Journal of The Pacific Society

/ October

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4)

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MARINE KNOWLEDGE AND SUBSISTENCE FISHING PRACTICES AT FERAFALU VILLAGE, MAANA'OBA ISLAND, MALAITA PROVINCE, SOLOMON ISLANDS

Norman Quinnl Patrick Daudau

Biology Department School of Pure and Applied Sciences University of the South Pacific Suva, Fiji

ABSTRACT
The marine resources near Ferafalu village, Malaita Island, Solomon lslands, support a subsistence fishery fbr approximately 220 inhabitants. About 30-40 men and

gratilla - white morph) represent 957c of the shellfish catch. The CPUE per trip increased as expected with the number of fishermen from 3.3 kg per trip for solo
fishermen to 12.3 kg per trip for groups with more than
[i ve.

l0-20 women fish regularly. Their fishing practices
commonly include the use of handlines (aoao la), diving

The marine resources of isolated communities have
become increasingly important as a food source for the

with iron rod (.susu'u la), spring loaded spear guns (stsaa

developing urban population in Honiara as well as tbr export. This has resulted in pressure to increase harvests liom these resources. However, traditional marine
management groups, comprising local resource owners,

ana kwanga), spears with wrapped coconut bundle (kwesu la), rope fishing (oko), baitfish fishing (ala'a),
and ilsh poisoning (afta). Less frequently used traditional fishing practices such as sago palm kite fishing (drugo), fish poisoning (uka), and the use of wrapped coconut meat (kwesu /a) are likely to cease within this

strongly believe that they should be consulted before any decision is made to develop their resourcd:s.

of small mesh gill nets, explosives, nontraditional fish poisons, underwater torches and "lockline" fishing have resulted in the extirpation or severe depletion of several fish stocks.
generation. The recent use
Villagers are concemed about the threats posed by these

INTRODUCTION
Fishing is the most important protein source for
coastal villagers on Malaita and most of the Solomon

Islands (Miller, 1978; Skewes, 1990). The IVlalaita
Province is known fbr its high population densiry,4,214/ km2

technologies and have begun to limit their use. The recent introduction of new religious beliefs has also altered the villager's utilization of marine resources. Kurumusi (Siganus spinus), szrz (Lethrinidae), bubu

in

1986 (lnstitute of Pacific Studies, 1989). This

high population density is probably related to the
of food from the sea and the local people's skill and knowledge about its sustainable exploitation.
abundance

sidai (Rhinecanthus rectangulus), and bubu fahato
(Rhinecanthus verucosus) represent 90Vo of the finfish

Fishing practices are an integral part of Malaitp societies social and cultural values as well as being essen-

caught. Ragotcti (Lambis truncata), binu kero (Tripneustes gratilla - red morph), binu laungi (7.
rPresent Address: Biology Department, University

tial for the survival of the community. For example,
marine products are an important element in the barter

of

Papua New Guinea, PO. Box 320

University, Papua New Cuinea. Email: norman_q@hotmail.com

(r4)

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cxchange relationship between coastal and "bush people"

not the case of the fishermen of Feralalu Village where the common good of the community is more important than the success of a single individual and information

who live in the interior without access to marine resources.

Recognition of sea tenure and the value of local fishing knowledge in ensuring sustainable flsheries has

is generally shared among the fishing fraternity. To maintain a harmonious fishing ecosystem, fishing activities and the fishing grounds themselves must
be managed prudently. Consequently, island people de-

only slowly gained acceptance. The early reports of traditional fishing practices (e.9. Malinowski, 1918;
Landtman, 1927; Bell, 1947; Allen, 1957) were regarded as curiosities (Cordell, 1988). Recently, descriptions
about the ways that Solomon lslands fishermen perceive,

veloped a system of knowledge about the marine environment and fishing practices. Many conceptualized
local terms about marine environments (e.9. depth, tidal

define, delimit, utilize, and def-end their rights to inshore fishing grounds have emerged (Akimichi, 1978; Ruddle and Akimichi, 1984; Hviding,

current speed, tidal conditions, seasonal wind,) have

traditionally been

used.

l99l;

1992) and

Detailed local marine knowledge studies are uncom-

the value of local marine knowledge and management practices has gained more acceptance (Johannes, 1980;

mon in the Solomon lslands. However, work has been
done on customary resource management practices of

Baines, 1985).

It is important to consider how the territorial
cepts

con-

Marovo Lagoon people (Hviding, l99l ; 1992), the porpoise fishery of Malaita (Takekawa, 1996a, b), the
lagoon lif'e

of fishermen develop from culturally idiosyncratic

ol the Langalanga (Goto, 1992,

1996), the

ways

of appropriating, regulating and

transmitting
to

marine property (Cordell, 1984). And ideas the ftishermen have.

it is necessary

know who fishes, how to fish, and what customs and

of the Lau lagoon marine usage (Akimichi, 1978), and fishing practices of the resettled Tikopian people in the Russell lslands (Quinn and
southern villages

ln many societies the mul-

Mataki, 1999).
This study details aspects of the subsistence fishery,

titude of customary restrictions surrounding traditional fishing were primarily directed toward maintaining the authority of the elders and the stability of the social order rather than toward maintaining a stable balance

its resources, fishing methods, equipment, knowledge

of marine

resources, management, and conservation

practices, and the cultural fiamework of the fishery in Ferafalu Village, Maana'oba lsland in Malaita Province

with

nature.

Sea territories are not just

vague areas, but areas

of Solomon lslands. Baines (1985) stated that inshore
fisheries development couldn't proceed effectively in the
absence

named, known, used, claimed and on occasion def'ended.

Places used are places named. A social group's famil-

of a more detailed knowledge and understand-

iarity with an area creates a territory. A territory is a social and cultural space as much as it is a resource or subsistence space (Nietschmann, 1988). While the
harvesters cannot control the common property resources

ing of traditional uses ol' marine resources.

METHODS
This paper is based on a field survey by both authors on the island during January 1997. The second author grew up in Ferafalu Village and his local knowledge
and associations with the village community have greatly

themselves, they occasionally can control certain production-related infbrmation that governs access to these
resources. Thus production-related knowledge, such as the specific location of fish and the most ef-fective tactics

contributed to this study. The village was subdivided into fbur main groups

for catching them, becomes a scarce capital good. The
harvester cannot control the resource. but can control

knowledge about it. Given the intensive competition
among boats and the efTorts to guard one's own infor-

of people who fish frequently. Upon the return from a fishing trip the lishermen were
of 8 households

t

questioned about their fishing techniques, fishing location, vemacular names of fish, and the catch was counted

mation while trying to discover the information of
others, a social climate of secretiveness, lying, avoidance and general suspicion is generated among many western European tlshermen (Johnson, 1979). This is

lt is customary fbr a fisherman to count the number of individuals of the diff'erent species of fish that were caught. This made quantifiand weights estimated.

