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International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx www.elsevier.com/locate/ijsolstr

**Dynamic characteristics of a beam and distributed spring-mass system
**

Ding Zhou

a

a,b,*

, Tianjian Ji

b

Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210014, PeopleÕs Republic of China b School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD, UK Received 4 May 2005

Abstract This paper studies dynamic characteristics of a beam with continuously distributed spring-mass which may represent a structure occupied by a crowd of people. Dividing the coupled system into several segments and considering the distributed spring-mass and the beam in each segment being uniform, the equations of motion of the segment are established. The transfer matrix method is applied to derive the eigenvalue equation of the coupled system. It is interesting to note from the governing equations that the vibration mode shape of the uniformly distributed spring-mass is proportional to that of the beam at the attached regions and can be discontinuous if the natural frequencies of the spring-masses in two adjacent segments are diﬀerent. Parametric studies demonstrate that the natural frequencies of the coupled system appear in groups. In a group of frequencies, all related modes have similar shapes. The number of natural frequencies in each group depends on the number of segments having diﬀerent natural frequencies. With the increase of group order, the largest natural frequency in a group monotonically approaches the natural frequency of corresponding order of the bare beam from the upper side, whereas the others monotonically move towards those of the independent spring-mass systems from the lower side. Numerical results show that the frequency coupling between the beam and the distributed spring-mass mainly occurs in the low order of frequency groups, especially in the ﬁrst group. In addition, vibratory characteristics of the coupled system can be approximately represented by a series of discrete multi-degrees-of-freedom system. It also demonstrates that a beam on Winkler elastic foundation and a beam with distributed solid mass are special cases of the proposed solution. Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Free vibration; Beam; Distributed spring-mass; Human–structure interaction; Transfer matrix method; Exact solution

* Corresponding author. Address: Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210014, PeopleÕs Republic of China. Tel.: +86 25 8431 6695; fax: +86 25 8541 6677. E-mail address: dingzhou57@yahoo.com (D. Zhou).

0020-7683/$ - see front matter Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2005.09.002

2003. 1963. 2001a. respectively. It also shows that a beam on Winkler elastic foundation and a beam with distributed solid mass are the special cases of the proposed solution when the mass and stiﬀness of the distributed spring-mass become inﬁnity. Chen and Wu. respectively. 2002. Introduction It has been experimentally identiﬁed that a person or a crowd acts at least as a spring-mass-damper on a structure when the person or the crowd is stationary. Chen.b). Governing diﬀerential equation Consider a beam with a varying cross-section guaranteeing the continuity of the neutral axis of the beam and attached by continuously distributed spring-mass. 1(b). Wu and Whittaker. Hence. Chai et al. Wu and his co-workers (Wu et al. such as sitting or standing. it neglects the eﬀect of all higher modes of the structure. 2002. The essence of the coupled vibration of a beam and distributed spring-mass is studied in detail. 1(a). Rossit and Laura. 1973. (1996) and Chan and Wang (1997) investigated the vibratory characteristics of a simply supported Euler–Bernoulli beam and of a cantilevered Timoshenko beam with distributed rigid mass. Goel. The exact solutions for free vibration of shear beams. In this paper. 1999. Ji. free vibration characteristics of a non-uniform beam with arbitrarily distributed spring-mass are studied. The contribution of the higher modes may not be signiﬁcant. 1999. 2004. Wu and Chen. the solution can be derived by using the transfer matrix method. where the interaction between human and the structure needs to be considered (Ellis and Ji. all modes of vibration of the human-beam system can be considered. Separating the attached spring-mass from the beam segment and remaining the actions of the spring-mass on the beam. 2002. 1996). Wu. The simplest continuous model is to consider the structure as a continuous beam while the occupants are modelled as a continuously distributed spring-mass on the beam. Dividing the system into several segments and approximately considering all the parameters in each segment being constant. respectively: .ARTICLE IN PRESS 2 D. the interaction between human and structure can be represented using either discrete or continuous models. 1997). For such an engineering background. 2001) developed an analytical–numerical method to study the free vibration of uniform or non-uniform Euler– Bernoulli beams and Timoshenko beams with concentrated spring-masses. a segment with the length of li is isolated from the system. A number of papers studied free vibration of beams attached by discrete spring-masses or rigid masses. T. Chan and Zhang (1995) investigated the natural frequencies of a cantilever tube partially ﬁlled with liquid theoretically and experimentally. Firstly. Chan et al. (1995) studied the tension eﬀect of clamped beams carrying a concentrated mass on the natural frequencies. Wu and Chou. Ellis and Ji. but this needs to be validated. a longspan ﬂoor or a footbridge. 1999. 2003) investigated approximate estimations of natural frequencies of a beam carrying concentrated masses. This ﬁnding has led to further research of human–structure interaction. this paper investigates the dynamic characteristics of an Euler–Bernoulli beam with continuously distributed spring-mass. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx 1. The simplest discrete model is a two degrees-of-freedom (TDOF) system in which the crowd is modelled as a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system and the structure as another SDOF system. The challenging and fascinating aspects of the study lie in that a slightly damped structure system and a highly damped human body system are combined to form a new system (Ji and Ellis. It is found that the natural frequencies of a beam with distributed spring-mass appear in groups and its vibratory characteristics can be equivalently represented by a series of discrete spring-mass system. When a crowd of stationary people occupies a cantilever grandstand. The vibratory characteristics of uniform or non-uniform beams carrying TDOF spring-mass systems were studied (Qiao et al.. Euler–Bernoulli beams and Timoshenko beams with rigid or elastic concentrated masses were reported (Li. 1998. and all parameters of the segment are assumed to be constants. the governing diﬀerential equations of the beam segment and the distributed spring-mass on the segment are given as follows. Drexel and Ginsberg (2001) investigated the eﬀect of modal overlap and dissipation in a cantilevered beam attached by multiple spring-mass-damper systems. 2. Low (2000. Zhou.. as shown in Fig. 2000. as shown in Fig. On the other hand. The advantage of the model is that the high damping ratio of the crowd can be considered without too much diﬃculty. 1999).

