will not be
questioned (in the qabr) nor will any reckoning be taken from him (on
the day of Qiyamah). He will be told: "Enter Jannah in peace with
those who have attained salvation." (Bayhaqi)

18. Rasullullah (sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) stated: "Anyone who

observes the fasts of the month of Ramadan in Makkah, Allah
records for him the reward of a hundred thousand months of fasting
in any other city." (Sunan Ibn Majah)

19. "The salat offered in Musjid-ul-Haram is increased by a hundred

thousand salaah. For verily one obtains one hundred and fifty million
(150 000 000) rewards for a salaah offered therein." (Sahih Bukhari ,
Sahih Muslim)

20. "Anyone who falls ill in Makkah for one day, Allah renders his
body and his flesh haram (forbidden) from the fire of Jahannam."
(Sahih Bukhari)

21. Rasullullah (sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) stated: "Anyone who

falls ill in Makkah for one day, Allah records for that person the
rewards of having done good deeds equivalent to sixty years worship
in any other place." (Muatta)

22. "Anyone who endures the heat of Makkah with patience for an
hour of the day, Allah will distance that person from the fire of
Jahannam by a distance of a journey of five hundred years and bring
him closer to Jannah by a distance of a journey of two hundred years.
Indeed Makkah and Madinah eject any impurities within them like
flames eject rust from iron. Understand carefully! Difficulties and
calamities abounded in Makkah right from its inception. Great stages
are realised by enduring these difficulties." (Sahih Muslim)
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23. "Anyone who endures any difficulty experienced in Makkah

(with patience), I will intercede and bear witness for him on the day of
Qiyamat." (Sunan ibn Majah)

24. "The best valley on the face of this earth is the valley of lbrahim
(alaihis salaam)." (Sahih Bukhari, Sunan Tirmizi)

25. "The best well on the face of this earth is the well of Zamzam."
(Sahih Muslim)

26. "For verily, anyone who touches the Hajre Aswad is cleansed of
his sins just as he was on the day his mother gave birth to him."
(Musnad lmam Ahmad)

27. "There is no city in the world in which one finds an object, which
when touched by any human being, cleanses him of his sins and
leaves him in the same state as he was on the day his mother gave
birth to him, except Makkah." (Muatta)

28. "There is no city on the face of this earth in which a person

offers a salah in accordance with a command which Allah issued to
his Nabi Sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam except Makkah." (Sunan Ibn

29 "Anyone who offers salah behind the Maqam has attained

safety." (Sahih Bukhari, Sunan Nisai)

30 "The most beloved spot to Allah is the area between the

Maqam-e-lbrahim and the Multazam." (Sunan Tirmizi , Abu Dawud)

P.O.Box 1106 Kroonstad,South Africa, 9500
Tel no.: 27-56 -2124604 / Mobile no: 083 477 3786 / Fax no: 086
602 9424
e-mail: web-site:

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Appendix 3
The Blessings of al-Masjid al-Haraam
From Islamic Newsletter 'As-Sunnah' Issue no: 10
Compiled by Sister Shawana A. Aziz

“Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was
that at Bakkah (former name of Makkah), full of blessing, and a
guidance for al-Alameen (the mankind and Jinns). In it are
manifest signs (for example), the Maqaam (place) of Ibraheem
(Abraham); whosoever enters it, he attains security.” [Soorah al-
Imran (3): 96-97]
Al-Masjid al-Haraam was the first house of worship ordained for
mankind on Earth. Allah has placed several blessings in it, for e.g. the
Salaat in al-Masjid al-Haraam has increased rewards in comparison
to the Salaat prayed anywhere else. The Messenger of Allah
(sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “One Salaat in my Masjid is
better than 1,000 Salaat anywhere else except in al-Masjid al-
Haraam.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim] and: “One
Salaat in al-Masjid al-Haraam is better than 100 Salaat in my
Masjid.” [Musnad Ahmad]

The Blessing of the water of Zam-Zam: Zam-Zam is the name of

the famous well in al-Masjid al-Haraam. It is situated at a distance of
thirty cubits away from al-Kaa'ba. This well sprung up when Isma'eel ,
(the son of Ibraheem (alaihi as-salaam) and Hajar), as an infant
struck the Earth with his heels, in thirst. His mother looked for water,
but could not find any. She climbed to the top of Mount Safa and
prayed to Allah for help, and then she climbed Mount Marwa and did
the same. Allah responded to her supplication and sent Jibreel to dig
out the well of Zam-Zam. It is from the virtues of the well of Zam-Zam
that it is situated in Makkah, which is a desert land. Today, even with
all the advanced scientific technologies, no well can be dug in the
land of Makkah, where Zam-Zam is fresh and gushing forth water in

Imaam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (rahimahullah) said: "Zam-Zam

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water is the best and noblest of all waters, the highest in status, the
dearest to people, the most precious and valuable to them…” The
scholars agree that it is Mustahabb (recommended) for pilgrims on
Hajj and Umrah in particular, and for all Muslims in general, to drink
from the water of Zam-Zam because Allah's Messenger (sallallahu
alaihi wa-sallam) is reported to have drank water of Zam-Zam in a
number of true Ahaadeeth. [Saheeh al-Bukharee]

It is the water of Zam-Zam, with which Jibreel (alaihi as-salaam)

washed the Prophet’s (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) heart before the
Night Journey (i.e. Isra wal-Miraaj). Al-Haafiz al-Iraaqi (rahimahullah)
said: “The reason why the Prophet's chest was washed with Zam-
Zam water was to make him stronger so that he could see the
kingdom of Heaven and Earth, Paradise and Hell, because one of the
special qualities of Zam-Zam is that it strengthens the heart and
calms the soul…”

It is reported in Saheeh Muslim, that the Messenger of Allah

(sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said to Abu Dharr (radhi allahu anhu),
who had stayed near the Kaa'ba and its coverings for thirty days and
nights with no food or drink other than Zam-Zam: “How long have you
been here?” Abu Dharr (radhi allahu anhu) said: “I have been here
for thirty days and nights.” The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-
sallam) said: “Who has been feeding you?” He said: “I had nothing
but Zam-Zam water, and I have got so fat that I have folds of fat on
my stomach. I do not feel any of the tiredness or weakness of hunger
and I have not become thin.” The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-
sallam) said: “Verily, it (the water of Zam-Zam) is blessed, it is a
food that nourishes (or satisfies).” [Saheeh Muslim v: 4, no: 1922]
In another narration: “...and a healing for sickness.” [Al-Bazzaar
(1171, 1172) and al-Tabaraani in al-Sagheer (295)] Thus, drinking
from the water of Zam-Zam is nourishment and a cure for sickness.
But this needs full faith and sincerity in Allah, the all-Mighty, Who has
placed such immense blessings in this water.

Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullah) said: “Myself and others tried seeking

healing with Zamzam water and saw wondrous things. I sought
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healing with it from a number of illnesses, and I was healed by the

permission of Allah. I saw someone who nourished himself with it for
a number of days, half a month or more, and he did not feel hunger;
he performed Tawaaf along with the other people just as they did.
And he told me that he consumed nothing but Zam-Zam water for
forty days and he had the strength to sleep with his wife, to fast and
to perform Tawaaf numerous times.” [Zaad al-Ma'ad, 4/319, 320]

It was reported from Jaabir Ibn Abdullah (radhi allahu anhu) that the
Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “The water of Zam-Zam
is for whatever it is drunk for.” [Ibn Majah vol: 2, no: 1018 (see al-
Maqaasid al-Hasanah by al-Sakhaawi, p. 359)] Therefore, the
scholars recommend that one should make lots of Du'aa while
drinking the water of Zam-Zam and he should drink it for a purpose
that will benefit him in this world and the next.

The Salaf and Ulama acted upon the (above-mentioned) Hadeeth of

Allah’s Messenger and thus when Abdullah Ibn al-Mubarak went for
Hajj, he came to Zam-Zam and said: “O Allah, Ibn Abil-Mawaali told
us from Muhammad Ibn al-Munkadir from Jaabir (radhi allahu anhu)
that Your Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “The water of
Zam-Zam is for whatever it is drunk for.” I am drinking it to quench the
thirst of the Day of Resurrection.” [(Hasan) Sunan Ibn Majah (al-
Manaasik, 3062)]

It was reported that when Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu) drank from
the water of Zam-Zam, he said: “O Allah, I ask you for beneficial
knowledge, plentiful provision and healing from every disease.”
Shaikh Ibn Uthaymeen (rahimahullah) said: “You should have the
intention of what you want to gain by drinking this water. You should
drink your fill, i.e., fill your stomach with it until it is filled to the ribs,
because this water is good. A Hadeeth has been narrated concerning
this (which mentions that) the difference between the believers and
the hypocrites is drinking one's fill of Zam-Zam water. [Narrated by
Ibn Maajah in al-Manaasik, 1017; al-Haakim, 1/472 (Al-Boosairi said
it is Saheeh)] Therefore, Zam-Zam water is not sweet; it is little salty,
and the believer only drinks this salty water out of faith, believing that
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there is Barakat (blessing) in it. So when he drinks his fill of it, this is a
sign of his faith (in Allah). [Sharh al-Mumti', v: 7. pp. 377-379]

Some Fuqahah mention it a Sunnah to drink the water of Zam-

Zam to one's fill. Scholars explain it to be Mustahabb and from the
etiquettes of drinking water to sit, say Bismillah, pause to take a
breath three times and say al-Hamdulillah after drinking, as one
should do when he takes any other kind of drink. Regarding the
Hadeeth of Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu anhu), who said: “I gave the
Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) water of Zam-Zam to drink,
whilst he was standing.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee vol: 3, no: 492] This
Hadeeth should be understood in the sense that even though it is
encouraged to drink water whilst sitting, it is not Haraam (unlawful) to
drink whilst standing.

People who visit Makkah and Medina should take the water of Zam-
Zam with them back to their countries because it is blessed and a
cure for the sick. Aa'ishah (radhi allahu anha) reported that she took
the Zam-Zam water home with her in bottles, and she said: “The
Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) took some of it away
with him, and he used to pour it on the sick and give it to them to
drink.” [at-Tirmidhee vol: 4, no: 37]

Al-Hafiz al-Sakhaawi (rahimahullah) said in Al-Maqaasid al-Hasanah:

“Some people said that the virtue (of Zam-Zam water) remains only
so long as it is in its place (of origin), and that when it is taken away, it
changes. This is an idea that has no basis. The Prophet (sallallahu
alaihi wa-sallam) wrote to Suhayl Ibn Amr: “If my letter reaches you at
night then do not wait until morning, and if it reaches you during the
day, do not wait until evening, to send me some Zam-Zam water.” He
sent him two containers full, and at that time he was in Medina,
before the conquest of Makkah. This Hadeeth is Hasan because of
corroborating evidence. Aa'ishah (radhi allahu anha) also used to
take Zam-Zam water away with her, and she reported that the
Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) used to do this; he used to carry
it in small vessels and buckets, and pour it onto the sick and give it to
them to drink. Whenever a guest visited Ibn Abbas (radhi allahu
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anhu) he would honor him by giving him Zam-Zam water to drink. Ata
(radhi allahu anhu) was asked about taking Zam-Zam water away,
and he said: “The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), al-Hasan and
al-Husayn all took it away with them.” [see Fath al-Baree vol: 3, no:
493; al-Mughni, vol: 3, no: 445, Nihaayat al-Muhtaaj, Shifa' al-
Gharaam bi Akhbaar al-Balad al-Haraam, by al-'Iraaqi vol: 1, no:

Another Blessing of Masjid al-Haraam is al-Hajar al-Aswad (the

Black Stone), from where the Tawaaf (circumambulating) initiates
and ends. Hajar al-Aswad is a stone of Paradise and it was as the
Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “The black
stone descended from Paradise whiter than milk, but the sins of the
descendants of Adam made it black.” [Musnad Ahmad and at-
Tirmidhee no: 2577. The latter stated it as Hasan] Al-Muhibb al-
Tabari said: “The fact that it (has turned) black is a lesson for those
who have insight. If sins can have this effect on an inanimate rock,
then the effect they have on the heart is greater.” [Fath al-Baree, 3/

From the virtues of al-Hajar al-Aswad is that touching it causes the

(minor) sins to be forgiven, Ibn Umar (radhi allahu anhu) said: “I
heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) say:
“Touching them both [the Black Stone and al-Rukn al-Yamani] is
an expiation for sins.” [(Hasan) by at-Tirmidhee, no: 959 and
(Saheeh) by al-Haakim, vol: 1, no: 664] Sowayd bin Ghaflah said: “I
have seen Umar kissing the Black Stone and touching it.” He further
said: “I know that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) was
especially very particular about it.'” [Saheeh Muslim] Ibn Umar (radhi
allahu anhu) reported that Allah's Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-
sallam) used to come to Ka'bah, touch the Black Stone and then say:
Bismillahi wallahu akbar (In the name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest.)
[Musnad Ahmad]

Kissing al-Hajar al-Aswad is from the Sunnah of Allah's

Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam). This kissing is a manner of
honoring this noble Stone of Paradise. It is reported in Saheeh al-
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Bukharee (1520), Saheeh Muslim (1720) that Umar approached the

Black Stone and kissed it. Then he said: “I know that you are a mere
stone that can neither harm nor do any good. If I had not seen the
Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) kissing you, I would have never
kissed you." So, the Black Stone is a blessing from Allah because
one erases all his past (minor) sins merely by touching and kissing al-
Hajar al-Aswad.