Journal of The Pacific Society

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October

1999

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N0.84 85 (Vol.22, No.3 4)

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s

cation of the catch relatively easy. The catch weight
was estimated to the nearest kilogram. At other times,

villages around the Lau Lagoon along the

of Malaita and on artificial islands built in the
lagoon by piling up coral stones (suka).The
r

more detailed discussions were held with fishermen
regarding their specific knowledge of marine resources,

were and I-

constructed to escape the malaria

of the m

fishing methods and equipment used, strategies fbr
resource management, and the implications

(Parsonson, 1966). Linguistically, Lau speakers tute a dialect of Cristobal-Malaitan. which Guadalcanal

of commer-

with
So

cial lishing.
Women were not included in aspects of the study
because

- Nggelic, fbrms a Southeast

lc
and

subgroup among Eastern Oceanic languages (Paw

of cultural considerations. It was not consid-

Green, 1973). The people of Ferafalu are primarily aquatic
and call themselves wane

ered proper for males to be seen talking with unrelated women. Ferafalu women are engaged mainly in glean-

i asi. "salt water

", and y are

ing for shellfish and other small animals on the intertidal flats. They venture out less frequently on boats than men and usually remain close to shore. Their
marine knowledge and fishing patterns require a sepa-

difTerentiate themselves from wane

i

tolo. or "bush

people", who reside in the interior of Malaita Melanesians with curly brown hair. Reddish and

hair commonly occur naturally and are not the result

rate study. Ruddle (1994) observed without explanation that there were conceptual and semantic problems associ-

of

a dietary deficiency as occasionally thought (

man,

pers. comm.).

ated with the use of the terms "local knowledge,"
"indigenous knowledge," "traditional (ecological) knowledge," "indigenous skill," and "ethnoscience." We will
use local knowledge throughout this paper, as

Marine Organism Identification
Fish names were obtained by asking village men for the vernacular names of recentlv tification books and asked for the vemacular na they were caught and where. The books used
fish. Fishermen were shown photos in marine anima iden, how

it is broad

enough to include both traditional practices and their

technological evolutionary forms.

re for
and used

fish identification were Munro (1967) and
Myers (1994), while Colin and Ameson (1995)

MAANA'OBA ISLAND GEOGRAPHY
Ferafalu Village
Feraf'alu village is located on the eastern, windward side of Maana'oba Island, about three km

to identify invertebrates. This process would occ

off Malaita

Island in Solomon Islands (Lat. 8"10' S., Long.

l6l"

ally result in lengthy conversations where the men either tried to recall a seldom-used name solve conflicts in the usage of the vernacular
The Lau language divides objects into movi
ganisms (doe gelo) like fish, birds and pigs, a jects that are immobile (doe to'ongado) like trees,
algae, and sand. Within the Lau language fish
(

sher-

re-

02' E.) in the Lau Lagoon. There are two other major
lagoons around Malaita, the Are'are Lagoon (southwest-

ern coast) and the Langalanga Lagoon (westem central coast). The village has a population of approximately

hold

(ll2 women; 86 men; 22 children >12 years old) and is about one third of the population of
220 people Maana'oba lsland.

an important place and are divided into several

The term 1a does not conform to scientific no
ture as it can also refer to varieties of marine

als

The climate is equatorial with heavy rainfalls and high humidity. Two seasons are recognized according
to prevailing wind direction. From April to October (ara) the winds blow fiom thc southeast. During tabzra, No-

including porpoise (kirio), whale (gwahasu), ong (iatekwa) (Akimichi, 1978). The Lau egorize porpoises as a kind

a

dugcaf-

of fish, so

the

la
ts

sometimes means dolphin. For example,

nfo la

vember to March, the winds are unsettled, but northwest winds are common in January and February.
There are twelve languages spoken on Malaita, in-

Iiterally "the teeth of fish", but to Lau speakers it dolphin teeth (Fox, 1974). Another set of terms relates to large groups, fi
ample, rays

ex-

cluding Lau (Keesing, 1982). People in Ferafalu speak the Lau language. Lau speakers live primarily in coastal

fall),

sharks (baekwa), and butterfl

fish

(bebe).These groups are the Lau taxonomic equi alent

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of the scientific unit of family. ln the next vernacular
language taxonomic group an additional word is added to apply to a specific species of fish. For example, bebe

Soloman Islands also had different names for various

life

stages

of certain fish, but that Goto (1996) either

did not know the names or did not recognize juvenile
flsh. For example, Coto (1996) lists ala'alauoa (similar to the Lauan aalauo) for Monotaxis spp., but does not
indicate

fakatekwa refers to the long-snouted butterflyfish, Forcipiger flavissimus Jordan & McGregor, bebe
goumatanga to the hunchbacked butterflyfish, Heniochus

if

the Langalanga people consider that a name

varius (Cuvier), and so on.
Present language usage does not necessarily recog-

fbr the juveniles. There are differences in the marine terms between speakers in the Lau Lagoon and
Langalanga Lagoon. In some cases the words are very

nize scientific species distinctions in morphologically similar groups. For example, akwasimai refers to four species

similar, e.g. bobola, for Lethrinus nebulosus
(Langalanga) and fotobala (Lau). In other cases they are very different e.g. Lethrinus harak is asiasi-ole in
the Langalanga Lagoon while it is hate mela in the Lau Lagoon. And in other cases the word is exactly the same

of

snapper: Lutjanus russelli (Bleeker), L.

fiilviflamma (Forskil), L. monostigma (Cuvier), and L. rufolineatus (Valenciennes). This lack of linguistic
diff'erentiation between species may be indicative of the

loss

of traditional knowledge or perhaps there was

e.g. ume for the popular eating fish Naso unicornis.

insufficient behavioral and morphological dif'ferences, or dift'erences in usage, between the species to separate them by name (Akimichi, 1978). As previously stated, vernacular names do not necessarily relate to scientific classification. The shovel nose

While in some cases the same word has different meanings e.g. moro is a Leiognathidae in Lau while it is a Mugiloididae in the Langalanga Lagoon.
In addition to the hierarchical classification there are
terms which relate the behaviour of the fish. Deep-sea

ray, Rht,nchobatus djiddensis (Forskil) (taifasoro) is bottom-f'eeding ray

a

fish that are rarely caught are known as ia na matakwa

in its own Family Rhinobatidae which is distinct from the sting rays in Family Dasyatidae and from typical sharks in Family Carcharhinidae. However, in the Lau language it is
classified as a baekwa (shark). Where scientific taxonomy does not recognize the diff'erent morphological features and behaviour of juveniles, the Lau taxonomic systems occasionally does (Table l). The large eyed bream Monotaxis grandoculis

liu. Pelagic fish such as tuna (gela), skipjack (hau ittitoo), barracudas (ntamalito), and marlin (diadia, filufilu) are called ia i matakwa. Ia i narno are generally lagoonal tish, but includes dugong (iatekwa) and
sharks (baekwa), and rays

(/a/i). Estuarine frsh such

as

ponyfish (moro) (F. Leiognathidae), trumpeter perch (uulumuu) fPelates quadrilineatus (Bloch)1, and the
re) fTbxotes jac ula,or (Pallas)l are known as ia la kafo. These distinctions represent the
archerfi sh
(

ng is uniko

(Forskfll) is known as maasulua as an adult and

as

major ecological classifications around the Lau lagoon:

aalauo as a juvenile. Similarly, the emperor, Lethrinus
xanthochilus Kulunzinger, is known as lnre ia and gufu
as an adult and juvenile, respectively. The prized bump

river, lagoon, and open

sea.