(5) into Eq. Substituting Eq. and (b) a segment taken from the system and approximately considered to be uniform. Zhou. tÞ ¼ Z i ðxi ÞeÀjxt . ð4Þ dx4 i 1 Z i ðxi Þ ¼ Y i ðxi Þ. However. zi ðxi . 0 6 x i 6 li . dn4 2 1 À ðx=xi Þ i EI i where ni = xi/li is the dimensionless coordinate. ot2 where yi = yi(xi.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. zi = zi(xi. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx y 3 m(x) k(x) l ρA(x). tÞ ¼ Y i ðxi ÞeÀjxt . EI(x) o x (a) yi mi ki li oi xi ρAi . (3) into Eqs. li = mi/(qAi) is the ratio of the spring-mass to the beam mass pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ per unit length and k2 ¼ xl2 qAi =ðEI i Þ is the dimensionless natural frequency of the system. ot ox4 i 0 6 x i 6 li . (a) A beam with distributed spring-mass. ð1Þ ð2Þ o2 zi ¼ k i ðy i À zi Þ. EIi is the ﬂexural stiﬀness and qAi is the mass per unit length of the ith beam segment. i i Eq.. 1. such as the ith and the (i + 1)th segments. (6) is the governing diﬀerential equation of free vibration for the ith segment of the beam and distributed spring-mass system. (1) and (2) gives d4 Y i À qAi x2 Y i þ k i ðY i À Z i Þ ¼ 0. . can be discontinuous if xi and xiþ1 are diﬀerent. Yi(xi) and Zi(xi) are the vibration modes of the ith segment of the beam and the spring-mass on the segment. ð5Þ 1 À ðx=xi Þ2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ where xi ¼ k i =mi is the natural frequency of the independent spring-mass system on the ith beam segment. It should be mentioned that for clamped thin beams carrying large distributed mass the tension eﬀect should be considered in the vibration analysis (Chai et al. y i ðxi . t) is the displacement of the beam. the solutions of the above equations have the following form: ð3Þ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ where x is the natural frequency of the coupled system and j ¼ À1. t) is the displacement of the distributed mass mi. EIi (b) Fig. This situation is not included in the present study. Eq. respectively. as 2 1=½1 À ðx=xi Þ is a constant. 0 < ni < 1. the mode shapes of the spring-masses on two adjacent segments. EI i mi o4 y i o2 y þ qAi 2i ¼ Àk i ðy i À zi Þ. When the beam-spring-mass system experiences free vibration. Substituting Eq. T. ki is the stiﬀness of the distributed spring on the ith segment. (4) gives " # d4 Y i li 4 À ki 1 þ ð6Þ Y i ¼ 0. 1995). (5) indicates that the beam and the spring-mass have the same mode shapes on a segment.

To simplify the expression of the solution. Solution The solution of Eq. 2. Zhou. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx 3. T. the following parameter is introduced: vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ . which is shown in Fig. (6) depends on the sign of the coeﬃcient 1 þ li =½1 À ðx=xi Þ according to the theory of ordinary diﬀerential equation.ARTICLE IN PRESS 4 D.

u.

.

u.

li 4 .

.

ai ¼ ki t.

1 þ . ð7Þ 2.

.

1 À ðx=xi Þ .

respectively. 2. which can be determined using boundary conditions. 2. and fF gi ¼ ½ Y i ð1Þ hi ð1Þ M i ð1Þ V i ð1Þ . (8) still holds for a bare beam segment. i i ð10Þ 2 2 2 2 2 ð8Þ where cij (j = 1. i 2 i 3 t11 ti12 ti13 ti14 6 ti ti ti ti 7 6 7 ½T i ¼ 6 21 22 23 24 7. Eq. When 1 < ðx=xi Þ < 1 þ li Y i ðni Þ ¼ ci1 sinðai ni Þ sinhðai ni Þ þ ci2 cosðai ni Þ sinhðai ni Þ þ ci3 sinðai ni Þ coshðai ni Þ þ ci4 cosðai ni Þ coshðai ni Þ. When li = 0. There are three possible solutions for Eq. The sign of the coeﬃcient 1 þ li =½1 À ðx=xi Þ2 . i i i 4 t31 t32 t33 ti34 5 ti41 ti42 ti43 ti44 R T ð12Þ ð13Þ 1− µi 1 – (ω / ω i ) 2 1+µ i 1 o 1 1+µ i (ω / ω i) 2 Fig. 3. bending moment M i ¼ EI i d2 Y i =dx2 i and shear force V i ¼ EI i d3 Y i =dx3 at the two ends (xi = 0 and xi = li) of the ith segment can be expressed in i a matrix form as follows: fF gR ¼ ½T i fF gL . The relations between displacement Yi. fF gL ¼ ½ Y i ð0Þ hi ð0Þ M i ð0Þ V i ð0Þ T . i i ð11Þ where the superscripts R and L mean the right end and left end of the beam-spring-mass segment. . ð9Þ When ðx=xi Þ ¼ 1 þ li Y i ðni Þ ¼ ci1 þ ci2 ni þ ci3 n2 þ ci4 n3 . rotational angle hi = dYi/dxi. (6): When ðx=xi Þ > 1 þ li or ðx=xi Þ < 1 Y i ðni Þ ¼ ci1 sinðai ni Þ þ ci2 cosðai ni Þ þ ci3 sinhðai ni Þ þ ci4 coshðai ni Þ. 4) are the unknown constants.

