This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Dynamics of Machinery I

Mircea Radeş

Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti

2007

Preface

This textbook is based on the first part of the Dynamics of Machinery lecture course given since 1993 to students of the English Stream in the Department of Engineering Sciences (D.E.S.), now F.I.L.S., at the University Politehnica of Bucharest. It grew in time from a postgraduate course taught in Romanian between 1985 and 1990 at the Strength of Materials Chair. Dynamics of Machinery, as a stand alone subject, was first introduced in the curricula of mechanical engineering at D.E.S. in 1993. To sustain it, we published Dynamics of Machinery in 1995, followed by Dinamica sistemelor rotor-lagăre in 1996 and Rotating Machinery in 2003. As seen from the Table of Contents, this book is application oriented and limited to what can be taught in an one-semester (28 hours) lecture course. It also contains many exercises to support the tutorial, where the students are guided to write simple finite element computer programs in Matlab, and to assist them in solving problems as homework. The course aims to: (a) increase the knowledge of machinery vibrations; (b) further the understanding of dynamic phenomena in machines; (c) provide the necessary physical basis for the development of engineering solutions to machinery problems; and (d) make the students familiar with machine condition monitoring techniques and fault diagnosis. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce, as language patterns, some sentences from English texts. Finite element modeling of rotor-bearing systems and hydrodynamic bearings are treated in the second part. Analysis of rolling element bearings, machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis, balancing of rotors as well as elements of the dynamic analysis of reciprocating machines are presented in the third part. No reference is made to the vibration of discs, impellers and blades.

August 2007

Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă

Lucrarea se bazează pe prima parte a cursului de Dinamica maşinilor predat din 1993 studenţilor Filierei Engleze a Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine (F.I.L.S.) la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, pornind de la un curs postuniversitar organizat între 1985 şi 1990 în cadrul Catedrei de Rezistenţa materialelor. Dinamica maşinilor a fost introdusă în planul de învăţământ al F.I.L.S. în 1993. Pentru a susţine cursul, am publicat Dynamics of Machinery la U. P. B. în 1995, urmată de Dinamica sistemelor rotor-lagăre în 1996 şi Rotating Machinery în 2005, ultima conţinând materialul ilustrativ utilizat în cadrul cursului. După cum reiese din Tabla de materii, cursul este orientat spre aplicaţii inginereşti, fiind limitat la ceea ce se poate preda în 28 ore. Materialul prezentat conţine multe exerciţii rezolvate care susţin seminarul, în cadrul căruia studenţii sunt îndrumaţi să scrie programe simple cu elemente finite în Matlab, fiind utile şi la rezolvarea temelor de casă. Cursul are un loc bine definit în planul de învăţământ, urmărind: a) descrierea fenomenelor dinamice specifice maşinilor; b) modelarea sistemelor rotor-lagăre şi analiza acestora cu metoda elementelor finite; c) înarmarea studenţilor cu baza fizică necesară în rezolvarea problemelor de vibraţii ale maşinilor; şi d) familiarizarea cu metodele de supraveghere a stării maşinilor şi diagnosticare a defectelor. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse unele expresii şi fraze din lucrări scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. În partea a doua se prezintă modelarea cu elemente finite a sistemelor rotor-lagăre şi lagărele hidrodinamice. În partea a treia se tratează lagărele cu rulmenţi, echilibrarea rotorilor, măsurarea vibraţiilor pentru supravegherea funcţionării maşinilor şi diagnosticarea defectelor, precum şi elemente de dinamica maşinilor cu mecanism bielă-manivelă. Nu se tratează vibraţiile paletelor, discurilor paletate şi ale roţilor centrifugale.

August 2007

Mircea Radeş

Contents

Preface Contents i iii

**1. Rotor-bearing systems
**

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Evolution of rotating machinery Rotor-bearing dynamics Rotor precession Modeling the rotor Evolution of rotor design philosophy Historical perspective

1

1 22 24 26 29 32

**2. Simple rotors in rigid bearings
**

2.1 Simple rotor models 2.2 Symmetric undamped rotors

2.2.1 Equations of motion 2.2.2 Steady state response

39

39 40

41 43

**2.3 Damped symmetric rotors
**

2.3.1 Effect of viscous external damping 2.3.2 Effect of viscous internal damping 2.3.3 Combined external and internal damping 2.3.4 Gravity loading 2.3.5 Effect of shaft bow 2.3.6 Rotor precession in rigid bearings

46

47 54 62 65 66 67

**2.4 Undamped asymmetric rotors
**

2.4.1 Reference frames 2.4.2 Inertia torques on a spinning disc 2.4.3 Equations of motion for elastically supported discs 2.4.4 Natural frequencies of precession 2.4.5 Response to harmonic excitation 2.4.6 Campbell diagrams 2.4.7 Effect of gyroscopic torque on critical speeds 2.4.8 Remarks on the precession of asymmetric rotors

68

69 69 72 75 81 87 97 98

1 4 Effect of bearing damping 3.1 Effect of bearing flexibility 3.2 Equations of damped motion 4.2 Stability of precession motion 136 136 142 3. Rotor dynamic analysis 4.1.3 Influence of stator inertia 207 207 207 209 217 4.4 Simulation examples 168 4.2.3.1 Undamped critical speeds 4.4 4.3 Unbalance response 3.3.2.4 Campbell diagrams 4.1 Unbalance response 3.3.6 Peak response critical speeds Stability analysis Simulation examples Planar modes of precession 224 227 231 273 Index 283 .3 Asymmetric rotors in flexible bearings 3.2 Damped critical speeds 4.2 Natural frequencies of precession 3.1.3 4.2 Effect of external damping 3.1.2.3. Simple rotors in flexible bearings 3.iv MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS 3.2.4 Effect of bearing damping 3.1 Equations of motion 3.1 Effect of support flexibility 4.5 4.2.1.2 Symmetric rotors in fluid film bearings 3.2 Critical speed map 4.1.1.1 Linear bearing models 4.2.1 Symmetric rotors in flexible bearings 3.5 Combined effect of bearing damping and shaft mass 101 101 102 109 117 119 131 3.2.3 Eigenvalue problem of damped rotor systems 4.1.3.5 Mixed modes of precession 145 145 148 152 156 158 3.5 Orbits and precession mode shapes 219 219 220 220 222 223 4.3 Effect of external and internal damping 3.

1.

ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS

The first part of the Dynamics of Machinery is devoted to rotor-bearing systems, including the effects of seals and bearing supports. The flexibilities of discs and blades are neglected, so that the Rotor Bearing Dynamics does not include the vibration analysis of impellers and bladed-disc assemblies.

**1.1. Evolution of rotating machinery
**

Interest in the vibration of rotating machinery has been due primarily to the fact that more than 80 percent of the problems involve vibration. In the continuing effort to develop more power per kilogram of metal in a machine, designs have approached the physical limits of materials and vibration problems have increased. These, together with the extremely high cost associated with forced outages, for machines with continuous operating regime, have determined the development of research activity and design procedures in two fields of primary practical interest: the Dynamics of Rotor-Bearing Systems and the Vibrations of Bladed Disc Assemblies.

1.1.1 Steam turbines

Of significance for the technical advancement in this field is the development of steam turbines in Europe [1]. From the first single stage impulse turbine built in 1883 by the Swedish engineer Gustaf de Laval (with a speed of 30000 rpm reduced to 3000 rpm by gearing), and the first multistage reaction turbine built in 1884 by Charles Parsons (having a speed of 18000 rpm and an output of 10 HP), to the turbines of today nuclear power stations, the evolution has been spectacular. Early in 1901 the Brown Boveri Company built a steam turbine of 250 kW at 3000 rpm, coupled directly to an a.c. generator. From 1907 onwards, a double impulse Curtis wheel (invented in 1896) was mounted before the reaction

2

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

stage, which was replaced by single-row versions on two to three impulse wheels. In 1914, a turbine of 25 MW at 1000 rpm was the largest single-cylinder steam turbine in the world. The first systematic studies of Rotor Dynamics started in 1916, carried out by professor Aurel Stodola at the Swiss Federal Institute of Tehnology in Zürich. After 1920, the high price of coal imposed the increase of steam turbine efficiency. Among other means, this was achieved by the reduction in the diameter and the increase in the number of stages, hence by the increase of the shaft length, a major incentive for developing the Dynamics of Rotor-Bearing Systems. The maximum unit output of a turbine is largely dependent on the available last-stage blade length. The permissible blade length to diameter ratio has an influence on the machine efficiency. Shafts should be as slender as possible, to ensure small rotor diameter and large blade length. Otherwise, increased shaft weight gives rise to an increase in the average specific bearing loading. Increasing the cross-section of a machine is limited by the mechanical stresses and the size of pieces that can be transported. This is compensated by the increase of the active length, eventually with a tandem arrangement, having a long shaft line, in which the mechanical power is produced in several turbine cylinders. The first super-pressure three-cylinder (high, intermediate and low pressure) turbine was built by BBC in 1929, and had an output of 36 MW at 3000 rpm. The steam flowed through high pressure and intermediary pressure rotors in opposite directions, to balance the thrust. Rotors, which previously were composed of keyed and shrunk-on wheels on a continuous shaft, started to be welded from solid discs, allowing larger rotor diameters and increased ratings. The increased efficiency of steam turbines lowered the amount of coal required for producing 1 kWh of electrical energy from 0.75 kg during the war to 0.45 kg in 1927. The output of the largest turbines in Europe had reached 50 to 60 MW by the mid twenties, when, for large units, turbines of 1500 rpm were coupled to four-pole generators. A 165 MW two-shaft turboset was built in 1926-1928, with the highpressure shaft rotating at 1800 rpm, and the low-pressure shaft at 1200 rpm. In 1948, the largest steam turboset of single-shaft design (Fig. 1.1) had four cylinders, a length of 27 m (without the station service generator), an output of 110 MW and speed of 3000 rpm [2]. In 1950, turbosets of 125 MW were built in Europe and of 230 MW in the U.S.A., then, in 1956 - with ratings of 175 MW, and in 1964 - with ratings of 550 MW and two shafts. In 1972, the first 1300 MW cross-compound turboset was built at 3600 rpm, provided with two shaft lines for two 722 MVA generators. Figure 1.2 shows a longitudinal section of the high-pressure turbine of a 1300 MW unit at 1800 rpm. Current designs have generators of 1635 MVA at 1500 rpm, and of 1447 MVA at 3000 rpm. At present time, turbosets of 1700-2000 MW at 1500 or 1800 rpm, and of 1500-1700 MW at 3000 or 3600 rpm are currently built.

1. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS

3

4

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

Generally, the shaft line has a length of 8 to 20 m in turbosets of 1 to 50 MW, between 25 and 30 m in those of 100 to 150 MW, and exceeds 75 m in turbosets beyond 1000 MW.

Fig. 1.2 (from [3]) The increase of the rotor length has been accompanied by the increase of the number of stages (or discs on a shaft), and the number of bearings and couplings between shafts in a line. Adding the increase of seal complexity and the problems raised by the non-uniform thermal expansion at start-up, all doubled by strength of materials problems raised by the increase in size, one can easily understand the complexity of the dynamic calculations of the rotors of such machines. Figure 1.3 shows a typical axial section in an industrial back-pressure turbine of an early design [4]. The steam is expanded in the turbine from the livesteam pressure to the exhaust pressure in two principal parts. In the first part, the steam is accelerated in the nozzle segments 1, thus gaining kinetic energy, which is utilized in the blades of the impulse wheel 2. The disc of the impulse stage is integral with the shaft. Usually, the nozzles are machined into several segments fixed into the cylinder by a cover ring. The blades of the impulse wheel are milled from chromium steel bars. The roots are fixed into the slot in the impulse wheel with spacers gripping the upset feet of the blades. In some designs, the flat outer ends are welded together in groups, thus forming an interrupted shroud. The second or reaction part consists of stationary and moving rows of blades 3 fixed with suitably shaped spacers into slots in the casing and rotor. The glands 4 prevent the steam flowing out of the casing along the shaft. Labyrinth seals allow a very small amount of steam to escape into specially

1. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS

5

provided channels. Due to the turbulence of the steam, the pressure drop is sufficiently high to allow the gland to be made relatively short. The labyrinth strips are caulked into grooves in the rotor shaft whereas the corresponding grooves are machined into a separate bushing of the casing. The risk of damaging the rotor by distortion caused by friction in the seals is avoided, as the heat transfer from the tips of the thin labyrinth strips to the shaft is very small.

Fig. 1.3 (from [4]) The balancing piston 5 is positioned between the impulse wheel and the gland at the steam inlet end. The chamber between is interconnected with the exhaust. Generally, the balancing ring is integral with the shaft. In older designs it was shrunk-on but this design can give rise to instability due to rotating dry friction. This arrangement counteracts the axial forces imposed on the rotor by the steam flow. The bearing 6 at the steam inlet end is a combined thrust and journal bearing, to reduce the rotor length. The thrust part of it acts in both axial directions on the thrust collars 7 to absorb any excess forces of the balancing piston. Usually tilting bronze pads are fitted on flexible steel rings according to the Mitchell principle. The journal bearing of the combined bearing and that at the opposite end 8 are lined with white metal cast into separate shells. Tilting pad bearings are used in some designs. The rotor 9 is machined from high-quality steel forging. After the blades are fitted, the rotor is balanced and subjected to a 20 percent overspeed test for a few minutes. A high-alloy chromium steel is used for high pressures and temperatures. Figure 1.4 shows presently used steam turbine rotor designs [5].

6

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

Turbines running at high speeds require reduction gearing to drive alternators with 2 or 4 poles, running at 3000 or 1500 rpm (for 50 Hz). As a rule, the pinion and gear wheel shafts are connected to the driving and driven machines by means of couplings. They must be able to compensate for small errors in alignment and thermal expansion in the machine without affecting the reduction gearing. The coupling hubs are integral with the forged shafts.

Fig. 1.4 (from [5]) The first steam turbine built in Romania in 1953 at Reşiţa, was a 3 MW at 3000 rpm turbine. In 1967, the first two-cylinder 50 MW turbine was built. Twenty years later, the 330 MW four-cylinder condensing turbine was manufactured at I.M.G. Bucureşti, under a Rateau-Schneider license. Rotors have a monoblock construction, having the discs in common with the shaft. At present, General Turbo S.A. manufactures 700 MW turbines.

1.1.2 Gas turbines

The development of gas turbines is more recent. From the first gas turbine for airplanes, designed by Whittle in 1937, and the first stationary turbine built by Brown Boveri in 1939, turbines of 80 MW at 3000 rpm and 72 MW at 3600 rpm are found in power plants, while 16 MW turbines are working with blastfurnace gases. The progress is mainly due to blade cooling and limitation of the effects of corrosion and erosion. State-of-the-art gas turbines built by ABB have 265 MW at 3000 rpm and 183 MW at 3600 rpm. The simplest type of open circuit stationary gas turbine installation comprises a compressor, a combustion chamber, and a gas turbine. In the

1. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS

7

arrangement from Fig. 1.5, the compressor and turbine rotors form a single shaft line, while the generator 7 is coupled via a clutch 6. The starter 9 is used to launch the generator when operating as a compensator. The starter 5 is used to launch the turbine while the generator turns. Part of the compressed air is used for the fuel combustion. The remainder (approx. 70%) is used for cooling the shell of the combustion chamber and some components of the turbine, and is mixed with the hot gases.

Fig. 1.5 (from [6]) The volume of the expanded gas in the turbine is much larger than the volume of the compressed air in the compressor, due to the heating in the combustion chamber. The difference between the work produced by the turbine and the work absorbed by compressor and friction losses is the work supplied to the electrical generator. It is a function of the compressor and turbine thermodynamic efficiencies and the turbine inlet temperature.

Fig. 1.6 (from Power, Jan 1980, p.27) A design with concentric shafts, resembling the aircraft gas turbines, is shown in Fig. 1.6.

8

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

Figure 1.7 shows the Rolls-Royce RB.211 turbofan rotors. The threestage low pressure (LP) turbine drives the single-stage LP fan which has no inlet guide vanes. The single-stage intermediate pressure (IP) turbine drives the sevenstage IP compressor. The single-stage air-cooled high pressure (HP) turbine drives the six-stage HP compressor.

Fig. 1.7 (adapted from [7]) The eight main bearings are located in four rigid panels (not shown). The three thrust ball bearings are grouped in a stiff intermediate casing. Oil squeezefilm damping is provided between each roller bearing and housing to reduce engine vibration. The short HP system needs only two bearings located away from the combustion zone for longer life. The single-stage LP fan has 33 blades with mid-span clappers and fir-tree roots. The seven-stage IP axial compressor has drum construction. It consists of seven discs electron beam welded into two drums of five and two stages bolted together between stages 5 and 6. The blade retention is by dovetail roots and lockplates. The six-stage HP compressor consists of two electron beam welded drums bolted through the stage 3 disc with blades retained by dovetail roots and lockplates. The three-shaft concept has two basic advantages: simplicity and rigidity. Each compressor runs at its optimum speed, thus permitting a higher pressure ratio per stage. This results in fewer stages and fewer parts, to attain the pressure ratio, than in the case of alternative designs. The short, large diameter shafts give good vibration characteristics and a very smooth engine. The short carcase and the positioning of the engine mounting points give a very rigid structure. This allows the rotors to run with smaller tip clearances and thus improved efficiency. Gas turbines manufactured in Romania are: 1) the Viper 632-41, RollsRoyce license, 8-stage axial compressor and 2-stage turbine at 13,800 rpm; 2) the Alouette III B, Turbomeca license, 422 kW, 33,480 rpm; and 3) the Turmo IV CA, Turbomeca license, 1115 kW.

1. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS

9

1.1.3 Axial compressors

Although patents for axial compressors were taken out as long ago as 1884, it is only in the early 1950's that they become the most versatile form for gasturbine work. In the aircraft field, where high performance is at a premium, the axial compressor is now used exclusively. It is only for some industrial applications that other compressor types offer serious competition.

Fig. 1.8 (from [8]) The axial-flow compressor resembles the axial-flow steam or gas turbine in general appearance. Usually multistage, one observes rows of blades on a single shaft with blade length varying monotonically as the shaft is traversed. The difference is, of course, that the blades are shorter at the outlet end of the compressor, whereas the turbine receives gas or vapour on short blades and exhausts it from long blades. In Fig. 1.8 the numbers have the following designations: 1 and 13 bearings, 2 - seals, 3 - prewhirler, 4 - intake duct, 5 - rotor blades, 6 - stator blades, 7 - straightener stator blades, 8 - discharge duct, 9 - diffuser, 10 - coupling, 11 - gas turbine shaft, 12 - drum-type rotor, 14 - stator casing. In practically all existing axial compressor designs, the rotor is supported by one bearing at the gas inlet end and by a second bearing at the gas delivery end. In aircraft practice, ball and roller bearings are universally used, on account of their

1. Fig. ships. 1. modeled as for other machines. centrifugal compressors find application in power station plants. 1. gas injection and liquefaction. and insensitivity to momentarily cessations of oil flow as may occur during acrobatic flying. the other part being necessary for the centre seal.9.10 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY compactness. impellers are mounted on almost half of the rotor length. they are easier to manufacture and are thus preferred in applications where simplicity. . petrochemical industry. auxiliary power units. etc. Usually. the balance drum. items of major concern in rotor dynamic analyses are the gas labyrinths. In comparison with the drum rotor of axial compressors. Thus. locomotives. impellers.4 Centrifugal compressors Although centrifugal compressors are slightly less efficient than axialflow compressors. Furthermore.9 (from [9]) A typical high-pressure compressor design is shown schematically in Fig. a single stage of a centrifugal compressor can produce a pressure ratio of 5 times that of a single stage of an axial-flow compressor. the radial bearings and the thrust bearing. Additionally. the oil seals. and cheapness are primary requirements. squeeze film dampers are used to stabilize compressors with problems. 1. having relatively low natural frequencies which favour instabilities. ruggedness. bearings and coupling. Multistage centrifugal compressors have relatively slender shafts. the oil ring seals and the aerodynamic cross coupling at impellers. The shaft diameter is kept small to increase the impeller eye. the shaft of centrifugal compressors is more flexible. Apart from shaft. ground-vehicle turbochargers. small lubricating oil requirements.

