Biofilm The first substances associated with the surface are not bacteria but trace organics.

Almost immediately after the clean pipe surface comes into contact with water, an organic layer deposits on the water/solid interface. These organics are said to form a conditioning layer which neutralizes excessive surface charge and surface free energy which may prevent a bacterium cell from approaching near enough to initiate attachment. In addition, the adsorbed organic molecules often serve as a nutrient source to bacteria. In a pipe of flowing water, some of the planktonic (free -floating) bacteria will approach the pipe wall and become entrained within the boundary layer, the quiescent zone at the pipe wall where flow velocity falls to zero.

Cleaning Mechanism Pigging in the maintenance of pipelines refers to the practice of using pipeline inspection gauges or 'pigs' to perform various operations on a pipeline without stopping the flow of the product in the pipeline. These operations include but are not limit ed to cleaning and inspecting of the pipeline. While buildup in a pipeline can cause transmittal slows or even plugging of the pipeline, cracks or flaws in the line can be disastrous. The maintenance tool, pipeline pigs are introduced into the line via a pig trap, which includes a launcher and receiver. Without interrupting flow, the pig is then forced through it by product flow, or it can be towed by another device or cable. Usually cylindrical or spherical, pigs sweep the line by scraping the sides of t he pipeline and pushing debris ahead. As the travel along the pipeline, there are a number functions the pig can perform, from clearing the line to inspecting the interior.

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