a i i t33 ¼ cos i cosh i . a a a a a a ti23 ¼ li ðcos i sinh i þ sin i cosh i Þ=ð2EI i i Þ. i i ti21 ¼ ai ðÀ sin ai þ sinh ai Þ=ð2li Þ. i i ti22 ¼ ðcos ai þ cosh ai Þ=2. iþ1 i Substituting Eq.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. a When ðx=xi Þ ¼ 1 þ li . ti31 ¼ EI i a2 ðÀ cos ai þ cosh ai Þ=ð2l2 Þ. ai i i i i t21 ¼ i ðÀ sin i cosh i þ cos i sinh i Þ=li . a a a a a i ti42 ¼ À2EI i 2 sin i sinh i =l2 . (11) into the above equation gives fF gL ¼ ½T i fF gL .e. ti22 ¼ 1. Transfer matrix The displacements and forces on the right end of the ith segment should be equal to those on the left end of the (i + 1)th segment. i ti34 ¼ li . it represents a distributed rigid mass on the segment of the beam. a a i ti41 ¼ À2EI i 3 ðcos ai sinh ai þ sin ai cosh ai Þ=l3 . a a ai i i a i ti32 ¼ EI i i ðÀ sin i cosh i þ cos i sinh i Þ=li . If the structure is divided into I segments. i ti31 ¼ ti32 ¼ 0. ti12 ¼ li ðsin ai þ sinh ai Þ=ð2ai Þ. ti24 ¼ l2 ðÀ cos ai þ cosh ai Þ=ð2EI i a2 Þ. a a pﬃﬃﬃ where i ¼ ai = 2. i i ti32 ¼ EI i ai ðÀ sin ai þ sinh ai Þ=ð2li Þ. iþ1 i ð18Þ ð17Þ where [T]i is called as the transfer matrix.. ti12 ¼ li .e. fF gL ¼ fF gR . i. i i ti33 ¼ ðcos ai þ cosh ai Þ=2. ai ai i i t43 ¼ i ðÀ sin i cosh i þ cos i sinh i Þ=li . ti23 ¼ li ðsin ai þ sinh ai Þ=ð2EI i ai Þ. T. ti12 ¼ li ðsin i cosh i þ cos i sinh i Þ=ð2i Þ. it means the ith segment of the beam on Winkler elastic foundation. i ti33 ¼ 1. ti41 ¼ ti42 ¼ ti43 ¼ 0. a a a a a t44 ¼ cos i cosh i . ti44 ¼ 1. 2 2 2 2 ti34 ¼ li ðsin ai þ sinh ai Þ=ð2ai Þ. ti23 ¼ li =ðEI i Þ. ti14 ¼ l3 =ð6EI i Þ. Zhou. li = 1. ti42 ¼ EI i a2 ðÀ cos ai þ cosh ai Þ=ð2l2 Þ. i i ti44 ¼ ðcos ai þ cosh ai Þ=2. there are a a ti11 ¼ cos i cosh i . ti13 ¼ l2 =ð2EI i Þ. a a a a ti31 ¼ À2EI i a2 sin ai sinh i =l2 . 4. ð14Þ ti13 ¼ l2 ðÀ cos ai þ cosh ai Þ=ð2EI i a2 Þ.. i i ti43 ¼ ai ðÀ sin ai þ sinh ai Þ=ð2li Þ. a a t34 ¼ li ðcos i sinh i þ sin i cosh i Þ=ð2i Þ. ð16Þ ti24 ¼ l2 =ð2EI i Þ. ð15Þ The present solutions are applicable for the following special cases: • When the mass density of the distributed spring-mass on the ith segment becomes inﬁnity i. a a a a a t22 ¼ cos i cosh i . a a a a a i a ti14 ¼ l3 ðsin i cosh i À cos ai sinh i Þ=ð4EI i 3 Þ. a a a ti13 ¼ l2 sin i sinh ai =ð2EI i a2 Þ. it gives ti11 ¼ 1. When 1 < ðx=xi Þ < 1 þ li . • When the stiﬀness of the distributed spring-mass on the ith segment approaches inﬁnity. the following successive formula can be obtained: fF gL ¼ ½T IÀ1 ½T IÀ2 Á Á Á ½T 1 fF gL . ti21 ¼ 0. a ti24 ¼ l2 sin i sinh i =ð2EI i 2 Þ. I 1 ð19Þ . ti14 ¼ l3 ðÀ sin ai þ sinh ai Þ=ð2EI i a3 Þ. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx 5 When ðx=xi Þ > 1 þ li or ðx=xi Þ < 1 ti11 ¼ ðcos ai þ cosh ai Þ=2. ti41 ¼ EI i a3 ðsin ai þ sinh ai Þ=ð2l3 Þ.

(8) are uniquely determined by the four boundary conditions of the beam as shown in Eqs. A uniform beam with uniformly distributed spring-mass along its full length is now considered. the ratio becomes negative and the movements of the beam and the spring-mass are in the opposite directions. ð23Þ ð24Þ ð25Þ ð26Þ ð27Þ The back substitution of eigenvalues obtained from Eqs. For a simply supported–clamped ðS–CÞ beam. 5. the movements of the beam and the spring-mass are in the same direction. which are independent of the spring-mass on theﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Therefore a2 is p beam. the dimensionless natural frequency of the bare beam and can be expressed as xb l2 qA=EI where xb is the natural frequency of the bare beam. When ðx=xi Þ ¼ 1 þ li . Moreover. For this special case. This means that in a segment if the natural frequency of the coupled system is smaller than that of the independent spring-mass. (23)–(27) gives the corresponding mode shapes. T. some general characteristics of the beam and spring-mass system can be deduced from Eqs. 2. When 1 < ðx=xi Þ2 < 1 þ li . 2 that when ðx=xi Þ2 > 1 þ li or ðx=xi Þ2 < 1. a 2 · 2 homogeneous matrix equation can be obtained from Eq. the solution is the homogeneous solution of a static beam. There is only one segment and for simplicity the subscript i = 1 is omitted. which gives the eigenvalue equation dependent on the boundary conditions of the beam. I I Substituting Eq. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx From Eq. 3. if the natural frequencies of the independent spring-masses on two adjacent segments are diﬀerent. For a cantilevered ðF–CÞ beam. where [T] is a 4 · 4 matrix as follows: 2 3 ð22Þ R L L ð20Þ ð21Þ t11 t12 t22 t32 t42 t13 t23 t33 t43 t14 6t 6 21 ½T ¼ ½T I ½T IÀ1 ½T IÀ2 Á Á Á ½T 1 ¼ 6 4 t31 t41 t24 7 7 7. t13 t24 À t14 t23 ¼ 0. (23)–(27). t34 5 t44 Considering the boundary conditions of the two ends of the beam. The closer the natural frequency of the coupled system to that of the independent spring-mass. For a clamped–clamped ðC–CÞ beam. as seen in Eq. the form of the solution is the same as that of the solution of free vibration of a bare beam. (9). 2 as seen in Eq.ARTICLE IN PRESS 6 D. (8). For a free–free ðF–FÞ beam. if the natural frequency of the coupled system is larger than that of the independent springmass. Basic characteristics of solutions Eq. (20) gives fF gI ¼ ½T I ½T IÀ1 ½T IÀ2 Á Á Á ½T 1 fF g1 ¼ ½T fF g1 . For a simply supported ðS–SÞ beam. 4) and a in Eq. the mode shape of the spring-mass on two adjacent segments could be discontinuous because of diﬀerent amplitude ratios. It can be noted from Fig. In this case the inertia force of the distributed mass just counteracts the inertia force of the beam. t11 t22 À t12 t21 ¼ 0. Zhou. (5) shows that the mode of the uniformly distributed spring-mass is proportional to the mode of the beam at the attached regions. . t12 t34 À t14 t32 ¼ 0. the larger the absolute value of the amplitude ratio. (10). The amplitude ratio of the spring-mass to the beam is equal to 1=½1 À ðx=xi Þ2 . (5) and (8) that • The mode shapes of the beam Y(n) and the spring-mass Z(n) are identical. the form of the solution is the same as that of the homogeneous solution of a static beam on elastic foundation. as seen in Eq. (11). The determinant of the coeﬃcient matrix should to zero. (19) into Eq. • The parameters cj (j = 1. t31 t42 À t41 t32 ¼ 0. t12 t24 À t14 t22 ¼ 0. (22). However. one has fF gR ¼ ½T I fF gL .