.10). Modern multistage compressors are typically designed to operate through and above several critical speeds so as to maximize the work done by a given size machine. Squeeze film dampers are used in centrifugal compressors to eliminate instabilities or to alter the speed at which they occur.1.and hence any increase in the maximum number of stages per casing . are used to check that the critical speeds are not within the operating speed range. turbomachinery operate above the first critical speed (point B). that threshold speed can be raised to well over two times the first natural frequency. carried out after compressor is constructed but before it is commissioned. shaft geometry. The result of this combination of supercritical speed. Shop testing. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 11 Vibrations of a centrifugal compressor are controlled by: bearings. By going to tilting-pad bearings. 1. high pressure and high work load has been an increasing tendency for such machines to exhibit problems of nonsynchronous rotor whirling. Separation margins of the critical speeds from the intended operating speed range are defined in API Standard 617. High pressure compressors operating on fixed lobe bearings could generate a violent shaft whip condition just above twice the first natural frequency. Bode plots. In the case of centrifugal compressors. Compliance with present specifications requires calculation of deflections at each seal along the rotor. undamped critical speed maps are of little interest. For example.was precluded by the bearing stability limit. Using vortex brakes before labyrinths this boundary has been pushed back and the way is open in principle to still higher speed ratios (point D). For typical compressor precession modes which are heavily damped. the damped natural frequency can be as much as 2 to 9 times lower than the expected peak response speed. Up to eight stages are used to obtain the required pressure rise. Process compressors and units used for natural gas injection can have discharge pressures of the order of 650 bar and can drive gases with high density. a 425 mm diameter impeller for an industrial centrifugal compressor can be designed for a work load well in excess of 2000 HP by running at speeds approaching 9000 rpm. can reveal problems prior to start-up. and other factors. While many rotating machines operate below the first critical speed (point A in Fig. This was then raised by means of stronger bearing designs until operation above the second critical speed became possible (point C). gas seals and oil bushings. Until mid seventies any further shift of the resonance . second mode in particular. fluid forces on impellers. resonances must be 20 percent above the maximum continuous speed and/or 15 percent below the operating speeds [10]. This is why stability analysis is of prime interest. obtained during run-up measurements. as a percentage of the total clearance. Attempts to raise speed further came up against another stability limit: rotor instability due to gap excitation.

1.e. BBC and the Vulkan shipyard manufactured turbochargers for the 10-cylinder four-stroke engines from the vessels 'Preussen' and 'Hansestadt Danzig'. . One of these is a combined radial-axial bearing. which are almost always equipped with single-stage compressor and turbine wheels. Two bearing layouts have proved successful on the market: 1) bearings at the shaft ends (external bearings).e.10 (from [11]) One of the oldest applications was in marine engines. used predominantly in large machines. which were designed for an uncharged performance of 1700 HP each at 235 rpm provided.p.4). to keep the axial clearance in that region small. and 2) bearings between the compressor and turbine wheel (internal bearings) used mainly for small turbochargers. The engines. = 8. Fig. Turbocharging of two-stroke marine engines began after 1950. a cruising power of 2400 HP at 275 rpm and a temporary overload of 4025 HP at 320 rpm (for a m. In 1923. in ships' auxiliary and propulsion machinery and in railway traction. two bearings are sufficient. In both arrangements the axial bearing is located near the compressor wheel.p. For the relatively short turbocharger rotors. It has applications in stationary plants for electricity generation. the other a pure radial bearing. when charged.12 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Exhaust-gas turbocharging is used to increase the mean effective pressure (m.) of diesel engines.

1. have an axial-flow turbine. The frictional losses in the bearings are smaller. leading to rubbing and bearing distress. though at lower speeds it can exhibit instability in either a conical mode or an in-phase bending mode.11 Internal bearings (Fig. which relate mainly to the wider variety of ways of fitting the turbocharger to the engine. forming two hydrodynamic oil films [12]. 1.1. For specific applications internal bearings have advantages. but a radial-flow turbine with axial gas outlet. the large distance between the bearings reduces the radial bearing forces and requires smaller clearances at the compressor wheel and turbine wheel. In automotive applications. . Fig. a). 1.11. Small turbochargers do not. thus rendering rolling-contact bearings and self-lubrication possible. This type of bearing has a thin bush rotating freely between the journal and the fixed bush. particularly at part load. and 2) some designs have a third flexible critical speed. The shaft ends can be kept small in diameter and are simple to equip with a lubricating oil pump and centrifuge. a floating bush bearing is used due to size and cost considerations. however. This turbocharger shows peculiar behaviour yet to be explained theoretically: 1) it has stable operation at very high shaft speeds. b) offer advantages in fitting a turbocharger with axial air and gas inlets to the engine.11. with a high amplification factor. very difficult to balance out. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 13 In the variant with external bearings (Fig.

Blowers are single-stage uncooled compressors with pressure ratios between 1.5·105 N/m2.5 Fans and blowers Fans can be either radial-flow or axial-flow machines.1. Centrifugal fans absorb powers between 0. 1.12 (from [13]) Fig. Fans are designed for pressure ratios lower than or equal to 1.14 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 1. suction pressure is defined as the pressure ratio.1 and 4. have flow rates up to 3·105 m3/h and discharge pressures up to 1000 mm H2O (~104 N/m2). 1.1. The ratio discharge pressure vs. so they usually require interstage cooling. Fig.05 kW and 1 MW.13 (from [13]) . and discharge pressures up to 3. Compressors have pressure ratios larger than 4.

1. 1. operating from 500 to 900 rpm in pillowblock bearings. 1. supported on structural steel or concrete foundations. Centrifugal fans used for forced. with labyrinth seals.1. Problems encountered with boiler feed pumps have been produced by excessive wear in seals. excluding the fluid forces of flow through the impellers. between the impeller back disc and the stator. Stiffness and damping properties provided by seals represent the dominant forces exerted on pump shafts. The fluid annuli are distributed between the journal bearings where precession amplitudes are highest and can therefore be 'exercised' more as dampers than can be the bearings. The rotordynamic behaviour of pumps is critically dependent on forces developed by annular seals. . yielding a decrease in the dynamic forces exerted by the seals. In typical applications. shaft resonant critical speeds are rarely observed at centrifugal pumps because of the high damping capability afforded by seals. Fine clearance annular seals are used in pumps primarily to prevent leakage between regions of different pressure within the pump.6 Centrifugal pumps Centrifugal pumps are used in services involving boiler feed. etc.14). ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 15 The design from Fig. and 2) misalignment. reactor charge. and overhung design. The arrangement from Fig. Both are characterized by changes in vibration at or near the rotational frequency. Typical multi-stage centrifugal pumps have more inter-stage fluid annuli than they have journal bearings. The symmetrical rotor has a disc at the middle. particularly at part-flow operating conditions.or induced-draft and primary-air service generally have large diameter rotors.13 is with double suction and single exhaust. Instability problems encountered in the space shuttle hydrogen fuel turbopumps and safety requirements of nuclear main coolant pumps have prompted research interest in annular seals. the major problem with fans is unbalance caused by 1) uneven buildup or loss of deposited material.1. 1. For these systems. Centrifugal pumps have comparatively slender shafts and relatively flexible cantilevered bearing housings (Fig. the hydrodynamics of oil-lubricated journal bearings is dominated by seal properties.12 is a medium-pressure blower. and between the impeller and diffuser. As a rule. between the impeller shroud and the stator. It is now recognized that turbulent flow annular seals in multi-stage pumps and in straddle-mounted single-stage pumps have a dramatic effect on the dynamics of the machine. water injection.

despite the low rotating speeds (200-1800 rpm). The first effective radial inward flow reaction turbine was developed around 1850 by Francis. . due to transients and cavitation. In the Straflo (straight flow) design. Rotors are very robust and stiff. a notch for the jet and a needle control for the nozzle was first used around 1900. between 1910-1924. The axial flow turbine. was developed by Kaplan in Austria. With hydraulic turbines. The modern Pelton turbine with a double elliptic bucket. with lower friction losses. Around 1880 Pelton invented the split bucket with a central edge for impulse turbines. The horizontal bulb turbines have a relatively straighter flow path through the intake and draft tube.14 (from [14]) 1. the turbine and generator form an integral unit without a driving shaft.7 Hydraulic turbines Hydraulic turbines have traditionally been used to convert hydraulic energy into electricity. 1.1. with adjustable runner blades. in Lowell. problems being raised by bearings and the supporting structure. problems occur owing to the vertical position of most machines.16 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. Massachusetts.

15 The hydro power plant at Grand Coulée (U.4 m outer diameter and 0.15). The rotor has a diameter in excess of 9 m and a weight exceeding 400 tons. 4 – lower guide bearing. The rotor shaft has 6.000 hp Francis turbine driving a synchronous generator of 718 MVA at 85. 2 – draft tube. The hydro power plant at Ilha Solteira. The generator has 495 tons and the Francis turbine has 145 tons. gross head 250 m.9 rpm for 50 Hz generators.A. on the Rio Paraná.8 rpm. 7 – control ring with servo-motor for the stay vanes. the main shaft having 3. 9 – upper guide . driven by Francis turbines. 1.600 MW. consists of 18 generating sets of 824/737 MVA. while the synchronous generator has 2000 tons and 16 m diameter. 1. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 17 Fig.S. Turbines have rotors of 300 tons and 8 m diameter. An axial cross-section of a vertical axis Kaplan turbine is presented in Fig. the main shaft has 150 tons and 2. 5 – stay vanes and ring support.3 m diameter and more than 12 m length. 1.3 rpm for 60 Hz generators (Fig. 1. The hydroelectric power plant at Corbeni-Argeş has four Francis turbines with nominal speed 428.4 m inner diameter. The world’s largest hydroelectric plant Itaipu. 6 – concrete spiral casing. 8 – thrust bearing.16 where 1 – runner with adjustable blades.1. The first critical speed is about 222 rpm.6 rpm. and 92.33 m length. which forms the border between Brazil and Paraguay. nominal water flow 20 m3/s and individual rated power 50 MW. has sets of 160 MW at 85. with a total rating of 12. Brazil.) has a 960. near the city of Foz do Iguaçu.5 m diameter. 3 – guide vanes. running at respectively 90.7 rpm.

11 – runner blades control rod inside the turbine shaft. 10 – servo-motor for adjustment of runner blades. The unit has three guide bearings and a thrust bearing. L. as when driven direct by a steam turbine.8 Turbo-generators The turbo-alternator was developed by C. nominal water flow 840 m3/s. head 27 m.16 (from [15]) The Porţile de Fier I hydroelectric power plant has eight Kaplan turbines of 194 MW. Brown and first marketed by Brown Boveri in 1901.45. and 12 – generator.1. 6 blades and rotor diameter 9. Fig. 1. it has proven to be the only possible design for high speeds. rotor diameter 7. With a cylindrical rotor having embedded windings. speed 71. nominal water flow 432 m3/s. E.5 m. and the following parameters: head 7. The Porţile de Fier II hydroelectric power plant has eight doubleregulated bulb units type KOT 28-7.18 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY bearing.45 m. rated power 27 MW. 16 stator blades and 4 rotor blades. with the bulb upstream and the turbine overhung downstream.5 m. Such alternators are available for ratings between 500 kVA and .43 rpm. 1.

ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 19 20. been accompanied by a corresponding increase in the size of machines because of the increase in the specific electric ratings. for the most part. and its 1975 counterpart weighed only 0. several hollow cylinders are fitted over a central draw-bolt threaded at both ends. To secure the end sections. 1. the maximum power of electric generators increased from 100 to 1600 MVA. Fig. between 1940-1975. while a 500 MW rotor had 70 tons and 12 m. whereas in 1940 a 3000 rpm turbo-generator weighed 2 kg per kW of output. The marked increase in the unit ratings of turbo-generators has not.5 kg/kW.1. The forging of a 120 MW rotor had approximately 30 tons and 8 m distance between bearing centres. For larger units. because salient-pole machines with end-shield bearings are more economical. For example. Modern rotors have two or three critical speeds below their operating speed of 3000 rpm. but are not normally used below 2500 kW. Beyond 2500 kW. to which the two shaft extensions are fastened by shrinking.000 kVA and higher. an alternator running at 3000 (or 3600) rpm permits a more economical gear to be used than a 1500 (or 1800) rpm alternator for the same turbine [16]. The specially formed winding is a single layer of copper strip insulated with glass-fibre which is pressed and baked into the slots. end-bells forged from solid-drawn nonmagnetic steel with ventilation holes or slots are used. .17 (from [16]) The rotor of small units is a solid cylindrical forging of high-quality steel with slots milled in it to accommodate the field winding. Alternator rotors have been also designed to be progressively longer and more flexible.

generators of over 500 MW employing these cooling methods must have their stator cores mounted in a flexible suspension. It is clear from the figure that the flexural rigidity of the shaft is . a. in effect. 3000 rpm generator with water-cooled stator winding and forced hydrogen direct cooling in the rotor. a large rotating electromagnet. In fact it would be very difficult to design accurately an alternator rotor so as to have axial symmetry in a dynamical sense. where the motion is excited by the weight of the rotor. having a north pole and a south pole on opposite sides of the rotor and having slots cut in it. They are intended to reduce the parametric vibrations induced by the variation of the cross-section second moment of area about the horizontal axis. This is a source of considerable difficulty. Figure 1. during rotation. being more massive. largely because it can be cured only at the design stage and cannot be 'balanced'. Due to the high flux density and current loadings.17 is a cutaway perspective drawing of a 400 MVA. Two-pole generator rotors have axial slots machined to match more closely the principal stiffnesses. This is necessary in order to isolate the foundations from the enormous magnetic vibration forces arising between rotor and stator. 1. 1.18 (from [17]) The cross-section of a 120 MW alternator rotor after slotting is shown in Fig. in which copper conductors are embedded to provide the magnetic field. Fig. but occasionally rising problems due to asymmetrical stiffness properties. Certain 'trimming' modifications can be made but these present problems of their own.18. The second order (or 'twice per revolution') forced vibration which arises from the dual flexural rigidity that is virtually inescapable in a two-pole machine.20 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Rotors of electrical machines are different from rotors with bladed discs or impellers. The rotor is.

Asymmetry of the bearings introduces a split of critical speeds but cannot by itself cause second order vibration. a and then to cut lateral slots across the poles at intervals along the length of the rotor.1. For small machines. even after copper conductors and steel wedges have been placed in the slots. In attempts to equalize these rigidities. In order to maintain the magnetic flux density. sliding bearings. 1. 1. The second technique is to build a rotor in the manner of Fig. seals. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 21 unlikely to be the same for bending about the horizontal and the vertical neutral axes. pedestals and relatively flexible casings.18. the pole faces are slotted as shown in Fig. electrical motors.18. and B-B cross-cuts to ensure uniform flexibility with respect to the vertical and horizontal cross-section principal axes. On the contrary.g. the slots in the pole faces are filled with steel bars that are wedged in. the balancing and the dynamic calculation of the rotor does not generally raise problems. Figure 1. one of two schemes is usually adopted. These hydrodynamic bearings present unequal dynamical stiffnesses in the vertical and horizontal directions.19 shows the different cross-sections in a turbo-generator rotor: A-A rectangular slots for field winding and smaller slots in the pole area. have determined the continuous development and improvement of dynamic calculations and vibration measurement. 1. e. with high speeds. . Fig. having relatively low rotational speeds and rolling-ball bearings. large machines. b. In the first.19 (from [18]) Alternator rotors are supported in plain bearings. having long and flexible rotors.

as well as the consequences of its crossing.2 Rotor-bearing dynamics Rotor-Bearing Dynamics has got its own status. throughout the whole operating range of the machine. and vibration amplitudes due to rotor unbalance. and by the absence of any instability throughout the machine operating range. eventually the transient response of the shaft line to electric disturbances applied to the generator. Unbalance response: orbits of the rotor precession as a response to different unbalance distributions. System torsional critical speeds. construction and operation of smooth-running machines in which allowable vibration and dynamic stress levels are not overpassed. to a blade loss. The scope of Rotor-Bearing Dynamics is the study of the interaction between rotor. seals. stator and the working fluid. in order to detect any damage. 5. information on the following aspects of its behavior: 1. 3. 2. within the whole operating range. effects of the stiffness and damping of bearings. supporting structure and foundation on the location of critical speeds within the machine operating range. early in the design stage. 4. especially at geared rotors. Balancing of rotors: calculation and attachment (removal) of correction masses such that the centrifugal forces on the rotor due to these additional masses and the inherent unbalance forces are in equilibrium. to anticipate serious faults. 7. becoming an interdisciplinary research field.22 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 1. as soon as the importance of the effects of bearings and seals on the rotor dynamic response has been recognized. Time transient response analysis. . apart from Mechanical Vibrations and Structural Dynamics. or when passing through a critical speed. for the design. Lateral critical speeds of the rotor-bearing-pedestal-foundation system. In order to understand the dynamic response of a rotating machine it is necessary to have. Practical measures regarding the balancing and the monitoring of the dynamic state of rotors are added to these: 6. Smooth machine operation is characterized by small. stable rotor precession orbits. Rotor speed at onset of instability: the threshold speed for unstable whirling due to the rotor/bearing and/or working fluid interaction. mainly for gas turbine engines operating at supercritical speeds. determining the outage. Machinery monitoring: measurement of the parameters characterizing the dynamic state of machines and trending their time evolution.

ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 23 The capability of predicting the performances of a rotor-bearing system is dependent firstly on the information about bearing properties. b. The overshoot ratio. b. e. Rotor lateral critical speeds in the operating range. Problems not treated in this book are: a. In this respect. Generally. Frequencies and mode shapes of blades and blade buckets. fluid-rotor interaction and the unbalance distribution along the rotor. in recent years. the following dynamic characteristics of rotating machinery are of interest: a. Gear dynamic loads. The following can be added to this list: i. Unbalance response amplitudes at critical speeds. impellers. and in the identification of the spatial distribution of unbalance for flexible rotors. Rotating stall and surge thresholds. j. f. c. of maximum transient response relative to the steady-state response. only the first three issues are treated. c. Threshold speed of instabilities produced by bearings.1. In the following. important progress has been achieved in determining the dynamic coefficients of bearings and seals. Vibration amplitudes in casing and supporting structure. l. d. System torsional critical speeds. Transient critical-speed transition. e. h. k. Bearing transmitted forces. g. wheels. . Blade flutter frequencies. Cracked rotors. m. d. The direct result is the development of computer programs helping in modeling most of the dynamic phenomena occurring during the operation of rotating machinery. Natural frequencies of bladed discs. Noise radiated by rotating machinery. Partial rubbing conditions. Shafts with dissimilar principal moments of inertia. Reverse precession due to dry-friction contact between rotor and stator. seals or other fluid-structure interactions.

Instead. shut-down. Hence. The remedy for resonance – internal damping – is totally inefficient in the case of critical speeds. any cross-section traces out a circular whirling orbit. the centrifugal forces due to dissymmetry cause it to deflect. Despite the analogy often used in describing vibration and precession. if the deflections are not limited. the deflected shape of the rotor remains unchanged during the motion. the rotor has a precession motion. and produce unwanted vibrations. The absence of loops within the orbit denotes synchronous whirl.24 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 1. a) represents the synchronous whirling of a rotor in isotropic radial supports. Any rotational asymmetry due to manufacturing.g. Moreover. Most rotors have at least two bearings. the motion is said to be stable precession. it would be very difficult to pass through a critical speed. It may subsequently grow until the orbit becomes bounded either by system internal forces. If identical orbits are traced out with successive rotor rotations. etc. The rotation axis is coincident with the static elastic line under the own weight. makes the line connecting the centroids of rotor cross-sections not to coincide with the rotation axis. a rotor bends rather than damages by fatigue. as the rotor is brought up in speed. with its mass centre off-set by 25 μm from the axis of rotation. a 50 tons rotor. e. The circular orbit (Fig. If the orbit increases in size with successive rotations. The motion appears as a vibration only when the whirl amplitude is measured in any fixed direction. their practical implications are different. If the weight effect is neglected. Some typical orbits are shown in Fig.20. For example. since the shape of the deflected rotor does not change (or changes very slightly) during the precession motion at constant speed. journal bearings. experiences a force of approximately 13 tons force. at constant speed. For isotropic bearings. bearing rub. when rotating at 3000 rpm. the rotor weight is distributed between all the bearings. With horizontal rotors. or by some external constraint. phenomenon produced by the lateral vibrations. The rotating centrifugal forces are transferred to the bearings and their supports. . at a critical speed. or produced during operation.3 Rotor precession The most important sources of machinery vibration are the residual rotor unbalance and rotor instability. the rotation axis coincides with the line connecting the bearing centres. or viscous sleeves are the major source of damping in most cases. guard ring.20. While the bearings and the casing vibrate. Without this damping or a similar source. the motion is an unstable whirl. 1. That is why bearings and seals play a major role in the dynamics of the rotor systems. 1. small clearance liquid seals.

Inclination of ellipse axes occurs due to cross-coupled stiffnesses and damping properties. The rotor system then receives a transverse shock. from dissimilar bearing or pedestal stiffnesses in the horizontal and vertical directions.20. 1. f. Another type of transient condition is shown in Fig. Other non-synchronous excitations may occur at several times rotational frequency. i. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 25 An elliptical orbit (Fig. 1. c. the orbit will contain a loop as in Fig. Instabilities such as the half-frequency whirl are frequently bounded.e.20.e.20. An internal loop indicates that the precession is in the direction of rotation. a b c d e Fig. 1. giving rise to multi-lobe whirl orbits depicted in Fig. b) may arise from orthotropic supports. e). as in the case of multi-pole electrical generators. 1. The whirl is initiated by crossing the onset of instability speed. 1. and then it develops in a growing transient. the rotor whirls at a frequency other than the rotational frequency. i. and the journal displaces abruptly in a radial .20. 1. d. whose radius increases until a new equilibrium orbit is reached (Fig.1.20 (from [19]) f If the precession is non-synchronous. The rotor is initially operating in a small stable unbalance whirl condition.20. characteristic for the half-frequency whirl due to the instability of motion in hydrodynamic bearings ("oil whirl").

21.26 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY direction within the bearing clearance. rigid rotors are considered to be those running below 1/3 of the first bending critical speed. In early studies. available space. or the rotor of an electric machine may be mounted.g. then the bending stiffness with respect to a fixed axis is variable during the rotation giving rise to non-synchronous motions and instabilities (e. In rolling bearings and air bearings. responding together to the dynamic loading. However. impeller wheels. The casing and foundation masses also play an important role. their radial stiffness and damping has been taken into account (Fig.21. simplity of design solution. bearings and supporting structure. It consists of a shaft on which such components as turbine wheels. flex plate). Later. and interacting. The rotor shaft can be modeled as a Timoshenko-type beam. sliding spline. energy losses. double-hinged. 1. as well as durability and reliability requirements. The rotor is part of a dynamic system. pedestals and foundation. The discs – usually rigid – are included by lumped parameters: the mass. rotors have shafts with axisymmetric cross-section. Elastic rotors operate near or beyond the first bending critical speed. 1. 1. so that the centrifugal forces due to the residual unbalance cause it to deflect. At rolling bearings. two-pole generators and cracked rotors). one has to take into account that they work as a whole. b). seals. Bearings are selected as a function of static load and speed. and the polar and diametral mass moments of inertia. Following the impact.4 Modeling the rotor For the mechanical design of rotor. including also the effect of gyroscopic couples. its behavior being determined by the location and stiffness of bearings. In most machines. the stiffness is considered independent of speed and . accounting for the shear and rotational inertia. The rotor is never completely rigid and in many applications it is actually quite flexible. More advanced calculations consider the disc flexibility. the damping is usually neglected. such as those associated with system non-linearities and nonsymmetric clearance effects. bearings were considered as rigid supports (Fig. in practice. as well as their damping properties. The rotor is the main part in any piece of rotating machinery. Many other types of whirl orbits have been observed. Rotors of individual machines are joined by couplings (locked spline. a). the rotor motion is a damped decaying spiral transient. in some parts. gears. the cross-section is not symmetrical. taking into account the dynamic loading. The stiffness and damping characteristics of journal bearings are functions of running speed and loading. but without contacting the bearing surface. as it returns to its original small unbalance whirl condition. Its function is to generate or transmit power. If.

under steady-state hydrodynamic conditions. the dynamic force components may be expressed by: ⎧− f y ⎫ ⎡k yy ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ − f z ⎭ ⎣ k zy k yz ⎤ ⎧ y ⎫ ⎡c yy ⎨ ⎬+ k zz ⎥ ⎩ z ⎭ ⎢ c zy ⎣ ⎦ c yz ⎤ ⎧ y ⎫ & ⎥ ⎨ ⎬. Generally.1. Fig. With journal bearings. If the centre of the rotating journal is in motion. which act as dynamic forces on the journal in addition to the static forces. the dynamic force does not have the same direction as the imposed motion. in contrast to conventional elastic forces. say Oy and Oz. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 27 loading. the angular stiffness being relatively small (one tenth). .21 Resolving the dynamic force into two components along fixed coordinate axes in the bearing. being phase shifted in space and time. as for instance during synchronous precession. the total pressure force equals the static load on the bearing. but in practice they prove to be valid even for amplitudes as large as a third of the bearing clearance. c zz ⎦ ⎩ z ⎭ & (1. 1.1) The above equations are exact only for very small amplitudes. and likewise resolving the journal centre motion into y and z displacements. The dynamic force depends on both the relative displacement and the velocity of the journal centre motion but. additional pressures are set up in the lubricant film. only the bearing translational radial stiffness is taken into account.

More important. turbo expanders and centrifugal pumps. and moments produce linear displacements. without physical contact between rotor and stator. c zy . where direct stiffnesses can be very small. Short annular seals with gas or fluid are usually considered isotropic. angular dynamic coefficients are introduced. Impellers generate motion-dependent forces and moments in the flow fields between impeller tip and casing (volute or diffuser) and in the leakage flow fields developed between impeller shrouds and casing. This rotor position signal feeds into an electronic controller which feeds. even negative. changing with the speed of rotor. k zy . the effective damping is negative at low speeds and may become positive at higher speeds. Sensors located near the electromagnets observe the rotor position. like those used to break down large pressure differences in multi-stage pumps. Radial seals in centrifugal pumps are either balance disks or the radial gap of mechanical seals. and forces give rise to tilting shaft motions. c yz . Because of the speed dependence of the eight bearing coefficients. For long annular clearance seals. The inequality of cross-coupling stiffnesses k yz ≠ k zy is the source of a certain type of self-excited precession known as oil whirl. c zz are calculated from lubrication theory by linearizing the non- linear bearing forces. They are properties of the particular bearing. in a closed loop. It can be considered as a parallel element of a vibration isolator.2) The inertial term is negligible at gas seals. The principle is an electromagnetic shaft suspension. Squeeze-film dampers are used in gas turbines as a means of reducing vibrations and transmitted forces due to unbalance. k yz . they belong to a given steady-state journal center position.28 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The four stiffness coefficients k yy . or half-frequency whirl. but with reversed sign. being functions of the bearing configuration and the lubricant properties. A squeeze film is an annulus of oil supplied between the outer race of a rolling-element bearing (or the bush of a sleeve bearing) and its housing. the power amplifiers of the electromagnets. . The diagonal terms of their stiffness and damping matrices are equal. z ⎩ &&⎭ (1. fractional frequency whirl. because the rotor is acted upon by couples. The two force components by which the seals act upon the rotor can be written as ⎧− f y ⎫ ⎡ K ⎬=⎢ ⎨ ⎩ − f z ⎭ ⎣− k & k ⎤⎧ y⎫ ⎡ C c ⎤⎧ y⎫ ⎥ ⎨ z ⎬ + ⎢− c C ⎥ ⎨ z ⎬ + M K ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ & ⎭ y ⎧ &&⎫ ⎨ ⎬. k zz and the four damping coefficients c yy . while the offdiagonal terms are equal. Active magnetic bearings are applied in industrial centrifugal compressors. or as a series element in a bearing housing.

the separation of the two criticals in a pair due to orthotropy does not show up in the unbalance response of rotors. It was recognized that large discrepancies existed between calculations and tests. specific calculation procedures are used.5 Evolution of rotor design philosophy Calculation methods and the interpretation of the results of the dynamic analysis of rotors had a spectacular evolution. The calculation model (Fig. their influence on the rotor response being generally smaller. It is also possible for some whirl modes. Many specifications explicitly require that operating speeds differ from critical speeds by safe margins. the sole plate and the soil are seldom included in the calculation model (Fig. e. 1. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 29 Flexible pedestals are considered in the dynamic response of machines especially for blowers and fans. The rigid supports were replaced by elastic springs with stiffness equal to that of the oil film in the bearings. calculations were made numerically or using the graphic method developed by Mohr. It was common practice to assume rigid supports and to treat one span at a time in the model. The purpose of an undamped analysis was to provide a close. Generally. In other cases.21. to be overcritically damped. like centrifugal pumps. thus appearing neither in the natural frequency diagrams nor in those of the unbalance response 1. It was recognized that entire . 1. due to the high damping level.g. Analysis was limited to the determination of undamped critical speeds and the objective was to avoid having a running speed at a critical speed. also their equivalent mass. Later. centrifugal pumps and turbosets with flexible casings and cantilevered bearings. each span was 'tuned' to avoid certain frequencies.1. in some cases.21. the elasticity of the subgrade is taken into account. Compliance with such specifications requires that critical speeds be calculated as part of design and selection procedures of rotating machines. c) includes the stiffness and damping of bearing supports and. In some cases. in some cases. the horizontal stiffness is lower than the vertical stiffness. especially the backward ones. This anisotropy doubles the number of critical speeds. even with frequency independent characteristics. In the API Standard 610. d). in other words. However. Until the late 1950's. for bearings and pedestals. especially for large fans on concrete pedestals. the effect of pedestals was added. initial estimate of the critical speeds. In some cases well established procedures are used. machines that handle liquids. the ‘dry’ running critical speeds being different from the ‘wet’ running criticals. the critical speed is required to be at least 20% greater or 15% less than any operating speed [20]. and efforts were made to improve the analyses. The foundation.

should be analyzed. 1. the large discrepancies between calculations and tests were diminished introducing the effect of damping and determining the damped critical speeds.22 shows the response of a rotor journal versus the ratio of natural frequency to running speed. At present. E2 and E3. involving a switch from tuning to response. numerical simulations are used in the predictive design stage.22 Figure 1. and rotor designs are accepted or rejected on the basis of the unbalance response at the journals as a function of running speed. it came out that the speeds at which the radius of synchronous whirling orbits is a maximum – referred to as peak response critical speeds – are different from both the undamped and damped critical speeds. it became clear that a change in philosophy was required. D1. D2. The continuous line shows the unbalance response calculated considering both the stiffness and the damping in bearings. Fig. After whole systems were studied. taking advantage of the advent of high-speed digital computers. the large damping in bearing smoothing the unbalance response curves so that the passage through a critical speed may take place without an increase in the response amplitude. calculating the unbalance response. It was recognized that not all potentially critical speeds are indeed critical. rather than single spans. In some cases. Values calculated for rigid supports are denoted by R1 and R2. approaching the latter. while values for bearings treated as elastic springs are indicated by E1.30 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY rotor-bearing systems. torsional natural frequencies are tuned to avoid coincidence with running speed and known exciting frequencies. In contrast to lateral vibration. D3 . Also.

Fig. 22 critical speeds were calculated between zero and the running speed. As machinery become larger. It can be seen that critical speeds based on rigid support calculations can be seriously in error. so that there is a need to change the basic philosophy of design and commissioning of a rotating machinery. inevitably. the desired separation between the operating speed and the critical speeds has limited application. generator (G) and exciter (E). one or two critical speeds are within the range of operating speeds. measured by the peaks in the unbalance response characteristic. With such a large spectrum of natural frequencies. intermediate pressure turbine (IPT). 1.23 shows an analysis of a complete system consisting of high pressure turbine (HPT). that criticals calculated assuming elastic supports can be more accurate and that neither calculation can be used to determine a response level because damping has been neglected. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 31 are the actual critical speeds. In the field of compressors and turbines for industry or power plants. the elasticity of the lubricant film in bearings and the flexibility of supports play a more important role with respect to . low pressure turbine (LPT). the actual trend to increase the size and the operating speeds has lead to a new generation of machines for which.1.23 Assuming elastic supports at the bearings. Figure 1.

Gustaf de Laval first demonstrated experimentally that a (single stage steam) turbine could operate above the rotor’s lowest bending resonance speed and supercritical operation could be smoother than subcritical. This simple model is called the Jeffcott rotor in recent papers. the rotor being unable to run beyond that speed. It was observed that at speeds above the first critical speed. Hysteretic whirl was first investigated by Newkirk [26] in 1924 during studies about a series of failures of blast-furnace compressors. and gave his well-known method with its experimental verification. In many European papers. The phenomenon was incorrectly thought to be an unstable condition. is referred to as the Laval rotor. Carrying out this calculation for different unbalance distributions. mounted on a massless flexible shaft supported at its ends. so that the traditional criterion aiming at operation at or near to a critical cannot offer the necessary safe limit In practice it has been found out that one can operate perfectly safe and reliable at well damped critical speeds if the vibration levels do not exceed the allowable levels and if the rotor has not a pronounced sensitivity to mass unbalance. component failures.6 Historical perspective The first analysis of critical speeds of a uniform elastic shaft has been made in 1869 by Rankine [21]. thermal strains.). the rotor model consisting of a central disk. who was the first to demonstrate analytically that that a rotor could operate supercritically. It means that the unbalance response of the rotor can give the most useful information about the soundness of a design solution. Although the first correct solution for an undamped model has been given by Föppl [22]. for in 1895 some commercial centrifuges and steam turbines were already running supercritically.32 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY the rotor stiffness. critical speeds cannot be determined accurately. deposits. In 1916 Stodola [25] published an analysis of the bearing influence on the flexible shaft whirling. who devised the term ‘critical speed’. In this case art preceded science. even in the presence of unbalances that occur during the normal operation (erosion. etc. 1. it can be established how critical each of the critical is and what measures have to be taken so that the vibration amplitudes remain within normal limits. the confusion persisted until the publication in 1919 of Jeffcott’s paper [23] using a model with damping. determining a decrease of the critical speeds and their interference with the range of operating speeds. He also introduced the gyroscopic couples on disks. As the bearing dynamic characteristics are not exactly known. these units would enter into a violent . judiciously chosen so as to enhance the deflection at different unbalance critical speeds. In 1894 Dunkerley [24] published results of his studies on critical speeds of shafts with many discs.

Between 1963-1967. first presented by Sternlicht in 1959 [33]. and simultaneous asymmetries of the bearing and shaft flexibilities. In 1946. In 1925. but restricted to isotropic elastic supports. Between 19321935. discussing qualitatively the effect of gyroscopic coupling. During the course of the investigation. rotor transient whirl. Lund [39] and Glienicke [40] presented values of the linearized stiffness and damping coefficients for a series of hydrodynamic bearings. Kimball in 1924 suggested that internal shaft friction could be responsible for the shaft whirling. This typically occurs at speeds between two and three times the lowest resonant frequency. who showed that the destabilizing influence comes from the hydrodynamic journal bearing which loses its ability to damp the lowest rotor-bearing bending resonant mode. the whirl amplitude would increase. 42] expanded the transfer matrix method of Myklestad and Prohl for calculating damped unbalance response and damped natural frequencies of a flexible rotor with asymmetric supports. Pan and Cheng investigated the rotor instability in gas bearings. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 33 whirling in which the rotor centerline precessed at a rate equal to the first critical speed. Lund [34] and others have developed the theory of hydrodynamic bearings. In 1957 Downham [38] has experimentally confirmed the existence of backward whirling. Sternlicht [33]. leading to eventual rotor failure. wherefrom the name of half-frequency and sub-synchronous whirl. In 1925. Robertson [30] presented a series of papers on the subjects of bearing whirl. and hysteretic whirl. In 1948 Green [37] studied the gyroscopic effect of a rigid disc on the whirling of a flexible overhang rotor. Reduction of the finite element model has been used . Between 1955-1965. allowing for the inclusion of gyroscopic effects.1. In 1933 Smith [29] published a review of the basic rotor dynamics problems. namely the threshold speed of rotor-bearing instability. Yamamoto [35] studied the rolling bearings and Sternlicht [36]. Lund [41. At the end Newkirk concluded that the internal friction created by shrink fits of the impellers and spacers is a more active cause of the whirl instability than the material hysteresis in the rotating shaft. being credited with the initial generalization of Jeffcott’s model to account for rigid-body dynamics. Prohl [31] published a transfer matrix procedure for determining the critical speeds of a multi-disc single shaft rotor. and Gasch [46] in 1973. Newkirk and Taylor [27] observed oil film whirl and resonant whipping. The phenomenon was explained only in 1952 by Poritsky [28]. but the first papers using this method were published by Ruhl and Booker [45] in 1972. If the unit rotational speed was increased above its initial whirl speed. Hagg and Sankey [32]. The true upper limit for safe operating speeds has been thus revealed. Kimball and Lovell performed extensive tests on the internal friction of various materials. Ruhl [43] and Nordmann [44] have first used the finite element method for the dynamic analysis of rotor-bearing systems in their doctoral theses.

1977. Bertilsson. and Iwatsubo [53]. Revue Brown Boveri. 3. 1985. J. No. Brown Boveri Publication 3090 E.) à St-Dizier. No.F. V. Somm. 2. Steam and Gas Turbines (in Russian). the first book with elements of machinery dynamics was published in 1958 by Gh. and Frolov. E. E.2. 9. The study of instabilities due to unequal gaps between rotor and stator as a result of the rotor eccentricity was initiated by Thomas [54] and Alford [55].6. 6.. pp 119. F. * * * RB. U. 1967. Energoatomizdat.D. and Spechtenhauser. G. Rădoi [63]. and Jäcker [48]. NASA CP 2250. The first PhD thesis on Rotordynamics was presented in 1971 by M.63. Nov. 1980. Developing Brown Boveri Steam Turbines to Achieve Still Higher Unit Outputs. 75 years of Brown Boveri steam turbines. Wachel. Moskow.63. Brown Boveri Review. Vol. Palo Alto. Hard.. Rolls-Royce Publ. A. C. Rotordynamic Instability Field Problems.. Sept 1317. No. pp 321-332. Issue 18.. 5. J. Hohn. Books on sliding bearings were published by Tipei et al [61] and Constantinescu et al [62]. and then developed by Black [50] and Childs [51]. A. N. Kostyuk.. 1976.. Steam Turbine Rotor Reliability.. 1960. the latter introducing also the effect of foundation on the rotor response. Tipei [57] and V. No. California. 8. A. V. The study of the effect of annular fluid seals was initiated by Lomakin [49] in 1958.. The lubrication theory has been developed by N. The effect of gas seals has been studied by Benckert and Wachter [52]. Brown Boveri Review. 1982. Hamburger [56].2. 1976. In Romania. pp 94-105. based on Lund’s transfer matrix method [65]. Constantinescu [58-60]. using a computer program developed at INCREST [64]. Vol. References 1. EPRI Workshop on Rotor Forgings for Turbines and Generators. Present state and possible applications of turbosets for industrial and medium-sized power plants. . Buzdugan and L. 7. 4.47. Vol.1/2. pp 37-42. * * * Back-Pressure Turbosets for Industrial Use. TS2100. * * * Turbine à gaz de 6000 kW de l'Electricité de France (E.34 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY starting in 1980 by Rouch and Kao [47]. and Berg.211 Technology & Description. June 1976.63. pp 85-93. Vol. Brown Boveri Review.

6. Rankine. Neuere Beobachtungen uber die Kritischen Umlaufzahlen von Wellen. Vol. 1979. 24. Pfleiderer.. Strömungsmaschinen. pp. G. A. 1957. 1990. D. Taschenbuch für den Maschinenbau. 12. Vol. Series 6. American Petroleum Institute. Siekmann. American Petroleum Institute. and Parkinson. Föppl.. W.1869..249. C.. and Noser. pp 148-155.Aufl. pp. Vol. 16. 15. S. McGraw Hill.279-360. Shaft whipping. K. Washington. Springer. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 35 10. Brown Boveri Review. 14. H. Das Problem der Laval'schen Turbinewelle. Roy.. B. pp. Illinois. No.1095. 1919.1. 21.169-178. Berlin. No. E.. Dunkerley. pp R30-R36. 1965. Eck. N. Series A... J. 11.. A. The Engineer. 11 pag. F. Washington. Vol. Vol. 1995. Vol. Chemical and Gas Service Industries. N. and Macks E. Stodola. 1916. 1949. Wasserturbinen. Civilingenieur..62. Ventilatoren. Springer. and Crofoot.37.. 20. 17.. Berlin. The Vibration Institute. 1894. 26.. Royal Society. 13. No. 1895. M.185. C. Aufl.210-214.259. Dubbel..63.4. 18. B. Series A. 1924. Newkirk. Springer. Part I: Rotor-Bearing Dynamics. pp 143-148.1. 25.2.. Vol. pp. Phil.41... F. Trans. R. R.Bauzeitung. Vibrations of Rotating Machinery. Compressors in Energy Technology. 17.. M. Revue ABB. API Standard 617. Lateral vibration of loaded shafts in the neighbourhood of a whirling speed – The effect of want of balance. N. 1976. . Krick. Nov 1977. J. Rieger.304-314. 19.. Philosophical Magazine. Shaw. Vol. pp. Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Services. * * * Caractéristiques de construction des alternateurs de grande puissance.27. Berlin. (London). API Standard 610. H. Apr. Jeffcott. F. and Petermann. 23. The Growth of Turbo-Generators. Soc. 22. Second Order Vibration of Flexible Shafts. General Electric Review. New York.. On the whirling and vibration of shafts. Analysis and Lubrication of Bearings.68. Trans. A. L. Centrifugal Compressors for Petroleum.. 1989. Sulzer Technical Review. A.27. 1990. Schweizer. pp 1-31. On the centrifugal force of rotating shafts. Bishop. p.332-342. 1980. Meiners. Vol.

.....2. Lund. 38. Mech. 34. The vibration of revolving shafts.101-108. Theory of shaft whirling.67.. Vol. pp. pp. 29.862. 33. and Taylor H. 1933. Poritsky.. Soc. Appl.793. Sternlicht. A general method for calculating critical speeds of flexible rotors. Paper 61-APM-17. pp. W. J.750-760. pp. May 1974. Lund.36 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 27.75.. B..A142-A148. J. A. Mag. pp. pp. Yamamoto. Newkirk.... J. 37. 1956. ASME.70. 552-555. Series 7. No. Ind. ASME.81. Some dynamic properties of oil-film journal bearings with reference to the unbalance vibration of rotors. Series A. Glienicke. 1932. Engrs. 36.. Karlsruhe. Oil film whirl – An investigation of disturbances on oil films in journal bearings. Mech. D. Proc. Rotor Bearing Dynamics Design Technology.87. Basic Eng. 28. Vol. J. Phil.13. and Sankey. Transient whirling of a rotor. Trans. 1948. Vol. Vol.92-118. Mag. Vol. 1954. On the critical speed of a shaft supported in ball bearing. pp. Trans. M.1945. London. Mech. M. J.216-217. T. B. J. pp. 1965.. Feder. Sternlicht. 660-665. The stability of an elastic rotor in journal bearings with flexible damped supports. 35. 1934.. Basic Eng. The whirling of shafts. Trans. J. Report AFSCR 65-TR-45. Vol. B. pp. Vol. D. Series D.158. Design Handbook for Fluid-Film Type Bearings. H. Vol. H. The Engineer. The Engineer. Trans. Appl. L. Downham. O. Vol. G.12. J. 40. Dissertation.1153-1161. W. Green. J.519-522. No.99. Soc. Vol. The motion of a rotor carried by a flexible shaft in flexible bearings. Contribution to the theory of oil whip. W.142. Part III. ASME.20. Vol. No. Series B. Gyroscopic effects on the critical speeds of flexible rotors. 1959. pp. Appl. 1965. A. Stability and damped critical speeds of a flexible rotor in fluidfilm bearings. Trans. M. Series 7..96. ASME. 1925. Appl..3. Gas-lubricated cylindrical journal bearings of the finite length..und Dämpfungskonstanten von Gleitlagern für Turbomaschinen und deren Einfluss auf das Schwingungsverhalten eines einfachen Rotors..369-376.. Mech. pp. 1961. pp. Vol..20. Trans ASME. J. 32.23. Hagg. Phil. (Japan). R. Trans.509517. J.T. General Electric Review. Roy. T. 1966. 39. A fundamental approach to shaft whirling. ASME. B. 1957.28. Engng. 228231. Trans. Vol.302-306. 30.I. E. Robertson.. 31. 1953. C. ASME. D. Vol. Elastic and damping properties of cylindrical journal bearings. Trans. ASME. Mech. 1935. Sept. Lund. Smith. . Prohl.. 41.

Nordmann. Ithaca. Lund. Gasch.. Trans. 1980. Black. M. 1962. Vol. pp. Konstruktion. Cornell Univ. Calculation of critical number of revolutions and the conditions necessary for dynamic stability of rotors in high-pressure hydraulic machines when taking into account forces originating in sealings.1972.. and Kim C. Ein Näherungsverfahren zur Berechnung der Eigenwerte und Eigenformen von Turborotoren mit Gleitlagern. pp. J.11. Evaluation of instability forces of labyrinth seals in turbines or compressors. and Booker J. Ph. No. 43. Spalterregung. Vol. D. and Sternlicht. Febr. ASME. Darmstadt. Thomas. Seal Technology in Gas-Turbine Engines. 1985.. L.1-9. Studies on vibrations stimulated by lateral forces in sealing gaps. N. Rotor-bearing dynamics with emphasis on attenuation. Power and Mechanical Engineering. Bull. Dynamic reduction in rotor dynamics by the finite element method. Rotordynamic Instability Problems in High-Performance Turbomachinery.. Jäcker. Y. J. von 47. B.491. Thesis. ASME. F. pp.. 1969.2133..1.25. Ruhl. 1974. Effects of hydraulic forces on annular pressure seals on the vibrations of centrifugal pump rotors. 1973. Series B. Basic Engng.9. No. R. U.237 Conf. H.. H. L. "Vibration in Rotating Machinery".. J. 1980. ausserer und innerer Dämpfung. No. No. T.K. pp. ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS 37 42.161-168.1970. 44.11. Proc. 51. J. pp.94. Cambridge. and Wachter.296-306.126-132. 46. and Kao. R. Dissertation.. 1978. K. 1958...2. W.84. Industry. 53. Dynamics of distributed parameter turborotor systems: Transfer matrix and finite element techniques..206-213. Ruhl. J. Benckert. Iwatsubo. T. 49.71. A. Paper C280. 45. Vol. Instabile Eigenschwingungen von Turbinenläufern angefacht durch die Spaltstromungen Stopfbuschen und Beschauflungen. AGARD Proc. 54. Vol.107. pp. de l'AIM. Analysis and testing of rotordynamic coefficients of turbulent annular seals. Trans. 48. A finite element model for distributed parameter turborotor systems. April 1958 (in Russian). pp. 50. H.. pp. Second Int. Childs. D. Mechanical Design. vol. R. J. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. Jan. H.. Eng.360-368.-H.. Vibration analysis of large rotor-bearing-foundation systems using a model condensation for the reduction of unknowns. Unwucht-erzwungene Schwingungen und Stabilität Turbinenläufern. pp. Rouch.139-167. 1980.. Vol.1. pp.1039-1063. R.. Vol. NASA CP No. Heft 5. of Tribology. Lomakin. Conf. 52. .4.195-202. J. London.102.

O.. Bucureşti. Nica. Teoria lubrificaţiei în regim turbulent. 1973. 1965. Editura Academiei. Teză de doctorat. J. Pascovici. Rădoi.. 56. . Rotor-Bearings Dynamic Design Technology Part III: Design Handbook for Fluid-Film Bearings. Buzdugan. Bucureşti. N. Trans. 62. Aplicaţii industriale ale lagărelor cu aer. Bucureşti. Ceptureanu. Protecting turbomachinery from self-excited rotor whirl. cu considerarea influenţei reazemelor. D. Lubrificaţia cu gaze. 64.. Editura tehnică. Şt.. Lagăre cu alunecare.333-344. M. Program pentru calculul răspunsului dinamic al unui rotor. 1980. V. Bucureşti. Editura Academiei. Mechanical Technology Inc. 1965. J.38 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 55. Contribuţii la studiul dinamicei şi stabilităţii rotorilor. 60. Alford.. and Nedelcu. Al. pp. 1963.. and Biţă. 1968. N. O. Editura Academiei. N. Nica. 1958. Gh.. Teoria vibraţiilor. Constantinescu. Editura Academiei. Editura Academiei. Bucureşti. 61. Report AFAPL-Tr-65-45. 1965. M. Engng. V. Lagăre cu alunecare. 1971.. Tipei. V. Editura tehnică. Inst. N. Bucureşti. Politehnic Timişoara. Al.. N. 57. ASME. 58.. N. Bucureşti. Constantinescu. 1961.. Gh. L. 65. 63. V. Tipei. Constantinescu. N. Biţă. INCREST. J. Lund. and Hamburger.. Bucureşti. Constantinescu. 59. Power. W.. V... Constantinescu. 1957. Hidro-aerodinamica lubrificaţiei....

2. because of the symmetry.1 Simple rotor models The simplest flexible rotor consists of a rigid disc. supported at the ends in identical bearings. . 2. 2.2 The Stodola-Green model [3-5] consists of a flexible shaft with an overhung disc. only the first precession mode is studied for which. Fig. 2. not necessarily thin (Fig. the concepts of forward and backward precession. 2. Generally.1 Fig. 2]. the disc rotary inertia can be neglected. The model serves to the introduction of the concepts of critical speed and synchronous precession. with a massless shaft supported in rigid bearings (Fig. The symmetric rotor. fixed on a flexible shaft of axi-symmetric cross section. The model is used to examine the influence of the disc rotary inertia and gyroscopic torques on the rotor precession. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS Simple single-disc rotors with massless shafts supported in rigid bearings are considered in this chapter.1) is known as the Laval-Jeffcott model [1.2). as well as the effect of the unbalance due to the skew mounting of the disc on the shaft. 2. The effect of damping and gyroscopic couples on the rotor precession is examined in detail.

3 Let the point G be the disc mass centre and point C . where the geometric axis of the shaft intersects the disc plane. supported at the ends in rigid bearings. The model simplification allows the stepwise introduction of the influence of mass unbalance. The bearing line intersects the disc at point O. external and internal damping.the disc geometric centre. 2. 2. Fig.2 Symmetric undamped rotors Consider a rotor which consists of a flexible shaft of circular crosssection. Denote C G = e the offset of the disc mass centre G with respect to the point C. the rotor shaft is considered to be rigidly supported. and carrying a thin rigid disc in the symmetry plane. . 2.3.40 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY In the following. neglecting the bearing flexibility and damping. The disc has mass m and polar moment of inertia J G . This is possible when the shaft stiffness is much lower than (less than 10% of) the combined stiffness of bearings and pedestals. a). and gyroscopic coupling. at mid distance between bearings (Fig.

or the coordinates yG and z G of the mass centre G. z & J G θ& + k yC e sin θ . the disc turns and. The Ox axis coincides with the bearing line (axis of the non-rotating shaft).2. 2. the shaft mass. Later on (Section 2.1 Equations of motion The disc equations of motion can be written using d'Alembert's principle. the external torque. I is the shaft cross-section second moment of area. it is k = 48 EI / l 3 where l is the span between bearings.3.3. An inertial coordinate system with the origin in O is considered. at a given time t. The disc motion in its own plane can be described by the variation in time of either the coordinates yC and z C of the geometric centre C. c) that must be in dynamic equilibrium [6].2. and E is the shaft material Young's modulus.1) we obtain (2. It is assumed that the non-rotating shaft is rectilinear and the rotor motion is studied with respect to this static equilibrium position.1) The coordinates of the points C and G are related through yG = yC + e cos θ . SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 41 The shaft stiffness coefficient is denoted by k (the ratio of a force applied to the shaft middle and the static deflection produced at the same point). the inertia force and the inertia torque (Fig. For the symmetric rotor. (2.2) into (2. The resulting equations of motion are m &&G + k yC = 0 .2) . y m &&G + k zC = 0 . zG = zC + e sin θ . the damping forces and the static deflection (of the horizontal shaft) under the disc weight are neglected. b). The horizontal axis Oz and the vertical axis Oy are in the disc median plane (Fig. The disc is isolated and subjected to the elastic restoring force due to the shaft flexibility.k zC e cos θ = M ( t ). 2.4) the effect of gravity on the horizontal rotor will be studied. Under the action of an external torque M ( t ) . 2. In this section.3. Substituting (2. the line CG makes an angle θ (positive anti-clockwise) with the axis Oy.

5) Equations (2.7) The particular solutions. describe the steady-state motion and have the form yC = ˆ C cos (Ω t + θ 0 ) . z C C (2. (2. & the running speed is constant. hence for a perfectly balanced disc) have the form yC (t ) = YC cos (ω n t + θ y ) .. corresponding to the harmonic excitation due to the mass unbalance. 2 Denoting J G = m iG . y zC = ˆ C sin (Ω t + θ 0 ). For steady-state motion. y & & m && + k z = meθ 2sin θ − meθ& cos θ . ⎟ JG m⎝ G G ⎠ G Because e << iG and yC . As a result.5) are uncoupled.3) can be written & θ& = ⎞ e zC M ( t ) k ⎛ yC − ⎜ ⎜ i sinθ − i cosθ ⎟ i . z (2. zC (t ) = Z C sin (ω n t + θ z ) . the total solution is the sum of the solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution corresponding to the right-hand side. θ = Ω = const . M (t ) = 0. and θ = Ω t + θ0 . The solutions of the homogeneous equations (for e = 0 .6) where k m is the natural frequency of the rotor free precession. the third equation (2.3) & J G θ& + k e ( yC sin θ − zC cos θ ) = M ( t ). where iG is the disc gyration radius with respect to the spinning axis. hence θ& ≅ 0. The first two equations (2.3) become (2.42 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY & & m &&C + k yC = meθ 2 cos θ + meθ& sin θ . when the & active and resistant torques balance each other. z (2.8) .4) m &&C + k yC = meΩ 2cos (Ω t + θ0 ) . zC << iG . the second term in the right hand side can be neglected with respect to the first one. For each equation. y m &&C + k zC = meΩ 2sin (Ω t + θ0 ). ωn = (2.

4).9) Due to the disc mass unbalance. in reality. where i = − 1 .11) Multiplying the second equation (2.2) by i. the free motion decays due to the inherent damping and dies out after a short time interval. Oy is taken as the real axis and Oz as the imaginary axis (Fig. 2. The following notations are used rC = yC + i zC .2.4). rG = yG + i zG . we find . 2.2 Steady state response Substitution of (2. (2. (2.8) into (2. in the following only the forced steady-state motion will be studied.4 In the plane yOz.10) with the angular speed Ω . by addition to the first one and using the notation (2.2. Fig. respectively: ˆ C = ˆC = y z (Ω / ω n ) 2 Ω2 m eΩ 2 = 2 e= e. the point C moves along a circle of radius ˆ rC = ˆ C + ˆC = e y2 z2 (Ω / ω n ) 2 1 − (Ω / ω n ) 2 . The above calculations can be written in a more compact form using complex numbers. k − mΩ 2 ωn − Ω 2 1 − (Ω / ω n ) 2 (2.5) gives the magnitudes of the displacements of point C along the axes Oy and Oz. 2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 43 Because.

As the motion of point C around the bearings line is executed with the same angular speed Ω as the rotation of point G around the shaft axis (point C). The shaft rotates around the Ox axis in this deflected shape so that.12) m ( &&C + i &&C ) + k ( yC + i zC ) = m eΩ 2 [ cos (Ω t + θ 0 ) + i ⋅ sin (Ω t + θ 0 )] y z or m && + k rC = m eΩ 2 ei (Ω t +θ 0 ) . (2. ˆ rG = rG ei (Ω t +θ 0 ) .12) we obtain the displacement of the disc mass centre rG = 1 1 − (Ω/ωn ) 2 e ei ( Ωt + θ0 ) .15) it comes out that rC and rG are real quantities.16) Denoting ˆ rC = rC ei (Ω t +θ 0 ) .14) and (2.15) The point G moves along a circle of radius rG = O G . Analogously. . Considering the line C G as a vector in the complex plane.13) is rC = ( Ω/ωn ) 2 1 − (Ω/ωn ) 2 (2. the relative position of these points is fixed. rC The steady-state solution of equation (2. hence the points O. (2. at any section. the vectors O G and O C are collinear with C G . having a constant bend.5) are written under the form (2. C and G are collinear.14) Inserting (2. with the angular speed Ω .44 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY yG + i zG = yC + i zC + e [ cos (Ω t + θ 0 ) + i ⋅ sin (Ω t + θ 0 )] or rG = rC + e ei (Ω t +θ 0 ) . (2. The shaft deflected axis is located in the plane defined by the axis Ox and the line OCG .14) into (2. the bending stresses are time invariable. equations (2. the motion is referred to as a synchronous precession. At Ω = const. (2.13) e ei ( Ωt + θ 0 ) .17) ˆ ˆ because from equations (2. we can write CG = e ei ( Ωt + θ 0 ) .

hence the disc mass centre tends to the bearing line (Fig. The critical angular speed Ω cr = ω n corresponds to the natural circular frequency of the rotor undamped lateral vibrations. moving as in Fig.18) π π m has been referred to as the rotor undamped critical speed. the point G2 is located between the points O 2 and C 2 . point G1 is outside the segment O1C1 . b along a circle of radius smaller than that of point C 2 . 2. since the dynamic forces in bearings have the minimum value k e . 2. for Ω2 > ω n . as do the bending stresses.5 ˆ ˆ For Ω = ω n . The shaft deflection becomes practically equal to the offset e. c). . This state has been considered critical and the corresponding speed 30 ωn 30 k = ncr = (2. large (but not infinite) rotor shaft deflections could be anticipated at the rotor critical speed. 2. a along a circle of radius larger than that of point C1 . At very large angular speeds. the shaft bend grows indefinitely. for Ω3 >> ω n . It is said that the rotor is selfbalanced. moving as in Fig. In practice. In the undercritical range. for Ω1 < ω n .6. The results of the above analysis are of theoretical interest.6.2.5 shows the speed dependence of the radius rC of the orbit of ˆ point C (solid line) and the radius rG of the orbit of point G (broken line). 2. Fig. when the rotor speed coincides with its flexural natural frequency. O2 G2 < O2 C 2 . This is the optimal operating regime in the overcritical range. In the overcritical range. the radii rC and rG become infinite. the point G3 coincides with O3 .6. O1G1 > O1C1 . SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 45 ˆ Figure 2.

. The orbits of the rotor points are circles only if the shaft is circumferentially symmetric. producing the "external damping". condition in which equal precession and rotation rates are assumed for the rotor. The external friction forces. between components mounted with shrink fits. distinction will be made between external and internal friction forces. unstable motions.46 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The findings are limited to the synchronous motion. at higher speeds. attenuating the magnitude of the precession motion at the critical speed.6 2. and being able to produce. limit the precession radius at the critical speed and stabilize the motion. as a result of the character of tangential follower forces. The internal friction forces act at joints. or arise from the internal friction in the shaft material. 2.3 Damped symmetric rotors The rotor motion takes place in the presence of friction forces arising due to the rotor interaction with its stationary environment and due to the relative motion of its particles and components during bending. Fig. In the following. They produce the "internal damping".

2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS

47

**2.3.1 Effect of viscous external damping
**

It is considered that, due to the rotor motion relative to the stationary environment, the disc from figure 2.3 is acted upon by a viscous damping force & proportional to the absolute tangential velocity of the disc centre. Let ( − ce yC ) and & ( − ce zC ) be the components of this force along the axes of the inertial coordinate system yOz, where ce is the coefficient of external viscous damping. 2.3.1.1 Equations of motion The equations of motion of the symmetrical rotor (2.5) become

& m &&C + ce yC + k yC = m eΩ 2cos (Ω t + θ 0 ) , y & m &&C + ce zC + k zC = m eΩ 2sin (Ω t + θ 0 ). z

(2.19)

Denoting rC = yC + i zC and adding the first equation (2.19) to the second one, multiplied by i = − 1 , we obtain

& m && + ce rC + k rC = m e Ω 2ei ( Ω t + θ0 ) . rC

2.3.1.2 Free damped precession

(2.20)

Substituting solutions of the form rC (t ) = R e λ t into the equation (2.20) with zero right-hand side, we find the characteristic equation

mλ2 + ce λ + k = 0 ,

whose solutions are

λ 1,2 = −

ce ± 2m

k ⎛ ce ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ − = ωn ⎛ − ζ e ± i 1 − ζ e ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ m 2m ⎠ ⎝

2

(2.21)

where ωn = k m is the natural frequency of the undamped system, referred to as the undamped natural frequency, and

ζe =

is the external damping ratio.

ce ce = 2 k m 2ω n m

(2.22)

48 The roots (2.21) can also be written

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

λ 1,2 = α e ± i ωd e

(2.23)

where α e = ω nζ e is a negative attenuation (decay) factor and ω d e = ω n 1 − ζ e2 is the damped natural frequency, i.e. the frequency of the damped free motion of the perfectly balanced rotor. The general solution is

rC (t ) = R 1 eα e t e

i ωd e t

+ R 2 eα e t e

− i ωd e t

,

(2.24)

**where the integration constants R 1 and R 2 are determined from the initial
**

& conditions for the displacement and velocity, rC ( 0 ) and rC ( 0 ).

In order to determine the orbit of point C, the free undamped motion will be considered first, when ce = ζ e = α e = 0. The solution (2.24) becomes

rC (t ) = R 1 ei ω n t + R 2 e − i ω n t .

R1

(2.25)

In the complex plane, this represents the sum of two vectors of length and R 2 , respectively, rotating in opposite directions with angular velocity is directed along the bisector of the angle between the

**ω n . The tip of the resultant vector moves along an ellipse (Fig. 2.7, a). The major
**

semiaxis a = R 1 + R 2 two vectors. The minor semiaxis is b = R 1 − R 2 .

a

b

Fig. 2.7 In the case of the damped motion, the solution (2.24) represents the sum of two vectors rotating in opposite directions with angular speed ω d e ≅ ω n

( for ζ e << 1 ) . For α e < 0 , the factor eα e t produces a decrease in magnitude, hence a motion along a converging spiral (Fig. 2.7, b).

2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS

49

2.3.1.3 Steady-state precession due to unbalance

Substitution of the steady-state solution

rC (t ) = ~ ei (Ω t +θ 0 ) rC

into equation (2.20) gives

(2.26)

(−m Ω 2 + i Ω ce + k ) ~ = m e Ω 2 . rC

After transformations, the expression of the displacement of point C is obtained as:

~ = rC =

e (Ω / ω n ) 2 = 1 − (Ω / ωn ) 2 + i 2ζ e (Ω / ωn ) e (Ω / ωn ) 2 1 − (Ω / ωn ) 2 − i 2ζ e (Ω / ωn ) [1 − (Ω / ωn ) 2 ] 2 + [ 2ζ eΩ / ωn ] 2

[

]

(2.27)

= rC R + i rC I .

The solution (2.26) is written under the form

rC = ~ ei (Ω t +θ 0 +θ C ) rC

where ~ = rC e ( Ω/ωn ) 2 [1 − ( Ω/ωn ) ] tan θC = −

2 2

(2.28) , (2.29)

+ [ 2ζ e ( Ω/ωn ) ] 2 ,

2ζ e (Ω/ωn ) 1 − (Ω/ωn ) 2

so that the vector O C = rC is not collinear with C G = e ei ( Ω t + θ0 ) .

Fig. 2.8

50

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

Figure 2.8 shows the relative position of these vectors in the case of rotation at undercritical speeds ( Ω < ω n ). Because tan θ C < 0 , the angle θ C is negative and the vector O C lags the line C G . The real part ℜe (rC ) = O C ' represents the component in phase with C G and the imaginary component

ℑm ( rC ) = C C ' represents the component in quadrature with (perpendicular to)

CG .

The radius of the disc mass centre orbit is

rG = rC + e ei ( Ωt + θ0 )

hence

~ =~ +e= rG rC

so that

1 + i2ζ e (Ω / ωn ) 1 − (Ω / ωn ) 2 + i 2ζ e (Ω / ωn )

e = rG R + i rG I

(2.30)

rG = ~ ei (Ω t +θ 0 +θ G ) rG

where

(2.31)

~ = rG

[1 − (Ω / ω ) ]

n

e 1 + 4ζ e2 (Ω / ωn ) 2

2 2

+ [2ζ e (Ω / ωn )]

,

2

(2.32)

tan θ G = −

2ζ e (Ω / ωn )3 1 − (Ω / ωn ) 2 + 4ζ e2 (Ω / ωn ) 2

In figure 2.8, for Ω < ω n , tan θG < 0 and the vector O G lags the line

C G with an angle θ G .

2.3.1.4 Unbalance response diagrams

Figures 2.9, a and b illustrate the speed-dependence of the modulus and phase angle of the complex quantities ~ and ~ , for a value ζ e = const . The rC rG maximum displacements in the two orbits occur at speeds which are different from the critical speed of the undamped system. However, because practically ζ e << 1, it can be considered that the maximum displacement is e /( 2ζ e ) and takes place at

Ω = ωn =

k m.

2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS

51

The peak response speeds are slightly different from the undamped and the damped critical speeds, and are different for points C and G.

a

b

Fig. 2.9 Eliminating (Ω / ω n ) between the expressions of the real and imaginary components of ~C , we obtain the locus of the tip of the vector ~ in the complex r rC plane, referred to as the polar plot, Nyquist plot or the hodograph of the respective vector. Such a curve, of equation

(r

2 CR

2 + rC I

)

2

2 2 + e rC R rC R + rC I −

(

)

e2 2 rC = 0 4 ζ e2 I

(2.33)

is plotted in Fig. 2.10 with solid line, for a value ζ e = const . At Ω =0, point C coincides with the origin O. With increasing speed, point C moves along the curve clockwise. At Ω = ω n point C lies on the negative imaginary semiaxis, and for Ω = ∞ , it lies on the negative real semiaxis, at a distance e from the origin.

10). anticlockwise.6. 2. vectors O C and C G are drawn in the lower part of the figure. At Ω > ω n .11 for three speeds.1. 2. the polar diagram of the displacement ~ is drawn with thin rG line. In this relative position. The relative positions of the vectors O C and C G at three different rotational speeds are also plotted.5 Synchronous precession The relative orientations of points C and G are sketched in Fig. 2. Note the difference compared to Fig. 2.3. drawn for undamped rotors. 2. they turn at uniform angular velocity Ω around the point O.10. . Fig. the vector O G becomes smaller than O C (the upper position) and at Ω = ∞ the point G coincides with O.52 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY In Fig.10 At Ω < ω n . the points C and G moving in circles. the rotor is "selfbalanced". At Ω = ω n the vector C G is perpendicular to O C (the position on the left of Fig. 2.

stresses are constant in a given point. This implies that. a. the shaft supported in rigid bearings does not bend back and forth during the motion. The opposite point is the ‘low spot’. As point C travels in a circle with angular speed Ω .11). in the synchronous precession. so that. In the presence of damping. At constant rotor speed. The heavy point G coincides with the ‘high spot’ at speeds Ω < ω n . the line segments O C and C G have no relative motion with respect to each other.29) and shown in Fig. The point where the precession radius is a maximum is called the ‘high spot’. At very low speeds. as given by (2. and the “heavy side flies out”. the angle θ C = 0 at Ω < ω n . and “the heavy side flies in” (Fig. line C G rotates at the same angular speed around C. This means that internal damping in the shaft material . They rotate about O as though they were a rigid body. called the ‘heavy spot’. the high spot begins to lag the heavy spot. As speed increases. 2. 2.6). and for at Ω > ω n it tends to 1800 . with a higher rate around the critical speed. The heavy spot S no more coincides with the high spot H.11 When the damping is neglected (Fig. At Ω = ω n .9. in the steady state precession. and then suddenly coincides with the ‘low spot’ above the critical speed. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 53 As the rotor rotates. there is a continuous change of angle θ C with speed. Fig. but simply revolves in a bowed position. 2. the eccentric mass tends to pull the rotor toward the bearings on the side the point G is located. the phase lag is 90 0 . 2. There is a sudden change from 0 to 180 0 at Ω = ω n . with constant orbit radii. and θC = 1800 at Ω > ω n .2. the high spot is almost in phase with the unbalanced (heavy) mass.

equal to the velocity of the relative displacement of its points. a rotor can be "passed through the critical speed" and can operate beyond the critical speed. Internal damping forces are produced only by alternating bending stresses and strains. that are no more collinear. Figure 2.2 Effect of viscous internal damping Internal damping in rotors is produced by either the material hysteretic damping or by the Coulomb damping due to rubbing at the interface of shrinkfitted parts. and c) adding damping. By increasing the speed. There are at least three ways to reduce the amplitude of synchronous precession: a) balancing the rotor. Equation (2. and the damping force (2. For a non-rotating shaft. hence the name of rotating damping. To emphasize the difference between external and internal damping.34) & where ci is the coefficient of internal viscous damping. If the rotor has a synchronous precession. when the rotor orbits are non-circular.34) holds only in a rotating coordinate system fixed to the rotor.1 Rotating damping The force due to internal rotor damping is defined as & Fi = − ci r . hence the internal viscous damping plays the same role as the external damping. they are often referred to as. the external damping reduces the synchronous rotor response and determines a gradual change. Hence. b) changing either the operating speed or the critical speed. For the rotating shaft. . is different from the absolute velocity. and r is the time rate of change of the shaft deflection at the point of disc attachment. the rate of change of shaft deflection. this force is proportional to the absolute velocity of the respective point. respectively.3. with the speed increase.3.2. of the relative position of lines O C and C G .54 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY will be ineffective against the forced precession. (2. The solution is to introduce damping in bearings and/or bearing supports. r = const . 2.12 [6] shows a simple model which illustrates the action of internal viscous damping. stationary and rotating damping. 2. .34) is zero.

The frictional stresses arise during the change of length of the fibers. whose direction is from the elastic tension toward the elastic compression side of the shaft. The amount of this alternating increase and decrease of length of the fibers depends upon how much the shaft bends and how far the fiber is from the centre of the shaft. all the fibers in the right hand half are increasing in length.12 (from [6]) An interesting description of the nature of internal friction can be found in an early paper by A. every fiber must have its length alternately decreased and increased once every revolution. “When a horizontal shaft is supported at its two ends and sags upward in the middle due to a centrifugal force. Kimball [7] and is adapted in the following. and have their maximum and minimum values at the bottom and top of the shaft.13 shows a cross-section of the shaft near its middle point. C E . Fig. a frictional tension results when the length of the fibers is increasing and a frictional compression results when the length of the fibers is decreasing. producing a frictional compression C F . The magnitude of Fi is far smaller than that . In all metals. 2. resulting in a frictional tension TF and the fibers in the left half of the shaft are decreasing in length. and those in the upper half are in elastic tension. due to the alternating compression and tension to which the fiber is subjected. When it is lengthening a frictional tension arises. All of the fibers in the lower half are in elastic compression. These frictional stresses are very different from the elastic stresses. L. If the shaft is revolving. 2. its lower fibers evidently are in compression and its upper ones are in tension. TE . When a fiber is shortening. When the shaft is rotating anticlockwise. a frictional compression is set up. At the centre of the shaft the change of length of the fibers is zero as they lie on the axis of the shaft. The elastic stresses are proportional to the amount that the length of the fibers is changed. So also the frictional stresses produce a corresponding transverse reaction Fi . SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 55 Fig.2. The elastic stresses produce an inward restoring force indicated by Fel in the figure. a frictional resistance to this change of length exists in a greater or less degree.

13 In the preceding discussion. The axis Oζ is perpendicular to Oη and in the disc plane (see Fig.3. At a given time t. The rotating coordinate frame is selected so that the axis Oη makes an angle θ with respect to C G (the unbalance). For example. In this case. due to a working of the shaft in the rings as it revolves. a whirling motion of the shaft is likely to build up provided the rotational speed exceeds the natural whirling speed. This is not the only sort of friction which may cause the reaction Fi . the rotor may be a shaft with rings shrunk on it. however.56 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY of Fel . For the symmetric rotor. while one-half of the cross section is stretching and the other half is shortening. Any frictional resistance which arises within a revolving deflected rotor. The surface fibers of the deflected shaft go through a cycle of elastic lengthening and shortening for every complete revolution of the shaft. however.2. The coordinates of any arbitrary point P.2 Motion in the rotating coordinate system Consider the coordinate system Oξηζ fixed to the disc. 2. the axis Oη makes an angle Ω t with the axis Oy . are related by the following equations . the frictional reaction Fi has been shown to arise in the fibers during compression and elongation. Fig. the axis Oξ coincides with the axis Ox of the stationary coordinate system. in the two coordinate systems. also must produce a frictional reaction component Fi . This produces a friction against the inside surface of the rings which may be as great as to cause the shaft to take a slight permanent set when deflected a small amount”.14). friction may take place between the surface of the shaft and the inner surface of the rings. 2. 2. rotating at the running speed Ω (Fig. If the shaft is placed on ends.3). 2.

37) ρ =η + i ζ . in stationary coordinates.40) In order to change to rotating coordinates. we use equation (2. (2.13): m && + k rC = m e Ω 2ei (Ω t +θ0 ) . we obtain (2. while ρ = OP in the rotor-fixed Oξηζ system. has the form (2. (2. ρ = r e− i Ω t .36) (2. && = ( &&C + i 2Ω ρC − Ω 2 ρC ) ei Ω t .38) rC = ρC ei Ω t and. rC (2. Fig. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 57 ⎧ y ⎫ ⎡ cos Ω t ⎨ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ z ⎭ ⎣ sin Ω t − sin Ω t ⎤ ⎧ η ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ .14 For undamped rotors.40) we obtain (2.35) Introducing the complex variables [6] r = y + i z.39) Note that r = OP in the stationary Oxyz system. & rC ρ On substituting (2.43) into (2.41) and (2.42) (2.38) (2. 2. cos Ω t ⎥ ⎩ ζ ⎭ ⎦ (2. the equation of motion of the disc centre. it is found that r = ρeiΩt .43) .41) & rC = ( ρC + i ΩρC ) ei Ω t .2. by successive differentiation with respect to time.

ζC = e Ω 2sin θ0 2 ωn − Ω 2 . Expressing ρC in complex form as ρC = ηC + i ζ C . and rotates with the same angular speed. in the case of rotation with constant angular speed.3 Motion in the stationary coordinate system Because the internal damping force has a fixed position with respect to the rotating coordinate system. equation (2. the disc centre C has a fixed position with respect to the rotating coordinate system. the internal damping has no influence on the magnitude of the rotor precession.49) . 2. ⎝m ⎠ (2.58 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY && & m ρC + i 2mΩ ρC + ( k − mΩ 2 ) ρC = meΩ 2eiθ 0 . (2. (2.44) In order to take into account the internal damping.2. separating the real and the imaginary parts. In the steady-state regime. m (2. is added in equation (2.47) will be also constants. a) It means that. ci ρC . namely ηC = e Ω 2 cos θ0 2 ωn − Ω 2 . a term proportional to & the relative velocity.44).46) is splitted into a set of two coupled equations c 2 & && & ηC + i ηC − 2 Ω ζ C + (ωn − Ω 2 ) ηC = e Ω 2 cosθ0 .46) && ρC + ⎜ where the notation (2. its expression in the stationary coordinate system is & Fi = − ( ci ρC ) ei Ω t . 2 ωn − Ω 2 (2. The equation of motion with internal damping is && & & m ρC + ci ρC + i 2mΩ ρC + (k − mΩ 2 ) ρC = m eΩ 2 eiθ 0 or (2.48. the particular solutions of equations (2. & &C ζC C n C 0 m Because the right-hand sides contain constant terms.7) has been used. (2.3. when the shaft deflected shape remains unchanged.45) ⎛ ci ⎞ & 2 + i 2Ω ⎟ ρC + (ωn − Ω 2 ) ρC = eΩ 2eiθ 0 .48) hence ρC = eΩ 2 .47) && + ci ζ − 2 Ω η + (ω 2 − Ω 2 ) ζ = e Ω 2sinθ .

in matrix form.55) Internal damping yields skew-symmetric (cross-coupled) terms in the stiffness matrix.2. (2. or.52) acts upon the disc. & Fi z = − ci ( zC − Ω yC ) .56) . 0 ⎥ ⎩ zC ⎭ ⎦ (2.55) can be written in complex notation as & m && + ci rC + (k − i Ω ci ) rC = me Ω 2ei ( Ωt + θ0 ) rC or && + rC ci c ⎞ ⎛ 2 & rC + ⎜ ωn − i Ω i ⎟ rC = e Ω 2ei ( Ωt + θ0 ) . hence (2.51) & & & − Fi = ci ( rC − i Ω rC ) = ci [ yC + i zC − i Ω ( yC + i zC ) ] = & & = ci ( yC + Ω zC ) + i ci ( zC − Ω yC ) .39) yields & & ρC = ( rC − iΩ rC ) e −i Ω t .50) & & ρC ei Ω t = rC − i Ω rC .49) we obtain (2.5) to obtain the equations of the motion with internal damping y ⎡m 0 ⎤ ⎧ &&C ⎫ ⎡ci ⎢ 0 m ⎥ ⎨ && ⎬ + ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ zC ⎭ ⎣ & 0 ⎤ ⎧ yC ⎫ ⎡ k ⎥ ⎨ z ⎬ + ⎢− Ω c ci ⎦ ⎩ &C ⎭ ⎣ i Ω ci ⎤ ⎧ yC ⎫ 2 ⎧cos (Ω t + θ 0 ) ⎫ ⎥ ⎨ z ⎬ = m eΩ ⎨ sin (Ω t + θ ) ⎬ . k ⎦⎩ C ⎭ 0 ⎭ ⎩ (2.54) Considering that the force (2.51) into (2. They produce destabilizing tangential forces. Substituting (2. the above terms are added with opposite sign in the left-hand side of equations (2. Equations (2.53) ⎧ Fi y ⎫ ⎡ ci ⎨ F ⎬ = −⎢ ⎣0 ⎩ iz ⎭ & 0 ⎤ ⎧ yC ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎥ ⎨ z ⎬ − ⎢− Ω c ci ⎦ ⎩ &C ⎭ ⎣ i Ω ci ⎤ ⎧ yC ⎫ ⎨ ⎬. m m⎠ ⎝ (2. (2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 59 Equation (2.52) so that the components of the internal damping force along the axes of the stationary coordinate system are & Fi y = − ci ( yC + Ω zC ) .

Denoting ζi = ci .59) Λ 1.57) we obtain the characteristic equation Λ 2 + 2ζ i Λ + ( 1 − i 2ζ i η ) = 0 with the roots (2. For Ω > ω n .60) show that for η < 1 the motion associated with Λ 1 is forward.2. when Ω ≥ ωn . Increasing the rotor speed Ω . the real part of the root Λ 1 is positive and its associated motion is divergent. while the motion associated with Λ 2 is backward. At the passage through the 'resonance'. the motion becomes unstable.56) and looking for a solution of the form rC = RC e λ t for the homogeneous equation. (2. 2mωn Λ= λ . For η > 1 the motion associated with Λ 1 is divergent.4 Rotor stability DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The study of the motion of the perfectly balanced rotor is carried out substituting e = 0 in equation (2. . the real part of Λ 1 decreases and the real part of Λ 2 increases.60) The solution of the homogeneous equation has the form + RC 2 e λ 2t . generally stabilize the backward precession modes.3. This is a general result. rC (t ) = RC1 e λ1t Λ 1 = −ζ i ( 1 − η ) + i . it can be replaced by ζ i2 η 2 on condition that η is not much greater than 1. Equations (2. ωn η= Ω .58) (2. the shaft deflection increasing suddenly. where ζ i is the internal damping ratio. Because ζ i2 is small with respect to the other terms.60 2. ωn (2. This gives Λ 2 = −ζ i ( 1 + η ) − i . The stability of the forward component decreases but that of the backward component increases. Forces which tend to destabilize forward precession modes of a rotor.2 = −ζ i ± ζ i2 − 1 + i 2ζ iη .

In tests on an experimental test rotor.2. (2. Fi > 0 and a "negative damping" force occurs. the internal damping force is & Fi = − ci ( rC − i Ω rC ) = −i ci ( ω n − Ω ) rC . The instability due to internal rotor friction was studied during the 1920’s by B.2. so it is a genuine damping force against the rotor revolving motion. “It was observed that at speeds above the first critical speed. or the sleeve itself must bend along with the shaft. either the surface fibres of the shaft must slip inside the sleeve as they alternately elongate and contract. energy is introduced into the system. If the unit rotational speed was increased above its initial whirl speed.3. these compressors would enter into a violent whirling in which the rotor centreline precessed at a rate equal to the first critical speed.the onset speed of instability and the displacement rC grows unbounded in time. leading to eventual rotor failure” [8]. hence to instability. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 61 2. It was “concluded that the internal friction created by shrink fits of the impellers and spacers was the predominant cause of the observed whirl instability. hence rC (t ) = RC eiω n t .5 Rotor whirling due to internal friction The previous analysis has shown that in the presence of internal damping the rotor becomes unstable for angular speeds greater than Ω s = ωn . which is afterwards deflected. Fi < 0 . it is a tangential force. i. Measurements showed that the frictional effect of shrink fits is a more active cause of shaft whirling than the internal friction within the shaft itself and long clamping fits always lead to trouble with supercritical speed rotors” [10].61) This force is proportional to the shaft deflection rC but rotated 90 0 behind. A special test rotor was constructed with rings on hubs shrunk on the shaft [7]. In this case. At Ω > ω n .e. A simple physical explanation of this phenomenon can be given considering that the point C moves in a circle of radius RC with angular speed ω n . the sign of the damping force changes. Usually both actions occur simultaneously to an extent which . when all shrink fits were removed. When the rotor traverses the critical speed. the whirl amplitude would increase. “For the case of a hub or a sleeve which is fastened to a shaft. L. no whirl instability would develop. The work of this force is positive. At Ω < ω n . giving rise to a diverging spiral orbit. and the disc displacement grows unbounded. The force acts tangentially in the direction of motion. The following are adapted from a paper by Gunter and Trumpler [9]. Newkirk [8] in connection with a series of failures of blast furnace compressors designed to operate above the first critical speed.

3 Combined external and internal viscous damping Considering both external and internal damping.62 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY depends upon the tightness of the shrink fit and the relative stiffness of the two parts”. y & m &&C + (ce + ci ) zC − ci Ω yC + k zC = m e Ω 2sin (Ω t + θ 0 ). it is important that these pieces be undercut along the central region of the inner bore so that the contact area is restricted to the ends of the shrink fit. the balancing pistons of steam turbine rotors are no more shrunk on but machined integral with the shaft. never below it. In order to avoid the instability induced by internal friction. 5) whirling was encountered only with built-up rotors. highly stressed shrink fits are not entirely devoid of problems [11]. built-up rotors with shrunk-on discs are used only in the low pressure turbines. 9) a small disturbance was sometimes required to initiate the whirl motion in a well balanced rotor. A similar effect can be produced by any friction which opposes a change of the deflection of the shaft.3. and even in “rigid” couplings. He stated that even small. 7) distortion or misalignment of the bearing housing would increase stability. z (2. the equations of motion of the disc centre with respect to the fixed coordinate system become [13] & m &&C + (ce + ci ) yC + ci Ω zC + k yC = m e Ω 2cos (Ω t + θ 0 ) . If the foundation flexibility is increased. If long shrink fits such as compressor wheels and impeller spacers must be employed. such as the friction which exists at the connections of flexible couplings. 2. the rotor stability will be improved only if damping is incorporated into the system” [12]. 4) the precession (or whirl) speed was constant regardless of the unit rotational speed. 3) the whirl threshold speed could vary widely between machines of similar construction. tight shrink fits may develop whirl instability provided the rotor is given a sufficiently large initial disturbance or displacement to initiate relative internal slippage in the fit. and spline teeth couplings between the rotors of the turbine sections are replaced by other designs without Coulomb friction. Extensive testing using an experimental test rotor uncovered the following features of this phenomenon [8]: 1) the onset speed of whirling or whirl amplitude was unaffected by refinement in rotor balance. Robertson (1935) reported that even short. 2) whirling always occurred above the first critical speed.62) . 8) introducing damping into the foundation would increase the whirl threshold speed. 6) increasing the foundation flexibility would increase the whirl threshold speed. This group of friction forces was referred to as “hysteretic forces” and the corresponding instability – “hysteretic whirl”.

64) Introducing the following dimensionless quantities Λ= λ .63) equations (2. ωn η= Ω .66) Λ4 + B3 Λ3 + B2 Λ2 + B1 Λ + B0 = 0. 2 ω n ⎥ ⎩ zC ⎭ ⎩ sin (Ω t + θ 0 ) ⎭ ⎦ (2. 2 B1 B2 B3 − B12 − B0 B3 ≥ 0.66) is written under the form ( ) ( ) (2. B2 > 0 .2. according to the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion [6]. 2mωn ζ = ζe +ζi . B1 B2 − B0 B3 ≥ 0 . 2mωn ζe = ce . This yields the stability condition ⎛ζ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ −η 2 ≥ 0 . ζ i ωn (2. the roots do not have positive real parts (the system is stable) on condition that B0 > 0 . m ζi = ci . SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 63 Denoting 2 ωn = k . B1 > 0 .67) . If equation (2. ⎜ζ ⎟ ⎝ i⎠ or 2 1+ ζe Ω − ≥ 0. B3 > 0 . ωn (2. then. (2.65) the study of the motion of the perfectly balanced rotor (e=0) leads to the characteristic equation Λ 4 + 4ζ Λ 3 + 2 2ζ 2 + 1 Λ 2 + 4ζ Λ + 1 + 4ζ i2 η = 0 .62) can be written in matrix form as 2 & y ⎧ &&C ⎫ ⎧ yC ⎫ ⎡ ωn ⎨ ⎬ + 2ζ ωn ⎨ ⎬ + ⎢ & z ⎩ &&C ⎭ ⎩ zC ⎭ ⎢− 2ζ i ωn Ω ⎣ 2ζ i ωn Ω ⎤ ⎧ yC ⎫ 2 ⎧cos (Ω t + θ 0 ) ⎫ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = eΩ ⎨ ⎬.

wherefrom the onset speed of instability (2. ζi ⎟ ⎠ (2. hence the external damping extends the range of stable operation conditions (Fig. A perfectly balanced rotor. is treated in a similar way [3]. The tangential force due to internal friction (2.64 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY ⎛ ζ ⎞ Hence. 2.15 The case of internal damping produced by hubs or sleeves clamped to the shaft.15). Below the onset speed of instability.61) is balanced by the force due to external damping ce ω n rC so that ci ( ω n − Ωs ) rC = ce ω n rC . The onset speed of instability always exceeds the rotor first critical speed. cannot operate beyond the onset speed of instability Ω s = ω n ⎜1 + ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ζe ⎞ ⎟. the rotor tends to whirl at its natural frequency ω n . the rotor motion is stable and synchronous. Though the above derivations hold for zero eccentricity.68) In the presence of external damping. shrink fits or spline teeth couplings. Above this speed. 2.68) is easily obtained. rotating with the angular speed Ω . Ω s > ω n . The associated precession motion is forward. the rotor motion has a subsynchronous component which diverges exponentially with time. ⎜ ζ ⎟ i ⎠ ⎝ and the displacement of the point C with respect to O increases unbounded if there is no damping. for angular speeds Ω > ωn ⎜1 + e ⎟ the rotor motion is unstable. it has been found that the occurrence of rotor instability is rather independent of the state of rotor balance. . Fig. As in all self-excited motions.

SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 65 2. the point O' moves along a semicircle of radius rCst / 2 (Fig.4 Gravity loading For horizontal rotors.56) with external damping.3. the particular solution due to unbalance and the particular solution rC g due to the gravity. rC (2.16).16 In the presence of viscous internal damping. we obtain rC g = rC st = g 2 ωn = mg k which corresponds to the shaft static deflection under the disc weight. we obtain the equation of motion [6] & m && + (ce + ci ) rC + (k − i Ω ci ) rC = m eΩ 2 ei (Ω t +θ 0 ) + m g . Fig. When the running speed Ω increases. k − i Ω ci ωn 1 − i 2ζ Ω i (2. the point C moves in a circle whose centre location depends on the running speed. The latter has the form rC g = mg g 1 = 2 .69) The total solution is obtained summing the solution of the homogeneous equation. 2.2.70) ωn In the absence of internal damping. for ζ i = 0 . If we add the rotor weight m g (g is the acceleration of gravity) to the right-hand side of equations (2. 2. the own weight changes the location of the centre of the disc orbit. .

The magnitude of the required balancing mass is m1 = m e / R and this mass will completely cancel the vibration at all rotor speeds. This initial bend must not be confused with any sag due to the disc weight. The best that can be done is to select m1 = m a / R . such that m1R Ω 2 = me Ω 2 .27) except the factor eΩ 2 2 is replaced by aωn . if the rotor suffers from mass unbalance. The rotor behaves as if the previous mass unbalance force meΩ 2 is replaced by a force 2 m aωn = k a . If a similar mass m1 is attached to the initially bent shaft at a radius R. The solution is identical to that of equation (2. but the mass centre G is no longer offset from C. due to the generally very low value of the damping ratio. . the vector radius makes an angle 2ζ i with the vertical line OO'. sometimes referred to as "elastic unbalance" [14]. When the shaft is stationary. so that the rotor does not whirl at its critical speed. whereas a sag induced by the gravity remains approximately vertically downwards. where R is the radius of the disc. The difference between the two forms of motion necessitates a modification of the concept of a "balanced" rotor.66 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Within the range 0 ≤ Ω ≤ ω n the displacement of the point O' is however very small. Thus. where a denotes the initial bend of the shaft at the point of disc attachment. The only way to balance such a rotor for all speeds would be to straighten the initial bend. the net force is of magnitude maωn − m1R Ω 2 . Thus the exciting force cannot be removed for all speeds Ω . 2 however. 2.3. the resulting precession can be balanced for all rotor speeds by attaching a small mass m1 to the circumference of the disc at the appropriate location (diametrally opposite to CG).5 Effect of shaft bow Similar precession motions can occur due to an initial bend in the shaft. the point C is displaced a distance a from the bearing line. If the shaft is turned slowly. At Ω = ω n . but this is not possible in practice. then the bend rotates with the rotor.

the major sources of damping for rotors are the journal bearings. the bearings experience an oscillatory force in any such plane. Because the precession is synchronous. The centrifugal forces due to the unbalance cause the rotor to deflect. This will be referred to as a natural frequency of precession. the forced motion of the rotor is not a true vibration. A flexible shaft with a concentrated mass bows out in a simple bend. The internal damping is a ‘rotating’ damping which can produce unstable whirling above the critical speed. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 67 2. The remedy for resonance .3.4. Hence there is no concern regarding the fatigue. The external damping is a ‘stationary’ damping which limits the magnitude of the precession radius. These will be treated in the following. . the internal friction force changes the direction and becomes a destabilizing tangential force acting in the sense of whirling. and the familiar expressions for the linear vibration of a simple single-degree-of-freedom system. As explained later. i. The shaft does not experience any alternating stresses while precessing in rigid bearings because its points move along circular orbits. The rotor does appear to vibrate only when the projection of the forced motion on any fixed radial plane is examined.e. this frequency corresponds to the critical speed. For the Laval-Jeffcott rotor. against the external damping force. does not contribute to limit the amplitude of motion. Note that the above analysis neglects the effects of the disc mass moments of inertia and the disc pitching motion when mounted off-centre.3.the internal damping. This is a synchronous precession which is actually not a vibration of the rotor in the normal sense of the word. The large shaft bow at the critical speed can produce stresses in the plastic range that can be limited by radial stops. Only when the whirl amplitude is measured in any fixed direction. on the one hand. on the other. The magnitude of the deflection and its direction relative to the radial plane containing the unbalance are determined by the speed of rotation and by the external damping. the bend is greatest when the frequency corresponding to the rotational speed is equal (or nearly equal) to the natural frequency of transverse vibration that the rotor would have if it did not rotate and were simply executing forced undamped flexural vibrations. small-clearance liquid seals or viscous sleeves. The deflected shape of the rotor remains unchanged during the precession in rigid bearings. the angular speed of precession is equal to the angular speed of rotation. Moreover. At a certain speed.6 Rotor precession in rigid bearings Although there is an obvious analogy between the analytical results of Section 2. since the shape of the deflected rotor does not change during the whirl motion.2. The bent rotor whirls around its neutral axis at the running speed. the motion appears as a vibration.

2. In practical cases. simple rotors are considered with shafts supporting a rigid disc attached either in-board off-centre. This gives rise to inertia torques that influence the parameters of the rotor whirling motion. respectively. The gyroscopic coupling yields pairs of forward and backward precession modes whose natural frequencies are. If the rotor speed and the disc mass moments of inertia are relatively small. distinction should be made between rotor natural frequencies and critical speeds. the angular precession of the disc axis (tangent to the shaft axis) adds to the orbital motion of the centre of the shaft cross-section. The gyroscopic couple resists any change in the angular momentum of the disc. larger and lower than the associated zero-speed natural frequencies. proportional to the disc polar mass moment of inertia and rotation speed. as in Fig.17 The disc rotary inertia due to the disc transverse mass moment of inertia resists any local angular acceleration due to the change of slope of the rotor. This contributes to the overall inertia of the rotor and tends to lower the system critical speeds. Fig. producing alternating bending stresses. 2. this acts in opposition to rotatory inertia and introduces a so-called ‘gyroscopic stiffening’ effect. than the disc can be modeled by a concentrated mass.17. Base excitation and harmonic forces with fixed direction in space excite both forward and backward critical speeds. Because the natural frequencies depend on the rotor speed. and the problem can be reduced to the study of the lateral vibrations of a beam carrying a point mass. For forward precession. The disc rotates with the angular speed Ω . Rotor unbalance cannot excite backward modes. 2. 2. or overhung.4 Undamped asymmetric rotors In this section. . The occurrence of backward precession is not desirable in practice.68 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 2. as in Fig. which can shorten the fatigue life of the rotor.

2. due to the shaft deflection. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 69 2. Axes Gx1 y1 z1 can be considered to be the principal axes of inertia of the disc. while Gy1 .71) where J P is the polar mass moment of inertia and J T is the diametral (transverse) mass moment of inertia. .4. The bearing line crosses the non-rotating disc at point O. The axis Gx1 coincides with the rotor spin axis. Gz1 do not rotate about Gx1 . J y 1 = J z 1 = JT . They rotate around the point O.1 Reference frames It is convenient to utilize several different reference frames: a) a stationary reference frame Oxyz. 2.18. and c) a reference frame Gx1 y1 z1 which is translating and rotating with respect to Oxyz but is not fixed to the moving disc.4.18 It is assumed that.2 Inertia torques on a spinning rigid disc The principal mass moments of inertia of the rotor disc with respect to the coordinate frame G x1 y 1 z 1 are denoted : J x1 = J P .2. 2. (2. The moving axes Gx'y'z' have the origin at the disc mass centre G . but remain collinear with the axes of the stationary frame. b) a rotating rectangular coordinate frame Gx'y'z' whose axes are collinear with the Oxyz axes. the disc spinning axis Gx1 makes an angle ϕG with the plane yOx (hence with y'Gx') and an angle ψ G with the plane zOx (hence with z'Gx') as shown in Fig. Fig.

73) On inserting expressions (2. taken to coincide with the principal axes of inertia of the perfectly balanced disc. the angular momentum principle with respect to the point G is used.19).74) . (2. 2. we obtain & K y = J T ϕG + J P Ω ψG . so that K z = K z' = K z 1 − K x 1ϕG .72) into (2.70 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY In order to determine the expressions of the torques acting on the disc (from the shaft). K y' = K y 1 cos ψG + K x 1 sin ψG . K x 1 = J P Ω.73). 2. a and b it comes out that K z' = K z 1 cosϕ G − K x 1 sinϕ G . 2. Fig. (2. K z of the angular momentum along the axes of the stationary frame O x y z are equal to the components along the corresponding axes of the frame G x′ y ′ z ′ (Fig. For small angles. cosψ ≅ 1.19. & K z = J T ψG − J P Ω ϕG . K y . & K z 1 = J T ψG . (2. The projections of the angular momentum vector along the axes of the G x1 y 1 z 1 frame. can be written & K y 1 = J T ϕG .19 From Figs.72) The components K x . K y = K y' = K y 1 + K x 1 ψG . sinψ ≅ ψ .

& && M G z = K z = J T ψG − J P Ω ϕG (2. can be written & && & M G y = K y = J T ϕG + J P Ω ψG . ⎧M G y ⎫ ⎡ J T ⎨M ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ Gz ⎭ ⎣ 0 && 0 ⎤ ⎧ϕG ⎫ ⎥ ⎨ψ& ⎬ + Ω JT ⎦ ⎩ & G ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢− J ⎣ P & J P ⎤ ⎧ϕG ⎫ ⎥ ⎨ψ ⎬.75. b) are introduced with opposite signs as inertia torques acting on the disc (Fig. 0 ⎦ ⎩ &G ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ↓ (2. 0 ⎦⎩ &G ⎭ (2. 2.75. of the torque applied to the disc. the components along the axes Oy and Oz.75. 2. as a result of the shaft deflection. in matrix form. a) or. the system equations of motion can be obtained from d'Alembert's principle if the right-hand sides of (2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 71 Fig.20): ⎧ M G y ⎫ ⎡ JT ⎨ M ⎬−⎢ ⎩ Gz ⎭ ⎣ 0 ↓ applied diametral torques && 0 ⎤ ⎧ ϕG ⎫ ⎥ ⎨ ψ& ⎬ − Ω JT ⎦ ⎩ & G ⎭ ↓ ⎡ 0 ⎢− J ⎣ P & J P ⎤ ⎧ ϕG ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎥ ⎨ ψ ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬.20 Using the angular momentum principle.2. b) When the disc is part of a rotor. respectively.75. c) angular acceleration inertia torques gyroscopic torques .

whose projections on the fixed frame axes have the following expressions FC y = − FG y = −m &&G . as well as the corresponding deformations (positive. gives rise to a gyroscopic torque J P Ω × ϕ directed along the Oz axis. by the right hand rule.72 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The last term in the left-hand side of equation (2.75. The equations of motion can be written using the (flexibility) influence coefficient method. can be stated as follows: "the spin vector Ω tries to move into the torque vector". also given by the vector product from the expression of the gyroscopic torque. which "tends to rotate the spin axis Ox toward the Oy axis". which produces a rotation ψ .deflection (at a point) produced by a unit couple . the shaft is acted upon by the disc inertia forces. δ 21 . A torque M z .4. δ 22 . z where yG . hence "tends to rotate the spin axis Ox toward the Oz axis". (2. which produces a & rotation ϕ . z G are the coordinates of the disc mass centre.deflection (at a point) produced by a unit force (applied at the same point). M C z = − M Gz .rotation (of a cross-section) produced by a unit couple (applied at the same cross-section).77) Figure 2. gives rise to a gyroscopic & torque J P Ω × ψ directed along the negative Oy axis. c) describes the gyroscopic torques acting on the disc.21 illustrates the forces and torques acting on the shaft at the disc attachment point. The & torque M y about the Oy axis is proportional to the angular velocity ψ about the Oz axis and vice versa. They couple the equations of motion.rotation (of a crosssection. The following notation is used: δ11 . 2. (2.3 Equations of motion for elastically supported discs The shaft is acted upon by torques of the same magnitude but opposite direction as those applied to the disc M C y = −M Gy .20 it can be seen that a torque M y . δ12 . The general rule.76) Moreover. From Fig. 2. or the slope of the elastic line) produced by a unit force (applied at the same point). y FC z = − FGz = −m &&G . in the positive direction of the coordinate axes).

21 The displacements of the disc centre can be written yC = FC y δ11 + M C z δ12 . z or & & m δ11 &&G + J T δ12 ψ&G − J P Ω δ12 ϕG + yC = 0. (2.78) and (2.76).79) Substituting the expressions of forces (2. z (2. ψ C = FC y δ 21 + M C z δ 22 and zC = FC z δ11 + ( − M C y ) δ12 .75a) into equations (2.80) .2. Fig.77) and torques (2. − ϕC = FC z δ 21 + ( − M C y ) δ 22 . z && & − ϕC = −m &&G δ 21 + ( J T ϕG + J P Ω ψ G ) δ 22 . According to Maxwell's reciprocity theorem.79). y && & m δ 21&&G − J T δ 22 ϕG − J P Ω δ 22 ψ G − ϕC = 0. δ12 = δ 21 . y & & ψ C = − m &&G δ 21 − ( J T ψ&G − J P Ω ϕG ) δ 22 . z & & m δ 21 &&G + J T δ 22 ψ&G − J P Ω δ 22 ϕG + ψ C = 0. the following equations of motion are obtained & & yC = −m &&G δ11 − ( J T ψ&G − J P Ω ϕG ) δ12 . 2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 73 (applied at the same cross-section). y && & m δ11&&G − J T δ12 ϕG − J P Ω δ12 ψ G + zC = 0 .78) (2. (2. y && & zC = −m &&G δ11 + ( J T ϕG + J P Ω ψ G ) δ12 .

82) Generally. the slope of the shaft axis α C and the inclination of the disc spinning axis (perpendicular to its plane) α G are related by α G = α C + α e i ( Ω t +θ α ) . (2. The fourth equation (2.82)-(2. yC + i zC = rC .74 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY In matrix form ⎡δ11 δ12 ⎤ ⎡m ⎢δ ⎥ ⎢0 ⎢ 21 δ 22 ⎥⎢ ⎢ δ11 δ12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥⎢ δ 21 δ 22 ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ 0 JT m 0 y ⎤ ⎧ &&G ⎫ ⎥⎪ ψ ⎪ && ⎥ ⎪ G ⎪+ ⎨ ⎬ z 0 ⎥ ⎪ &&G ⎪ ⎥ J T ⎦ ⎪− ϕ G ⎪ ⎩ && ⎭ (2. This produces the following set of two coupled equations && & m δ11 && + JT δ12 α G − i J P Ω δ12 α G + rC = 0. ⎥ ⎪ zG ⎪ ⎪ zC ⎪ ⎪0⎪ & ⎥⎪ & ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎩− ϕG ⎪ ⎪− ϕC ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡δ11 δ12 ⎤⎡ ⎢δ ⎥⎢ δ 22 ⎥⎢ + Ω ⎢ 21 ⎢ 0 δ11 δ12 ⎥ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎥⎢ δ 21 δ 22 ⎦ ⎣0 − J P ⎣ In order to reduce the dimensionality of the governing equations.81) The second equation (2. the following complex variables are introduced yG + i zG = rG . rG && & m δ 21 && + JT δ 22 α G − i J P Ω δ 22 α G + α C = 0. ψG − i ϕG = α G . then the mass G and the geometric centre C of the shaft cross-section do not coincide. The radii of the orbits of these points are related by rG = rC + e e i (Ω t +θ o ) .84).80. (2.80) is multiplied by i and is added to the third equation. ψC − i ϕC = α C .84) Eliminating rG and α G between equations (2. rG (2. the differential equations of the motion of the disc geometric centre C are obtained as: . a) & 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ yG ⎫ ⎧ yC ⎫ ⎧0⎫ & ⎪ ⎪ 0 J P ⎥ ⎪ ψG ⎪ ⎪ ψC ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎨ ⎬+⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬. if the disc has a running speed Ω and an offset e.83) If the disc is attached at an angle α to the shaft.80) is multiplied by i = − 1 and added to the first equation. (2.

The index C will be dropped to simplify the notation.86) Introducing the stiffness matrix as the inverse of the flexibility matrix ⎡δ11 δ12 ⎤ ⎢δ ⎥ ⎣ 21 δ 22 ⎦ k ⎤ ⎡k = ⎢ 11 12 ⎥ . ⎪ ⎭ (2.85) with zero right-hand side && & m δ11 && + J T δ12 α − i J P Ω δ12 α + r = 0.4 Natural modes of precession To study the free precession of the asymmetric rotor. so that the solutions are of the form (2. or. the rotor precession natural frequencies.4. && & m δ 21 && + J T δ 22 α C − i J P Ω δ 22 α C + α C = rC = m δ 21 eΩ 2e i (Ω t +θ o ) + ( J T − J P ) δ 22 α Ω 2e i (Ω t +θα ) . 2.87) In the following. the response to mass unbalance and the response to a harmonic force fixed in space will be studied [15]. ⎣k21 k22 ⎦ the equation (2. α = Α eiω t .85) ⎫ ⎪ iΩt ⎬e ⎪ ⎭ (2.86) has the simpler form & rC 0 ⎤ ⎧ rC ⎫ ⎡ k11 k12 ⎤ ⎧ rC ⎫ ⎡m 0 ⎤ ⎧ && ⎫ ⎡0 ⎢ 0 J ⎥ ⎨α ⎬ + ⎢0 − i J Ω ⎥ ⎨α ⎬ + ⎢k ⎥⎨ ⎬= T ⎦ ⎩ &&C ⎭ ⎣ P ⎦ ⎩ & C ⎭ ⎣ 21 k 22 ⎦ ⎩α C ⎭ ⎣ ⎧ m e e iθ o ⎪ =Ω ⎨ ⎪ ( J T − J P ) α e iθ α ⎩ 2 ⎫ iΩ t ⎪ ⎬e . SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 75 && & m δ11 && + J T δ12 α C − i J P Ω δ12 α C + rC = rC = m δ11 eΩ 2e i (Ω t +θ o ) + ( J T − J P ) δ12 α Ω 2e i (Ω t +θα ) . r The system is undamped. in matrix form.2. r && & m δ 21 && + J T δ 22 α − i J P Ω δ 22 α + α = 0.89) . consider equations (2. & rC 0 ⎤ ⎧ rC ⎫ ⎡δ11 δ12 ⎤ ⎡m 0 ⎤ ⎧ && ⎫ ⎡δ11 δ12 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢δ ⎥ ⎢ 0 J ⎥ ⎨α ⎬ + ⎢δ ⎥ ⎢0 − i J Ω ⎥ ⎨α ⎬ + T ⎦ ⎩ &&C ⎭ ⎣ 21 δ 22 ⎦ ⎣ P ⎦ ⎩ &C ⎭ ⎣ 21 δ 22 ⎦ ⎣ ⎧r ⎫ + ⎨ C ⎬ = Ω2 ⎩α C ⎭ ⎧ ⎡δ11 δ12 ⎤ ⎪ me eiθ o ⎨ ⎢δ ⎥ iθ ⎣ 21 δ 22 ⎦ ⎪ ( J T − J P ) α e α ⎩ −1 (2. (2.88) r = R e iω t .

gives the corresponding values of Ω . we obtain the following homogeneous algebraic equations (1 − ω 2 m δ11 ) R − ( ω 2 J T δ12 − ω Ω J P δ12 ) Α = 0. 2. The condition to have non-trivial solutions is (2. They are functions of the rotational angular speed Ω ..22 In order to draw the graph of this function it is useful to re-write equation (2.76 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Substituting the solutions (2. and has four roots (two positive and two negative).. . Fig. (2.91) and represents the characteristic equation.88).4 ) of an elastically-supported disc. also termed the frequency equation. which correspond to the four natural frequencies ω i ( i = 1.89) into (2.. (−ω 2 m δ 21 ) R + (1 − ω 2 J T δ 22 + ω Ω J P δ 22 ) Α = 0.90) 1 − ω 2 m δ11 − ω 2 m δ 21 ω Ω J P δ12 − ω 2 J T δ12 =0 1 − ω 2 J T δ 22 + ω Ω J P δ 22 (2.91) under the form Ω= 2 1 − ω 2 ( m δ11 + J T δ 22 ) + ω 4 m J T ( δ11δ 22 − δ12 ) 2 ω J P ω 2 m ( δ11δ 22 − δ12 ) − δ 22 [ ] . It is a quartic in the variable ω . equal to the natural frequencies.92) Substituting values of ω .

The intersection points with the ω axis locate the natural frequencies at zero running speed (Ω = 0 ) .22 presents the dependence ω = ω (Ω ) for a rotor whose disc has the mass moments of inertia J P > J T . The labeling is arbitrary. the rotation of the deflected shaft around the bearing line has the same direction as the disc spinning motion. Fig.87). It must be noticed that equations (2.88) admit also solutions of the form r = R e − iω t .23 For a complete description of the phenomenon. or substitution of Ω by (− Ω ) . SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 77 Figure 2. The ordinates of the horizontal asymptotes correspond to the natural frequencies of a rotor with zero disc angular precession.positive). i.23). α = Α e − iω t . two by two. with respect to the coordinate axes. the axial angular momentum becomes so large that the disc cannot be tipped out of its own plane and α remains zero during precession. it is sufficient to use the curve branches located in the positive semiplane of ω (Fig. The motion is a forward precession. When Ω → ∞ .2. It can be noticed that the rotor rotation determines a variation of the natural frequencies with respect to those of the (non-rotating) rotor in transverse vibrations. They are anti-symmetrical.91). The four curves in the diagram correspond to the four roots ω i of equation (2. which implies the substitution of ω by (− ω ) in equation (2. 2. When ω and Ω have the same sign (in this case . the precession motion is in the direction of rotation.e. 2. The running speed Ω is considered to vary between (–∞) and (+∞) and the natural frequencies ω to vary between 0 and (+∞). .

For a disc JP = m 2 R . For H = 3 R . H << R and J P = 2 J T . Points on the curves ω = ω (Ω ) . 2. Fig. H is the disc length and m is the disc mass.91. points in the quadrant ω > 0 . in the quadrant with ω > 0 . the mass moments of inertia are equal. In numerical simulations.91) can be written ⎛ J T 2 Ω ⎞ δ 12 l ⎜ l η − η⎟ ⎜ JP ω 0 ⎟ δ 11 ⎠ ⎝ =0 2 δ 21 l 2 1 J P ⎛ J T 2 Ω ⎞ δ 22 l ⎟ ⎜ 1− η η − η − δ 11 ω 0 ⎟ δ 11 l m l2 ⎜ J P ⎠ ⎝ 1 −η 2 − JP m l2 (2. For thin discs. correspond to the forward precession. J P = J T .93) where R is the disc radius.23). 2. ω > 0 . The characteristic equation (2.78 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY When ω and Ω have opposite signs (in this case. Ω > 0 . the motion is a backward precession. The directions of the rotor precession and rotor rotation are opposite. 12 ( ) (2. Ω < 0 ).24 Figure 2. 2 JT = m 3R 2 + H 2 . Ω < 0 correspond to backward precession (Fig. the lines O C and C G rotate in opposite directions.24 illustrates the dependence ω = ω (Ω ) for a rotor whose disc has the mass moments of inertia J P < J T (so-called ‘stick’ case). it is useful to use dimensionless quantities [16]. a) .

2... SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 79 where η= l is rotor’s length (or span).100) . (2. a4 = JT a3 ..97) Substituting the natural frequencies ω i ( i = 1.91.94) ω0 = 1 m δ11 (2. a3 = P2 2 δ JP ml ml 11 (δ 11δ 22 2 − δ12 l 2 ) 2 δ11 . ω0 (2. ω0 (2. equation (2.95) is the natural frequency when the disc is replaced by a concentrated mass. Equation (2. a) becomes a4η 4 − a3 where Ω 3 Ω η − a2η 2 + a 1 η + 1 = 0 . a2 = 1+ a 1 T . (2. ω0 ω0 (2.90) we obtain the amplitude ratios which define the mode shapes Ai = 1 − ω 2 m δ11 i ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ J T − Ω J P ⎟ δ12 ω 2 i ⎜ ⎟ ωi ⎝ ⎠ Ri . and ω .98) is written under the form Ai = 1 −η 2 i JP m l2 Ri ⎛ JT 2 Ω ⎞ δ 12 l l ⎜ ηi − ηi ⎟ ⎜ JP ω 0 ⎟ δ 11 ⎝ ⎠ .96) 2 J J P δ 22 l J a1 = .4 ) in the first equation (2.98) For calculations. JP (2.99) where ηi = ωi .

8 ω 0 .80 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Example 2.3939 R4 l . the characteristic equation is η 4 − 4.3217 .26. A 4 = −31.25).048 l ⎢ab (b − a ) l ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 0. − η 03 = η 04 = 1.4664 R1 l .3217ω 0 . ω 2 = 1.1 l . η 3 = −1.1667η 2 + 3 = 0 .8667η + 3 = 0 with roots η 1 = −0. 0.1 Consider as an example a simply supported uniform shaft carrying an offcentre thin disc (Fig.8206 ω 0 .6955 R2 l .6η 3 − 4.0137 . A 3 = −2.96) has the form η 4 − 1.0137ω 0 . 2.16 ml 2 . ω 4 = 2. with roots − η 01 = η 02 = 0.9621 . For a stationary shaft (Ω = 0 ) . Ω = 0. ω 3 = −1. 2. The mode shapes are shown in Fig. The four natural frequencies are ω 1 = −0. Determine the precession mode shapes taking a = 0.4 l . The flexibility matrix is [δ ] = 1 3E I l 2 ⎡ a 2b 2 l l ⎡0. The corresponding precession mode shapes are defined by (2.048 l ⎤ ⎥.99) A1 = 2.9013 R3 l .28 ⎥ ⎦ Fig.7286ω 0 . η 2 = 1.25 The frequency equation (2. η 4 = 2.0576 l 2 ab (b − a ) l ⎤ ⎢ ⎥= ⎢ a 3 + b 3 ⎥ 3E I ⎢ 0.1667η 2 + 1. 2. A 2 = 0. . considering R i = 0.7286 .8003 .8206 . J P = 2 J T = 0.

3719 R03 l . A 03 = A04 = −10.4. blade passing and gear mesh have the excitation frequency a function of the running speed. Unbalance.2. When a natural angular frequency ω i . computed at a given rotational angular speed Ω .5.1 Unbalance response The precession motions due to the unbalance have circular frequencies equal to the angular speed of the rotor. phenomenon characterized by very large values of the radius of the precession motion. 2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 81 Fig.2052 R01 l . 2. becomes equal to the rotor angular speed.26 The corresponding mode shapes are defined by A 01 = A02 = 1. a critical state takes place produced by the mass unbalance. misalignment. 2. wrongly referred to as ‘critical speed’ or simply ‘critical’. The .4. the rotor forced precession motions are produced by external periodic perturbations.5 Response to harmonic excitation Generally. Coincidence of an excitation frequency with a rotor natural frequency gives rise to a state similar to the resonance.

2.23) and the rotor with J P < J T has two critical speeds (Fig.24. Equations (2. They satisfy equation Ωcr = ω ( Ωcr ).102) The critical angular speeds are solutions of the equation k11 − m Ω 2 k 21 k12 k 22 − ( J T − J P )Ω 2 =0. 2. a) which is obtained by cancelling the denominator in the solutions of the precession produced by unbalance.91).e. 2.87) become ⎡k11 − m Ω 2 ⎢ k 21 ⎢ ⎣ ˆ ⎤ ⎧r ⎫ 2 ⎧1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=meΩ ⎨ ⎬. the equation of the critical speeds can also be written 2 m ( J T − J P ) ( δ11 δ 22 − δ12 ) Ω 4 − − [ m δ11 + ( J T − J P ) δ 22 ] Ω 2 + 1 = 0. (2. Measured in "rotations/minute" it is referred to as the peak response critical speed. In forward precession. The unbalance can excite a response at critical speeds only in the modes with forward precession.24). the disc steady-state response has the form ˆ ⎧ r ⎫ ⎧ r ⎫ iΩ t . the intersection points of the synchronous excitation line ω = Ω with the curves ω i (Ω ) correspond to the critical speeds of (synchronous) forward precession.103. (2.85) . k 22 − ( J T − J P )Ω ⎥ ⎩α ⎭ ⎩0⎭ ⎦ ˆ k12 2⎥ (2. ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬e ˆ ⎩α ⎭ ⎩α ⎭ (2. and taking θ 0 = 0 . i. For α = 0.101) which describes a synchronous precession of angular speed Ω .82 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY corresponding angular speed is called a critical angular speed.103. the angular velocity of the disc precession motion is equal to the shaft rotational speed. When Ω = Ωcr . b) It comes out that. consider equations (2. for an excitation by mass unbalance only.23 and 2. the rotor with J P > J T has only one critical speed (Fig. in Figs. In order to determine the synchronous response to mass unbalance excitation. Substituting ω = Ω into (2.

104) Substituting the solutions (2. [ ] (2.104).105) Equations (2. 2.2. ⎝ P ⎠ 11 2 ⎛ JT ⎞ δ 22 l ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎜ J ⎟ δ ⎝ P ⎠ 11 ⎡ δ 12 l 1 J ˆ −η r + ⎢ 1 − η 2 P2 δ 11 l ml ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ δ l1 ˆ ⎥ α = η 2 e 21 .106) ˆ Using notations (2.27 .105) can be written in terms of dimensionless quantities as ˆ (1 − η 2 ) r − η 2 2 JP m l2 ⎛ JT ⎞ δ 12 l 2 ˆ ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎜ J ⎟ δ l α = η e.107) Fig. (2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 83 && & m δ11 && + J T δ12 α − i J P Ω δ12 α + r = m δ11 eΩ 2e i Ω t .97). δ11 l ⎥ ⎦ (2.95) and (2. r && & m δ 21 && + J T δ 22 α − i J P Ω δ 22 α + α = m δ 21 eΩ 2e i Ω t .94). we obtain the following set of algebraic equations ˆ ˆ (1 − Ω 2 m δ11 ) r − Ω 2δ12 ( JT − J P ) α = Ω 2δ11 m e . the solution for r can be written 1 − ( a4 − a3 )η 2 η 2 ˆ r = . e ( a4 − a3 )η 4 − ( a2 − a1 )η 2 + 1 [ ] (2. r (2. ˆ ˆ (−Ω 2 m δ 21 ) r + 1 − Ω 2δ 22 ( JT − J P ) α = Ω 2δ 21 m e.101) into (2.

112) The backward (or asynchronous) critical speeds [4] are solutions of the equation .110) which describes a forward precession of angular speed ω .5. As expected.2 Response to a harmonic force fixed in space A harmonic force having a fixed direction in space F (t ) = F0 cos ω t (2.4. (2. ω = Ω .27. ⎩α f ⎭ (2. The second component produces a response of the form ⎧r ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎩α ⎭ ˆ ⎧ rb ⎫ − iω t . ⎨ˆ ⎬e ⎩α b ⎭ When the circular frequency becomes equal to the rotor angular speed.87) become ⎡k11 − mΩ 2 ⎢ ⎢ k 21 ⎣ ˆ ⎤ ⎧ rb ⎫ F0 ⎧1⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬ . k 22 − ( J T + J P )Ω 2 ⎥ ⎩α b ⎭ 2 ⎩0⎭ ⎦ ˆ k12 (2.109) The first component produces a response of the form ⎧r ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎩α ⎭ ˆ ⎧ r f ⎫ iω t ⎨ˆ ⎬e .108) can be written under the form F (t ) = F0 i ω t e + e− i ω t . equations (2. the unbalance response curve is shown in Fig. the first component can produce resonance in the modes with forward precession. 2.1. . For the rotor from Example 2.0137ω 0 .84 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY ˆ The plot of the amplitude ratio r e versus frequency ratio η = Ω ω 0 gives the unbalance response curve.111) which describes a backward precession of angular speed (− ω ). For ω = −Ω . corresponding to the first forward mode. there is a single peak at about 1. 2. with peak(s) at the forward critical speed(s). 2 ( ) (2.

locate the backward critical speeds.104) by the harmonic force (2. b) 2 2 ⎢ − mω δ 21 1 − ω J T δ 22 − ω Ω J P δ 22 ⎥ ⎩ α b ⎭ 2 ⎩ δ 21 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ˆ The disc precession radius has a forward component ˆ rf = F0 δ11 [1 − ω (J T ω − J P Ω )δ 22 2Δ f ] (2. In Figs.114) Because the forward and backward solutions are decoupled.116. the equations of motion are ˆ ⎡ 1 − mω 2 δ11 − ω Ω J P δ12 − ω 2 J T δ12 ⎤ ⎧ rb ⎫ F0 ⎧ δ11 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬ .116. 2. Such a force can be either a component of a force fixed in space. or the result of a kinematic excitation of the bearings or bearing supports. (2. For the forward excitation component and solutions (2. a) 2 2 ⎢ − mω δ 21 1 − ω J T δ 22 + ω Ω J P δ 22 ⎥ ⎩ α f ⎭ 2 ⎩ δ 21 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ For the backward excitation component and solutions (2.113) k12 k 22 − ( J T + J P )Ω 2 =0 . In order to determine the frequency response to a harmonic unidirectional force.115. r 2 && & m δ11 && + J T δ12 α − i J P Ω δ12 α + r = δ11 r ( ) ( ) (2. resulting in F0 i ω t e + e− i ω t . (2. they can be considered separately [15].23 and 2. 2Δ b (2. the intersection points of the frequency curves with the asynchronous excitation line ω = −Ω .2.111).110).109). SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 85 k11 − m Ω 2 k 21 (2. the unbalance excitation is replaced in the right hand side of equations (2. the equations of motion are ˆ ⎡ 1 − mω 2 δ11 ω Ω J P δ12 − ω 2 J T δ12 ⎤ ⎧ r f ⎫ F0 ⎧ δ11 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥⎨ ˆ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬ .115. The backward critical speeds can be excited only by forces rotating in a direction opposite to the rotor rotation. a) and a backward component ˆ rb = F0 δ11 [1 − ω (J T ω + J P Ω )δ 22 ] . 2 F && & m δ 21 && + J T δ 22 α − i J P Ω δ 22 α + α = δ 21 0 e i ω t + e − i ω t . b) .24.

94). (2. 2 a η4 − a Ω η3 − a η2 + a Ω η +1 4 3 2 1 1 + a3 Ω η − a4η 2 ω0 (2. b= 1 ˆ ˆ r f − rb 2 ( ).120) ω0 ω0 1 − a3 η − a4 η 2 F0 δ11 ω0 ˆ rb = . (2. 2 a η4 + a Ω η3 − a η2 − a Ω η +1 4 3 2 1 Ω (2.119) Using notations (2. the above solutions can be written ˆ rf = and F0 δ11 .86 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY where (2.121) ω0 ω0 .91) Δf = and 1 − mω 2δ11 − mω 2δ 21 1 − mω 2δ11 − mω 2δ 21 ω Ω J P δ12 − ω 2 J T δ12 1 − ω 2 J T δ 22 + ω Ω J P δ 22 − ω Ω J P δ12 − ω 2 J T δ12 1 − ω 2 J T δ 22 − ω Ω J P δ 22 .95) and (2.118) The disc precession orbit is an ellipse with the major and minor semiaxes a= 1 ˆ ˆ r f + rb 2 ( ). (2.117) Δb = (2.97).

6 Campbell diagrams The diagram of the natural frequencies of precession ω i = ω i (Ω ) is usually plotted. a b Fig. the excitation frequencies can be multiples of the runningspeed frequency.24. 2.8 ω 0 and with broken line.1. 2.23 and 2. the Campbell diagrams from Fig. where n = . corresponding to the backward precession. The intersections of the curves representing the natural frequencies of forward precession with the lines of slope n Ω . in a condensed form. the major semiaxis of the disc unbalance response.28. with solid line.2. For Ω = 0. 2. 2. as a Campbell diagram.29 The intersections with the line ω = Ω are the points whose abscissae define the critical angular speeds Ω cr i . In practice. for Ω = 0.29 are obtained. Note that the index of the natural frequencies has been changed. only in the first quadrant of the frame ω OΩ . is plotted against excitation frequency in Fig. the abscissae of the four peaks correspond to the four natural frequencies calculated in Example 2. 2. are drawn in the first quadrant. 2. a (F0δ11 2 ) .28 For the rotor from Example 2.1. for Ω = 0. If the mirror images of the curves from the second quadrant of Figs.4.8 ω 0 . SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 87 Fig. The notations are F for forward precession and B for backward precession.4 ω 0 .

The magnitude of the response at the respective speed depends on both the magnitude of the forcing harmonic and the system damping. help locating the possible critical angular speeds (Fig.31...2.4.. 2. 2.3. the remark made in Section 2.4 has to be taken into account: the unbalance can produce large deflections only at or near a forward critical speed.88 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 1.1. Fig.30). . the Campbell diagram is shown in Fig.4. 2. The synchronous excitation line is drawn with broken line.. 2. Fig.30 When the critical speeds are determined using the Campbell diagram..31 For the rotor from Example 2..

5η 2 1 l 1 − 0. The four natural frequencies are ω 1 = −0. 2. the characteristic equation is 3η 4 − 62η 2 + 50 = 0 .9169 .33.91.8742ω 0 . ω 4 = 5.384η + 1 = 0 with roots η 1 = −0.2119ω 0 .5047 R3 l . . a) is 1 −η 2 − 1. ω 3 = −3. The corresponding mode shapes are defined by A1 = 1. 2.5821 R4 l .2. 6⎥ ⎦ The frequency equation (2.6 ) − 0.6 ) l =0 or 0.8 ω 0 . A 2 = 1. Ω = 0.8742 .6905 R1 l . For a stationary shaft (Ω = 0 ) . SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 89 Example 2.7868 . − η 03 = η 04 = 4.16 ml 2 . The mode shapes are shown in Fig. η 2 = 1.24η ( η − 1.12η ( η − 1. A 3 = −5.2 Determine the mode shapes and plot the Campbell diagram for the cantilevered rotor shown in Fig. Take J P = 2 J T = 0.2119 .4497 R2 l .32. ω 2 = 1. A 4 = −11. η 4 = 5.1 l . Fig.24η 2 + 0. with roots − η 01 = η 02 = 0. η 3 = −3.0491ω 0 .7868 ω 0 . considering R i = 0.0491 . 2.096η 3 − 1.06η 4 − 0.4526 .32 The flexibility matrix is [δ ] = l 6E I ⎡2l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 3l ⎣ 3l ⎤ ⎥.

34 . 2.90 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. 2.33 Fig.

η 2 = 1. The four natural frequencies are ω 1 = −0. ω 4 = 3. The corresponding precession mode shapes are defined by A1 = 6.5111η 3 − 3.6721ω 0 .3879 R3 l .26l ⎤ ⎥.2008 . The mode shapes are shown in Fig. η 3 = −3. 2. 2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 91 The corresponding mode shapes are defined by A 01 = A02 = 1. A 2 = 4.5797 R01 l .6721 .6667η 2 + 4. ω 2 = 1.7863 R4 l . Take J P = 2 J T = 0.96) is ⎡0.048l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 0.16 ml 2 .35.8552 R2 l .2008 ω 0 .1985 . 2.3 Determine the precession mode shapes and plot the Campbell diagram for the simply supported rotor with overhang disc shown in Fig. Ω = 0. Example 2. Fig.2 l . 1.2. 2.35 The flexibility matrix is c ⎡ 2 ⎤ ⎢ c (l + c ) 2 (2l + 3c )⎥ 1 l [δ ] = ⎢ ⎥= 3E I ⎢ c (2l + 3c ) 3E I l + 3c ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ The characteristic equation (2. The Campbell diagram is illustrated in Fig.6 ⎥ ⎦ 0.2667η + 1 = 0 with roots η 1 = −0.3273ω 0 . c = 0.36. . A 03 = A04 = −7.1985ω 0 .9130 R03 l . considering R i = 0. η 4 = 3.3273 .26l ⎣ 0.8 ω 0 .1 l .3194η 4 − 0.1241 R1 l . A 3 = −1.34. ω 3 = −3. A 4 = −3.

5287 . the characteristic equation is η 4 − 11. 2. with roots − η 01 = η 02 = 0.37 .92 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. − η 03 = η 04 = 3.1304 = 0 .3464 .36 For a stationary shaft (Ω = 0 ) .4783η 2 + 3. Fig. 2.

and the other is a straight-line vibration in the y direction (Fig.2. kR ⎥ ⎩ψ ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ ⎦ where k R = 12 E I l is the rotational stiffness. Ω = 0. z ⎭ ⎩0⎭ where kT = 48E I l 3 is the translational stiffness.8 ω 0 . . The translational and rotational motions of the disc are elastically decoupled.16 ml 2 .39).37.4 Determine the precession mode shapes and plot the Campbell diagram for the symmetric rotor with a disc at the middle shown in Fig. 2. The rotational equations of the free motion are ⎡ JT ⎢ 0 ⎣ && 0 ⎤ ⎧ϕ ⎫ ⎡ 0 ⎥ ⎨ ψ& ⎬ + Ω ⎢− J JT ⎦ ⎩ & ⎭ ⎣ P & J P ⎤⎧ ϕ ⎫ ⎡ kR ⎥⎨ψ ⎬ + ⎢ 0 0 ⎦⎩ & ⎭ ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ϕ ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬. since the disc is located at the centre of the shaft.9478 R01 l . Take J P = 2 J T = 0.38 This is a Laval-Jeffcott rotor with includes the effects of the disc mass moments of inertia. 2. When the rotor is not rotating (Ω = 0 ) .1016 R03 l . SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 93 The corresponding mode shapes are defined by A 01 = A02 = 5. The Campbell diagram is given in Fig. there are two independent modes of lateral vibration of equal natural frequency ωT = kT m . Fig. 2. One of the modes is a straight-line vibration in the z direction. Example 2. A 03 = A04 = −2. 2.38. The translational equations of the free motion are y ⎡ m 0 ⎤ ⎧ && ⎫ ⎡ kT ⎢ 0 m ⎥ ⎨ && ⎬ + ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩z⎭ ⎣ 0 ⎤⎧ ⎨ kT ⎥ ⎩ ⎦ y ⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.

94 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig.2 = ±ω T . For the angular motion. ψ = Ψ e iω t into the equations of motion. Denoting [17] 2 ωR = kR . JT 2 2 ωΩ = ω R + 1 (γ Ω )2 .39 If these two modes are given the same amplitude. 4 we obtain the natural frequencies ω 3. ω 1. or 1 2 .4 = ωΩ m γ Ω . these frequencies are independent of the rotor spin speed. substituting solutions ϕ = Φ e iω t . we obtain the following homogeneous algebraic equations ( k R − ω 2 J T )Φ + i ω Ω J P Ψ = 0. For this model. − i ω Ω J P Φ + ( k R − ω 2 J T )Ψ = 0. 2. they can be superposed with proper phasing to form a circular precession mode which is either forward or backward with respect to the rotor spin. The characteristic equation is ( k R − ω 2 J T ) 2 − (ω Ω J P ) 2 = 0 . JT γ= JP .

40 shows the dependence of the two natural frequencies on the rotor speed.97) is given in the following.94).40 The synchronous line intersects the two natural frequency lines at Ω3 = ω R 1+ γ . the precession is backward. For a comparison with the previous examples. ⎟ T ⎝ T ⎠ 2 Figure 2. Φ ω Ω JP Φ )4 = +i . SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 95 ω 3.95) and (2. The rotation axis of the disc describes a cone with circular cross-section. a solution based on notations (2.2. Ω 4 = ωR 1− γ . the precession is forward. 2. For ω = ω 4 . Ψ .4 = Ω JP 2 JT ± ⎛ Ω JP ⎞ kR ⎜ ⎜ 2J ⎟ + J . The mode shapes are given by the amplitude ratio k − ω 2JT Ψ =i R = ±i . The synchronous excitation line as well as the asymptotes ω = γ Ω 1 and ω = γ Ω are also drawn in the figure. ( