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Homework #5

Masaya Sato

2. Let V the vector space of polynomials with coeﬃcients in Q in the variable x of degree at most 5 with 1, x, x2 , . . . , x5 as basis. Prove that the following are elements of the dual space of V and express them as linear combinations of the dual basis: (a) E : V → Q deﬁned by E(p(x)) = p(3). (b) ϕ : V → Q deﬁned by ϕ(p(x)) = (c) ϕ : V → Q deﬁned by ϕ(p(x)) =

1 0

p(t)dt.

1 2 t p(t)dt. 0

(d) ϕ : V → Q deﬁned by ϕ(p(x)) = p (5) where p (x) denoted the usual derivative of the polynomial p(x) with respect to x. Solution: Let V ∗ denote the dual space of V . (a) For all p(x) and q(x) in V and r ∈ Q E(p(x) + r.q(x)) = E((p + r.q)(x)) = (p + r.q)(3) = p(3) + rq(3) = E(p(x)) + r.E(q(x)). So E is a linear functional, i.e. an element of V ∗ . Now observe that {E0 , E1 , E2 , E3 , E4 , E5 }, where Ei : V → Q is deﬁned by Ei (xj ) = for i = 0, 1, . . . , 5, is a basis for V ∗ . Then E = E(1)E0 + E(x)E1 + · · · + E(x5 )E5 = E0 + 3E1 + · · · + 35 E5 is a linear combination of the basis given above. (b) For all p(x) and q(x) in V and r ∈ Q

1 1

1 if i = j 0 otherwise

ϕ(p(x) + r.q(x)) = ϕ(p + r.q)(x) =

0

(p + r.q)(t)dt =

0 1

(p(t) + r.q(t))dt

1

=

0 1

p(t)dt +

0

r.q(t)dt

1

=

0

p(t)dt + r

0

q(t)dt

= ϕ(p(t)) + r.ϕ(q(t)) and thus ϕ ∈ V ∗ . Now consider {ϕ0 , ϕ1 , ϕ2 , ϕ3 , ϕ4 , ϕ5 }, where each ϕi is deﬁned by ϕi = 1 if i = j 0 otherwise

Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 1

Section 11.3.

Homework #5

Masaya Sato

for i = 0, 1, . . . , 5. Then the set of linear functionals given above is a basis for the dual space. Therefore 1 1 ϕ = ϕ(1)ϕ0 + ϕ(x)ϕ1 + · · · + ϕ(x5 )ϕ5 = ϕ0 + ϕ1 + · · · + ϕ5 2 6 is a linear combination of the dual basis. (c) For all p(x) and q(x) in V and r ∈ Q

1 1

ϕ(p(x) + r.q(x)) = ϕ(p + r.q)(x) =

0

(p + r.q)(t)dt =

0 1

t2 (p(t) + r.q(t))dt

1

=

0 1

t2 p(t)dt +

0 1

t2 (r.q(t))dt rt2 q(t)dt

0 1

=

0 1

t2 p(t)dt + t2 p(t)dt + r

0 0

=

t2 q(t)dt

= ϕ(p(t)) + r.ϕ(q(t)). Now let {ϕ0 , ϕ1 , ϕ2 , ϕ3 , ϕ4 , ϕ5 } be a dual basis given by ϕi = for each i = 0, 1, . . . , 5. Then 1 1 1 ϕ = ϕ(1)ϕ0 + ϕ(x)ϕ1 + · · · + ϕ(x5 )ϕ5 = ϕ0 + ϕ1 + · · · + ϕ5 3 4 8 is a linear combination of the dual basis given above. (d) For all p(x) and q(x) in V and r ∈ Q ϕ(p(x) + r.q(x)) = ϕ(p + r.q)(x) = (p + r.q) (t) = d (p + r.q)(x) dx d = (p(x) + r.q(x)) dx d d = p(x) + r.q(x) dx dx d d = p(x) + r. q(x) dx dx = p (x) + r.q (x) = ϕ(p(x)) + r.ϕ(q(x)), 1 if i = j 0 otherwise

so ϕ is a linear functional in V ∗ . Then for a dual basis {ϕ0 , ϕ1 , ϕ2 , ϕ3 , ϕ4 , ϕ5 }, where ϕi = 1 if i = j 0 otherwise

Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 2

Section 11.3. for each i = 0, 1, . . . , 5. Then

Homework #5

Masaya Sato

ϕ = ϕ(1)ϕ0 + ϕ(x)ϕ1 + · · · + ϕ(x5 )ϕ5 = ϕ1 + 10ϕ2 + · · · + 625ϕ5 is expressed as a linear combination of the dual basis. 3. Let S be any subset V ∗ for some ﬁnite dimensional space V . Deﬁne Ann(S) = {v ∈ V |f (v) = 0 ∀f ∈ S}. (a) Prove that Ann(S) is a subspace of V . (b) Let W1 and W2 be subspaces of V ∗ . Prove that Ann(W1 + W2 ) = Ann(W1 ) ∩ Ann(W2 ) and Ann(W1 ∩ W2 ) = Ann(W1 ) + Ann(W2 ). (c) Let W1 and W2 be subspaces of V ∗ . Prove that W1 = W2 if and only if Ann(W1 ) = Ann(W2 ). (d) Prove that the annihilator of S is the same as the annihilator of the subspace of V ∗ spanned by S.

∗ ∗ (e) Assume that V is ﬁnite dimensional with basis v1 , . . . , vn . Prove that if S = {v1 , . . . , vk } for some k ≤ n, then Ann(S) is the subspace spanned by {vk+1 , . . . , vn }.

(f) Assume V is ﬁnite dimensional. Prove that if W ∗ is any subspace of V ∗ then dim Ann(W ∗ ) = dim V − dim W ∗ . Proof. Let V be an n-dimensional vector space over some ﬁeld F with a basis {v1 , . . . , vn }. ∗ ∗ Let {v1 , . . . , vn } be a basis for V ∗ dual to {v1 , . . . , vn }. (a) For all v, w ∈ Ann(S) and r ∈ F , v + rw ∈ V and for all f ∈ S ⊆ V ∗ f (v + rw) = f (v) + f (rw) = f (v) + rf (w) = 0 + 0 = 0. So Ann(S) is a subspace of V . (c) (⇒) It is obvious that Ann(W1 ) = Ann(W2 ) if W1 = W2 . (⇐) Suppose that Ann(W1 ) = Ann(W2 ), where W1 and W2 are both subspaces of V ∗ . Then ∗ ∗ let {vi1 , . . . , vik } denote a basis for W1 with 1 ≤ i1 ≤ · · · ≤ ik ≤ n. For every f ∈ W1 f (v) = 0. So the subspace Ann(W1 ) has the basis {vj1 , . . . , vjl }, where every index in {j1 , . . . , jl } is distinct from any of {i1 , . . . , ik }. Moreover Ann(W2 ) also has the basis {vj1 , . . . , vjl } by ∗ ∗ assumption Ann(W2 ) = Ann(W1 ). Therefore a basis for W2 contains {vi1 , . . . , vik } and thus f ∈ W2 . Similarly if f ∈ W2 then f ∈ W1 as well. Hence W1 = W2 as desired. (d) Let W ∗ denote the subspace generated by S. Then suppose that v ∈ Ann(S). Then for every f ∈ S f (v) = 0. Now observe that S ⊆ Span(S) = W ∗ . So f ∈ W ∗ . Therefore v ∈ Ann(W ∗ ). Conversely suppose that v ∈ Ann(W ∗ ). Recall that W ∗ is the subspace of Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 3

Section 11.3.

Homework #5

Masaya Sato

V ∗ generated by S. So f (v) = 0 for all f ∈ S ⊆ Span(S) = W ∗ . Therefore v ∈ Ann(S) as desired and hence Ann(S) = Ann(W ∗ ). (e) Recall from part (a) that

∗ Ann(S) = {v ∈ V |vi (v) = 0 ∀i = 1, . . . , k} ∗ ∗ is a subspace of V , where S = {v1 , . . . , vk }. Observe that Ann(S) does not contain any of

v1 , . . . , v k

∗ since vi (vi ) = 1 for i = 1, . . . , k. Therefore the subspace Ann(S) is generated by the set

{vk+1 , . . . , vn }.