The Black Stone will come forth on the Day of Resurrection and
will testify in favor of those who touched it in truth. “The Messenger of
Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said concerning the Stone: “By
Allah, Allah will bring it (al-Hajar al-Aswad) forth on the Day of
Resurrection, and it will have two eyes with which it will see and a
tongue with which it will speak, and it will testify in favor of those who
touched it in sincerity.” [(Hasan) by at-Tirmidhee, no: 961]

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Appendix 4
Women in Islamic Society: Rules to Observe in
Dr. Abd Al-Haleem Abu Shuqqah

When women come to the mosque to join a congregational prayer, it

is important to observe certain rules. We mentioned two of these last
week: avoiding wearing perfume, and forming lines in the back
without separation. We will look at the other rules today.

1. The best of women’s lines is the last one. Abu Hurayrah quotes the
Prophet (peace be upon him) as saying: “The best of men’s lines is
the first and the worst is the last, while the best of women’s lines is
the last and the worst is the first.” (Related by Muslim.) This is not to
suggest that all contact between men and women in the mosque is
improper. It simply highlights practical considerations. Those in the
first line are the ones who come early to the mosque. They stand
close to the imam and as such they can follow the recitation of the
Qur’an more attentively. By contrast, a woman may find it hard to
come early, because she has to attend to things at home particularly
if she has young children. Moreover, being close to men’s lines may
be distracting to either party. This organization has a further
advantage, which is preventing crowding at the mosque’s entrance. It
also enables women to be the first to leave after the prayer is over.
Thus women can be the last to arrive in the mosque and the first to
leave. This reflects care for women and consideration for their
domestic responsibilities.

2. Women are recommended to wait a little before raising their heads

after prostration. Sahl ibn Saad reports: “Men used to pray with the
Prophet tying their robes around their necks. Therefore, women were
told not to lift their heads until men have sat down.” (Related by Al-
Bukhari and Muslim.) The reason for this, according to Ibn Hajar, is to
avoid the possibility that women would see men’s private parts as
these might be exposed when they rise. When men’s robes are tied
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around their necks, they cover less of their bodies, leaving that
possibility. The same principle applies today when some men wear
tight trousers.

3. Drawing attention by clapping: Sahl ibn Saad quotes the Prophet

(peace be upon him) as saying: “What is the matter with you
clapping so often? If there is something to which you want to draw the
imam’s attention you should glorify God, saying Subhan Allah.
Clapping is for women only.” (Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.)
This is when a woman wants to draw the imam’s attention to a
mistake he might have made, or to something nearby which he
cannot see.

4. The imam should make sure to facilitate things for women,

particularly in Isha prayer, which should not be delayed. Lady
Ayesha reports: “One night the Prophet was late for Isha prayer, until
Umar called out to him saying: ‘Women and children are overcome by
sleep.’ The Prophet went to the mosque to lead the prayer. He said:
‘No one on the face of the earth is waiting for this prayer other than
you.’ At the time, Madinah was the only place where people prayed.
They used to offer this prayer between the disappearance of the
bright horizon and the end of the first third of the night.” (Related by
Al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

5. Keeping the congregational prayer short. Anas ibn Malik quotes

the Prophet as saying: “I may begin a prayer intending to make it
long. Then I may hear a child crying, and I keep the prayer short
because I realize that his mother is anxious to attend to him.”
(Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

6. Giving women a chance to leave first: Hind bint Al-Harith quotes

Lady Umm Salamah, the Prophet’s wife, as saying: “When the
congregational prayer finished during the Prophet’s lifetime, women
would quickly rise and leave, while the Prophet and the men who
were with him in the prayer would wait for a while. When the Prophet
rose, the men also rose.” (Related by Al-Bukhari.) Al-Zuhri
comments: “I believe that the Prophet stayed behind a little to allow
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women to leave before men.

7. There is no restriction to prevent men and women from dealing

with one another in the mosque. For one thing, they see each other,
since there is no screen or separation between their places of
worship. People used to lower their gaze, but they could look casually
at each other. There is nothing wrong with that. Moreover, the
Hadiths that we have quoted make clear that conversation between
men and women took place when needed. We quoted the Hadith
speaking of women being told to stay a little longer before raising
their heads in prayer. One Hadith mentions that in one quarter, the
imam was a child wearing a short robe. He was chosen because he
had learned more of the Qur’an than anyone else in his clan. One
woman pointed out that he needed longer robes, and the men bought
a new one for him.

There are also Hadiths which indicate that men and women moved
freely in the mosque. We mentioned the Hadith of the woman who
used to clean the mosque and when the Prophet missed her he was
told that she died. He said to his companions that they should have
mentioned her death to him. He wanted to know where she was
buried and he went to her grave, praying there for her.

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Appendix 5
Do's And Don'ts In HAJJ
By Muhammad Alshareef

In Aqeedah (the Muslim's Belief)

- Many Pilgrims when they travel to Medinah they solat to the

graves. They make Du’a' to Rasul Allah (Sal Allahu alayhi wa
Sallam). This could not only ruin their Hajj, it could nullify their
- Do not rub graves for Barakah.
- Do not make Do'a to anyone except Allah ta'aala.
- When going to Medinah, your initial intention should be to visit
Masjid An-Nabawee, the Prophet's Masjid.

In Ihraam

- Do not pass the Meeqat without being in the state of Ihraam. If you
are landing in Jeddah and going to Makkah to perform ‘‘Umrah
directly, you must be in a state of Ihraam before you land, as the
plane shall enter the Meeqat. Jeddah is inside the Meeqat.
- If you are landing in Jeddah, you need your Ihraam towels with
you on the airplane in your carry-on bag.
- Women may wear anything Islamically permissible for Ihraam.
- Do not take pictures of yourself in Ihraam. You came to worship
Allah and taking pictures for showing others later may contradict
your sincerity of doing this for the sake of Allah.
- Women in their menses must be in a state of Ihraam when they
pass the Meeqat. They should shower and do talbiyah like
everyone else.
- Do not uncover your right shoulder until you reach the Ka'bah and
begin Tawaf. This is the time that the Messenger uncovered his
shoulder and it is an act of Hajj, so we must follow when the
Prophet did it.

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- You may change your Ihraam towels if they get dirty· You do not
enter into Ihraam by just wearing the towels. You must make the
intention to begin.
- Do not shave your beard, whether before, during or after Ihraam.
- You should wear sandals, but if you do not have sandals, you do
not have to walk barefoot. Wear what you have until you find a
place to get sandals.
- When beginning your Ihraam for Hajj, do it from where you are: in
your hotel, on the street, etc. You do not have to go to the Ka'bah
to start your Ihraam for Hajj.
- Do pay attention to what you are saying when you are making the
Talbiyah: Labayk Allahumma Labbayk...
- When you hear that you are not allowed to wear stitches in
Ihraam, know that what is meant is that you cannot wear pieces of
cloth that are sewn together to wrap your body, such as a T-Shirt
or underwear.
- Both men and women may shower with unscented soap. Yes, for
women and men, you may comb your hair, as the Prophet's wives
used to do when they were in Ihraam.

In Tawaf

- You do not have to say your intention out loud to begin Tawaf.
Saying intentions out loud is something the Prophet (Sal Allahu
alayhi wa sallam) never did except after Ihraam when he said,
"Labbayk Allahuma ‘‘Umrah wa Hajj."
- You do not have to touch the black stone for your Tawaf to be
accepted. If it is crowded you may face your hand toward the
stone and say Allahu Akbar.
- Do not kiss the Yemeni corner. You may only touch it.
- Do not worship the black stone. You are glorifying Allah by coming
to this house and worshiping Him, following the Sunnah of Rasul
Allah (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam).
- Do not follow those Du’a books that make up du’a for each time
you go around the Ka'bah. Read Quran and make Du’a from your
heart and glorify Allah.

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- Make Du’a by yourself, do not do it in a shouting group around the

- Do not wipe the walls of the ka'bah during Tawaf. Rasul Allah did
not touch anything other than the black stone and the Yemeni
- Do not hurt anyone to kiss the black stone.
- Do not face your hand to the Yemeni corner and say Allahu Akbar.
This is only for the black stone.
- Do not push or hurt anyone during Tawaf
- The Ka'bah should be to your left. Do not do Tawaf with your back
to the ka'bah.
- Do not stand at the black stone line for a long time. Move on.
- Do not lengthen your 2 Rakas of Tawaf
- There is nothing in the sunnah about: Du’a Maqam Ibraheem.
After you solat the 2 Rakas of Tawaf move on.

In Sa'I (going between Safa and Marwah)

- Although preferable, you do not have to have Wudu during Sa'i.

- You do not have to climb to the top of Safa or Marwa.
- You can take breaks in Sa'I to drink water or rest.
- You can take a break after Tawaf, before Sai'.
- You do not have to jog the whole way, from Safa to Marwa. Only
within the green lights, the valley of Safa and Marwa.
- Women do not have to run between the green lights.
- There is no specific du'a to say between Safa and Marwa.
- Do not miss the Du'a that Rasul Allah said when he stood on Safa.
Then raise your hands and solat as he did, Sal Allahu alayhi wa
- Do not say your intention out loud before making Sa'i.

When Shaving or Trimming

- Shave your complete head, do not leave parts unshaved.

- If you shall trim, take from all sides of your head.
- Do not take off your Ihraam until you have shaved or trimmed. You

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are still in Ihraam until you do so.

- Do not shave your beard.

In Mina, Arafah, and Muzdalifah

- Many people do not confirm if where they are located is inside or

outside the borders of the holy sites. Confirm.
- Do not reserve a place that is more than your need. Many people
are looking for places to sit down and sleep.
- Only in Arafah and Muzdalifah do you shorten and combine solat.
In Mina only shorten your solat, but solat them at the correct time.
- Do not waste your Hajj time in vain chatting.
- Spending the 8th day in Mina is the Sunnah of Rasul Allah. Many
people skip this and go to Arafah.
- Do not push anyone when you are in a crowd.
- You do not have to go to the Mt. Of Mercy in Arafah. Many people
hurt themselves and others to be there even though it is not a Wajib
thing to do.
- Mt. Rahmah is not a holy mountain. Do not wipe its sand and rocks
for barakah.
- You do not have to solat Dhuhr and ‘Asr on Arafah day in the
Masjid of Arafah (Masjid Namirah). You may solat in your tent with
your group.
- Do not leave Arafah before Maghrib time.
- Women should avoid getting into a crushing crowd, like in Masjid
- Do not face Mt.Rahmah on Arafah day when you make Du'a. You
should face the Qiblah.
- You should not treat your time in Arafah like any other day. You
should realize the significance and solat to Allah in humility.
- At Maghrib time in Arafah, do not solat Maghrib and Isha' until you
Reach Muzdalifah, even it you reach there at 11:00 at night.
However, if you see half the night approaching, solat where you
are on the road.
- Make sure you are in Muzdalifah before you stop and rest. Many
people think they are in Muzdalifah but they are not. Look for the
border signs. If you have not seen one, chances are you are still
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not in Muzdalifah even if you see others sleeping on the road.

- After solat Maghrib and Isha in Muzdalifah, go to sleep
immediately, this is what Rasul Allah (saw) did.
- Through all of this, continue doing your Talbiyah.

In stoning the Jamarat

- The Jamarat are not Devils, and Shaytaan is not tied up for the
stoning of himself. Hajjis that hold this misconception end up
cursing, swearing, throwing sandals, etc. It is a commandment
from Allah to glorify Allah by saying 'Allahu Akbar' with each
- You do not have to wash your stones.
- Do not throw sandals or wood or big rocks. This is all against the
- Do not hurt/shove when at the Jamarat.
- Say Allahu Akbar with each pebble. Do not say Bismillaah.
- Throw the pebbles separately.
- Make Dua' after the first and second Jamarat.
- Do not throw the Jamarat before it is time.
- Throw the Jamarat from small to medium to large. Not the other
- If someone is throwing on your behalf, you must be unable to
- If someone is throwing on your behalf, you do not have to collect
the stones yourself and hand the stones to that thrower.
- Throw seven pebbles, not more or less.

In Tawaf Al-Wadaa' (Farewell Tawaf)

- You cannot do your final Jamarat after Tawaf Al-Wada', as some

people attempt.
- Do not walk in massive groups during Tawaf. This hurts many
- You MUST spend the night in Mina on the 10th night and 11th
night. The two days of Hajj, the days of Mina, are the 11th and
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12th, not the 10th and 11th.

- After Tawaf Al-Wadaa' you must leave Makkah, or else another
Tawaf should be made.
- After Tawaf Al-Wadaa' you may have lunch or wait at a bus, etc.,
as long as you are on your way out of Makkah.

In Medinah

- Visiting Medinah has nothing to do with your Hajj. It is something

different and separate.
- Do not wipe or kiss any walls for barakah. It is only rock and
- Do not raise your voice near the Prophet's grave.
- Do not do Tawaf around the Prophet's grave.
- You do not need Ihraam to enter Medinah.
- Do not make Du'a to the Prophet. Du'a is to be made to Allah and
Allah alone.
- If you want to solat for the Prophet to intercede for you on the day
of Judgement (Shifaa'ah), solat to Allah for that. "O Allah, allow
Your Prophet to intercede for me.."
- Do not raise your voice in Du'a near the grave. Face Qiblah and
leave the grave area when you want to make Du'a.


- Do not add the term Hajji to your name after returning home.
- Hadith such as: "whoever visits my grave, I shall intercede for
them." Hadith to this effect are lies against Rasul Allah.

