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Biotelemetry is a vital constituent in the field of medical sciences. It entails remote measurement of biological parameters. Transmission of physiological data from point of generation to the point of reception can take many forms. Biotelemetry, using wireless diagnosis, can monitor electronically the symptoms and movements of patients. This development has opened up avenues for medical diagnosis and treatment. It enables monitoring of activity levels in patients suffering from heart troubles, asthma, pain, Alzheimer¶s disease, mood disorders, cardiovascular problems, accidents, etc. A patient¶s response and reaction to drugs can also be investigated for treatment. Radio telemetry transmits biological data using various radio transmission techniques. No wires are required to be attached to the patient¶s body. The patient just carries a bracelet-sized transmitter that enables monitoring of the patients symptoms. Carrier modulation, physiological data encoding, frequency and time division multiplexing blocking oscillator or Endoradiosonde, receivers and antennas for Biotelemetry, power sources, and transcutaneous power transfer are discussed in this paper.
INTRODUCTION Biotelemetry is a vital constituent in the field of medical sciences. It entails remote measurement of biological parameters. Transmission of physiological data from point of generation to the point of reception can take many forms. Biotelemetry, using wireless diagnosis, can monitor electronically the symptoms and movements of patients. This development has opened up avenues for medical diagnosis and treatment. It enables monitoring of activity levels in patients suffering from heart troubles, asthma, pain, Alzheimer¶s disease, mood disorders, cardiovascular problems, accidents, etc. A patient¶s response and reaction to drugs can also be investigated for treatment. Radio telemetry transmits biological data using various radio transmission techniques. No wires are required to be attached to the patient¶s body. The patient just carries a bracelet-sized transmitter that enables monitoring of the patients symptoms. Carrier modulation, physiological data encoding, frequency and time division multiplexing blocking oscillator or Endoradiosonde, receivers and antennas for Biotelemetry, power sources, and transcutaneous power transfer are discussed in this paper.
EVOLUTION OF BIOTELEMETRY
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com By wire Endroradiosonde S.Winters Stuart Mackay Many Investigators Many Investigators Many Investigations 1921 1950¶s Electrode wires to a Galvanometer Transistor Blocking Readily oscillator Available FDM FM encoding Multiplexed Physiologic signals Multiplexed Physiologic Signals.Newtechpapers. Spread Spectrum HISTORY OF BIOTELEMETRY THE FIRST WILDLIFE TRANSMITTER Above ground range: 25 yards Below ground range: 8 yards Transmitter breaking through the skin Batteries last 161 days FURTHER DEVELOPMENT NEEDED Can¶t be used in any critters smaller than a woodchuck Range of 18-25 yards not adequate for some species. PDM and PCM Encoding. TDM Present and future ? Portably TDM PCM.com .Newtechpapers. Next technologies 1970¶s 1970¶s to Present 1980's to Present TDM PIM. Magnetically Coupled Transcutaneous Data Transfer.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. PCM Encoding.R. or inaccessible locations Transmitter could not be recovered after it died EXTERNAL TRANSMITTER Studied porcupines in Minnesota FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www.
but not portable FIELD USE Portable receiver Using the ³null´ Tracking a moving animal Tracking a stationary animal Accuracy IMPROVEMENTS Efficiency improves Encapsulation for effective. crystal-controlled oscillator Copper or aluminum 10 grams (without battery) RECEIVER Portable.Newtechpapers. battery-operated 10 lbs.com Used miniature transmitters Home made harnesses Modified dog harnesses for immature Allowed them to make general statements about porcupines TRANSMITTER One-transistor. weatherproof FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www.Newtechpapers.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. including batteries Battery 9´ x 6´ x 5´ Commercial receivers equal or better.com .
com Less prone to damage from the animals Lighter weight batteries Transmitter. free-roaming animals Grizzly bear transmitter AUTOMATIC TRACKING SYSTEMS Outputs of receivers linked to ³visual indicator tubes´ Records of signals made on 16 mm film Film developed.Newtechpapers.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. become commercially available NEW VARIATIONS Activity indicator Death indicator Urination indicator Automatic tracking system DEATH INDICATOR ³Dead animals are hard to find´ Penned vs. electrical storms PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA Respiration Temperature Heart rate FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. etc.com . data read and tabulated Tune receivers every 2 hours Power line problems. collars.Newtechpapers.