There are other classification systems that we did

not explore but have been brief'ly reported by Miller
(1978). For example, there are five categories of feeding behaviour such as fish feeding otT sea algae in grassy

head parrotfish, Bolbometopon muricatus (Cuvier Valenciennes), is known as rarasi

&

fou and gwaila in

its respective juvenile and adult stages. Similarly, the
prized emperor snapper, Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier), has
three names pertaining to progressive stages of devel-

habitats. They are divided into daytime feeders
opposed

as

to night time feeders and whether they shelter

in deep or shallow water (Miller, 1978). And then there

opment, kokohale, malifu, and raualite. The color of
the fish is distinctively different in these stages. Juveniles are commonly pale pink with three dusky reddish

is classification based on their rest areas, escape responses, spawning behaviour, and depths which they

swim in the sea (Miller, I978).
Invertebrates are also classitjed hierarchically. Bi-

brown bands. Adults are a unitbrm salmon pink. The
classiflcarion system is phenetic and does not consider

valve and gastropod shells are known collectively
clams. Dolo ref'ers

as

reproductive possibilities.

karongo. The term kiki'i is a collective term for Tridacna

We suspect that the Langalanga people of the

to Tridacna glgas is the largest clam

Journal of The Pacific Society /October 1999/N0.84-85 (Yo1.22,
and Abisifuu refers to the small clam shell T. maxima which is firmly attached to coral outcrops. Kwalangi

No.3-4)

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6

is partially exposed during low tide and does notirequire

the use of a canoe. Other fish such as Ulaema lefroyi (raemae), and M ulloidicht ht,s flavol i neat us ( ra laraga) are common at high tide. Both men and wom[n fish

baekwa (literally means swears at sharks) is the general

term fer lobster, whlle urafou refers to Panulirus versicolor.

in this

habitat.

Fishing Grounds The area around Ferafalu village is divided into
several categories. The simplest distinction is asi 'sea'
versus

Habitat 2: Oleasi - This is the deepest part of the lagoon and has coral boulders scattered on bottom. Several species of sponge
cumbers (ramela), and sea grass (sara au) are

|

,undy
sp.,

tolo'land' that distinctively brings out the habi-

Diacarnus spp. (collectively known as kuikuil, $ea cuThe many crevices in the rocks provide hid for Siganus argenteus and S. sutor (Mu'u nt sio), Naso unicornis (ume), Rhinecanthus ve
(bubuu fahato), and R. rectangulus (bubuu sidai (Table
2).

tat segregation between 'salt water people' and the 'bush people' such as the Baegu, Baelela, and Fataleka (Ross,
1973). The lagoon is known as asi namo or sa'a

places

i

hrtra

, Mu'u

(literally'sea land'). In fact, the lagoon is so shallow
that people can walk out very far on the intertidal flats
at low tide. The micro topographical features of the lagoon are distinguished by depth, nature of the substrate, and presence of organisms. The shallow water is called

Habitat 3: Fafobusu - This habitat is the the lagoon juxtaposed to the reef and is

ge of
sed

nni

fafomai, intermediate depths, fafobu.sa, and deep waters, lobo. The deeper part of the lagoon is termed
or

by bare sand. Lethrinus

kal.Lopterus (.sur

), L.

harak (hatemela), L. variegatus lgoufuu) and L. (surugou) are commonly fbund searching for fotd here (Table 2). Fishermen frequently catch them wh{n they

mae matakwa. The barrier reef is called fafo

ile

and

beyond the reef is the open ocean, asl matakwa. Beyond

asi matakwa is the matakwa liu or deep sea. Grooves

try to hide in the sand. Also found infafobusu
cep

@re

the

in the reei are known

as

fakali and the

passes

to the

mullet species Valamugil suheli (kalua) and Mugil
halus (iliiliwalo).
Habitat 4: Fakana nata - This habitat begins at point where sand and corals meet and is exposed at low tides.

open ocean are dari. Within the lagoon, canoes travel through a channel termed tafa'a. Shallow passes in the
lagoon are referred to
as

fakana aba, while deeper passes

between the ocean and lagoon are called rarabala.

A large number of fish

search

fbr food and take shelter

The fishing area owned by the Feratalu villagers is approximately 2 x 5 km and includes sand, sea grass
meadows, and coral reef habitats. This is an area that can be paddled in a canoe in approximately 2 hrs. The

here in the most stagnant seawater during low tide (Table

2). This is the most dangerous habitat because of the
presence

of the stingray, Dasyatis kuhlii (fali), and the

scorpion fish, Scorpaena plumieri (qwiaqwi.a). Siganus virglatus (nanara kwao), Scarus ghobban (rnarq), and

fishing areas are divided into seven habitats named:
kusuu, oleasi, fafobusu, fakana nata, nata barafou, and

Chaetodon ephippiunt (bebee) are the main target
species.

fafoile based on their different physical features and
marine communities.

Habitat 5: Nata - This habitat has the highest
biodiversity and is dominated by coral with occ4sional
open areas of sand. The fishermen consider thig to be the most productive habitat as it contains a lot of edible species

Habitat / silty

l:

Kusuu

- This

habitat starts from the

exposed sandy beach and is characterized by a muddy
substrate where the seagrass Thalassia sp. (.afuu) grows. Afuu is a food source

for many fish and a shel-

of fish (Table 2). Occasionally the crdwn of

ter and refuge for fish known as ntu'u ni

furai

(Siganus

thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (site), and tfre sea urchin, Diadema savignyi (tala), are seen in thip area. The villagers have reported that they haue nefer observed large numbers of A. planci on the rebf nor
observed the eff'ects on corals

argenteus and S. sutor [collectively known as muu sio]) and S. spinus (kurumusi). Fish such as Rhinecanthus verrucosus (bubuu fahato) and R. rectangulus (bubuu sidai), and Gerres cinereus (tereua) are always seen, even during low tides in this habitat (Table 2). Kusuu

of large populatior{s. Nor

have they heard stories about large populations of the starfish occurring within the Lau lagoon. Edible inver-

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in this habitat
and

ffi84/854 (ffi22&ffi3/4+)

tebrates are commonly gleaned

include the spider conch Lambis scorpius (tafisikoko),

L. lantbis (trunkoko), and L. truncata (Ragotai), cushion sea urchins, Tripneustes gratilla (binu kero) anrJ T. gratilla (binu laungi).
Habitat 6: Barafou- This is the surl habitat on the
ocean side of the main reef and the fish fiom here are

ermen to 1.4 kg fish per trip fbr large groups. None of the trips returned without some catch. We were told that if a fisherman went to a distant site and caught nothing, while returning home he would stop at sites where he was assured of catching something, albeit smaller individuals. The mean time spent day fishing was 5.2 hr (S,D. = 2.35: n

= 27) and'1 .2 hrs spent

known as ala'a {Table 2). These fish always swim in mixed-species schools in search of tbod. The habitat
is only fished at low tide during the day when the coral

night fishing (S.D. = 4.23; n =18). Nighttime catches were higher,7.4 kg fish per trip versus 3.8 kg fish per

trip during the

day.

reef is exposed using either nets or spears.
Habitat 7: Fafoile- This habitat constitutes the outer reef slope. Due to commonly rough seas, fishermen are

OCEANOGRAPHIC NOMENCLATURE
The Lau language contains numerous terms lor different f'eatures of the sea. Terms for the substrate include

very reluctant to fish here. However, the trochus shell,
Trochus niloticus (sifalo

/

karongo) is collected here

one'sand', fou'rock', and afu'algae'. There are three divisions tbr sand: one kwao'white sand' found on the reef, one bulu'grayish sand' (found near river mouths),
and one ,namago'blackish sand'fbund in the mangroves.

during daytime low tides by divers using goggles. The
trochus meat is eaten and the shell is sold. Brave and

clever fishermen fish the habitat during night at low
tides using spear guns and "lock line" fishing techniques.