A final note:

There are three categories of Muslims who make mistakes:

1. One group is sincerely ignorant of these things and they have little
clue that what they are doing is Haram or incorrect. For these people
- in sha' Allah - there is nothing upon them.

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2. A second group is ignorant, but they have the ability to learn and
find out. All that stops them from doing so is their laziness in studying
and asking. For these people, it is feared that they may be sinful for
their laziness in learning.

3. A third group is aware of these mistakes. They perform it however

to either follow their culture or to misguide people. This person is
sinful and they shall assume the sin of those that they misguide.

"Our Lord, do not take us to account if we forget or make a mistake" -


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Appendix 6
Fifty Things To Do @ HAJJ
By Muhammad Alshareef

Many who go for Hajj may find themselves sitting in a tent thinking to
themselves, 'now what do I do'. Some pick themselves up and go
around doing things pleasing to Allah - others may not capture the
moment due to inexperience.

Here is list of beneficial things to do during your Hajj trip. If you are
not going for Hajj, why not forward it to someone who might benefit
from it on his or her journey. At least they can practice number 26.

May Allah ta'ala make it a safe journey for all the Hujjaj. Ameen.

1. Smile in another Muslims face

2. Say Salam to strangers
3. Shake someone's hand and ask about their health
4. Buy tea for someone
5. Offer to get someone's groceries
6. Sit with a Hajj group from another country and ask about Islam
in their village
7. Carry someone's bags for them
8. Guide someone ill to the infirmary
9. Shun vain talk
10. Recite talbiyah loudly, encouraging others
11. On the days of Eid, walk through the tents reciting talbiyah
loudly reminding others
12. Gather stones for people
13. Offer to throw on behalf of unable Hajjis
14. Guide people to the Jamarat
15. Lower your gaze
16. Remind people of the lives of the Sahaabah
17. Read Qur'an with the Tafseer
18. Do the authentic Dhikr of the morning and evening
19. Make du’a during your Sajdah
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20. Stand to the side of a gate and offer people water/tea as

they leave
21. Give major attention to shy people in your group
22. Remind people of patience, why they came here, and the
example of our Ulumaa' in Hajj
23 Explain a Hajj Khutbah you may have heard to those around
24. Explain the importance of purifying ones actions for the sake of
25. Phone relatives (from Makkah) on Eid day
26. Make du’a for forgotten friends (and the author of this list)
27. Don't allow Muslims to fight during Hajj
28. Help people find a place to sleep
29. Remember - during the heat - the unending torment of hellfire
30. Say 'Laa ilaaha illa Allah, wahdahu laa sharika lah, lahul Mulk
wa lahul hamd, wa Huwa 'ala kulli shay'in Qadeer' 100x
31. Say the dua of entering the market place when you go there
32. Give charity to those who sell meager things (sandals/eggs)
33. Attend the Halaqahs that are given in Mina
34. Stay for the 13th of Dhul Hijjah
35. Remind people to go home as better Muslims
36. Forgive people that wrong you
37. Talk to 10 different people from 10 different countries
38. Compliment someone sincerely
39. Visit the hospital and thank Allah for all that he has given you
40. Take young Muslims and invite them to sit with the elders.
Make them the center of attention.
41. Give a tafseer class after Salah / ask someone knowledgeable
42. (For men) On the days of Eid, offer perfume to those around
43. Ask about the health of senior women in your group. Make sure
they are attended to.
44. Focus hard on helping those immediately near you
45. Take people to the slaughter house and help them / Or assist
them in purchasing their slaughter coupons
46. Remember specific blessings Allah has bestowed upon you
and say Alhamdulillah
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47. Solat to Allah using his 99 most beautiful names (al Asmaa' al
48. Use a Miswak
49. Fill your pockets with candies and give to the children that you
50. Always intend reward from Allah for everything you go through
during Hajj

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Appendix 7
A Woman's Guide to HAJJ
By Muhammad al Shareef


All praise is due to Allah. We praise Him, seek His help, and ask His
forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our souls, and
the adverse consequences of our deeds. Whoever Allah guides,
there is none that can misguide him. And whoever He misguides,
then none can guide him aright.

I bear witness that there is no deity that is worthy of worship except

for Allah; He is alone, having no partners. And I bear witness and
testify that Muhammad - sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam - is His perfect
worshipper and messenger.

The objective of this article is to give the Muslim woman a chance to

see those Fiqh rulings that are specific to her in Hajj - since many a
time her rulings are lost in the general discussion of how to perform
Hajj. In the end one should have a general idea of those things that a
woman differs from men in performing the Hajj. Both men and women
should be able to recognize these differences in ritual worship.

After having been given the opportunity - alhamdullilah - to perform

the Hajj for a few years, the subject that came to mind for this course
of Fiqh Al-Kitaab is Sunnah and that of women in Hajj. Because of
the lack of people who are experienced with the rites of Hajj from
North America, I wanted to give the Muslim woman a chance to look
specifically at those things which she needs to focus on and

To elucidate the Fiqh rulings specific to women in Hajj, I'll focus on

two issues:
1. While in Ihram

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2. Ritual differences between men and women.

In conclusion, all praise is due to Allah, subhaanahu wa ta'ala. All

goodness is from Him - Jalla wa a'ala - and no matter how much we
praise Allah it would not equal the blessings that He - subhaanahu wa
ta'ala - bestowed upon us.

I thank the American Open University, with their diligent work in

helping to carry the message of Islam to homes all across the United
States and abroad, for giving me the chance to study this topic and
benefit from it's contents.

And with special mention, I must thank my instructor Dr. Houcine

Chouat who responded favorably to the idea of this essay being
written in English, instead of the standard Arabic. May Allaah ta'ala
reward him, and the entire administration at the American Open
University, with the best of reward and may they find safety on a Day
when no wealth or children will avail, only those that came with a
sound heart. And our final solat is that to Allah belongs all praise.

1. While in Ihram

Should a woman shower upon entering the Meeqaat?

It is equally part of the Sunnah for a woman to shower before Ihram

just as it is for a man. In fact, in the case of women who at the time
may be experiencing Hayd or Nifaas, there is specific proof that she
should take this shower.

Imam Muslim relates in his Saheeh that from Aisha - radi Allahu
`anha - that she said, "Asmaa' bint `Umays had nifaas after giving
birth to Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. This happened at Ash-Shajjarah (a
place near the Meeqat outside of Medinah). So Allah's Messenger -
sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam - directed that she should bathe and
begin the tahleel."

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In this regard of showering before Ihraam, the menstruating woman is

in the same ruling as one who finds herself in Nifaas. Rasul Allah -
sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam - said, "If the Menstruating woman and
the one in Nifaas enter the time they should bathe and enter into
Ihraam and complete all the rituals (like others) except Tawaf of the


Abu Dawood and others narrated that Ibn Abbas - radi Allahu `anhu -
asked Abu Ayyoob Al-Ansaari, "While he was in a state of Ihram, how
did Rasul Allah - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - wash his head?" Abu
Ayyoob (who was bathing at the time) replied by asking someone to
pour water on his head. He then rubbed his head with his hand, going
back and forth. He then said, "In such a way I saw the Prophet - sal
Allahu alayhi wa sallam - wash."

This narration is used by the scholars as proof that it is permissible

for a male or female in Ihram to take a bath and pour water over their
head and to pass their hand through their hair.

If the bath is needed because of sexual impurity (Janaabah), then the

scholars agree that it is permissible. Even if the bath is desired to just
cool off or for other non-essential reasons, the majority of scholars
say that it is permissible without any reservations.

Imam Ash-Shaafi'ee said - after narrating this incident about Abu

Ayyoob Al-Ansaari, "This is the opinion that we hold. A Muhrim may
take a bath whether it is due to sexual impurity or for other reasons.
One may wash the head and soak the body with water."

However, some scholars have recommended that a woman should

not shower unless it is necessary. This is because she is in Ihram
and busy with the actions of Hajj. In fact, to bathe during Ihram is
simply an issue of permissibility, but there is no one that says that it is
recommended (Mustahab). To some scholars, it is more
recommended to remain dusty and disheveled.
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Imam An-Nawawee said, "It is more desirable that the pilgrim remain
dusty and disheveled. The proof of this is the statement of Allah ta'ala
[Then let them end their untidiness...] (22/29) and the statement of
Rasul Allah - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam: [Verily Allah boasts the
people of Arafah to the inhabitants of the heavens, saying, `Look at
my slaves - they have come to me disheveled and dusty.']"

Combing one's hair during Ihram

It is Makrooh for a woman (or man) in Ihram to aggressively comb

their hair - causing excessive amounts of hair to fall out - or to brush
un-necessarily. This is because doing so may lead to hair being cut -
which is one of the forbidden acts when someone is in Ihram.

As for brushing lightly or scratching one's head, this is

permissible.There is a famous saying in the books of Fiqh where they
suggest that someone should scratch with the insides of their hands -
i.e. softly.

Imam An-Nawawee said, "As for a Muhrim (someone in the state of

Ihram), I do not know of any opinion that says he is not permitted to
scratch his head. Rather, it is something permissible."

There is a phenomenon amongst some women which works as such:

They tie up their head very tightly and do not un-tie it until their Hajj is
over. When they are in need of making Wudu, instead of wiping their
hair they do wipe over their hijaab instead.
Shaykh Salah As-Saawee, one of the directors at the American Open
University, commented that doing this is an example of someone
placing a hardship upon themselves, a hardship that the Shari'ah
does not require. He said that when a person combs his hair lightly or
scratches, the person is not held responsible for the dead hairs that
naturally come out.

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The color of clothes a woman may wear in Ihram

It is permissible for the woman to wear any women's clothes she

pleases which are not attractive or resemble the clothes of men, or
are tight-fitting showing the dimensions of her limbs, or transparent -
not concealing what is underneath, or too short - not covering her
legs or hands, but instead should be abundant, thick and wide.

Ibn al-Mundhir said, as quoted in al-Mughni:"There is consensus

among the scholars that the woman in Ihram can wear shirts, vests,
baggy trousers, khimaars, and leather socks."

She does not have to wear a particular color (such as green) and can
instead wear any colors she desires from among those specific to
women (such as dark red, green or black). It is also permissible for
her to change these colors if she wishes.

Wearing Jewelry in Ihram

It is permissible for women to wear jewelry while she is in a state of

Ihram. It was narrated in Al-Bukhaari, that Umm Al-Mu'mineen Aisha
- radiAllahu 'anha - used to not consider anything wrong with a
Muhrimah wearing jewelry.

In Al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah, he says, "I heard from Ahmad, who

heard from Naafi' that the women (from the household) of Ibn Umar
used to wear jewelry while they were in a state of Ihram. Ibn Umar
(seeing this) would not forbid them."

Thus, it is apparent from the Madhhab of Imam Ahmad that it is

permissible for a woman in Ihram to wear jewelry.

This permissibility of wearing jewelry is also the opinion of the

Hanafiyyah and Maalikiyyah. They quote as their proof - in addition to
the above - the fact that wearing jewelry is an act of adornment and a
woman in Hajj is not forbidden from adorning herself.

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Covering the face

A woman in Hajj should not cover her face or wear gloves, just as a
male should not cover his head. There is no difference of opinion on
this issue, based on the clear statement of Rasul Allah - sal Allahu
alayhi wa sallam, "The Muhrimah (a female in Ihram) should not
cover her face, nor should she wear gloves."

Having said that, it is permissible for her to cover her face if she fears
the gaze of non-Mahram men upon her.

It was narrated that Umm Al-Mu'mineen Aisha - radi Allahu 'anha -

said, "The riders would pass by us while we were with Rasul Allah -
sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - in a state of Ihram. When one of them
would ride next to us, we would take our Jilbaab and cover (coming
down with the cloth from our heads) our face. When the rider would
pass, we would uncover once again."

Scholars have used this hadeeth to show that if a woman is in need

of covering her face then it is permissible for her to do so. However,
the Shaafi'iyyah set a condition to this covering saying that the
Niqaab should not touch the women's face. This was also the opinion
of Al-Qaadee from the Hanaabilah.

In actuality, this condition does not have overall agreement from the
scholars. Ibn Qudaamah said in regards to this condition, "I have not
found this condition to be from (Imam) Ahmad, nor is it from the
Hadith. In fact, reality contradicts this condition. For verily, the cloth
that covers over a women's face, rarely does it remain un-touching to
her skin. Had this been a condition (that it should not touch her face)
the Prophet - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - would have explained it."

Refuting the claims of those who claimed that the condition of the
women's Niqaab in Hajj is that it not touch her face, Imam Ash-
Showkaani used similar arguments as that of Imam Ibn Qudaamah.
And Allah knows best.

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Touching one's spouse intimately or non-intimately

If a male in Ihram touches his wife with desire, or kisses her, then he
would be obliged to pay the Fidyah (penalty) - and the same would go
for women. This is the opinion of the Hanaabilah.

More so, the male is between two situations after touching his wife:
either he releases some fluid or not. If he does not release anything,
then the penalty for him is that he must slaughter a sheep. If he does
release something, then he must slaughter a camel.

As for the women in this situation, then perhaps her situation is that of
the males. Ibn Qudaamah said, "The women is just like the male in
this respect."

The Hanafiyyah and Shaafi'iyyah said: It is Wajib for someone who

kisses or touches his or her spouse with desire that they pay the
fidyah - which is the slaughtering of a sheep. If they cannot find or
afford the sheep, then they should alternatively either feed the poor or

From what the Hanafiyyah and Shaafi'iyyah are saying, it seems that
the same applies to women if they kiss or touch their husband with

2. Ritual Differences between men and Women

What is the ruling of women performing Hajj without a Mahram?