1 OPERATION Current radio monitoring systems keep thousands of patients under surveillance. simple telephone modem. The modem sends out an alert signal to both the patient and to the central monitoring station. and central receiving station. Each patient is equipped with a pager sized personal monitoring as well as alarm system. with limited scope.com Blood pressure SATELLITE TRACKING: IMPETUS Whales Sea turtles Polar bears Polar bears Elephants Avian orientation and navigation ADVANTAGES OF SATELLITE TRACKING Impervious to weather Latitude and longitude Good for isolated areas Migrating animals Long. A network of receivers FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. The mobile unit attached to the patient has an output of nearly 1W.of-arrival calculations. emergency signals are transmitted. This tracking system can be used within the hospital premises. periodic RF signals are sent to the modem. automatic tracking Lots of animals tracked at once. in real time OPERATION AND COMPONENTS 4. waist etcleaves a specified range. When the patient wearing the transmitter device attached to his wrist.Newtechpapers.Newtechpapers.com . Central receiving station tunes into a transmitter. chest. Location of the patient is derived from time.928 MHz to transmit signals of the patient¶s condition alone with whereabouts. The system uses spread spectrum techniques operating in the RF band of 902. Biotelemetry systems consist of transmitter.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. When the patient¶s health condition becomes worse. whose size may range from a bracelet to a small pocket transistor.
1 BIOTELEMETRY FOR BIOELECTRIC POTENTIALS: 5. it measured the pressure at various points it encountered. Transducers are used for the conversion of physiological parameters into an electrical signal. The actual equipments worn by the subject is quite comfortable and usually does not impede movement. using triangulation technique based on time of arrival at various receivers. The measurements are divided in to two categories: bioelectrical and physiological variables. Physiological variables such as temperature. and arrange for any special treatment that may be necessary upon arrival of the patient at the hospital. and EEG. The earliest (1952) biotelemetry transmitter was the ³ Endo radiosonde´. usually present in a communication system. this signal is detected (demodulated) and converted back to its original form. Other applications include monitoring of athletes running a race in an effort to improve their performance. 4. etc.1. Location is display on a map at central facility in the hospital/ treatment center. pH. Tracking is done by a spread spectrum. usually a mercury cell. Signals are obtained directly in the electric form. Parameters are measured as the variation of resistance. where chimpanzees have had the necessary EEG electrodes implanted in the brain.in electrodes so that EEG can be continuously FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. One example is in the space biology program. Bioelectrical variables include measurements like ECG. blood pressure. blood flow etc require some excitation or external electrical parameters. power supply. temperature. 5. EMG. amplifiers. to locate the patient. Such radio pills are available to measure temperature.2 COMPONENTS A basic biotelemetry system consists of ± besides a transmitter. Power for the transmitter is from a battery. The pressure-sensing device was a ³radio pill´.1.com . and a central receiving station. the patient or subject wears a belt around the waist with a pocket for the transmitter. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS Any quantity that can be measured in the biomedical field is adaptable to biotelemetry.Newtechpapers. or inductance.Newtechpapers. 5.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. where a cardiologist can immediately interpret the ECG. In addition to the electrodes that are taped into place. and the EEG is transmitted.com scattered through out the specified area picks up the signals with health condition of patient. capacitance. As it passed through the gastro.2 EEG TELEMETRY Most of the applications of this telemetry have been involved with experimental animals for research purposes. instruct the trained rescue team in their emergency procedures. And finally. which had a volume less than 1cm and could be swallowed by the patient. Variations can be calibrated to represent pressure. simple modem.1 ECG TELEMETRY One example of ECG telemetry is the transmission of electrocardiograms from an ambulance or site of an emergency to a hospital.the basic circuits like oscillators. The leads from the electrodes are brought to a small transmitter installed on the animals¶ head. This triangulation technology is applied to locate the origins of all emergency signals send and users with personal two ± way digital wireless communication devices. The child wears a specifically designed ³football helmet´ with built. and enzyme activity also. or blood flow. with a useful life of about 30 hours. Telemetry of EEG signals has also been used in the studies of mentally distributed children. Base signal is modulated for transmission.intestinal tract.