. With the increase of the mode order. with the following parameters: M a ¼ ml. 1. From Eq. the following relationships can be easily demonstrated. This means that the stiﬀness Kbj also monotonically increases. (7) leads to the solution of the natural frequencies of the beam and spring-mass system. which can be obtained by solving Eq. The equivalent TDOF system of a uniform beam with uniformly distributed spring-mass along its full length. Ma Ka Mb Kbj Fig. Zhou. 2. 2j 2 : xbj xbj xbj . 1. 3.ARTICLE IN PRESS D. the stiﬀness Kbj is proportional to the square of the natural frequency xbj of the bare beam. Eq. (28) can be rewritten as follows: vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ9 8 #2 u" 2 u x2 < 2 2 = x bj t ð1 þ lÞ x þ 1 À 4 x . . x1j < ðxbj . . (29) indicates that in the jth pair of natural frequencies of the coupled system. (28). j ¼ 1. 3. K bj ¼ M s x2 . (28) is actually the solution of a discrete TDOF system. However. as shown in Fig. bj ð30Þ From the above analysis. as given by Ellis and Ji (1997) x1j x2j ¼ xbj x. 3 that the two lumped masses. (8) gives the mode shape Y(n) which is valid for both bare beam and the beam with spring-mass. . j ¼ 1. Ka are constants. It can be noted that Eq. Ma and Mb. 4) and a into Eq. (30) and Fig. it can be concluded that for a uniform beam with uniformly distributed spring-mass along its length. 2. xbj monotonically increases. (7) as follows: qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 2 2 2 2 x1j ¼ ð1 þ lÞx þ xbj À ½ð1 þ lÞx2 þ x2 À 4x2 x2 . . It can be seen from Eq. In this case one natural frequency of the bare beam corresponds to a pair of natural frequencies of the coupled system. 3. its vibration characteristics can be exactly represented by a series of discrete TDOF systems. K a ¼ kl. the ﬁrst frequency is always lower than the natural frequency of the independent spring-mass and the jth natural frequency of the bare beam. 3. M b ¼ qAl. xÞ < x2j . T. bj bj 2 ð28Þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ð1 þ lÞx þ xbj þ ½ð1 þ lÞx þ xbj À 4xbj x . 2. x2j ¼ 2 Eq. bj bj ð31Þ vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ9 8 " #2 u 2 < 2 u 2 2= xbj x x x x2 ¼ ð1 þ lÞ 2 þ 1 þ t ð1 þ lÞ 2 þ 1 À 4 2 . 2 ð1 þ lÞ 2 þ 1 À x1j ¼ 2 : xbj x2 x2 . 3. the mode shapes of the bare beam and the coupled beamspring-mass system are identical. In other words. • Substituting a into Eq. . the second is always higher than the two natural frequencies of the independent spring-mass and the bare beam. . (28) indicates that the jth pair of natural frequencies of the coupled system corresponds to the jth mode of vibration of the bare beam. and the stiﬀness of the upper mass. ð29Þ Eq. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx 7 • Substituting cj (j = 1.

m 2 l3 k3 .1. Namely. . 0. bi ¼ k i l4 =ðEIÞ. but vary from one segment to other. EI l Fig. the ﬁrst half and the full of the span of the beam. the following approximation can be bj obtained: vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ #2 u" u 2 2 2 t ð1 þ lÞ x þ 1 À 4 x % 1 þ ðl À 1Þ x . Three kinds of boundary condition are considered: the two ends are clamped (C–C). Parametric studies In the following study. (23)–(27). Thus. will be investigated in detail. 3Þ ð34Þ The coupled natural frequencies would be obtained by solving Eqs. 6. Uniformly distributed spring-mass on one segment 6.5 and 1. (34) are b1 = 60 and l1 = 5. as shown in Fig. A uniform beam with three segments of uniformly distributed spring-mass. (26). there is little coupling between the free vibrations of the two SDOF system. • As x2j > xbj and x2j % xbj for a large j.25. x1j gradually and monotonically approaches x from the lower side with the increase of the order j of the frequency pair. Assume that the other two parameters in Eq. respectively. • The coupled vibration of a beam and uniformly distributed spring-mass mainly occurs in the low order of frequency pairs. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx As x2 is a constant. 6. x2 =x2 is a small value when j is large.1. are considered. The mass and stiﬀness of the spring-mass are constants in each segment. x2j gradually and monotonically approaches xbj from the upper side with the increase of the order j of the frequency pair. (33) indicates that the ﬁrst natural frequency of the TDOF system is close to that of the independent spring-mass and the second is close to that of corresponding order of the bare beam when j increases. Coupled natural frequencies A uniform cantilevered beam (free at the left end and clamped at the right end) is ﬁrst considered with partly uniformly distributed spring-mass starting from its free end. The eigenvalues can be obtained by solving Eq. T. x2j % xbj ð33Þ Eq.0. Thus. 4. 2. m 1 l2 k2 . m 3 ρA. li ¼ mi =ðqAÞ. (31) gives x1j % x. ð32Þ 2 2 xbj xbj x2 bj Substituting the above equation into Eq. • As x1j < x and x1j % x for a large j. Zhou. In other words. The following dimensionless parameters are used: gi ¼ li =l. especially in the ﬁrst pair of frequencies.0. As the same as the beam with fully l1 k1 .1. the spring-mass occupies the ﬁrst quarter. This demonstrates that • For a high order natural frequency of the bare beam. g2 = l2 = b2 = g3 = l3 = b3 = 0. the upper mass Ma and the lower mass Mb are vibrating independently at their own natural frequencies. g1 = 0. ði ¼ 1. Three length ratios. a uniform beam with up to three segments of uniformly distributed spring-mass. the two ends are simply supported (S–S) and one end is free and the other clamped (F–C).ARTICLE IN PRESS 8 D. 4.