There are five general conditions before Hajj becomes compulsory

upon someone. These are that the person:
- is Muslim
- has reached the age of discernment
- is of full mental capacity
- is not a slave.
- must be capable of completing the journey to Hajj, both physically
and financially.
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Both males and females share these conditions. However, the

Muslim woman has an extra condition before she can be held
accountable for not performing Hajj and that is the accompaniment of
a Mahram.

The Shaafi'iyyah states that Hajj is not obligatory upon a woman until
she finds a male Mahram relative or a husband or a group of trusted
women. If she finds any of the previous three, it is obligatory upon her
to perform Hajj. If she cannot find one of the three, she is not obliged
to perform the Hajj.

The condition that the Shaafi'iyyah holds for a woman to perform Hajj
is that she must be able to perform the journey securely. This security
can be found when a husband or a Mahram or a group of trusted
women accompanies her.

In the popular opinion of the Madhhab, it is permissible for a woman

to perform Hajj if she finds only one trusted women to take the
journey with. More so, they say it is permissible for her to travel alone
if she shall be safe and she fears nothing on the road. This is how
they understand the Ahaadeeth which forbids a woman from traveling

However, if she has already performed her first obligatory Hajj and
this is a voluntary performance, then she is not permitted to travel
alone -she must be accompanied by a husband or a Mahram. In this
case, traveling with a group of trusted women is not permitted; this is
the more correct position in the Madhhab.
The opinion of the Maalikiyyah is similar to that of the Shaafi'iyyah in
that they allow a woman who does not find a Mahram or husband to
travel with a secure group. They add that this secure group may be a
group of men, a group of women, or a group made up of men and

In the Madhhab of Imam Ahmad, Hajj is not obligatory upon a woman

who does not find a mahram or husband to travel with her. In fact,
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Imam Ahmad specifically commented on this issue, as Abu Dawood

states: I said to Ahmad, "A wealthy woman who does not find a
mahram to travel with her to perform Hajj, is Hajj Waajib upon her?"
He said, "No."

They cited as proof for what the opinion that they took a selection of
Ahaadeeth which we shall mention shortly.

The Hanafiyyah held an opinion similar to that of the Hanaabilah.

They said that Hajj is not compulsory upon a woman who does not
find a mahram or husband to travel with. In addition to the following
ahaadeeth, they said that for her to perform Hajj without male
assistance would expose her to situations that may very well harm

A Discussion of the Daleel

[The woman should not travel except accompanied by a mahram]

Hadeeth Adee in which the Prophet - sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam -

said to him "...if your life is prolonged, you shall live to see Adh-
Dha'eenah (a woman) traveling from Al-Heerah (in Iraq) all the way
until she performs Tawaf of the Ka'bah, fearing no one except Allah."

They also cite Qiyaas. They compare a woman traveling alone to that
of a woman who converts to Islam in the land of the Kuffaar. Or a
Muslim woman who may have escaped from the clutches of the
disbelievers - in both cases there is unanimous agreement that she is
permitted to travel alone. So should the case be in her traveling alone
to perform Hajj.

The Hanafiyyah and the Hanaabilah reject these proofs with the
authentic ahadeeth that forbade a woman from traveling alone. It is
true, they say, that the hadeeth of Adee is authentic, but it was a
statement of the Prophet - sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam - that did not
amount to him sanctioning the act. Rather, it was an account to Adee
of what would happen in the future.
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As Imam Ash-Showkaani said, it is more befitting to take the hadeeth

to mean that such a thing would happen - not that it is permissible.
This is so there would be no contradiction between it and the
Ahaadeeth that forbid women from traveling alone.

Should a woman raise her voice when saying the Talbiyah?

The talbiyah is a chant that someone performing Hajj recites

throughout his or her Hajj rites. It includes the words: [I am here, O
Allah, I am here. I am here, there is no God but you. I am here. Verily,
all praise
and all blessings and all sovereignty belong to you. There is no God
but you.]

It is a Sunnah to not only say this, but to chant it loudly.

As for women, they should not raise their voice above what is needed
for them to hear themselves.

Ibn Al-Mundhir - rahimahullaah - said, "There is a consensus

amongst scholars that the Sunnah regarding women is that they do
not have to raise their voice when chanting the Talbiyah. All she is
required to do is to raise her voice enough so that she can hear
herself. This is the opinion of Ataa', Malik, Al-Awzaa'ee, Ash-
Shaafi'ee, and it is also the opinion of the Hannabilah and the
Hanafees. They feared that with her raising her voice, a fitnah make
occur. For the same reason, it is not Sunnah for her to give the
Adhaan for Salaah, nor the Iqaamah."

Shaykh Al-Albaanee - in his book Manaasik Al-Hajj wal ‘‘Umrah -

said: In regards to the talbiyyah the ruling for the women is that of the
men - as the two preceding hadith are general. They too should raise
their voices as long, however, as there is no fear of fitnah.

A'isha used to raise her voice until the men could hear her. Abu
Atiyyah said: "I heard A'isha saying, `Verily I know how was the
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talbiyyah of Rasul Allah.' I heard her after that saying:


And Qaasim ibn Muhammad said: Mu'aawiyyah went out at night and
heard the voice of someone making talbiyyah, so he said: `Who is
that?" It was said: "`A'isha, Mother of the Believers, making `’’Umrah
from at-Tan'eem." So that was mentioned to A'isha so she said: "If he
had asked me I would have told him."

What both men and woman perform equally in Tawaf

These are as follows:

1. The desirability of making dua, remembering Allah, or reciting


2. The desirability of touching the black stone or kissing it if its

possible, on condition that a woman does not crowd the men in
doing so. The same ruling applies to the Yemeni corner.

3. The permissibility of speaking if its necessary or with befitting


4. The undesirability of eating or holding the urge to urinate, or pass

wind, or having a strong desire for food and other things of this

The Difference in Tawaf between men and women

In general, the method of performing Tawaf is the same for men and
women. The agreed upon rule is that what is mentioned concerning
the men applies to the women so long as there is no specific proof
which shows that her ruling is different.

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To review the aspects of Tawaf that apply to both men and women,
one may refer to the many Fiqh books on this subject. Our concern
here is to illustrate the differences which are as follows:

1. Women should not jog in Tawaf

At the beginning of Tawaf, it is sunnah for the men to jog, known in

Arabic as Raml, the first three circumbulations around the Ka'bah.
The woman is not required to do this.

Ibn Al-Mundhir said, "There is consensus amongst the scholars that

the woman should not jog in Tawaf. Instead, she should do the Tawaf

2. Al-Idtibaa' - uncovering the right shoulder

It is logically clear that a woman should not uncover her right

shoulder when performing Tawaf. Imam An-Nawawee said,
"Uncovering the right shoulder is Sunnah for the men and not
permissible for the women. There is no difference of opinion on this

3. Nearing the Ka'bah

It is recommended that the women should not crowd themselves near

the wall of the Kaabah, crushing themselves in to the men. Instead, a
woman should perform her Tawaf on the outer circles of the Tawaf,
away from the crowd.

This is recommended as a protection for her. However, if she is

performing Tawaf at a time when the crowd is light, she may draw as
near as she can to the Ka'bah.

This ruling is based on an incident that happened in which Umm

Salamah -the wife of Allah's Messenger, sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam -
complained of a sickness. He instructed her to perform the Tawaf
riding on a camel, behind the people.
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Ibn Hajjar, explaining this Hadith, said, "He instructed her such
because the Sunnah for the women is that they should distance
themselves from the men in Tawaf."

4. Performing Tawaf at Night

The scholars mentioned that it is desirable for a woman to delay her

Tawaf until night if she arrives in Makkah during the day. The reason,
they say, is that this would be more protective for her and others
since the crowd would be lighter at that time.

This ruling is illustrated by that which Imam al-Bukhaaree narrated

from `Ataa' who said; Aisha -radiyAllaahu anha- use to perform tawaf
away from the men, not crowding them. A woman said to her, "Let us
go, O Umm Al-Mumineen, to touch the black stone." Aisha declined
until night came and then they went for tawaf. Whenever they wished
to perform tawaf they stood there until the crowd of men would be on
their way out.

However, if she feels that she may be nearing her monthly cycle, it is
better that she performs the Tawaf as soon as she can so that she
does not miss it.

5. Crowding to kiss the black stone

It is desirable that a woman should not crowd with the men to kiss the
black stone. Instead, she should wave to it with her hand just like the
person who cannot reach it.

Imam An-Nawawee said, "Our Ulumaa' have said that it is not

desirable for a woman to kiss the black stone, nor to touch it, except
at those times when the Tawaf area is light or empty, like during the
night or at other times. This is because in her crowding the men it
would bring hardship upon herself and hardship upon the men."

6. The difference in Sa'ee between men and women

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The method of performing Sa'ee, in general, is the same for men and
women. However, there are basic differences in the etiquettes of
Sa'ee between men and women.

As is explained in the books of Fiqh, it is not a must that a

person be clean from sexual impurity (Janaabah) or, for
women, her monthly period in order to perform Sa'ee. However
this issue needs a little clarification.

According to the Hanafi school of thought, it is only permissible

for a woman in sexual impurity or her menses to perform the
Sa'ee if she has already performed the Tawaf in a state of
purity. Meaning, if her menses started after the Tawaf then it is
acceptable to continue with the Sa'ee.

However, scholars have disagreed with the Hanafi school of

thought on this issue for the following reason:

It was narrated by Bukhari that Umm Al-Mu'mineen Aisha - radi

Allahu 'anha - said, "I arrived in Makkah and at the time I was in
my monthly period. I had not performed the Tawaf of the
(Ka'bah), nor had I performed the (Sa'ee) between Safa and
Marwah." She continues, "I mentioned this to Rasul Allah - sal
Allahu alayhi wa sallam - and he said to me, `Do as the Haaji
(Hajj pilgrim) does other then performing Tawaf of the (Ka'bah)
until you are clean.'"

In explaining this Hadith, Ibn Hajjar said:

As for the acceptability of performing Sa'ee before Tawaf,
scholars of Hadeeth considered it permissible, citing as their
proof the hadith of Usaamah ibn Shuraik in which a man came
to the Prophet - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - and said, "I
performed Sa'ee before performing Tawaf." The Prophet - sal
Allahu alayhi wa sallam - replied, "Perform Tawaf, there is no

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Thus, a woman in her menses may perform all the rites of Hajj
other then the Tawaf. And she may perform the Sa'ee before
her Tawaf in accordance with the Hadith of Usaamah ibn
Shuraik and her Sa'ee with be correct and acceptable.

Those that forbade the woman from performing Sa'ee until she
first becomes clean of her menses, placed a condition on her
has no basis. In reality, the proof we have mentioned rejects
this opinion.

7. Jogging, between Safa and Marwa

Imam Ash-Shaafi'ee said, "A woman should not jog between Safa
and Marwah, nor should she uncover her arm like a man. This is
because she is seeking to come closer to Allah by covering and
protecting herself and jogging and uncovering would contradict that."

However, according to the scholars of the Shafi'ee school of thought,

there are two opinions on this issue.

The first, which is the opinion of the majority, is that she should
not jog in the jogging area. Instead she should walk all through
out the distance from Mount Safa to Mount Marwah - whether it
be daytime or night time when no one is watching. This is
because she is `Awrah and her fiqh is based on covering and
protecting herself.

The second, which is held by a minority, is that if she is

performing Sa'ee at night and there is no one watching, it is
desirable for her to jog in the area of jogging.

This is also the opinion of the Hanbali school of thought. Ibn

Qudamah stated in Al-Mughni: A woman should not jog in
Tawaf or Sa'ee.

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Women leaving Muzdalifah early

Spending the night in Muzdalifah on the eve of the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah

is just as much a part of Hajj for the women as it is for the men. When
she leaves the plain of Arafah, she does as the male would do in
Muzdalifah - that is, she should join her Maghrib and Isha at the time
of Isha, remember Allah ta'ala and spend the night there.

Some scholars have noted that it is permissible for women who fear
the crowd of Muzdalifah (and the predicted crowd at the Jamarat the
next day) to leave early from Muzdalifah before Fajr. The default
Sunnah however is that a person should wait until after Fajr - after the
sun has come up bright - to move on to Mina.

Following is an example of the many Ahadeeth that were narrated

regarding this issue.

Firstly: Bukhari narrated from Aisha - radi Allahu 'anha - who

said, "(Umm Al-Mu'mineen) Sowdah sought permission from
Allah's Messenger - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - to leave
Muzdalifah before him (i.e. before Fajr) and before the crush of
the people, because she was heavy. He - sal Allahu alayhi wa
sallam - gave her permission."

Secondly: Muslim narrated from Umm Habibah - radi Allahu

'anha - that theProphet - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - sent her
from Muzdalifah during the night (before Fajr).

Thirdly: Muslim narrated from Ibn Abbaas - radi Allahu 'anhu -

who said, "Allah's Messenger - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam -
sent me with the weak folk from Muzdalifah during the night
(before Fajr)."

Fourthly: Muslim narrated that Ibn Umar - radi Allahu 'anhu -

used to take the weak of his family to Muzdalifah. They would
stand at al-Mash'ar al-Haraam in Muzdalifah at night,
remembering Allah. Then before the Imam would move out
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(from Muzdalifah) they would leave before him. Some of them

would arrive in Mina before Fajr time (i.e. at Fajr time); others
would arrive after that. When they would arrive, they would
throw their Jamaraat. Ibn Umar would comment, "Allah's
Messenger - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - granted permission
to these people."