∗ ∗ (f) Since W ∗ is a subspace of a ﬁnite dimensional (dual) vector space V ∗ with basis {v1 , . . . , vn }, ∗ ∗ W ∗ has a basis S = {vi1 , . . . , vik }. By results from part (d) and (e),

Ann(W ∗ ) = Ann(S)

∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ is a subspace of V , and Ann(W ∗ ) is generated by n − k elements {v1 , . . . , vn } − {vi1 , . . . , vik }. ∗ ∗ Moreover those n − k elements are linearly independent since {v1 , . . . , vn } is a dual basis for ∗ V . Therefore dim Ann(W ∗ ) = n − k = dim V − dim W ∗

as desired. 4. If V is inﬁnite dimensional with basis A, prove that A∗ = {v ∗ |v ∈ A} does not span V ∗ . Proof. Let V be an inﬁnite dimensional vector space over F = Z2 = {0, 1} with a basis A = {vα }α∈Λ , where Λ is an index set and the cardinality of Λ is inﬁnite. Since the scalars are 0 or 1, every v ∈ V expressed as a ﬁnite linear combination is ﬁnite sum of elements of A. So |A| ≥ |V |. Now consider its dual space V ∗ . For every linear functional f ∈ V ∗ is a linear combination of some subset of the dual basis {fα }α∈Λ , where fα (vβ ) = 1 if α = β 0 otherwise .

Therefore there is a one-to-one correspondence between linear functionals in V ∗ and all subsets of A. Hence the cardinality |V ∗ | is equal to |P(A)|, the cardinality of the power set of A. Thus |V ∗ | = |P(A)| > |A| ≥ |V | and then V ∗ cannot be spanned by A∗ . Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote 4

- Homework #9, Sec 13.2 and Sec 13.3
- Homework #8, Sec 12.3 and 13.1
- Homework #7, Sec 12.2
- Homework #6, Sec 11.4 and 12.1
- Homework #6, Sec 11.4 and 12.1
- Homework #4, Sec 11.1 and 11.2
- Homework #3, Sec 10.3
- Homework #2, Sec 10.2
- Homework #1, Sec 10.1
- Problem 1.1, Osaka City University, 1990
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2008
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2007
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2006

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UsefulNot usefulProblems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote

Problems from Abstract Algebra by Dummit and Foote

- Homework #4, Sec 11.1 and 11.2
- Homework #6, Sec 11.4 and 12.1
- Homework #3, Sec 10.3
- Homework #7, Sec 12.2
- Homework #1, Sec 10.1
- Homework #2, Sec 10.2
- Homework #8, Sec 12.3 and 13.1
- Homework #6, Sec 11.4 and 12.1
- Homework #9, Sec 13.2 and Sec 13.3
- Algebra Homework Set 8 Hung Tran. 9.4.2.c Reducing Mod 2
- Dummit Solutions
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2007
- Problem 1.1, Osaka City University, 1990
- Artin Algebra CheatSheet
- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 2 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
- Dummit and Foote Soln
- Solution Measure Integration
- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 1 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
- Invitation to Complex Analysis_Ralph Philip Boas
- Solutions to Abstract Algebra - Chapter 1 (Dummit and Foote, 3e)
- Complex Analysis, Gamelin, II.2 Problems and Solutions
- Artin’s Algebra (Sol)
- solutions-simmons-introduction-to-topology
- Willard - General Topology (Solutions)
- Dummit and Foote - Abstract Algebra Third Edition
- Abstract Algebra I. N. Herstein p265
- Problems and Solutions in Mathematics, Li - Ta- Sien - World Scientific
- Problem #4, Nagoya University, 2008
- Linear Algebra Quiz
- Maths student 2014
- Homework #5, Sec 11.3