The surf habitat of the barrier reef is known as aen.t

They intentionally try to catch the most expensive, and
valuable fish. such as the hump headed wrasse, CheiLinus

walo while ile refers to

sea

just before the breakers in
as

the open sea. Inde refers to living coral and ladelade

undulatus (gwaila) and others (Table 2) for sale in
Honiara,

to dead corals. Acroltora digitifera coral is known

fou ni hata which is

used to scrape a

lruit call haia.

The scraped product is used to plug holes in canoes.

CATCH STATISTICS
Fishermen observed in this study caught forty-three
species of fish (Table 2). Members of Family Ludanidae

Several species of coral and bivalve shells are used by

women to make lime for betel nut mastication. There was no evidence that the coral was over harvested in

were the most numerous and comprised about 367o of the catch weight. Members of Family Siganidae com-

this effort.
Freshwater from rivers is known as kafo and salt
water known as asi. The brackish water in estuaries is

prised about lTVa

of the catch weight,

Family

Acanthuridae l5o/o and Family Epinephelidae 107o. Single individuals (Table 3) did most of the fishing.
Occasionally two persons, usually related, fished together. Women were never seen fishing alone liom canoes. The women always went out with a male. usually their husband or husband and another relative.

either known as kafo asila (literally freshwater mixed with seawater) or as asl kafola (literally sea water mixed

with freshwater).
There are terms for diff'erent states of the tide and currents (afe). An incoming tide is called lua and oul
going tide mai. The lowest tide is nni langa and a rising

The largest group observed was l5 people fishing in
Fakana nata (surugou).

tide lua kariabulo. As the exposed reef is covered it
is called lua totonge and when it is completely covered

for

Lethrinus kallopterus (suruakwaro), L.
and L. mahsena

lnrak (hatemekt), L. variegatus (goufuu)

it is known as lua e dalafa. High tide is lua e hata
and receding tide gouna asi e mo'oi. As the rocks emerge

The trip CPUE increased as expected with the
number of fishermen trom 3.3 kg fish per trip tbr solo llshermen to 12.3 kg fish per trip fbr groups with more

it is termed mai tarafafua and when they are completely
emerged

it is called nni

tetee'a.

than five fishermen (Table 3). While the number of
tlshers increases the catch per trip the CPUE per person per trip declines fiom 3.3 kg fish per trip fbr solo fish-

FISHING GROUND MANAGEMENT
Kinship-related groups manage iishing grounds throughout the Lau Lagoon. The fishing ground is

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broken down into two categories: public and managed

to a monofilament fishing line. No.

t

hooks baifs with

fishing grounds (Table 4). This division restricts fishing

large insects or small fish scraps are used to catch
Caesio spp. while No. 5 hooks baited with hermi[ crabs fDardanus megistos or D. guttatus (both termed

eftbrt. Some areas are reserved only for the chief and
certain privileged villagers. Other areas are reserved for

small groups from the chiefs clan or other clans. The public fishing area may be used by anyone at any time

and fish scraps are used for Holocentridae fbl nighr fishing. No. I hooks are baited ltermed mamu'11 with
larger pieces of frsh (mariko ia) to catch Sph
spp.,

fiom the village. There is no restriction to group
den. They are reserved

size.

Unpermitted use of managed fishing grounds is forbid-

Lutjanus spp. and Pentapodus spp. No weights ar$ used

for fishing prior to major social

Another handline method is called fale

This

events such as feasts, during a mourning period, and

technique is used for deep-sea fishing and uses larger

during other major social gatherings. The traditional
kinship management group must grant permission befbre

hooks and thicker lines and sinkers. The size bf the
hooks and thickness of the line varies according to the

any fishing expedition in a managed lishing ground
begins.

size of the target fish and the fishing depthf Iron
reinforcing rods are most commonly used for but lead weights are also used when they are avaflable. Trolling,falita, is done both in the lagoon and lutside
the reef. Traditionally hooks made from bones and shells

The general consensus of the fishermen was that the

introduction of commercial exploitation of their sea resources should only be initiated with the permission of the traditional kinship management group. They felt
that a management system involving local stakeholders

and lines made fiom plant fiber were used. Bird f-eathers were also used as lures. Today diff'erent
are used. For example. lures constructed using drinking

who have in the common interest is preferred over
regulation imposed through external government agencies. This is similar to the opinions expressed by fishermen in the Russell Islands (Quinn and Maraki, 1999).

straws or unused blood bags, obtained from ho]pitals or clinics, and metal hooks tied to monofilamenl tishing lines are towed behind a paddled canoe o, 4loto.-

ized boat.

FISHING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT
The common individual and collective fishing practices used by Ferafalu villagers are described below. These include hand lining (aoao), trolling (falita),
spearing (susuu and kwesu), neI \fitrai) and trap fishing (a'ala'a and oko), sago palm leaf-kite fishing (kwaferao),

There are two spearfishing techniques. One tectfnique uses a plain spear and the other uses wooden stqck to

hold the spear and rubber to propel it. When a spear
gun (kwanga) is used the technique is called susu'yt anct

kwanqa.

At night

the fishermen use a bundle of burn-

and fish poisoning (z,ta). Fishing is primarily men's

ing coconut branches rkwesu) to light their way during low tide. Using a sharpened iron rod (susuu), a diver
wearing goggles searches fbr fish among the coral {uring

work, but mollusks, sea urchins, and small flsh are
fiequently gathered by women and children (Thble 5). Most of the fishing equipment involves simple technology such as spears, lines, hand nets, bush vines and wrapped dried coconut branches. Accessories for fish-

the dav-

Diving masks that allow lbr equalization qf

the

middle ear are too expensive and inf-requently uspd. A pair of goggles may be purchased in local shops on Malaita for $52.50 ($S1.00 = $US0.45, January 1997). While divers boasred that rhey could dive ro an esrimated depth of 20 m or more. they acknowledged tnat

ing include goggles, iron rods, hooks, plastic

bags,

knives, monofilament nets, and spear guns. The type of fishing gear used by each sex difl'ers, reflecting rhe type of l-ishing technique used. Most men are engaged
in fishing methods which require more sophisticated gear and manual power, although equipment can be used by

there were plenty of fish in shallower waters. Only occasionally did they endure the pain to fish fgr the
"large ones" at deeper depths. It appeared that spgaring

either gender.
Hand lining is the most common fishing method and

at deeper depths was done by young men to qrove themselves rather then out of necessity. The easiesi way
to increase subsistence fishing productivity and inc[ease the comfbrt and saf'ety of divers would be to prQvide

is generally used by individual fishermen in the shallow lagoon. lt involves hooks of various sizes attached

Q0) -73

-

t+t++a#

leee

+

10

E

ffi84/85+ (ffi22&ffi3/4F=)

several masks to remote fishing villages. Being able

to equalize pressure would extend the depth the fishermen could dive in comtbrt and safety and spear the

on the rising tide and that catch rates increase. It is also believed that turtles (fonu), stingrays (fali) and
dugong (iatekwa) are the last to enter and the flrst to leave the lagoon.
Ferafaluan society imposes laws that regulate the ac-

larger fish presently seeking refuge in deeper waters.