Concerning the issue of leaving Muzdalifah halfway through the night,

Imam Ash-Shaafi'ee - rahimahullah - said:

The Sunnah is that women and weak folk should move out of
Muzdalifah before Fajr - after half the night has passed, so that they
may throw their Jamaraat before the crowd arrives. This is based on
the hadith of Aisha - radi Allahu 'anha - in which she said, "(Umm Al-
Mu'mineen) Sowdah sought permission from Allah's Messenger - sal
Allahu alayhi wa sallam -to leave Muzdalifah before him (i.e. before
Fajr) and before the crush of the people, because she was heavy. He
- sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - gave her permission."

This is also the opinion of the Hanbali school of thought. In Al-Mughni

we read: It is all right for women and weak folk to leave Mudalifah
early. From those who would allow their women and weak family
members to precede them were AbdurRahmaan ibn `Owf and Aisha.
This is the opinion of Ataa' and ath-Thowree and Ash-Shaafi'ee and
Ashaab Ar-Ra'I (the Hanafees). We do not know anyone that differs
with this opinion, as it is an opinion that carries facility for the women
and weak folk and saves them from the hardship of the crowd, and it
is also the permission of their Prophet - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam.

Thus from the previous quotes we see that it was permissible for the
women and weak folk to leave Muzdalifah during the night, i.e. before
Fajr and before the crowd arrived after Fajr. Those that enter into this
permission are the women and children and those in their situation.
And Allah knows best.

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How much hair should a woman cut when coming out of Ihraam

Shaving one's head is one of the rites of Hajj and ‘‘Umrah. On this
topic, the following verse praises the state of the Muslims: [with
shaved heads and trimmed]

The Hanafiyyah have said: to shave one's head or to trim it is a

Waajib aspect of Hajj. This is also the Madhhab of the Maalikiyyah
who said: The shaving itself is Waajib, the trimming on the other hand
is sufficient.

The Shaafiyyah state: Our Madhhab is that shaving is a rite that one
is rewarded for performing - by performing it one leaves the first stage
of Ihram, the tahallul al-Asghar. Thus, according to this, shaving or
trimming is a rukun by which Hajj or ‘‘Umrah is not accepted until it is

And according to the Hanaabilah, shaving or trimming is a rite from

the rites of Hajj or ‘‘Umrah. Thus according to them it is Wajib. In the
book Al-Uddah sharh Al-Umdah, it states: ... And shaving the head is
Wajib because the prophet - sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam - did it, this
coupled with the Hadith, "Take from me your Hajj rituals."

Having said that, the question that begs to be asked now is: which is
better for a man, to shave his head or trim it, i.e. going bald or using a
no.2 clipper? And how is this preference viewed in regards to women.

As for men, it is better for them to shave their head. The proof for this
is the obvious order given in the verse [having shaved your heads
and trimmed] because the Arabs would often begin with that which
more important and preferred.

Also, this preference is based on the hadith in which the Prophet - sal
Allaahu alayhi wa sallam - said, "Oh Allah, be merciful to those that
shave." They asked, "what about those that trim O Messenger of
Allah?" He said, "O Allah, be merciful to those that shave." They

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asked, "what about those that trim O Messenger of Allah?" He said,

"And those that trim."

And in another narration according to Muslim, he solat for those that

would shave three times and those that would trim once.

Even he - sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam - shaved his head during Hajj,
and no doubt, Allah would never choose for his Prophet anything
other then that which is more preferred.

But having said that, there is no difference of opinion that it is

permissible to choose trimming instead of shaving. In Saheeh Muslim
with the explanation of Imam Nawawi it states: There is Ijmaa'
(consensus) from the Ulumaa' that shaving is better then trimming,
but that trimming is permissible.

Does this preference of shaving apply to women?

In al-Mughni, it states: There is no difference of opinion between the

people of knowledge that the Sunnah for a woman is that she should
only trim her hair and not shave. Ibn Al-Mundhir said, "The
consensus (Ijmaa') of the people of knowledge is that a woman
should trim and not shave. This is because shaving in a woman's
case would be considered mutilation."

And Ibn Hajjar - rahimahullaah - said, "As for women, the Sunnah is
that they should only trim their hair. There is Ijmaa' on this."

How much should a woman trim of her hair?

According to the Maalikiyyah, a woman should take from all her hair
the span of an Anmulah (a fingertip span, about 1 centimeter), or a
little bit more or less. Explaining this further, in Mawaahib Al-Jaleel
Imam Maalik -rahimahullaah - said, "There is no set measurement
according to us. Whatever a man or woman takes from their hair it
will be sufficient."

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The Hanabilah said; A woman should trim from her hair the span of
an Anmulah. Said Abu Dawud: I heard someone ask Ahmad about
whether a woman should cut from her entire head or not. He said,
"Yes, she should join her hair together and then take from the ends of
her hair the span of an Anmulah."

An According to the Shafee'eeyah it is desirable for a woman to trim

the span of an Anmulah from all sides of her head. Al-Maawardee
said, "She should not trim from the sides of her head because that
will mar her. Instead she should lift up the hair and cut from that
which is underneath."

Having said this, according to the Shafee'eeyah, all that is sufficient

for both a man and a woman is three hairs whether they cut it or
shave it. Nothing less than this is acceptable.

The Hanafeeyah said: What is meant by trimming is that a man or a

woman should take from at least a quarter of the hair of their head,
the span of an Anmulah. Meaning, they should take from all of that
hair this measurement. They also said, it is wajib to cut a little more
than the
span of an Anmulah so that for sure at least an Anmulah was cut.

A woman receives her menses before her performance of Tawaf


This issue which comes up very often is as such: What if a woman

gets her Menses, has not performed her Tawaf Al-Ifaadah, and is in a
situation where she has to leave Makkah. What should she do?

It needs to be said that being free from menses is a condition for a

woman who wants to perform any Tawaf. Thus, with this in mind, if a
woman performs Tawaf while in her menses her Tawaf will not be

This is based on the authentic hadeeth that Umm Al-Mu'mineen

Aisha - radi Allahu 'anha - said, "I arrived in Makkah and at the time I
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was in my monthly period. I had not performed the Tawaf of the

(Ka'bah), nor had I performed the (Sa'ee) between Safa and Marwah.
I mentioned this to Rasul Allah - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - and he
said to me, `Do as the Haaji (Hajj pilgrim) does other then performing
Tawaf of the (Kaabah) until you are clean.'"

This hadith makes it crystal clear that a woman in her menses cannot
perform any Tawaf until she has completed her period. What she
should do is wait in Makkah until she completes her period, washes
up, and then goes and performs her Tawaf.

Her Mahram should stay with her during this time. This is based on
the Hadith in which Umm Al-Mu'mineen Aisha - radi Allahu 'anha -
said to Allah's Messenger - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - "Safiyyah
bint Huyayy has received her period." He replied, "She may be
blocking us from leaving (then). Did she not perform Tawaf with you
(i.e. the women)?" Aisha said,"Yes (she did)." He said, "Then you
may go."

On these lines, the scholars and the Muslims in the early generations
would not leave Makkah until the menstruating women in their group
got a chance to complete their period and perform Tawaf Al-Ifaadah.
As the Prophet - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - said, ""She may be
blocking us from leaving (then)."

Abu Hurayrah - radi Allahu 'anhu - used to say: An Ameer who is not
an Ameer, who is it? It is a woman with a group of people who
receives her period before performing Tawaf Al-Ifaadah. They,
because of her, will be forced to stay until she completes her period
and performs the Tawaf.
But what happens if, due to circumstances out of her control, a
woman cannot stay in Makkah until her period is over in order to
perform Tawaf Al-Ifaadah? She would have one of three scenarios:

One: She may cut off her Hajj and go home with no Hajj.

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Two: She may perform Tawaf even though she has her period
because of the dire necessity she is in. Or...

Three: If she leaves without performing Tawaf Al-Ifaadah then

she would still be in Ihram. Her husband would not be Halal for
her until she returned to Makkah and made up the Tawaaf.

Many scholars have debated over the solution to this problem.

Perhaps the most merciful scenario and that which is closer to the
principles of the Shari'ah is scenario two in which she performs Tawaf
even though she has her period due to the dire necessity.

Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah gave the following Fatwa: A woman

in her period should do the Hajj rites that she is capable of. What she
has no control over is forgiven - thus she may perform Tawaf (even
though she is in her period). She should shower as she showers for
Ihraam, in fact this situation is more deserving, and she should wrap
herself tightly as she would during Istihaadah blood, in fact this
situation is more deserving.

This is what the texts (of the Qur'aan and Sunnah) point to, in
addition to the principles of the Shari'ah. With this opinion no
contradiction is made with Islamic principles.

The texts point to Tahaarah being a Wajib aspect of Tawaf. Such as

the statement of Allah's Messenger - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam:
"The menstruating woman should perform all the rites of Hajj except
the Tawaf." This is a general Wajib.

But we know from the principles of Shari'ah that an issue is Wajib

only if the person is capable of performing it. As Allah ta'ala says in
the Qur'an [Thus, Fear Allah as much as you are able]. And as the
Messenger of Allah - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - said, "If I command
you with something then do what you are capable of."

The most Tahaarah is in Tawaf is that it is a condition. At the same

time we know that in Salah if a person is not able to be in a state of
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Tahaarah due to some external situation out of their control they are
allowed to solat without it. Case in point: The Salah of a woman in
Istihaadah or someone who cannot control their urine may perform
Salah regardless.

If this is the case - where the conditions of Salah are forgiven when a
person cannot fulfill them - then the conditions of Tawaf should also
be forgiven when someone cannot fulfill them. In fact, the situation of
Tawaf is more deserving of this ruling.

In any other solution (either she cancels her Hajj or tries to come
back in the future, remaining in Ihram until she does) there is a huge
hardship on her. And hardship is cancelled in Shari'ah.

As for those who say she may perform the Tawaf in her state, but she
must pay a penalty for it - our opinion is that there is no penalty. This
is because the Wajib, if a person is not blame-worthy for not
performing it, then there is no penalty upon them. This is different
then when someone leaves a Wajib due to forgetfulness, or
ignorance, or intentionally.

The menstruating woman did not leave this Wajib in this case due to
a blame-worthy reason. She could not fulfill the Wajib due to her
menses, which is something that does not begin according to her will
and desire.Thus there is no penalty upon her.

Thus, if a woman has received her period before she has performed
Tawaf Al-Ifaadah, she must remain in Makkah until she is clean and
then go and perform it.

If in special circumstances and under dire necessity she needs to

leave Makkah before completing her period, then according to some
scholars - like Shaykh Al Islam Ibn Taymiyyah - she may perform her
Tawaf even though she has her period and there is no penalty upon
her. And Allah knows best.

Does a menstruating woman need to perform Tawaf Al-Wadaa'?

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If a woman receives her menses before she has completed her

Tawaf Al-Wadaa' (her farewell Tawaf) and she has already done her
Tawaf Al-Ifaadah, then she may leave Makkah without performing the
Wadaa'. There is no penalty for her to do this.

This is the opinion of the general body of scholars. This facilitation is

proved by the authentic statement of Ibn Abbaas - radi Allahu 'anhu -
in which he said, "The people were commanded that the last thing
they do (in Makkah) is Tawaf, except for the menstruating woman the
command was lightened."

Moreover, in the hadith in which Aisha told the Prophet - sal Allahu
alayhi wa sallam - about Safiyyah's menses, he asked her if she
performed Tawaf Al-Ifaadah. When Aisha said that she had, the
Prophet - sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - said that they would not be
held back, meaning, she was allowed to leave Makkah without
performing Tawaf Al-Wadaa'.

Also, there is no penalty upon a woman in doing this for the Prophet -
sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - did not make mention of any penalty
upon Safiyyah.


The goal of this article is to distinguish the Fiqh rulings that are
specific to women in Hajj. These rulings are divided and organized
into two basic chapters, one dealing with the Ihram of a woman, the
other discussing the ritual differences between men and women.

We learnt that it is equally part of the Sunnah for a woman to shower

before Ihram just as it is for a man and that this ruling is not different
for a woman in her Hayd or Nifaas. We learnt that showering during
Ihram was permissible and that a person may pour water on their hair
and rub lightly their head.

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Additionally, we learnt that a woman may wear any color of clothing,

as long as it meets the Islamic standard of modest dress. And she
may wear jewelry. She should uncover her face while in Ihram, but if
she fears the gaze of non-Mahram men upon her, she may cover her
face as the wives of the Prophet - sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam - used
to do. And they should not touch their spouse with desire.

In the segment on on male/female ritual differences, we learnt that a

woman should not travel to Hajj without the company of a Mahram.
She should not raise her voice excessively when saying the Talbiyah.

Concerning the Tawaf, she differs with the men in that she should do
raml (jogging) for the first three circumbulations, she should not
uncover her right shoulder, and she should not crowd the men in
trying to get near the Kaabah or to kiss the black stone. And it is
desirable for her to choose a time when there will be a less crowded.

Regarding the Sa'ee, we learnt that being clean of menses is not a

requirement, and that a woman may perform it even if she is in her
menses. It is not required for her to run in the valley of Safa and

We learnt that it is a Prophetic permission for the women and the

weak folk to leave Muzdalifah early. Also, that shaving the head is
only preferred for men and that women should not cut more then a
centimeter of hair from the tips of her braids.