8 0.556 1 1. The modes corresponding to the ﬁrst pair of natural frequencies for a cantilevered beam (F–C) with a part of uniformly distributed mass. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx 9 Table 1 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ The pairs of dimensionless natural frequencies k2 ¼ xl2 qA=EI for a cantilevered beam with a part of uniformly distributed spring-mass from its free end when b1 = 60 and l1 = 5 2 Order of pairs Spring-mass k Bare beam c2 g1 = 0.150 200.7998 61.578 1 First 1.4493 61.6972 120.89247 22. the degree of the frequency coupling between the beam and the spring-mass decreases quickly. corresponding to the ﬁrst two pairs of natural frequencies.8128 120.25. 5 and 6 that • The coupled natural frequencies appear in pairs.46400 3.860 298.46410 Second 8. the mode shapes of the coupled system are the same as those of the bare beam). As the order of frequency pairs increases.913 199. .935 298.90074 22.45701 3.46294 3.. The mode shapes of the beam.43704 3. — the ﬁrst mode.08656 23.606 1 First 1. It is seen from Table 2 that.34382 3. as given in Table 1. In such a case.8 1 x/l Fig.46395 3.2.5 g1=1. are given in Figs.46407 3.4 0.0.1831 121. T. 6.6 Y 0.026 199.52178 3.901 298.46273 3. Each pair of frequencies has two mode shapes which are similar to that of the bare beam (when g1 = 1. which enhances the observations in the last subsection 1 0.46371 3.6 0. 5.902 199. (h) g2 = 0.46344 3.9385 121. (·) g2 = 1.26403 3. It can be observed from Table 1 and Figs. 5 and 6.46410 Second 9. Eﬀect of the distribution of spring-mass Table 2 gives the ﬁrst four pairs of dimensionless natural frequencies for S–S and C–C beams with uniform spring-mass symmetrically distributed about the midpoint of the beam when b2 = 500 and l2 = 5.2 0 0 0.46150 3.45624 3. Zhou.1.ARTICLE IN PRESS D.010 298.4 0.43897 3.3851 62.0345 61. g1 = g3 and b1 = l1 = b3 = l3 = 0.656 1 uniformly distributed spring-mass.46410 3..25 g1 = 0.5.the second mode. (n) g2 = 0.51602 22.0 First 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 3. .34042 3. respectively. • The frequency coupling between spring-mass and beam mainly appears in the ﬁrst pair of natural frequencies.46410 Second 7. • The ﬁrst natural frequency in a pair gradually approaches that of the independent spring-mass from the lower side while the second gradually approaches the natural frequencies of the bare beam from the upper side as the order of frequency pair increases. the dimensionless coupled natural frequencies can be classiﬁed into two queues.46409 3.0 and bear beam.36617 3.2 0.

g2 = 0.89679 3 9.2 Y 0 -0.914 g1 = 0.23428 9.92073 2 8.8115 158.95724 g1 = 0.94134 6.034 32.16059 2 9.98464 3 9.5 223.9 98.7 223.1 C–C beam First 10 (dimensionless frequency of spring-mass) Second 22.72 1209.749 26.2. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx 1 0. (·) g2 = 1.89721 9.690 394. Table 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ The ﬁrst four pairs of dimensionless natural frequencies k2 ¼ xl2 qA=EI for S–S and C–C beams with uniform spring-mass symmetrically and partly distributed on the midpoint of the beam when b2 = 500 and l2 = 5.83190 4 9. g3 = 0.6728 120.73 1209.6 222. . g2 = 0.28070 2 9.0095 45.1. g2 = 0.. (h) g2 = 0.6 0.77608 2 8.495 8.5 223.4676 89.98985 6.3696 91.64842 3 9.72213 4 9.1 1 3.79440 2 8.6554 122.6993 158.082 30.1 2000.91528 g1 = 0.8042 89.99528 9.1297 43.88338 9.4 0.6.678 393.99911 g1 = 0.69560 9.6 0.99916 7.4381 65.01623 9.8 1 x/l Fig.909 201.0584 122.2 2002.4 -0.96534 6.21 1210.96 893. g3 = 0.63 615.557 200.2 0.8264 spring-mass) 4 157.26 1579.1 223.2 -0.38822 9.25.69397 4 9.157 22.696 394.9277 39.410 32. g3 = 0.98857 g1 = 0.95610 9. The modes corresponding to the second pair of natural frequencies for a cantilevered beam (F–C) with a part of uniformly distributed mass.7719 61.4528 121.967 201.965 392.3563 159.47629 3 9.94460 4 9.4.9929 121.73 616.4784 3 88.6917 122.3733 61.93 896.1 97.70053 3 9.0.76 1214.8 -1 0 0.5.0 98. g3 = 0.93784 .527 393.73 616.18 1579.8 0. Zhou. g2 = 1.1582 65.5 1998. 6.93279 9.4504 65.0 Order of pairs S–S beam First Second 1st · 2nd 98.6481 91.6306 159.3.7 98.2 1 3..2.the second mode.4 97.8484 90.6 -0.95551 9.78 888.74 888.0 1 3.26 1579.99465 4 9.78 888.8.39335 9.83667 9. g3 = 0.3497 158.110 1st · 2nd 223.31 1580. T.1371 45.8536 63.471 200.546 32.96 888.20 615.4 0.73 1209. g2 = 0.86960 2 frequency of 39.672 25.0 1998. — the ﬁrst mode.89461 9.90085 18.0 and the bear beam.68 616.14 1584.0.6 2 Independent spring-mass and bear beam c2 k 1 10 (dimensionless 9.254 26.4.4 1 5.8853 41.73 616.696 394.903 199.0 1998.0 1998.83216 9. (n) g2 = 0.36 1208.47398 9.859 27.ARTICLE IN PRESS 10 D.3 1 4.51 1581.272 200.