As it is, the lack of masks functions to conserve fish
stocks and prevent overfishing of the reef\. The term "lockline" is used to describe a wooden gun stock which supports an elastic rubber on one end that is used to propel a spear. Many villagers refrain

tivities of fishermen and women. For example, in the past women were forbidden fiom having physical
contact with their husbands prior to a fishing trip. Failure

to heed such customs would bring bad luck to the fishing

fiom using "locklines" due to the belief that the constant loading of the gun against the chest causes blood

expedition. Just prior to fishing, the fishermen would
assemble at the village tambu place (manabeu), an area

clots in the chest. Net (furai) and trap (o&o) fishing are done by groups

where females were prohibited from entry, for consult-

ing and cont-ession with the animist priest (.araifua).
While the men were out fishing, mothers were obligated to make sure that the children did not cry or talk
about the father. Failure to comply was believed to cause

of five or more people. When fish have been observed f'eeding, a gill net (furai) is placed around the area from
a canoe. People in the canoe slap the water with long poles (airada) to scare the fish towards the net. Then

a poor catch or a change in weather, signifying discontent of the spirits. There was also an administrative chart ranking villagers and their areas of responsibility. This identified which villagers were responsible for tasks

divers with spears and goggles enter the enclosed area

and capture the fish. Similarly, in ala'a fishing (a collective name for Cetoscarus bicolor (amera),

Lethrinus varieg4atus (goufuu), and Hipposcarus
longiceps (ntoua'a)) a

before, during and after the fishing trip. A highly
respected villager organizes the

gill net is placed

around a fish

trip to avoid disagree-

aggregation and large numbers of flsh are caught in the
net. ln oko fishing a net using bush rope or vines, known

ments with the spirits. The trip leader's duty also
included the supervision of the fair distribution of the
catch. This is consider important to ensure good catches

as dilo. is used. The

dilo is obtained by just cutting
it through the water. This scares

the correct size vine in the jungle. Fishermen hold the
end of the vine and pull

in future trips and tunctions to insure social harmony and a cooperative spirit so important when at sea.

the fish and tlshermen behind the rope spear the fish. Fish poisoninE fuka) involves fish poisoning with derris (Derrls sp.) roots and vines (Henderson and Hancock, 1988). Derris (kwalo uka) is widely used on
the reef. The plant is so common that there is no need

of fish behavior to increase catch rates. Certain species such as
Fishermen use their knowledge

Rhinecanthus verrucost4s (bubu fahato) and R. rectangulus (bubuu sidai) hide in coral rubble. To capture these tish, the coral rubble is broken up. To
catch other species e.g. Gen'es cinereus (tereua), Siganus

to cultivate it. The vines and leaves are pounded to
release its toxic component, mixed

with sand and applied

under

in hollows or in small pools in the reef during

spinus {kurumzsi), and Lethrinus ntahsena (surugou), dead coral rocks are piled together and then removed when

low tide. Fish caught are non-toxic to people who consume them.

it is suspected that fish are hiding

inside. The

sand around the stones must be tiee so that the fish

may be dug out easily.

CULTURAL AND LOCAL MARINE KNOWL.
EDGE
Specialized knowledge and skills are pre-requisites

Ferafalu flshermen have traditionally associated fish-

ing activities with the gathering, cultivation or flowering of fbod crops or other plants. Salt-tolerant littoral
plants are commonly used as indicators made

lbr a successful fishing expedition. Observations
abundance

of

seasons when

over many centuries about the relationship between the

certain fish may be caught. For example, when
Terminalia catappa (alite) leaves change colors fiom
green to red (alite mena) it indicates that L. gibbus has reached maturity as reflected by the presence

of fish and abiotic factors, such as weather and tidal currents (a/e), increase the catches. For example, fishermen know that many fish enter the lagoon

of

red-

Journal of The Pacific Society

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1999

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No.B4

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(Vol.22, No.3 4)

Qt)

7

dish color on it scales. This is the mating period, which

Within Ferafalu society there is a strong de$ire to properly manage and conserve the resources of their
reefs and

usually takes place especially near the reef passage at night during high tide between November and December. The flowering of alite indicates the return of other

it is passed orally

through the gener{tions.

Ferafalu villagers are well known throughout L1u Lagoon fbr their traditions. One of the traditions strictly
enforced is the prohibition on eating sharks (barikwa). Sharks are believed to be the fbrefathers

edible flsh.

MARINE TENURE, CUSTOMS, AND CON.
SERVATION
Reef access and management is determined by the
leading kinship group, who were usually the first settlers

of thb

clan

and due respect must be given to them. Additiqnally,

it is forbidden to eat dugongs liatekwa),
anyone failing to observe these customs

oJ,opu.

(kokola), and crocodiles lmatakorol. It is believ{d that

to the area. The ownership and governing authority is
patriarchal. Ownership may be transf'erred to others

will

sodn die.

Consumption of turtles (fonu\ is restricted duri{g the yam season (uni falisi) from November to April. This coincides with the main turtle nesting ..uron. l, *u,
reported that violators of this custom tbund dea$ yam

within and outside the village as a reward. In one case some fishing grounds were given to a villager as a reward for taking the skulls of villagers' forefathers at
Orukalia to Funaful lsland in the Lau Lagoon. Landmarks, usually coconut plantations or human structures

vines in their garden (falisi) and have had poor harvests

of

undersized yams (kai). These customs apply

identify the boundaries. As the villagers have seen the
monetary value of their marine resources increase there has been an increase

even to women who marry into the village.

Additionally there are finfish that are fbrbid$en to
eat, e.g. K-vphosus cinerascens {leleko) and Rastrqlliger

in the disputes about the own-

ership of specific fishing grounds.
Christianity has replaced traditional ancestor worship

kanagurta (rooma). It is believed that members pf the Kwalo ai and Adagege villages on the man made iplands

or animism as the main religion today. Consequently the Sabbath is considered a day of rest and fishing is
not allowed. This had the net eft-ect of reducing the total

in Lau Lagoon who eat these flsh will be killed by the spirit of a villager who had previously died fiom pating
these fish. The flshes are not known to be

toxic so the

fishing effbrt by one seventh.

If

the catch during the

week was not enough to provide fish fbr Sabbath the
people would either receive fish from other villagers

belief functions to reduce the fishing pressure dn the fish stocks leaving more fish fbr the other villages who
are not subject to this taboo.
The restricted entry custom known as otofafa,alata
is practiced at the Anaau Point and Lade fishing grounds.

who were of a ditferent religion and observed the Sabbath on a different day or get other foods. Many
villagers belong to the Seventh Day Adventist Church
and are prohibited from consuming marine flsh without scales. This has the efl'ect

This taboo prohibits fishing within the fishing gpound
when any member of the clan dies or when a large social occasion such as a marriage or feast is to be held soon.

of reducing shelliish
community.

con-

sumption by about

l/3 of the

The taboo period usually lasts about 2 - 3 month$. The
area is marked by a upright pole with plaited cqconut

The villagers consider that it is vital to conserve the

marine communities by proper management
resources. On occasion when the

of

the

lronds attached to it. Fishing and the use of outpoard motors are banned within these areas. Another local conservation measure is rejection of

low tide occurs in the

middle of the day, the villagers actively modify the
environment assisting in its conservation. The villagers

live undersized, dangerous, and poisonous fish. Fishermen believe that by returning a fish to thp sea demonstrates respect to spirits who will in turn plovide
a large catch. Other successful conservation strafegies
include authority exerted through elders, effectivg pen-

plant sea grass (ttfuu) during low tides. The sea grass

is planted in habitat one \kusuu) to protect juvenile
Tridacna gigas (doLo) fiom predation. Additionally, the

is recognized for it value in providing protection and food for fish such as Siganus spinus
sea grass

alties lbr violators, and fiequent monitoring overl fish-

(kurumusi), S. argenteus (muu ni furai), and S. sutor

lng grounds.
The villagers have recognized that the recent lrse of

(muu sio).