In detail, we discussed the situation of a woman who receives her

Hayd before her performance of Tawaf Al-Ifaadah. She should wait
until she completes her Hayd to perform it, and her Mahram should
stay with her. If for dire circumstances she needs to leave Makkah,
we learnt that some scholars gave the fatwa that she may shower,
wrap herself tightly, and perform the Tawaf even with her menses.
But this should only sought when the necessity is sincere.

And finally, we learnt that a woman who receives her menses before
performing Tawaf Al-Wadaa does not have to wait in Makkah until
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she completes her menses. She may leave without performing it, as
shown in the Sunnah of Rasul Allah - Sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam.


AbdulBaaqee, Muhammad Fu'aad. Al-Mu'jam al-Mufahras. Daar at-

al-Arabee, Beirut. 1982.
Abu Daawood, Muhammad ibn Yazeed al-Qazweenee. Sunan Abee
Dawood, ed Izzat ad-Di'aas. Daar Ihyaa' at-Turaath al-`Arabee,
Beirut. 1391H
Al-Albaanee, Muhammad Naasir Ad-Deen Saheeh Abee Dawood. Al-
Maktab Al-Islaami, Beirut. 1991.
Al-Baghawee, Husayn ibn Mas'ood. Sharh As-Sunnah, ed. Shu'ayb
al-Arna'oot. Al-Maktab al-Islaamee, Beirut. 1391H.
An-Nasaa'ee, Abu AbdurRahmaan Ahmad ibn Shu'ayb. Sunan An-
Nasaa'ee. Daar al-Fikr, Beirut. 1348H.
At-Tirmidhee, Muhammad ibn `Eesaa. Sunan At-Tirmidhee, ed Izzat
ad-Di'aas. Dar Ad-Da'wah, Homs. 1385H.
DerDeer, Ahmad ibn Muhammad. Ash-Sharh al-Kabeer `ala
Mukhtasar Khaleel, printed with Haashiyat Ad-Dosooqee, Dar Al-Fikr.
Fowzaan, Saaleh bin Abdullaah. Tanbeehaat `ala Ahkaam taKhuss
al-Mu'minaat. Wazzaarat Ash-sho'oon al-Islaamee, KSA, 1421.
Hattaab, Muhammad ibn AbdurRahmaan. Mawaahib al-Jaleel li-
sharh Mukhtasar Khaleel, Dar Al-Fikr 1398 H.
Ibn Hajjar, Ahmad ibn Alee. Fath al-Baaree Sharh Saheeh al-
Bukhaaree, ed. Muhammad Fu'aad AbdulBaaqee and
MuhibbudDeen al-Khateeb. Daar ar-Rayyaan litturaath, Cairo. 1988.
Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad. Al-Musnad, ed. Ahmad Shaakir. Daar al-
Ma'aarif, Egpyt.1373H.
Ibn Katheer, Ismaa'eel. Tafseer al-Qur'aan al-Adheem, ed. Abdul
Ghunaym, Aashoor and Al-Banna. As-Sha'b.
Ibn Taymiyyah, Ahmad ibn `AbdulHaleem. Majmoo' Fataawah
Shaykh ul-Islaam
Ibn Taymiyyah, ed. AbdurRahmaan ibn Qaasim. Matba'at al-
Hukoomah, Riyadh.1381H.
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Kaasaanee, Abu Bakr ibn Masood. Badaa'I as'Sanaa'I fee tarteeb

ash-Sharaa'I, Daar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1406 H.
Nawawee, Yahya ibn Sharaf. Al-Majmoo' sharh al-Muhadhdhab,
Daar al-Fikr.
Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. Islamic rules on menstruation and post-
bleeding. Dar Al Fatah, UAE, 1995.
Qudaamah, Abdullaah ibn Ahmad. Al-Mughni, ed. Dr. Abdullah at-
Turkee and Dr. AbdulFattaah al-Hilu.
Shaafi'ee, Muhammad ibn Idrees. Al-Umm, Daar al-Ma'rifah, Beirut.
Zaydaan, AbdulKareem. Al-Mufassal Fee Ahkaam Al-Mar'ah,
Mu'assasatir-Risaalah, Beirut, 1997.
Al-Majmoo' 8/213; Al-Mughni 3/293
Saheeh Muslim with the Sharh of Nawawi 8/133
Sunan Abee Dawood 5/168
Sunan Abee Dawood 5/292. See also Al-Umm by Imam Ash
Shaafi'ee 2/145-146
Al-Umm 2/136
Al-Majmoo' 7/364
Al-Majmoo' 7/358
Al-Mughni 3/328
See Tanbeehaat `ala Ahkaam taKhuss al-Mar'ah by Dr.Saleh Al-
Fawzaan, p.75
Saheeh Al-Bukhari with Al-Fath 3/405.
Al-Mughni 3/330
Badaa'I As-Sanaa'i 2/186; Ash-Sharh al-Kabeer wa Haashiyat Ad-
Dusooqee 2/59.
Bukhari, Kitaab As-Sayd, hadith 13.
Sunan Abee Dawood 5/286; See also Al-Mughni 3/326 and Nayl Al-
Awtaar 5/6.
Al-Mughni 3/326
Nayl Al-Awtaar 5/6.
Al-Mughni 3/338-339
Al-Badaa'I 2/195; Al-Majmoo' 7/293-294
Bukhaaree, Kitaab As-Salaah 2/43; Muslim 4/102
Bukhaaree, with fath al-Baaree 6/610-611.
Nayl Al-Awtaar, Showkaani 4/291.
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Bukhari and Muslim (8,88)

See Al-Mughni 3, 330-331.
See Manasik Al-Hajj wal ‘‘Umrah, by Shaykh Al-Albaani pt. 17-18.
Al-Majmoo' 8/67
Al-Majmoo' 7/365
See the hadith and the commentary in Fath Al-Baaree 3/481
Al-Bukhaari with Al-Fath 3/480-481
See Al-Majmoo' 7/365; Al-Mughni 3/372; Kashshaaf al-Qinaa' 1/604
Al-Mughni 3/372
Al-Majmoo' 8/39
Bada'I as-Sanaa'I 2/135
Al-Bukhaari with Al-Fath 3/503-504
Al-Bukhaari with Al-Fath 3/505
Al-Umm by Imam Ash-Shaafi'ee 2/176. The Raml that he is speaking
about is a jog that the Prophet - sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam - did in
the valley
between Safa and Marwah. Today, the beginning and end of that
valley is
marked by green lights.
Al-Majmoo' 8/84
Al-Mughni 3/317
See Al-Bukhari, Kitaab Al-Hajj (98). And in Fath Al-Baaree 3/526-527.
Muslim with Sharh An-Nawawee 9/40
Muslim with Sharh An-Nawawee 9/40
Muslim with Sharh An-Nawawee 9/41
See Al-Bukhari in Al-Hajj 98; Muslim in the chapter of Hajj, 293-295;
Musnad Ahmad 6/30. The quote can be found in Al-Majmoo' 8/131
and Mughni
Al-Muhtaaj 1/500.
Al-Mughni 3/423
See Fath Al-Baaree 3/527-528; Nayl Al-Awtaar 5/64-65.
Surah Al-Fath 48/27
Al-Badaa'I 2/140
AshSharh Al-Kabeer 2/46
Al-Majmoo' 8/152
Al-Umdah Sharh Al-Umdah p.207
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Surah Al-Fath 48/27

Bukhaaree 3/446; Muslim (1301)
Saheeh Muslim 9/52
Al-Mughni 3/435
Al-Mughni 3/435; Al-Majmoo' 8/161; Al-Badaa'i 2/140
Saheeh Muslim bi Sharh An-Nawawi 9/49
Al-Mughni 3/349
Fath Al-Baaree 3/562
Haashiyat Ad-Dusooqee 2/46
Mawaahib Al-jaleel 3/129
Al-Bukhaari with Al-Fath 3/503-504
Al-Bukhaari 3/203
Majmoo' al-Fataawa Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah 26/224
Non-menstrual blood a woman sees outside of her period ~Author
Majmoo' Al-Fataawa Ibn Taymiyyah 26/225-241
See al-Mufassal fee Ahkaam Al-Mar'ah by AbdulKareem Zaydaan
See this issue in Al-Bukhaari with Al Fath 3/585-587; Al-Mughni
Badaa'i As-Sanaa'i 2/142; Al-Majmoo' 8/196-197.

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Appendix 8
Tawaf Is a Cosmic Law
By Prof. Dr. Ahmad Fouad Pasha

Allah Almighty says: [And He it is Who created the night and the
day, and the sun and the moon. They float, each in an orbit. ] (Al-
Anbiyaa' 21: 33)

This glorious verse refers to a scientific fact concerning the system of

the universe. Scientific discoveries have proved that we live in a huge
universe that depends on revolution. The earth revolves round the
sun once a year, the moon revolves around the earth once per lunar
month, and the other planets of the solar system also revolve round
the sun, each in its own orbit. Besides, most of these planets have
moons that revolve around them, each, also, in its own orbit.
Astronomers have discovered more than 60 of these moons so far.

The solar system, likewise, orbits a center of our galaxy, the Milky
Way. This galaxy consists of more than 130 billion stars. Galaxies, in
turn, revolve round a center that only Almighty Allah knows.
The law of revolution applies also to atoms, the smallest units of
elements that cannot be seen even by microscopes. An atom is
composed of a nucleus whose diameter is less than a millionth of a
millimeter. An atom is surrounded by electrons that move round the
atom in an orbit. Since all matter in the universe-whether solid, liquid,
or gaseous-consists of atoms, this means that the law of revolution
applies to everything: stars, planets, moons, animals, plants, sand,
seas, air, and so on.
This includes cells as well. The cytoplasm in the cell moves around
the nucleus.
There is a common factor between the orbital movements of all the
objects referred to above, this is, their revolution is counterclockwise.
Contemplating the above lines, we come to realize that revolution is a
cosmic law.
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With a believer's meditation upon such a scientific fact, another

image of revolution is brought to one's mind: the pilgrims'
circumambulation of the Ka`bah, which is a basic ritual of Hajj in

Circumambulating the Ka`bah is a symbolic act of worship, whose

wisdom may be hidden from some. It indicates the believers' utter
submission to Almighty Allah alone. The pilgrims go to Hajj in
response to the divine order that Prophet Abraham (peace and
blessings be upon him) conveyed to people. Allah Almighty says:
[And (remember) when We prepared for Abraham the place of
the (holy) House, saying: Ascribe thou no thing as partner unto
Me, and purify My House for those who make the round (thereof)
and those who stand and those who bow and make prostration.
And proclaim unto mankind the pilgrimage. They will come unto
thee on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every
deep ravine. ] (Al-Hajj 22: 26-27)

This signifies that the Ka`bah is the spiritual center of the believers. It
refers to the close bond that should be between a believer and his
Lord. A believer turns toward the Ka`bah five times a day during the
prescribed ritual Prayers.

A pilgrim circumambulates the Ka`bah as if he or she is a celestial

body orbiting another greater body. Circumambulation of the Ka`bah
is to be performed counterclockwise. This indicates that there is a
joint factor between a pilgrim's expressing his ultimate faith in
Almighty Allah by circumambulating the Ka`bah in that way and
between the cosmic law of revolution discussed above. This indicates
that there is consistency between the obligations of worship in Islam
and the natural laws that govern the universe, which indicates that
they all belong to only one source, that is, Almighty Allah.

This proves the truthfulness of the call of Islam that there is no god
but Almighty Allah. Thus, Islam is the true religion that provides
humankind with a comprehensive view in conformity with the divine
truth that is apparent in the natural laws of the universe.
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Appendix 9
Supplications at Mina, Arafah, Muzdalifah
Compiled from various sources

Between Mina & Arafah

O Allah, let my Hajj be accepted, free of hypocrisy and showing off.

At Arafah

The pilgrims standing at Arafah should implore Allah, the Most High,
in full submission, humility and obedience. They should implore Allah
to accept their deep repentance and regret for the sins they
committed. They should preoccupy themselves with the
remembrance of Allah, Talbyah and implore Allah to shower His
blessing on the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) until nightfall.

" O my Lord! Make me not unblessed in my supplications for You and

be kind and merciful to me. O Allah! You are the best to be asked, the
best Provider.

Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, "The best supplication

on the Day of `Arafah and the best thing that I and the Prophets
before me said is: There is no Deity worthy of worship but Allah
Alone. He has no partners. To Him alone belong the Kingdom and all
praise. He has power over all things."

On the Day of `Arafah, Al-Zubair bin Al- 'Awwam heard the Prophet
reciting this verse, "There is no God but He: that is the witness of
Allah, His angels, and those endued with knowledge, standing firm on
justice. There is no God but He, the Exalted in Power, the Wise."

Among the supplications attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon

him) on the Day of `Arafah: All praise belongs to You, O Allah! as we
say and better than what we can say. O Allah! My prayers, my
worship, my life and my death are all for You. To You is my return, to
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You belongs what I own. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the
torment of the grave, the evil thoughts, confusion, and from whatever
the wind may bring, from the evil that takes place during the day or
night, and from the affliction of Time.

O Allah! You hear my words, see my place, know my private and

open counsels and nothing of mine is withheld from You. I am a
wretched, poor, seeker of help and refuge. I confess my sin but ask
You to forgive just like the poor (who begs from the rich). I implore
You importunely like the humble sinner. I render my supplications to
You like a scared person might supplicate. Such supplications are
uttered by one whose head is bowed to You in submission, to You his
tears are shed. For Your sake he forsakes his body and denies his

There is no deity worthy of worship but Allah Alone. He has no

partner.To Him belong the Kingdom and all praise, and He has power
over all things. O Allah! place light (guidance) in my heart, in my
chest, in my ears, and in my sight. O Allah! Open my chest and ease
my work. O Allah! I seek refuge with you from evil thoughts, from
confusion, from the trial of the grave, from the evil that takes place
during the day or night, from the evil carried by the winds, and from
the affliction of Time.

Some Supplications which may Be Recited At 'Arafat, at the

Sacred Sites, and at Other Places of Supplication

O Allah! I ask of You integrity and soundness in my religion, my life,

my family, and my possessions, O Allah! Cover my shame, pacify my
fears, guard me from what is in front of me and behind me, from what
is on my right and on my left, over my head and under my feet. O
Allah! Grant health to my body. O Allah grant health to my hearing. O
Allah! Grant health to my sight. There is no deity except You. O Allah!
I seek refuge in You from unbelief and poverty, and from the
punishment of the grave. There is no deity except You.

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O Allah! You are my Lord. There is no deity except You. You are my
Creator and I am your creature. I try to keep my covenant with You
and to live in the hope of Your promise as well as I can. I seek refuge
in You from my own evil deeds. I acknowledge Your favors to me;
and I acknowledge my sins. Forgive me my sins, for there is no one
who can forgive sins except You. O Allah! I seek refuge in You from
worry and sorrow. I seek refuge in You from impotence and sloth,
from stinginess and cowardice, and I seek refuge in You from the
burden of debt and from being humbled by men.

O Allah! Make the beginning of this day good, the middle prosperous,
and the end successful. I ask You to grant me the good of this world
and of the Hereafter, O Most Merciful of all Who show us mercy

O Allah! I ask of You to make me pleased with what You decreed for
me return to good life after death, and I earnestly seek the pleasure
of looking at Your Glorious Countenance and the craving to meet
you, without distress or affliction or misguiding trial. I seek refuge in
You from oppressing others or being oppressed, from doing wrong or
suffering wrong, and from committing an error or a sin which You will
not forgive.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the feebleness of old age.

O Allah! Guide me to the best of deeds and the best of morals, as

none can guide to the best except You, and save me from bad deeds,
as none can save me from what is bad except You.
O Allah! Strengthen my faith, expand my living space, and bless me
in my livelihood.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from negligence, degradation and

destitution; I seek refuge in You from unbelief, wickedness, vanity
and show; and I seek refuge in You from blindness, deafness and
leprosy and bad diseases. O Allah! Give my soul piety and my
conscience purity. You are the Master of my soul and the Guardian of
my conscience. O Allah! I seek refuge in You from a knowledge
which does not benefit, from a heart which does not tremble, from an
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ego which is not sated, and from a supplication which is not


O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the evil of what I did and from the
evil of what I did not do; from the evil of what I know and from the evil
of what I did not know O Allah! I seek refuge in You from a decline in
Your favor, from a change in Your protection, from Your sudden
punishment and all Your displeasure.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from ruin and falling, from drowning and
burning, and from senility: I seek refuge in You from Satan's beguiling
me at my death; and I seek refuge in You from being bitten by
venomous creatures. I seek refuge in You from greed, bad manners,
bad actions, bad desires and bad diseases. I seek refuge in You from
the burden of debt, from being humbled by people, and from the
ridicule of enemies.

O Allah! Strengthen my religion which is my fortress, make this world

a better place of sojourn for me, and grant me a good life in the
Hereafter which will be my abode. Make my life Increase in all
goodness and my death a rest from all evil.

O Allah! Support me and help me, and do not let others overpower
me; guide me and make the following of Your Commands easy for

O Allah! make me grateful to You, mindful of You, full of fear toward

You, devoted to obedience of You, humble before You, earnest in
supplication, and penitent. My Lord, accept my repentance, wash
away my sins, answer my supplication, establish my veracity, guide
my heart, make my tongue truthful, and remove all ill feeling from my

O Allah! I ask You for a resolute mind and firmness in following the
guidance. I ask You to make me thankful for Your favor, to be of good
service to You, and to grant me a sound heart and a truthful tongue. I
ask You to grant me what You know to be good and to give me
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refuge from what is evil, and to forgive me - and You are the Knower
of the Unseen.

O Allah! Inspire me with good conduct and save me from the evil of
my selfishness. O Allah! I ask You to guide me to the doing of good
deeds and abstaining from bad deeds and love those who are
humble, and to forgive me and show mercy to me. And if You wish a
trial for Your servants, take me to You before falling into it.

O Allah! I ask You for Your love and the love of those who love You,
and for the love of every action which will bring me closer to Your

O Allah! I ask You the best of the request for the best in my
supplication, for the best success and the best reward, strengthen
me, make heavier my balance of good, confirm my faith, elevate my
rank, accept my worship, and forgive my mistakes, and I ask of You
the highest ranks in the Garden of Paradise. I ask You for good
beginnings, good endings, the totality of goodness, from the first to
the last, from within and from without, and I ask of You the highest
ranks in the Garden.

O Allah! I ask You to exalt my fame, lighten my burden, purify my

heart, keep me chaste, forgive me my sins, and I ask of You a high
rank in the Garden. O Allah Bless me in my sight, in my hearing, in
my soul, in my body, in my conduct; bless me in my life, in my family,
in my work; accept my good deeds, and I ask of You a high rank in
the Garden.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You against difficulties, calamities, troubles,

oppression and the ridicule of enemies.

O Allah! O Controller of the Hearts!; Keep my heart firm in Your

religion; keep it contented with Your worship.

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O Allah! Grant us increase and not decrease, honor and not dishonor;
give us Your favors and do not deprive us; prefer us, let not others be
preferred to us.

O Allah! Grant us the best of outcomes in all our affairs, and save us
from disgrace in this world and from punishment In the Hereafter.

O Allah! Grant us such fear of You as will come between us and acts
of disobedience to You; such obedience to You as will bring us to
Your Garden; and such certainty that the calamities of this world will
be made easy for us by You. Let us enjoy our hearing, our sight and
our faculties as long as You grant us life, and let it be the last to be
taken away from us. Avenge us from those who have wronged us
and help us against our enemies. Let no calamity befall our religion;
let not worldly affairs be our greatest care or all about which we know;
and Let not those who have no fear of You and who do not show
mercy toward us rule over us.

O Allah! I ask You to bestow Your mercy on me, to forgive me, to

protect me from every sin, to give me a share of every good, and to
grant me the attainment of the Garden and salvation from the Fire.

O Allah! Leave not for us a sin which You have not forgiven, nor a
shortcoming which You have not concealed, nor a wary which You
have not removed, nor a debt which You have not paid, nor a need
from among the needs of this world or the Hereafter, the fulfillment of
which is beneficial for us and pleasing to You, which You have not
fulfilled, O Most Merciful of all show us mercy!

O Allah! I ask for a mercy from You by which You will guide my heart,
settle my affairs, remove my worries, protect me from what is unseen
to me, make my face radiant, purify my deeds, inspire me with
wisdom, avert calamities from me, and protect me from every evil.

O Allah! I ask You for success on the day of judgment, and a life of
happiness, and the rank of the martyrs, the companionship of the
prophets, and victory over the enemies. O Allah! I ask You for
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correctness of belief; for a faith which leads to good conduct; for a

success which results in eternal felicity: for mercy, health and
forgiveness from You, and for Your pleasure.

O Allah! I ask You for health, for integrity, for good character, and that
I may be pleased with my portion.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the evil of my self, and from the
evil of every creature which You are grasping by its forelock. O my
Lord, keep me on the straight path.

O Allah! You hear my words, You behold my situation. You know

what is open and what is hidden within me; nothing is hidden from
You. It is me alone who is in need, a humble seeker of Your
forgiveness. I beseech You with humility in my heart, with trembling
and fear, in prostration and utter helplessness. O Allah! Grant me
soundness of belief, goodness of character, forgiveness of my sins,
and Your eternal pleasure in the Hereafter. May Allah's blessings be
upon Muhammad and his family and Companions.

Between Arafah & Muzdalifah


It was the habit of the Prophet (peace be upon him) when he finished
Talbiah to ask Allah to grant him forgiveness, contentment and
salvation from Hell Fire.

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Appendix 10


ZAM-ZAM Water is a refreshing, sweet, pleasant tasting, easy

digestible, boundlessly blessed, virtuous and honourable water. It
enjoys such blessings and virtues, which no other water can be
compared to.

Basis of nomenclature:
The word 'zam-zam' originates from the word 'zumaazim', for which
the following is recorded as its meanings: "Excessive water, far-
reaching humming sound, the gathering of a scattered thing, to
protect, the water of zam-zam or zam-zaam or zuwaa- zim is the
mixture of sweet and brackish water." (Lisaanul Arab, vol. 12, page

In the initial stages of this well, a far-reaching humming sound could

be heard, hence the name 'Zam-Zam'. According to lmaam Nawawi
(rahrnatullahi alaih), the name 'Zam-Zam' was given owing to the
excessiveness and large quantity of the water, because the words:
'Zam-Zam','Zam-Zoom' and 'Zamaa-Zirn' are said at the time of
excessive water. (Muslim Shareef, vol.1, page 400)

Other names for 'Zam-Zam':

Just as 'Zam-Zam' has many virtues and benefits, similarly, it has
many names, The following names are recorded in "Lisaanul Arab":
"Zam-zam, Maktoomah, Maghnoonah, Shubaaghanah, Suqyaa, Ar-
ruwaa, Rakdhatu Jibraeel, Hazmatu Jibraeel, Shifaa-u-Suqm,
Ta'aam-u-Tu'am, Hafeer-atu Abdil Mutallib, Zam-zaam, Zawaa-zim"
(LisaanulArab,vol.15, page 166)

It is reported frorn Hadhrat Abdullaah lbn Abbaas (radhiallaahu anhu)

that during the era of ignorance it was known as 'Shubaa'a'. (Akhbaar
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Makkah, page 291). Imaam Zubaidi (rahmatuilahi alaih) states that if

the various names of 'Zam-zam' are gathered from the Ahaadith
Kitaabs and dictionaries, it will total up to 60 names. (Taajul Uroos,
vol.8, vol.328)

The water of zam-zam is that well / spring which was a comfort and
saviour of Hadhrat Haajira, when she was grieved and hopeless. It
was the wondrous miracle of Hadhrat Jibraeel-e-Ameen (alaihi
salaam), which is satiating the thirst of the believers of Tauheed,
since 2000 years before Hadhrat Isaa (alaihi salaam). The magnetic
effect of this incomparable water attracted the Banu Jurhum to its
friends (Hadhrat Ismaeel and Haajira- alaihimus salaam) and made
them a companion to them, and turned this desolate place into the
Islamic headquarters.

The details of this incident are as follows, when Hadhrat Ebrahim

(alaihi salaam) was ordered by Allaah Ta'ala to leave his chaste wife,
Hadhrat Haajira (alaiha salaam) and his innocent baby, Hadhrat
Ismaeel (alaihi salaam) in the desert of Arabia, with no friend or
helper, then the answer to the sustenance of life for this 'forlorn'
mother and son was given within a few days. The innocent child was
striking his heels upon the ground due to severe thirst. The mother
was also becoming restless due to the lack of water, and she ran up
one mountain, and down again and ascended the other mountain, in
search of water, hoping to find something to sustain the life of her

Hadhrat Jibraeel (alaihi salaam) made an appearance. With a strike

of his heels, or an indication of his hands, or his wings, a spring
started flowing.

As soon as the water was sighted, Hadhrat Haajira was overtaken

with joy. Her sadness and despondency was immediately removed
and replaced by sheer joy. She quenched her own thirst and that of
her child. She filled a container with the water and built a sand wall
around the spring in order to dam it up.
Nabi-e-Kareem (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said that, had Hadhrat
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Haajira (alaiha salaam) not done this, this water would have become
like a sea rather than a spring, and it would have saturated the entire

It was the very desire forth is water that attracted the tribe of Banu
Jurhum here, and led to their settling down, in this area. They stayed
and governed the area for 300, and according to some narrations,
500 years. It was the immorality, mischief, and flagrant disobedience
of this tribe that led to their disgraceful eviction from the pure land of
Makkah Shareef. When they left Makkah, they dumped the treasures
of the Kaaba Shareef, its Ghilaaf (covering) and valuable swords into
the well of Zam-zam, then they covered it with sand, thereby covering
it completely and closing it up. Five hundred years passed upon it in
this condition. During this era, its name and signs were completely
forgotten and erased.

But, when Allaah Ta'ala desired to revive this well and satiate the
Urnmat with it, HE used the Quraish and the grandfather of
Rasullullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), by way of a dream to dig up
the well. Abdul Mutallib used to say that one night he had a dream,
wherein someone was telling him to dig up 'Tayyibah'. He says that
he asked: "What is 'Tayyibah'?" But the person (in his dream), just
walked away, without giving a reply. On the following night he said
that he had another dream, wherein he was told to dig up
'Maghnoonah'. He says that he asked: "What is'Maghnoonah'?" But,
again this person simply disappeared. On the third night he again had
a dream wherein he was told to dig up Zam- Zam, and clean it up. He
says that, he asked: "What is 'Zam-Zam'?"

He was then told that it is a well, whose water will never decrease,
and that he will find no difficulty in digging it up. Also that he will find
no embarrassment in it, and that it is the inheritance of his father. He
was told to serve it to the Haajis. Abdul Muttalib, says further that he
asked for a sign of the location to this well. He was told that it is at the
place where the ant-hills are in abundance. He was also told that
when he reaches the place in the morning, he will find a crow pecking
at the exact spot, where he is to dig.
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The next morning, Abdul Mutallib left home towards the Haram
Shareef, with his eldest son, Haarith, taking with them a pick-axe and
a spade. According to the glad-tidings of Allaah Azza Wa Jalla, he
saw a crow pecking at a spot between the idols, 'Assaaf' and 'Naila'.
There were also many ant-hills around that spot. Following the
instructions of Allaah Ta'ala, both the father and son started digging.

