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Part B2: Hydropower

B2.2 Hydropower system design

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B2.2 Hydropower system design
Topics: System design

• Entry arrangements
– Forbays, penstock inlets

• Penstocks and surge control


– Size of the penstock, pressure forces, anchoring
the penstock, water hammer and its control

• Exit arrangements
– draft tubes

• Turbine selection
– Force triangles, Turbine types, specific speed,
cavitation and its prevention

• Electronics and control


– Types of generator, Turbine control,
transmission 2
B2.2.1 Hydropower system design
Entry arrangements: Anatomy of a
forebay

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B2.2.1 Hydropower system design
Entry arrangements: Anatomy of a
forebay

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B2.2.1 Hydropower system design
Entry arrangements: Trash rack losses

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t v2
ht = K t   sin φ
b 2g

Values for Kt

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B2.2.1 Hydropower system design
Entry arrangements: trash racks

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B2.2.1 Hydropower system design
Entry arrangements: Alternatives to trash
racks

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B2.2.1 Hydropower system design
Entry arrangements: Velocity into the
penstock

v1
p1 ht

Energy line
v2 v1 = v2 = 2 ght
p2
v3
p3

Typical values for penstock velocities 2-5 m/s


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B2.2.1 Hydropower system design
Entry arrangements: Entry losses into
the penstock

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B2.2.1 Hydropower system design
Entry arrangements: Entry losses into
the penstock

v2
he = K e
2g

Type Ke

Hooded 1.0

Projecting 0.8

Sharp corner 0.5

Slightly rounded 0.2

Bell mouth (r>0.14D) 0


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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Comparison of penstock
materials

Material Friction Weight Corrosion Cost Ease of Pressure


loss resistance Jointing resist
Ductile iron
Asbestos cement
Concrete
Wood staves
GRP
uPVC
Mild steel
HDPE
MDPE

Poor Excellent

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Installation

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Friction losses in penstocks

• Darcy’s formula
2
Lv
hf = f  
 D  2g

• See B2.1.1
B2.1.1 Fundamentals of Hydro power B2.1.1 Fundamentals of Hydro power B2.1.1 Fundamentals of Hydro power
The energy equation: Implications: The energy equation: Implications: The energy equation: Implications:
Flow in pipes: Friction: Moody diagram Flow in pipes: Friction: Nomogram Flow in pipes: Friction: Equations

• Blasius equation
– For hydraulically smooth pipe
(Re 4,000 – 100,000)
0.3164
f =
Re0.25
• Swamee-Jain equation
– 10-6 < k/D < 0.01
(5,000 – 3x108)
0.25
f = 2
  k 5.74 
log10  3.7 D + 0.9  
  Re 
7 8 9

Typical penstock losses are 5-10%


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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Multiple penstocks

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Losses in bends

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Losses in bends

v2
hb = K b
2g

r/D Kb
r

1 0.6
2 0.5
3 0.4
4 0.3

• For 45º use K x 0.75


• For 2 use K x 0.5
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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Other Losses

• Contractions
D1/d2 Kc
1.5 0.25
2 0.35
2.5 0.40
5 0.50

• Valves
Type Kv
Spherical 0
Gate 0.1
Butterfly 0.3

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Energy lines

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Anatomy of a penstock

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Slide blocks

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Thermal expansion

Fe

Fe

Fe = Force due to extension


Ce = Coefficient of extension
∆Τ = Change in temperature
Fe = Ce ∆T Eπ Dt E = Young’s modulus
D = Penstock diameter
t = Wall thickness

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Expansion joints

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Forces on bends
F

Hydrostatic
 β −α 
Fh = 2 ρ gh A sin  
 2  ρ = fluid density
g = gravity
h = total head
Velocity A = penstock area
 β −α  Q = discharge
Fv = 2Q ρ v sin   v = velocity
 2 
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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Bends

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Forces on bends: Thrust
blocks

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Anatomy of a penstock

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Water hammer

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B2.2.3 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Water hammer

Tc = critical time (s)


L = pipe length (m)
2L
Tc = Cp = speed of sound in the pipe
cp Cw = speed of sound in water
(1420m s-1)
G = bulk density of water
cw (2GPa)
cp =
GD E = Young’s modulus
1+ D = diameter of the pipe (m)
E t
t = wall thickness (m)
∆h = additional pressure due to water
cp hammer (m of water)
∆h = − ∆v g = gravity
g
∆v = Change in flow velocity (m s-1)

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Water hammer: Dealing with it

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Water hammer: Dealing with it:
Surge tanks

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B2.2.2 Hydropower system design
Penstocks: Getting it wrong…

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B2.2.3 Hydropower system design
Draft tubes

Parallel sided Tapered

• Allows turbine to be set • Recovers part of the


above water level but velocity head by
uses vacuum pressure on diffusion action
underside to increase
effective head

Limited by the vapour pressure of water


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B2.2.3 Hydropower system design
Draft tubes: Exercise

Using Bernoulli's equation and mass


continuity, show how a tapered turbine
regains velocity head and converts it to
pressure reduction at the turbine

p1 v1

p2 v2

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B2.2.3 Hydropower system design
Draft tubes: configurations

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B2.2.3 Hydropower system design
Draft tubes

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B2.2.3 Hydropower system design
Draft tubes

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Next…turbines

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