(22)

-71.

-

leee

^Fi++Affi

+

10

E

ffi84

/85tr (ffi22 ffi3 / 4+)

destructive fishing methods such as small mesh gill nets, explosives, fish poisoning (a,ta), underwater torches and

tainable economic development. Some of these resources

may contain natural chemicals that may be the poten-

"lockline" fishing have resulted in the extirpation or
severe depletion

tial cure for cancer, AIDS, and other
believe

diseases. We

of several fish stocks. Villagers are con-

it is necessary to stimulate

more of the bright

cerned about the threats posed by these technologies

young minds of the Solomon Islands' youth to study not only western sciences, but to also study their own local ecological knowledge so that they can devise and implement a strategy for sustainable development and
benefit from the new discoveries to be made from their

and have begun to limit their use. The following species are considered by the tishermen to be particularly

vulnerable: Lethrinus ntahsena (surugou), Kyphosus cinerascens (leko), Lutjanus gibhus (hale), and Naso unicornis (ume). It was reported that the catch volume
and average size of these fish have recently decreased.

reef systems. Few Solomon lslands students privileged to attend university seek to continue their science education. In
1996,

In spite of the traditional conservation practices, the species listed in Table 6 are now rare or possibly extirpated, possibly due to selective overfishing or natural modification of habitat.
Traditional fishing societies have a system of division of labor between men and women (Whewell, 1994). Consequently there

of

rhe 142 Solomon Island (Sl) students attend-

ing the University of the South Pacific, only 42 students were studying Science. There were 30 SI students

studying Law. While there are scores

of

secondary

schools needing trained Science teachers there are only a few positions vacant fbr lawyers in Solomon Islands

is a gender specific system of

managing the marine resources, although women do not

control areas of the sea. Generally, the men do the finfishing while the women glean the lagoons and reef flats fbr mollusks, crustaceans and seaweed species. None of the marine resources utilized by Ferafalu
women were reported as threatened.

(Daudau and Quinn, 1997). The traditional source of income fbr the 220 people

in the Ferafalu village has been from copra

earning

people about $5600 per year ($S1.00 = $US0.45 January 1997). ln a new nation's developing economy it is

to develop natural resources to pay for improved infrastructure and better public services.
necessary
Consequently, the natural resources of an isolated island community have become increasingly important as

PRESERVATION OF LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Consequently, much of the traditional knowledge of

a source of reef fish and other marine products to
developing nation's economy. However,

a

the construction of equipment, fishing methods and skills, names and classification of animals and management customs is not being passed on to the present gen-

in the development of the

resources

it is important of a nation that

village managers of the resources are included in any
development plans and that some of the benetits from the development go directly to the village. To do this

eration of Feratalu youth. This knowledge is being lost

because

of the implementation of a

non-tradtional

education model that does not include local mare
knowledge in its curriculum (Daudau and Quinn, 1997). Understandably, the education system cann not teach

efl'ectively and in an ecologically and culturally sensitive manner, there is a critical need to train Solomon
Island scientists to understand both modern Science and

what is not documented in books and thus
knowledge.

it

hastens

their own countries' local knowledge systems. One of

the demise of this largely undocumented body of aquatic

the most effective ways of doing this is to involve
students

in enthnobiological

studies and increase the

With local Science teachers using foreign examples and material, interest wanes for both the students and

amount of local knowledge in print that can be used

in primary and secondary

classrooms.

ln a country where there are many species unknown to science it is crucial that a local knowledge
teachers.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are gratetul to the Feratalu villagers tbr their

in the natural history of the islands be nurtured full

and

expanded upon so that the Solomon Islanders can take advantage of their own natural resources fbr sus-

hospitality and for sharing so freely their knowledge
about the sea. Appreciation is also extended to the

Journal of The Pacific Society

/

October

1999

/

No.B4

- 85 (yo1.22, No.3 - 4 )

(23)

_

Premier of Malaita, Honorable D. Oeta, fbr his hospitality and cooperation. Funding came fiom the Uni-

Cordell, J. 1988. Introduction: Sea Tenure J. (ed.) A Sea of Small Boats,

versity ol the South Paciilc URC grant #6291-1311, 70766-15 and from Tropical Discoveries Fund. This
work was undertaken while N.J.Q. was a J. W. Fulbright

Cultural Survival Inc. pp. l-32.
Daudau, P. and Quinn, N.J. 1997. The need to

porate traditional marine resource k

Fellow at the University of rhe Sourh Pacific. The
encouragement and support
appreciated.

into the formal education curriculum n
Solomon lslands. pp. 81. Pacific Scie Congress

the

ol

P. Newell is greatly
and an

Inter-

P Newell, R. Thaman, B.L. Kojis

- Islands in the Pacific Cen

v. l3
i

anonymous reviewer are gratefully acknowledged fbr

reviewing the manuscript and for their constructive
comments. C. Fidali from Lau Lagoon, checked the Lau

stics lan

spelling. We are grateful to S. Appana who typed the manuscript into the computer and helped with proofreading.

Series C. No. 25. Canberra, The A National University. pp. 245. Coto, A. 1992. Marine resource managem
Langalanga, Malaita Island, Solomon

nt

in

ands.

Goto,

A.

Christianity and Culture. 25: l-46. 1996. Lagoon life among the Langa

ga,

Malaita lsland, Solomon lslands. .ln: Ak

LITERATURE CITED Allen, C.H. 1957. Customary

T. (ed.) Coastal Foragers in Transition. N tional
land tenure in the British

Museum of Ethnology. Osaka. pp.
Henderson, C.P. and Hancock, I.R. 1988. the useful plants

ll-5
A eulde
to

Solomon Island Protectorate. Report of British

Solomon Island Protectorate Special Land
Commission, Western Pacific High Commission,
Honiara.

ol

the Solomon lslands. Min-

istry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. p\. 252. Hviding, E. 1991. Traditional institutions and thefr role

Akimichi, T. 1978. The ecological aspect of Lau
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in the

contemporary coastal resource mqnage-

ment in the Pacific Islands. Naga. IC4ARM Quarterly. 14:3-6.
Hviding, E. 1992. Guardians of Marovo Lagoon, fh.D. Thesis, University of Bergen. Bergen. Institute of Paciflc Studies, 1989. Ples Belong Yuni:
Solomon Island, the Past Four Thousand frcars. Suva and Honiara: University of the South Pa-

the Polynesian Society. 87(4):301-326. Baines, C.B.K. 1985. A traditional base fbr inshore tlsheries development in the Solomon Islands.

In: Ruddle, K. and Johannes, R.E. (eds.) The Traditional Knowledge and Management of

Coastal Systems in Asia and the pacific.UNESCO, Jakarra. pp. 39-52. Bell, F.L.S. 1947. Problems and perspectives of tropical fisheries. In: Winslow, J.H. (ed.) The
Melanesian Environment. Canberra: Aust. Na-

cific. pp.