21282 3.5329 0.3705 10. 0. T.54024 3.14672 6. 5.5921 23.7719 F–C First 1. 5.76786 1.77608 2.2864 19. • The free vibration of the coupled system can be approximately simulated by a series of TDOF systems.89461 2. 1.33710 1.89217 7. In other words. g2 0.1371 10.18174 3.31414 3.5485 4.13164 6.32316 1. the more the occupation of the spring-mass on the beam. the stronger the frequency coupling.1582 22. b2 1. vice versa.2 .6 0.95869 2. 5. 5 10 50 100 25 50 250 500 5 10 50 100 25 50 250 500 5 10 50 100 25 50 250 500 S–S First 2.1114 12.e.84565 3. 1.1225 11.67977 3.38184 2.62485 3. b1 = l1 = b3 = l3 = 0.6173 24.91267 4. as given in Eq. (29). the ﬁrst natural frequency in a pair monotonically decreases and the second monotonically increases.22487 3.4370 22.. Zhou.74306 6.01616 2. 1.97581 4.18347 3.5693 24.58388 3.9277 C–C First 2.3657 6. the ﬁrst natural frequency in a pair monotonically decreases and the second monotonically increases.8858 14.12615 10.01761 5.23011 1.9304 23. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx 11 • The products of pairs of natural frequencies of the system are close (or equal) to that of the natural frequencies of the bare beam and the independent spring-masses for all cases.23060 3.16477 2.4838 27.97229 10.8610 18.47269 6.37623 6.4453 27.00656 2. i.9810 16. 1.2819 22. • With the increase of the occupation of the spring-mass on the beam. 5. Eﬀect of stiﬀness ratio and mass ratio Table 3 provides the results showing the eﬀect of the structural parameters on the ﬁrst pair of natural frequencies for a uniform beam with partly uniformly distributed mass for three types of boundary conditions.57964 8.09422 6.6001 23.70876 6. 5. 1.20913 3.78452 2.95551 2.ARTICLE IN PRESS D.71226 8.40844 2.72381 9. the stronger the frequency coupling between the beam and the spring-mass.86417 4.1297 9.99733 5.13054 6.01202 5.79747 2. 1.0847 11.1324 10.99296 2.92073 2.01274 5.17808 2.4.35192 10. • Increasing the stiﬀness ratio will result in the increase of both natural frequencies in a pair.0866 27. 5.42320 2.1. In this case.5503 15.0769 18. 5.26057 2.44332 11.9537 23. However.3.8958 22. 1.7123 32.41122 1.6406 22.88740 2.16059 Second 10.0 l2.12699 2. 5.5036 10.55791 3. This is just the unique property of a TDOF system. 1. 0. increasing the mass ratio will result in the decrease of both frequencies.9109 23.29386 2.93013 1.8134 22. the natural frequency of the independent spring-mass remains constant) will result in the decrease of the ﬁrst natural frequency and the increase of the second natural frequency in the pair.1072 10.7050 3.00547 2.9976 12.44751 1.96584 1. 1. 5. 5.1348 3.0. 5. 1. 1. as the same as observed in Table 2.01623 Second 22.16863 11.98616 2.9094 25. Table 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ The ﬁrst pair of dimensionless natural frequencies k2 ¼ xl2 qA=EI for beams with partly uniformly distributed spring-mass Parameters g1.14018 7.88889 9. 1.18357 3.3229 14.6326 22.22526 3.46661 2.9495 25..6151 26.4127 12.49006 8.3616 12.29080 8. • Proportionally increasing the mass ratio and the stiﬀness ratio (i.98676 2.57025 1. this enlarges the frequency coupling of the spring-mass and the beam.4504 22.12164 1.3543 13.39134 8. 6.4817 22.7594 10.4859 22. 5. It is shown in Table 3 that • With the increase of the occupation of the spring-mass on the beam.28558 10.82880 Second 4.67212 5.40312 17.10358 2. • The closer the natural frequency of a bare beam to that of the independent spring-mass.2.95842 6.7500 15.37395 5.e.45784 2. Three length ratios and eight groups of spring-mass parameters (mass ratio and stiﬀness ratio of the spring-mass to the beam) are considered.0505 3.5434 32.08677 6.5282 24.