Even the Quraish, became a hindrance, and objected by saying that

this is the sacred place of their idols, and that they will never consent
to its being dug up. However, Abdul Mutallib did not listen to any of
this and he continued his task. In a short space of time he reached
his objective and struck water. He also found the buried treasures of
the Jurhum, which they left there, upon their departure from Makkah

When the Quraish saw that Abdul Mutallib succeeded in his objective
and that he unearthed a great treasure, they laid claim to it as being
the inheritance of their fore-father, Hadhrat lsmaeel (alaihi salaam).
They therefore claimed a stake in it. They also wanted a share in the
distribution and protection of the Zam-Zam well, but Abdul-Mutallib
rejected their claim and became the sole-custodian of the well. This
led to a conflict and they decided to call in a third party, to arbitrate
the issue. They decided on the tribe of Banu Sa'ad Bin Huzail, which
was stationed in Syria. So, Abdul Mutallib and a few persons from
every tribe in the Quraish, set out on this journey to Shaam (Syria).
The road was long and arduous. There were many caves and
mountains along the way. When this caravan reached a certain place,
their water stocks dwindled. Thirst was starting to get a hold of them.
Those who had some water by them, refused to give it to Abdul
Mutallib and his companions, saying that they have become the
custodians of the well of Zam-Zam, and yet they are asking for water
now. The situation became very difficult, and they could not even
walk any further. The Power of Allaah Ta'ala came into play, when
eventually Abdul Mutallib managed to get upon his camel and it stood
up, a spring of clear, fresh and sweet water gushed forth, from below,
the place where his camel had sat. Out of sheerjoy, Abdul Mutallib
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screamed out a Takbeer, and all of them drank to their fill, and filled
their containers. So much so, that even those who refused to give
their water to Abdul-Mutallib, managed to fill their containers. When
all of them saw this strange and wonderful scenario, they concluded
that their decision was made and their matter resolved. They took an
oath that they will never dispute with him regarding the well of Zam-
Zam. That same Being Who has blessed you with a spring of water in
this desolate desert, is the same One who has blessed you with the
well of Zam-Zam. So, instead of going any further, they all turned
back to Makkah. This incident occurred about 40 to 70 years prior to
the birth of Rasulullah(sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

During the era of ignorance, two idols, 'Assaaf' and 'Naila'were kept
upon the well of Zam-Zam. 'Assaaf' was a male and 'Naila', a female,
who had a connection with the tribe of Jurhum, and they were
inhabitants of Yemen. There was a love relationship between the two
of thern. When they came to Makkah for Haj, they committed an
indecent act in the Haram. This led to Allaah Ta'ala turning them into
stone. People were greatly affected by this story. They were then
flung nearby, to the place where the well of Zam-Zam is situated, so
that others may see their plight and take lesson from their sin. Their
forms remained like this for a period of time, until a time came when
the Mushrikeen (idol-worshippers) made them also into idols and
worshipped them. Oaths were being taken upon their names, and in
order to gain favour with them, animals were sacrificed in their
names. Therefore, when Abdul Mutallib, started digging nearby them,
the Quraish came to their defence.

Imaamul Mu'arrakheen, Allama Azraqi, states; ' When Assaaf Bin

Bughaa and Naila Binti Zi'ib committed their vile and immoral act in
the Haram Shareef, then Rabb Zul Jalaal tumed them into stone. The
people flung one of them onto mount Safa and the other onto mount
Marwah. As time went by, people started worshipping them. Later on,
a person by the name of Umar Bin Lahya fortified the people's belief
and worship in them.

When the era of Qussay Bin Kilaab came, he placed the statue of
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Assaaf near the Kaaba and that of Naila near the well of Zam-Zam.
Hence, the Mushrikeen, used to begin their Tawaaf of the Kaaba at
the statue of Assaaf and end at Naila. They also made lstilaam at
these idols. Then, when Allaah Ta'ala placed the control of Makkah
Mukarrama in the hands of Rahmatul Lil Alameen, these two idols
(like all the others) were destroyed. "

The minds of the Mushrikeen were obscured due to their idol-

worship. Soundness of mind leaves them. Just look at this, Where a
totally immoral and depraved man and woman shamelessly commit
an act of indecency in front of the Kaaba Shareef, and Allaah Ta'ala
turns them into stone as a lesson for man to come, yet the
Mushrikeen turn this very curse into their object of worship, from
whom they ask of their needs.


The water of Zam-Zam has countless of virtues and it is extremely
pure and clean. It is the most blessed and purest of all waters on

Allama Taahir Karwi, writes in this regard:

1 The inception of this well was owing to Hadhrat Ismaeel (alaihimus
salaam) and his mother Hadhrat Haajira (R.A).
2 Its coming into existence was owing to the intervention of Hadhrat
Jibraeel (alaihis salaam).
3 Its position is upon the most blessed place on earth, i.e. near the
Kaaba Shareef and within the Haram.
4 This well is surrounded by three such sacred places, viz. Hajre
Aswad, Safa and Marwah which grants it virtue (over all other
5 This is such blessed water, from which Prophets, Pious and Allaah-
fearing people have drank.
6 This such a pure water, with which, Hadhrat Jibraeel (alaihis
salaam) bathed the pure heart of Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).
7 This water also has this virtue that Rahmatul lil ' Aalameen,
Muhammad Mustafa (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), twice rinsed his
blessed mouth in the bucket of its well, thereby granting it the virtue
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of having the effect of his Mubarak mouth.

8 The world over, this is such a blessed water, that it has been
praised by the most Truthful of all the truthful people (sallallahu
alaihi wasallam).
9 Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) requested this water from Makkah
Mukarramah, whilst he was stationed in Madinah Munawwarah.

Narrations, Incidents and Ahaadith on Zam- Zam

1 It is reported from Hadhrat Jaabir (radhiayallahu anhu) that
Rasullullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallarn) said: "That person who has
completed seven Tawaafs of the Kaaba Shareef, then he performs
2 Rakaats Salaat behind the Maqaam-e-Ebrahim, and he has a
drink of the water of Zam-Zam, all his sins will be forgiven."
(Tafseer Waahidi]
2 Nabi Kareem (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The water of Zam-
Zam has a cure for all ailments. " [Dailami]
3 Hadhrat Abdullaah lbn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) reports that
Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The water of Zam-Zam is
the best water on the surface of the earth."
4 Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "The stomach of a
believer is satiated with the water of Zam-Zam, and the stomach of
a Munaafiq is not satiated." It is as though this is a sign of
5 Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "For whatever object
Zam-Zam is drunk, that object will definitely be fulfilled. If one drinks
it with the purpose of being cured, then Allaah Ta'ala will grant cure
for the drinker, or if one drinks it for his thirst to be removed then
Allaah Ta'ala will remove his thirst. Because it is the well of Jibraeel
(alaihi salaam), and with it Allaah Ta'ala quenched the thirst of
Hadhrat Ismaeel (alaihi salaam).
6 Once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came to the well of
Zam-Zam. A bucket was taken out for him. Rasullullah (sallallahu
alaihi wasallam) drank from it, and he rinsed his mouth therein. It is
reported in another narration that Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)
washed his blessed face therein and rinsed his mouth. It is reported
that Hadhrat Abbaas (radhiayallahu anhu) took out the bucket for
Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).
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7 It is reported from Hadhrat Abdullaah Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallaahu

anhu) that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Fever is
from the fire of Jahannam, hence cool it off with the water of Zam-
Zam. "
8 Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: "Gazing upon five
things is also an lbaadat,- The Qur'aan Majeed, Kaaba Shareef,
one's parents, the face of an Aalim and Zam-Zam. To look upon
Zam-Zam, one's sins are forgiven."
9 Hadhrat Ali (radhiayallahu anhu) reports that amongst all the cities,
two cities are the best. Makkah Mukarramah, and that city, wherein
Hadhrat Aadam (alaihis salaam) came down. Two cities are the
worst; 'Ahqaaf' and 'Hazre Maut'. The best well is that of Zam-Zam
and the worst is 'Barhowt', wherein the bodies of the Kuffaar were
10 It is reported from Ibn Jareej that the best water on earth is the
water of Zam-Zam, and the worst water is the water of the well of
Barhowt, which is situated in the valley of Hazre Maut.
11 It is reported frorn Hadhrat Abdullaah Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu
anhu): "Perform Salaat in the place of the chosen ones and drink
from the drink of the pious." He was asked; "What is the Prayer-
place of the chosen ones?" He replied: "Below the Mezaab-e
-Rahmat (below the water outlet in the Harem)." He was asked
about the drink of the pious, to which he replied; 'The water of
12 Abdul Aziz bin Rawaad says that there was once a pious
shepherd, who drank from Zam-Zam whenever thirst overcame
him. He would derive therefrom the taste, pleasure and effects of
milk. When he took from the water of Zam-Zam for wudhu for
Salaat, then he would get the effects of water.
13 Sheikh-ul-islaam Siraajud Deen Balqini (rahmatullahi alaih)
mentions that the water of Zam-Zam is even more virtuous than
the water of Kauther, because the blessed heart of Nabi
(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was washed in this water, and it is not
possible that Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) heart be washed
except with the best of waters.
14 It is reported in one narration that the person in whose stomach
enters the water of Zam-Zam, will never enter jahannum, because
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the Fire and Zam-Zam can never be in one and the same place.
15 It is reported from Hadhrat Abdullaah Bin Umar (radhiyallahu
anhu) that the water in the well of Zam-Zam which comes from the
direction of Hajre Aswad is actually a spring from Jannat.
16 Sayyidinah Abu Zarr Ghifaari (radhiyallahu anhu) reports the
incident of his acceptance of Islaam, when he came to Makkah,
thus: "When I heard of the announcement of Nabuwwat of
Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), then I went to Makkah,
and enquired about him (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). The people
attacked me, with the result I fell down unconscious. When I
regained consciousness, I ran to the Kaaba Shareef and hid
behind the Ghilaaf. At times during the night I saw Nabi (sallallahu
alaihi wasallam) making Tawaaf of the Kaaba, and I even made
Salaam to him. Once, Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) asked me
when I had come here. I replied that it has been thirty days since
my arriving there. He asked me who was supplying me with food; I
replied that besides the water of Zam-Zam, I had no other source
of nourishment. Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) replied that
surely this was blessed and it was the best food of all foods."
17 Hadhrat Rabaah reports from Hadhrat Aswad: "He mentions that
once such a stage passed him while in Makkah that for three days
he had no food. He spent his time at the well of Zam-Zam,
drinking therefrom. He says that he derived the pleasure and
effects of milk from this water "
18 Mufti Abu Bakr Umar Ma'roof Shaneeni, who was from amongst
the top Ulama of Yemen, states that a person was afflicted with a
serious illness. His illness took a bad turn. He went to a doctor,
who turned hirn away due to the very serious nature of the illness,
and said that this person had no rnore than three days to live.
When the patient heard this, it was as tough the earth beneath
him had opened up. He turned away thoroughly dejected. Allaah
Ta'ala placed this thought in his mind that why should he not drink
from the water of Zam-Zam, because Nabi (sallallahu alaihi
wasallam) said that it was a water which had Shifaa (cure). With
this intention he left Yemen and arrived in Makkah. He drank
Zam-Zam water to his fill. He felt that something was breaking in
his stomach. Immediately he left the Haram and went to relieve
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himself. He had a bout of diarrhea. He went and drank Zam-Zam

water for a second time and again had a bout of diarrhea. He
stayed for a few days in Makkah. After Allaah Ta'ala had granted
him cure, he returned to his home country and presented himself
before the doctor. The doctor was surprised and asked him if he
was the very same person who had the certain disease. He
replied in the affirmative. The doctor asked him what medicine he
had used. He indicated that he had been cured through the Barkat
of the water of Zam- Zam.
19 In the same way a blind person drank from the water of Zam-Zam
and put some on his eyes. Allaah Ta'ala granted his sight.
20 Allama Zahni states in 'Tabqaat' that when Sheikh Khatieb
Saghdaadi went for Haj, then he drank thrice from the well of
Zam-Zam, and he asked Allaah Ta'ala for three of his needs.
Allaah Ta'ala fulfilled all three of his needs through the Barkat of
21 Allama Taajudeen Subki (rahmatullahi alaih) writes in 'Tabqaat':
"Allama Muhammad Bin Ishaq Bin Khuzaima was asked: 'Where
did you attain such heights in knowledge?' he replied that Nabi
(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said that for whatever purpose the
water of Zam-Zam is drunk, that will be fulfilled. Hence, he says,
he drank it with the du'aa of acquiring knowledge, and Allaah
Ta'ala fulfilled his desire. "
22 Sheikhul lslaam Ibn Hajar (rahmatullahi alaih) states that when he
was still a student of Hadith when he drank Zam-Zam and made
du'aa that Allaah Ta'ala make him an excellent Haafiz of Hadith
like Allama Zahri. He says that 20 years later he made Hajj, and
he felt that Allaah Ta'ala had granted him progress in his
knowledge. He says that he made a du'aa then, that Allaah Ta'ala
grant him higher stages in rank. He said that he had hope Allah
Ta'ala will surely fulfill that duaa.

Source: History & Virtues of Zam Zam

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