64.

Institute of Paciflc Studies, 1994. Science of Pacific
Island Profiles. Bluebird Printery. Suva. pp. 53.
Johannas. R.E. 1980. lmplications

ol tradirional marine

tional Uni. Press. pp. 222-235. Colin, P.L. and Arneson, C. 1995. Tropical pacific
Invertebrates:

resource use for coastal fisheries development

A field guide to marine

Inverte-

in Papua New Guinea. /n: Morauta, L.. Perpetta, J. and Heaney, W. (eds.) Traditional Consprva-

brates occurring on tropical Pacific coral reefs,
sea grass beds and mangroves. Coral Reef press.

tion in Papua New Guinea: Implicationi fbr
Today. IASER. Boroko. pp.239-250.
Johnson,

Los Angeles. pp. 297. Cordell, J. 1984. Defending Customary Inshore

T.

1979. Work togerher, ear together: Coirflict

Sea

and

Conflict Management in a Portugu... !ishpp.

Rights. 1n: Ruddle, K. and Akimichi. T. (eds.)

ing Village. lz: Andersen, R. (ed.) Nortn ,elttan-

Maritime lnstitutions in the Western Pacific.
Osaka, National Museum of Ethnology. pp. 301-

tic Maritime Cultures. The Hague. tutourol.
241-252.

326.

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1r?:

Keesing, R.M. 1982. Kwaio Religion: The Living and

Ruddle, K. and T. Akimichi. 1984. Introduction.

the Dead in a Solomon lsland Society. New York. Colombia University Press. pp. ll-13.
Landtman, G. 1927. The Kiwai Papuans of British New

Ruddle, K, and Akimichi, T. (eds.) Maritime lnstitutions in the Westem Pacific. Osaka, National

Museum of Ethnology. pp. l-9.
Skewes,

Guinea. London. MacMillan and Co.

T.

1990. Marine Resource Profiles: Solomon

Lieske, E. and Myers, R. 1994. Coral Reef Fishes:
Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Oceania,

lslands. Forum Fisheries Agency, Honiara. pp.
64. Takekawa,

including the Red Sea, Harper Collins. London. pp. 400. Malinowski, B. 1918. Fishing in the Trobriand Islands.

D.

1996a. Ecological knowledge

of Fanalei

villagers about dolphins: Dolphin hunting in the Solomon Islands l. 1n: Akimichi, T. (ed.) Coastal

Man. 5l-53:87-92.
Matthews, E. 1995. Fishing for Answers: Women and
Fisheries in the Paciflc Islands. Oceania Print-

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Takekawa,

in Transition. National MLseum of

Ethnology. Osaka. pp. 55-65.

D.

1996b. The method of dolphin hunting

ers. Suva. pp. 138. Miller, D. 1978. The Solomons and the Sea. The Joumal

and the distribution of teeth and meat: Dophin hunting in the Solomon Islands 2. fu: Akimichi, Solomon

of the Cultural Association of the
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T. (ed.) Coastal Foragers in Transition. National Museum of Ethnology. Osaka. pp. 67-80.

Munro, l.S.R. 1967. The fishes of New Guinea. Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries. Port Moresby. pp. 721
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Whewell, L.C. lgg4. Roviana women in traditional
tishing. /n: Morrison, J., Geraghty, P, and Crowl,

L. (eds.) Science of Pacific Island People: Ocean
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Nietschmann,

B.

1988. Traditional Sea Territories,

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tural Survival lnc. pp. 60-93.
Parsonson, G.S. 1966.

Artillcial Islands in

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- The Role of Malaria in
22(t):2-2t.
Pawley,

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1973. Dating the dispersal

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of resettled Polynesians from Tikopia

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I - 2 continue

on the fol-

University of Colorado Press, Boulder. pp. 347.

Journal of The Pacific Society

/ October 1999 /

No.

84 - Bb (yo1..22, No.3

- 4)

(2b)

-

Table

l:

Changes

in vernacular names of .iuvenile and adult fish.
Adult fish
gwaila suru arodo
tatnara
uSwago

Juvenile fish
Rarasi fou

Scientific name
Bolbometopon muricatus Gnathodentex spp.

Arodo
Unuunu

Hemirhamphus spp.

Kwatoa

Lethrinus spp.
Lutjanus sebae
Plectorhvnchus spp.

Kokohale, malifu
Mumu

raualite
mumu galau

Fafawai Kakarai
Ono

leto

i matakwa

Plectorlrynchus spp. Siganus spp.
Sphyraena spp.

muu sio
mamalito

Table 2: List of fish caught in the habitats off Ferafalu Village.

HABITAT
Scientific name Acanthurus leucocheilus herreca Acanthurus triostegus Caranx ignobilis Caranx melampygus
Cetoscarus bicolor Chaetodon ephippium Vernacular name Maeto
Bereqwasu

NUMBERS
7

l2

3 4 -5 6

Borabora
Edaeda

Amera
Bebee

Cheilinus undulatus
Choerodon anchorago
C te noc

Cwaila
Lifutange
is

haetus hawaiie

ns

Bolo

*

Epinephel us magniscuttis

Ul"fu
Eeno

Epinephelus merra Epittephelus microdon
EpinepheLus morrhua

Ulafu bero Ulafu haga
Tbreua

Gerres cinereus

Hipposcarus longiceps
Kyphosus cinerascens

Mouaa Leleko Hatemela Ugwango

Lethrinus harak Lethrinus elongatus Lethrinus kallopterus Lethrinus mahsema Lethrinus nebulosus Lethrinus ramak Lethrinus variegatus Lutjanus bohar
Lutjanus fitlvus Lutjanus gibbus

Suru akwaro
Suntgou Fotobala

Suru gwagwaro
Goufuu Ulumaeo Hango

Hale

(26)

t+r++A;fi
M ulloidic hthys flavoline atus

leee

+

10

E

ffi84/85E (ffi22&H / 4E)

Ragaraga

Mugil cephalus
Naso unicornis Plectorhinchus lineatus
P s e udobal is te s

Iliiliwalo
Ume

lzto
Babalu

flav imarginat us

Rhinecanthus rectangulus Rhinecanthus verrucosus
Sargoce nt

Bubuu sidai
Bubuu fahato Alasaa

** **

ron spinife rum.

Scarus ghobban Siganus argenteus Siganus guttatus Siganus lineatus Siganus spinus Siganus sutor Siganus virgatus

Mara

Mu'u ni furai
Falata Falata Kurwnusi *

,t*

**
* *

Mu'u sio
Nanara kwao
Raemae

Ulaema lefroyi Valamugil seheli

Kalua

Table 3. Number of people fishing on each No. of people No. of

trip by gender and CPUE in January
Mean CPUE

trios Male

Female

/

boat

(kg fish trip-r)

(kg person-r
3.3 2.6

I 243 3 44 52 >53

168

l0

t68 60 21 160 100 400

0
26 7

J.J 5.2
6.1

2.0
1.6 1.6

6.5

8.0
12.3

1.4

Table 4: Names and uses of public and managed tishing grounds
Name

of fishine

grounds

Individual

Small group

Communitv

Manased
Yes

Alata baita Alata hafalia
Baro

* * * * * * * * * * *

Fou

i

rada

Goufu Kwasi

* * x * *

yes yes
Yes Yes Yes

ladre
Onetoli Sulibusu

yes

*No
Yes

Journal of The Pacific Society /October 1999/No.B4 85 (Vo1.22, No.3-

4)

(27)

-

Table 5: Users of fishing techniques
Technique

/

Vernacular Name

Children Women Old Men Small
*{<

Grp.