25. respectively. The mode shapes corresponding to the ﬁrst group of natural frequencies are similar to the ﬁrst mode of the bare beam and the modes corresponding to the second group of natural frequencies are similar to the second mode of the bare beam. The mass density and the stiﬀness of the distributed spring-mass are constants in each segment but vary from segment to segment.623 1 .5 First 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3.46273 3.960 298. g2 = 0. Two sets of distribution length. It can be noted from the table that with the increase of the group order. we consider the spring-mass to be distributed over two.46410 3.032 199.6972 120. The spring-mass occupies the full length of the beam and the lengths of the three segments are the same. g3 = 0 and b3 = l3 = 0.99623 1. The ﬁrst six groups of dimensionless natural frequency are given in Table 5.46344 3.46409 3.32729 1.99993 2 Second 2.46395 3. Zhou.34652 3.5). b3 = 500 and l3 = 10 on the third. The ﬁrst six groups of dimensionless natural frequencies are given in Table 4 and the mode shapes corresponding to the ﬁrst group of natural frequencies are shown in Fig. three or more parts of the span. b2 = 500 and l2 = 5 on the second. as the order of vibration mode increases.25.860 298.02667 3. where two independent SDOF spring-masses systems are placed in parallel on the SDOF structure system as shown in Fig.99999 2 Second 2.46408 3.556 1 1. The calculated results show once again that the coupled natural frequencies can be grouped and each group has four natural frequencies in the studied case.902 199. It can be seen from Table 4 and Fig.0345 61. the ﬁrst two natural frequencies in the groups gradually approach those of the independent spring-mass systems from the lower side while the third natural frequency in the groups gradually approaches those of the bare beam from the upper side.9361 121. 6. g2 = 0.5 on the ﬁrst segment.25441 3.067 199. • The free vibration of the coupled system can be approximately represented by a series of three degrees-offreedom systems. and so on. T.46371 3.28170 22. b2 = 20.99991 1.937 298. • The frequency coupling between the spring-mass and the beam mainly appear in the ﬁrst group of natural frequencies.9937 62.99956 1.2. the ﬁrst three natural frequencies in a group are. 6.2.ARTICLE IN PRESS 12 D.604 1 First 1. 7. 8. Uniformly distributed spring-mass on several segments To extend the studies in the last subsection.99997 1.75) and (g1 = g2 = 0.0197 121. g2 = 0. Diﬀerent uniformly distributed spring-masses on three or more segments A uniform simply–simply supported beam with three segments of uniformly distributed spring-mass is investigated.99964 1.46410 Third 8. close to those of the three diﬀerent distributed spring-mass systems and the fourth is close to that Table 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ The groups of dimensionless natural frequencies k2 ¼ xl2 qA=EI for a cantilevered beam (F–C) with two segments of uniformly distributed masses when b1 = 60. 7 that • The coupled natural frequencies appear in groups.1.2.98562 1. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx 6. The spring-masses have the parameters b1 = k1l4/(EI) = 60 and l1 = m1/qA = 5 on the ﬁrst segment and b2 = 20 and l2 = 5 on the second segment. From the second group or higher.95941 22.46400 3.99984 1.44016 3.2.99830 1. In such a case.27595 1.75 g1 = 0. l1 = l2 = 5 2 Order of groups Spring-mass k Bare beam c2 g1 = 0. The calculated results show that the coupled natural frequencies can still be clariﬁed into groups and there are three natural frequencies in each group. are considered. The spring-masses have the parameters b1 = k1l4/(EI) = 500 and l1 = m1/qA = 2.51602 22.46410 Third 8.45628 3.5.7553 61. Diﬀerent uniformly distributed spring-masses on two segments Consider a uniform cantilevered beam (free at the left end) with two segments of distributed spring-mass over the span of the beam. (g1 = 0.

06904 7.07038 7. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx 1 13 0.3509 45.96957 9.07077 7. (n) the second mode. l3 = 10.55615 6.8 1 x/l Fig.1408 14.009 1 of the bare beam.914 246.496 247. Zhou. .86960 39.06222 7.96491 7.99408 9.99931 10 Third 12.6 Y 0.25.07107 10 14.7136 91. l1 = l2 = 5).38182 9.4 0. g2 = 0.740 355. T.6 0.07107 Second 7. (s) the ﬁrst mode. l2 = 5.67852 9. The dynamic characteristics are equivalent to a discrete four degrees of freedom system in which the three SDOF systems formed by the spring-masses on the three segments act in parallel on the SDOF system converted from the beam.5.753 356. g1 = g2 = g3 = 1/3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 Order of groups Spring-mass k Bare beam c2 Dimensionless frequencies k2 ¼ xl2 qA=EI First 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 7. The modes corresponding to the ﬁrst group of natural frequencies for a uniform cantilevered beam (F–C) with two segments of uniformly distributed mass (b1 = 60.306 1 3.99823 9. (h) the bare beam.2 0 0 0.1385 14.0360 14.2 0.4 0.1421 Fourth 26. Table 5 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ The groups of dimensionless natural frequencies k2 ¼ xl2 qA=EI for a simply supported beam with three segments of uniformly distributed masses when b1 = b2 = b3 = 500. 8.6363 159. (·) the third mode.8264 157. The approximately equivalent model of a uniform beam with two segments of uniformly distributed spring-mass.75. M a1 Ka1 M a2 Ka2 Mb Kbj Fig.1421 9.4784 88.1276 14. g1 = 0. b2 = 20.ARTICLE IN PRESS D.8 0. 7.1416 14.4735 14. l1 = 2.

9. A beam attached by n segments of distributed spring-mass with diﬀerent n frequencies can be approximately represented by a series of n + 1 DOF systems. the motions of the spring-mass and the beam are in the opposite directions. in which n SDOF spring-mass systems act in parallel on the SDOF structure system. In each segment. The study of the combined beam and distributed spring-mass system allows to examining the relationship between the continuous model and the corresponding discrete models. The approximately equivalent model of a beam with n segments of uniformly distributed spring-mass. With the increase of the group order. T. . The coupled natural frequencies appear in groups. The spring-mass acts over parts of the span of the beam and has the constant mass and stiﬀness on a segment but may vary from segment to segment.ARTICLE IN PRESS 14 D. The conclusions from the foregoing analysis for beams with one. two and three segments of uniformly distributed spring-mass still hold for the general case. the mode shape of the spring-mass can be discontinuous between two adjacent segments if the natural frequencies of the spring-masses on the two segments are diﬀerent. Conclusions This paper provides an exact analytical solution to investigate the characteristics of free vibration of a beam and distributed spring-mass system. when the natural frequency of the coupled system is smaller than that of the spring-mass. Zhou. 3. The degree of frequency coupling between a beam and distributed spring-mass is dependent not only on the structural parameters. 4. Based on the above analysis. The n discrete spring-masses representing the distributed spring-masses connect in parallel to the base spring-mass representing the beam. the vibration of the coupled spring-mass and beam system can be approximately represented by a series of n + 1 DOF systems. 7. This model represents a structure occupied by a crowd of people. This provides a theoretical basis for converting a continuous system with distributed spring-mass into several discrete systems. and assessing the eﬀect of higher order modes of free vibration. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx Ma1 Ka1 Ma2 K a2 …… Man K an Mb K bj Fig. as shown in Fig. 5. However. The coupled free vibration mainly occurs in the low order of natural frequency groups. when the natural frequency of the coupled system is larger than that of the spring-mass. especially in the ﬁrst group of natural frequencies. 9. The main conclusions obtained are summarised as follows: 1. the ﬁrst n natural frequencies in a group approach those of the independent spring-masses from the lower side and the other approaches that of the bare beam from the upper side. it is a physical deduction that if n segments of uniformly distributed springmass with diﬀerent natural frequencies are applied on a beam. the mode shape of uniformly distributed spring-mass is the same as that of the beam. This conclusion is useful for developing simpliﬁed methods and studying human–structure interaction in engineering practice. 2. if n segments of uniformly distributed spring-mass with diﬀerent natural frequencies act on the beam. but also on the order of natural frequencies. The number of frequencies in each group is equal to n + 1. In a segment. the motions of the spring-mass and the beam are in the same direction.

Wu.S. funded by The Leverhulme Trust. Li. Chan. Qiao. Goel. Journal of Vibration and Acoustics—ASME 123. D.S.Q. Wu. 2000. Zhou. 2002. Journal of Sound and Vibration 227. T. R.. Florence.J. G. Ji. 1995.H.. 821–822. Low. 1973.A. Chan. 2001. 310–312. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 45. Ellis.R. USA. References Chai..A. Journal of Sound and Vibration 181. 1996. The solution of a beam and distributed spring-mass system can be applicable to some other problems.S. Wang.. 185– 190. J. Ginsberg. 2002. A new approach for determining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a uniform beam carrying any number of sprung masses.. 12–13. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 50.H.W. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 45. 361–381.. Wong. Wu.. Free vibration of a Timoshenko beam partially loaded with distributed mass. T.W. Human–Structure Interaction—Applying Body Biodynamics into Structural Dynamics. 725–743. Leung.O.. Free vibration analysis of a Timoshenko beam carrying multiple spring-mass systems by using the numerical assembly technique. 363–381. In: The Third European Conference on Structural Dynamics. Tension eﬀects on the natural frequencies of central-loaded clamped beams. 981–993. B.. Ji. 317–332.. Journal of Structural Engineering—ASCE 128. 1999... H.T. 13–16 June. K. whose support is gratefully acknowledged. 1–9.W. J. Ji / International Journal of Solids and Structures xxx (2005) xxx–xxx 15 6.H.M. J. H. Ellis. Alternative approach for free vibration of beams carrying a number of two-degree of freedom spring-mass systems. Journal of Sound and Vibration 182. Wu. such as a beam on Winkler elastic foundation and a beam with distributed rigid mass.. Understanding the interactions between people and structures.. 2001. Journal of Applied Mechanics—ASME 30.. Free vibration analysis of a cantilever beam carrying any number of elastically mounted point masses with the analytical-and-numerical-combined method. B. Li.. B. Journal of Sound and Vibration 255. Free vibrations of a cantilever beam with a spring-mass system attached to the free end. Vibrations of a beam carrying a concentrated mass. A. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers—Structures and Buildings 122. Wu.S. X.T...H. Rossit.M. 1287–1305.. A new exact approach for determining natural frequencies and mode shapes of non-uniform shear beams with arbitrary distribution of mass or stiﬀness... Free vibration of a cantilever tube partially ﬁlled with liquid.. Baltimore.. K. Chen. J. W. Whittaker. K. International Journal of Solids and Structures 37. Drexel. 1999.. 181–187..J.R. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44. Chou. Journal of Sound and Vibration 213. 2004. J. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a uniform cantilever beam with multiple two-dof spring-mass systems. 1963..Q. Q. Chou.M. 1997... Journal of Sound and Vibration 220. 353–369. 2000. T. Human–structure interaction in vertical vibrations... Laura. D. Free vibrations of simply supported beam partially loaded with distributed mass.V. Finite Element Analysis and Design 40.S.. Journal of Sound and Vibration 191. Italy. Laura. 1997. P. Wu.. K. 1039–1058. 2002. Low.S.T. M. Wu. J.. On the vibration of beams or rods carrying a concentrated mass. The Structural Engineers 81. Vibratory characteristics of ﬂexural non-uniform Euler–Bernoulli beams carrying an arbitrary number of spring-mass systems. 1995.ARTICLE IN PRESS D.R. Chan. K. Li. In: The 13th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference. Acknowledgement The work reported in this paper has been conducted as part of research project. Rossit. T. On the eigenvalues of a uniform cantilever beam carrying any number of spring-damper-mass systems. Human whole-body models in structural vibration. Q. Modal overlap and dissipation eﬀects of a cantilever beam with multiple attached oscillators. J. 1998.. T. K. 1604–1616.J. The exact solutions for the natural frequencies and mode shapes of non-uniform beams with multiple springmass systems. Low. Chen. J. Transverse. 1999. 5123–5141. Ocean Engineering 28. 1999. Natural frequencies of a beam-mass system in transverse vibration: Rayleigh estimation versus eigenanalysis solutions. T. H.. The eﬀect of human–structure interaction on structural vibration.. Free vibration analysis of beams carrying a number of two-degree-of-freedom spring-damper-mass systems. G. J.P.P. A modiﬁed Dunkerley formula for eigenfrequencies of beams carrying concentrated masses. normal modes of vibration of a cantilever Timoshenko beam with a mass elastically mounted at the free end. Journal of Applied Mechanics—ASME 40.M. T. Zhang..A.. 727–736. Ji. Journal of Sound and Vibration 206. Y. Ellis. Chen. 2001b. 5–8 June.A.Z. 590–597. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 110.R.... 2003.. Chou. H. 299–322. 933–939. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 42.A. 451–468. C... C.S. 1277–1295. Wu. 1996. Lim.A. 2001a. Ji. Chen. 2837–2840... D. P. J. .B. 2003.

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