the electrical signal can be generated remotely. Long-term study of natural birth control by monitoring vaginal temperature has incorporate telemetry units. can be analyzed later. A male plug is attached postoperatively and later connected to the female socket contained in the transmitter unit. aches or other symptoms that give trouble for days.Newtechpapers. In some cases.3 EMG TELEMETRY The EMG particularly useful for studies of muscle damage and partial paralysis problems and also in human performance studies. 5.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. One advantage of monitoring by telemetry is to circumvent a problem that often hampers medical diagnosis. Blood flow also has been studied extensively by telemetry. 5.com . the cause of these symptoms may be detected when they occur or. Both Doppler-type and electromagnetic-type transducers can be employed. UNIVERSAL BIOTELEMETRY SYSTEM FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. In this application. only to have them disappear just before or during medical examination.com monitored without traumatic difficulties during play.Newtechpapers.2 BIOTELEMETRY USING TRANSDUCERS: By using suitable transducers.1. the transducer circuit is designed as a separate ³plugin´ module to fit into the transmitter. A final application is the use of ³radio-pills´ to monitor stomach pressure or pH. The transducers are surgically implanted with leads brought out through the animal¶s skin. In addition to constant monitoring of skin temperature or systemic body temperature. If an electrode is surgically implanted and connected to the dead nerve endings. it well known that an electrical impulse can trigger the firing of nerves. The telemetry also can be used in transmitting stimulus signals to a patient. if recorded on magnetic tape. an electrical impulse can sometimes cause the nerve to function as they once did. One important application of telemetry is in the field of blood pressure and heart rate research in anaesthetized animals. If a miniature receiver is implanted subcutaneous. telemetry can be employed for the measurement of a wide variety of physiological variables. Also. Patients frequently experience pains. as many variables can be measured and transmitted simultaneously by multiplexing techniques. For example. a pill that contains a sensor plus a miniature transmitter is allowed and the data are picked up by a receiver and recorded. the thermistors system has applications in obstetrics and gynecology. allowing one transmitter design to be used for different types of measurements. The use of thermistors to measure temperature is also easily adaptable to telemetry. With telemetry and long term monitoring. One example is the use of telemetry in the treatment of ³droop foot´ which is one of the most common disabilities resulting from stroke.
com . or other parameters from the patient are converted into electrical form using appropriate transducers. Signal conditioning is used to amplify. Bioelectrical signals are obtained directly from the patient while physiological variables like temperature. 6. It combines or relates the output of two or more transducers. are then taken as output. which are decoded. modify and process the input received. The physiological signal modulates a low-frequency carrier. Transmission and receiving circuits act upon the physiological signal from the signal conditioning equipment. often in the audio frequency range.1 THE TRANSMITTER Mobile units attached to the patient consist of a transmitter. Signals.com FIGURE 1. signal-conditioning circuit produces an output to satisfy the function and makes signals suitable for transmission.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. pressure. The sub carrier in turn modulates the RF signal to be propagated and sent to the antenna. If several physiological signals are to be transmitted simultaneously. each signal is placed on a carrier of a different frequency and all sub FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR UNIVERSAL BIOTELEMETRY SYSTEM Any signals (Physiological) are fed into the signal conditioner and then to an encoder.Newtechpapers. Even though the input it receives is an electrical signal. where the encoded is transmitted across transmission media with the help of a transmitter. called a sub carrier. The modulated carrier or the transmission medium takes the signals to the remote monitoring station where the signals are first detected and then passed through a demultiplexer and decoder.Newtechpapers.
1. This process of transmitting many channels of data on a single carrier. is more efficient. At lower discharge rates the terminal voltage will stay almost constant until the last 5% of the battery¶s life. FIGURE 2.1. and battery life is proportional to pulse period and inversely proportional to pulse width and signal strength. meaning they maintain a relatively constant terminal voltage until the last 15% of their life for significant discharge rates. The sub-carrier is modulated either by AM (amplitude modulation) or FM (frequency modulation). TRANSMITTER BLOCK DIAGRAM TRANSMITTER COMPONENTS: 1.com . called frequency multiplexing. Lithium batteries can be stored at room temperature for 10years and still retain 70% of their rated capacity. ANTENNA 2. The external whip is most frequently used and preferred because it has a better signal than internal coil antenna.Newtechpapers.2. The shelf is reduced to 5 years at significantly elevated temperatures. The silver oxide FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. ANTENNA The two most common types of transmitting antenna are external whip antenna and the internal coil antenna.1. POWER SOURCE (BATTERY) Lithium and silver oxide batteries are most commonly used for wildlife transmitters. 6. POWER SOURCE (BATTERY) 3.Newtechpapers.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www.com carriers are combined to simultaneously modulate the RF carrier. TRANSMITTER UNIT 6. Lithium batteries have a flat discharge curve.
the appropriate signal is selected and the unwanted signals are rejected. Transmitters may also have solar power. the longer the life and range of the unit.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. and larger models are enclosed in an aluminum or nylon case filled with waterproof resin.4 volts for power. magnetic disks.Newtechpapers.3. etc.com . They weigh more and have a shorter life. Batteries may also be rechargeable and changeable in the field. used especially in larger transmitters. 6. Display system used can be a CRO. Other batteries. situated at the hospital/treatment center. Two stage transmitters consist of a basic oscillator and an amplifier. The larger the battery. A recorder records physiological signals for future reference.com battery is also noted for its extremely stable discharge voltage and good shelf life. There are one-stage and two-stage circuits. demodulator. but have a greater range for a given weight of tag. Charge retention is over 84% after two years of storage at 70¶F(21¶C). It receives the multiplexed RF carrier emitted by the patient¶s transmitter. 6. may use 3-volt or 6-8 volt battery circuits.1. and displaying system. The multiplexed RF carrier is demodulated to recover the individual sub carriers. having a renewable energy source and requiring no battery. One-stage transmitters have a design and low weight. chart recorder etc. Sub carriers are then demodulated to reproduce original physiological signals emitted by the patient. The tuner has a tuning circuit. TRANSMITTER UNIT Transmitters are available as complete units or as components assembled by the researcher. CRT or computer monitor. Signals can be stored on any secondary storage media like tape.2 THE RECEIVER FIGURE 3. The receiver consists of tuner. RECEIVER BLOCK DIAGRAM It is the receiving station. as shown in fig. They are packaged in a metal can or covered with an epoxy or acrylic resin coating. with less range for a given weight of tag and longer life.Newtechpapers. needing a minimum of 2.3 MODULATION TECHNIQUES FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. When the circuit is tuned to receive signals. Batteries are sealed and may be encased with the transmitter. 6. Smaller transmitters and batteries are encased in a waterproof epoxy resin.
If the amplitude of pulses is used to represent the transmitted information. In amplitude-modulated system. the frequency of the carrier is caused to vary with the modulated signal. At the receiver. sub carrier. The implanted transmitter is especially useful in animal¶s studies.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www.com The two basic systems of system modulation are amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM).4. The use of implanted unit also restricts the distance of transmission of the signal. the range of signal is quite restricted. in which the transmission carrier is generated in a series of short pulses. The outer case and any writing must be impervious to body fluids and moisture. Also. Both FM/AM and FM/ FM. it is no longer available for serving and the life of the unit depends on how long the battery can supply the necessary current. Since the body fluids and skin greatly attenuate the signal . FM transmission is often used for telemetry. Amplitude modulated systems are susceptible to natural and man-made electrical inference. often to just a few feet. Once a unit is implanted.Newtechpapers.com . where as. because in variations in the amplitude of the received signal caused by interference can be removed at the receiver before demodulation takes place. the method is called pulse modulation (PAM). The sub carrier then modulates the RF carrier of the transmitters. system results. The common denominator for most of other approaches is a technique known as pulse modulation. This process of transmitting many channels of data on a single RF carrier is called frequency multiplexing. Because of this reduced interference. it must then the demodulated to retrieve the original physiological signals. Implantable telemetry batteries vary in physical size and electrical capacity. if power is not needed continuously. a pulse modulation (PWM). systems have been used in biotelemetry. This disadvantages has been overcome by picking up the signal with a near by antenna and transmitting it. The power source is of great importance. If several physiological signals are to be transmitted simultaneously.Newtechpapers. An FM/ AM designation means that both the sub carriers and the RF carrier are frequency modulated. radio frequency switches can be used to turn the system on and off on command. Either frequency or amplitude modulation can be used for interesting data on the sub carriers. often in the audio frequency range. each signal is placed on a sub carrier of a different frequency and all of the sub carriers are combined to simultaneously modulate the RF carrier. the amplitude of the carrier is caused to vary with the information being transmitted. the complete implantable telemetry transmitter system consists of the FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. a multiplexed RF carrier is first demodulated to recover each of the separate sub carriers. An FM system is much less susceptible to interference. where the equipment must be protected from the animals. Silicon encapsulation is commonly used. In simple terms. In frequency-modulated system. the physiological signal is sometimes used to modulate a low frequency carrier. IMPLANTABLE UNITS Some it is desirable to implant the telemetry or receiver subcutaneous. The methods mentioned are discussed below. 6. In biotelemetry systems. the width of each pulse is varied according to the information. Mercury and silver oxide primary batteries have been used extensively. depending on the application. A system in which the sub carriers are frequency modulated and the RF carriers are amplitude modulated is designated as FM / AM. Another problem has been the encapsulation of the unit. Standard radio broadcast stations utilize this method of modulation.
4. Isolation of an electrically susceptible patient from power line operated ECG equipment to protect him from accident or shock.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. 5. Reduction of the risk for electroshock.Newtechpapers. his ECG cannot be monitored. Research on unrestrained. the leads from transducer to the transmitter. unanesthized animals in their natural habitat. Telemetry of ECG¶s from extended coronary care patients b. 3. ECG¶s can be interpreted and treatment begun before the patient arrives at the hospital. Practical systems are being developed to build on existing technology and public FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. the transmitter unit itself and power supplies. 2. Measurement of the temperature and position of the egg in a nest by telemetry system. Through the use of such equipment. The transducers are implanted surgically in the position required for a particular measurement. Collection of medical data from a home or office.com . LIMITATIONS & ALTERNATIVES 9. such as in aorta or other arteries for blood pressure.com transducer. If the patient goes beyond the range of the system. as well as a potential reduction of the total cost of patient care. This works describes a biotelemetry system for continuous monitoring of temperature and position of an artificial radio transmitter egg in a mall bird nest.Newtechpapers. Research is in progress for upgrades. Telemetry of this requires mush powerful transmitters than ordinary systems. APPLICATIONS OF TELEMETRY 1. Telemetry for elementary patient monitoring. Reduction of the psychological effects on the information source. 6 Biotelemetry for space life sciences research ADVANTAGES Reduction of the impediment of the information source (patient. c. subject or animal). Reduction of the complexity of monitoring of physiological variables. Telemetry for ECG measurements during exercise. In many areas ambulances and emergency rescue teams are equipped with telemetry equipment to allow electrocardiograms and other physiological data to be transmitted to a near by hospital for interpretation. Movement of the patient is restricted. Reduction of measuring artifacts. Two-way voice transmission is used in conjunction with telemetry to facilitate identification of the telemetered information and to provide instructions for treatment.1 LIMITATIONS The system has inherent limitations. Applications of telemetry in patient care a.
national laboratories. etc would be the best to explore the alternatives. The consortium could study the feasibility of such systems. social impacts and safeguards etc are the other issues to be considered. unrestrained monitoring.ieee. BIBLIOGRAPHY Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements by Leslie Cromwell & Fred J. 9. FUTURE SCOPES BiotransceiversCollect data from/ send commends to an implanted biotelemeter Smart sensors. A demonstration system could be developed and tried out on patients.FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. number of patients qualified as system users. Weibell www.electronicsforu. packaged for lead wire-free.com infrastructure. nonprofit organizations. Biotelemeter on a chip Human implantable Biotelemeter.Newtechpapers.2 ALTERNATIVES A consortium of private companies. CONCLUSION Use of biotelemetry techniques in medical science will bring out a sea. Biotelemetry will enable patients to move and perform their daily chores without any worry or mental stress of the unpredictable attack due to their body disorders. universities and end users such as hospitals. communication and interface standards.Lower operating voltage.continuing advances in integrated circuit fabrications will reduced physical size Reduced power requirements.com . lower power consumption.change with improvements in patient care treatment. ethics. Economic consideration such as cost of the society in comparison with outlay for the existing system. size of the market. Since the technology uses the existing communication infrastructure. methods improving the communication infrastructure in the locale. Increased functional sophistication. and human aspects such as which types of patients would be candidates for these systems.Small.Newtechpapers.incorporate signal conditioning (and potentially even more function) into sensors Reduced volume implantable biotelemeters. Legal changes.Integrated circuit advances will offer more functionality to biotelemeters. There is need to create interest in this field and initiate research activities. reliable.com www.habitresearch.com www. Patients who need continuous monitoring can wear a biotelemetry device. which automatically sends the vital signals to the hospitals. integrated circuits. health care centers.com FREE TECHNICAL PAPER DOWNLOAD ±www. etc need to be examined. it is easy to realize and implement biotelemetry without much effort and cost.
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