Fish Poison Hand

- aka lining - aoao Ia
kwaferao

Palm leaf kite fishing

Net - furai Spearing - susuu - kuesu
Spear gun fishing

- kwanga

Trap - a'ala'a
- oko
Trolling - falila

Table

6:

Locally rare or extirpated fish species in order of extirpation
Scientific name Acanthurus dussumieri
Chanos chanos

Ye0aeular-&&9
Menamena

English name Eyestripe surgeonfish

Hakwa Isiofu Fotobala Hale Takwalao
Unte

Milkfish
Bluespotted cornetfish Spangled emperor

Fistularia tabacaria
Lethrinus nebulosus Lutjanus gibbus Naso lituratus Naso unicornis
P s e udobali s te s

Paddletail snapper
Orangespine unicornfish

Bluespine unicornfish
flav imarg inat us

Babalu Foloabe Foloabe Foloabe

Yellowmargin triggerfish

Platax teira
Platax orbicularis Platax pinnatus
Siganus gattatus Siganus lineatus
Symp ho

Longfin spadefish Circular spadefish
Pinnate spadefish

Falata Falata
Ooa

Golden rabbitfish

Lined rabbitfish
Chinamanfish

rus nematopho rus

(28)

-

65

-

A+7++A#

leee

410 E

ffi84/85E (ffi22&ffi3 /4E)

APPENDIX

Appendix

l:

Vernaculan scientific and English names of fish species caught. Scientific name
Acant hurus duss ume
i

Vernacular name
Menamena Beregwasu

English name

ri

(Valenciennes)

Eyestrip surgeonfish Convict surgeonfish
Orangestripped triggerfish Bumbhead parrotfish

Acanthurus trioste gus (Linnaeus) Balistapus undulatus (Mungo Park)
Bolbometopon muricatum (Bloch) Cetoscarus bicolor (Linneaus) Chaetodon ephippium (Cuvier) Chanos chanos (Linneaus) CheiLinus undulatus (Ruppell) Choerodon anchorago (Bloch) Epinephelus magniscuttis Bleeker Epinephelus merra (Bloch) Epinephelus microdon (Bleeker)
Epinephe lus morrhua (ForskAl)
F istularia

Bubu bulu Gwaila Amera
Bebee

&

Makedea

Bicolor parrotlish
Shaddled butterflyfish

Hakwa Unudolo Lifolange Ulafu
Eeno

Milkfish
Bumphead wrasse fish

Yellow-cheek tuskfish Giant grouper Honeycomb rockrod Bluetail grouper Brownstrip grouper
Bluespotted cornetfish

Ulafu bero Ulafu haga
Isiofu
Tereua

tabacaria (ForskAl)

Gerres cinereus (Bleeker)

Yellowfin mojarra
Pacific longnose parrotfish Longface emperor Thumbprint emperor Yellow-spot emperor Yellowtail emperor
Spangled emperor

Moua
Ugn,ango

Hipposcarus longiceps (Valenciennes) Lethrinus elongatus (ForskAl)
Le

Hate ntela Suru akwaro
Surugou

thrinus harak (Bleeker)

Lethrinus kallopterus (Bleeker) Lethrinus mahsena (Forskil) Lethrinus nebulosus (ForskAl)
Le

Fotobala Surugwagwaro

thrinus ramak (Linnaeus)

Stripped emperor
Variegated emperor

Gouf,
Rido Ulumaeo Haango Hale Maasulua

Lethrinus variegatus (Valenciennes) Lutjanus argentimaculalus (Forsk6l)

River snapper
Two-spot red snapper Redtail snapper Paddletail snapper Large eye bream
Sea mullet Orangespine unicornfish Bluespine unicornfish

har (Forskii) Lutjanus /zlvas (Forskil) Lutjanus gibbas (Forskil)
Lutjanus
bo

Monota.ris granoculis (Forskil)

Iliili
Ume

w'alo

Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus)
Naso lituratus (Schneider) Naso unicornis (ForskAl) Platax orbicularis (Forskil) Platax pinnatrzs (Forskil)

Takwaloo

Foloabe

Circular spadefish
Pinnate spadefish

Platax teira (Forskil)
Leto
Pl ectorhync

hus lineatus (Cuvier) leopardus (ForskAl)

Longfin spadefish Lined sweetlips
Coral trout

Bilau
Babalu
Rooma

Plec trctpomus
Pse ud oba

li s te s flav imarginatus (Ruppell)

Yellow margin triggerfish
Indian mackerel
Wedge-tailed picassofish

Ras t re I li ge

r

kanagurta (Cuvier)

Bubu sidai

Rhinecanthus eclnrpe (Anon.)

Journal of The Pacific Society /October 1999/No.B4-Bb (yo1.22,
Bubu fahato Alasa
R

No.3-4)

(2D

_

hinecanthus

ve

rrucos us (Linnaeus)

Blackbelly picassofish
Long-sawed squirrelfi sh Bluebarred parrotfish

Sargocentron spinift rum (Forsk6l) Scarus ghobban (Forskil) Siganus argenteus (Quoy Siganus guttatus (Bloch) Siganus lineatus (Bloch) Siganus punctatissimus Flower Siganus splnas (Linnaeus) Siganus slrror (Bleeker) Siganus virgatus (Linneaus)
S -vmpho

Mara

Muu ni furai
Falata
Narabulu Kurumusu

&

Gaimard)

Forktail rabbitfish
Golden rabbitfish

Lined rabbirfish

&

Beam

Peppered rabbitfish

Spinefoot rabbitfish

Muu sio
Narakwao
Ooa Raemae

Afiican whitespottedfi
Virgate rabbitfish
Chinamanfish

sh

rus nematophorus (Bleeker)

U laema

lefroyi (Forskti) (Forskil)

Mottled mo.jarra Bluetail mullet
Lunar-tail rockrod

Kaltn
Faero

ValamugiL selzell

Variola Louti (Forskil)

Appendix

2.

vernacular, scientific and English names of edible invertebrates.

Ycrnacu.lar-la!09 Gwarasuka

Ilo
Kome

Abubuli
Tafisikoko Ragotai

Kwalangi baekaw
Urafou

Umari
Aususu'u
Weree

Abisifou
Takelade
DoLo

Unu

Siftila

name pectinika Atrina vexillum Conus imperialis Hippopus hippopus Lambis scorpius lnmbis truncata Parribacus antacticus Palinurela weinecki Pinctada maxima Pleuroploca rapezium Strombus sp. Tridacna crocea Tridacna deresa Tridacna gigas Tridacna maxima Trochus niloticus
Scientific

English name
Shell Shell

Atrina

Cone shell

Clam shell
Spider shell Spider shell
lobster lobster

File shell
Trumpet shell Stromb shell Tridacna shell Tridacna shell Tridacna shell Tridacna shell Trochus shell

Binu laungi Binu kero

Tripneustes gratilla (red and white color Tripneustes gratilla (red color

morph)

sea urchin sea urchin

morph)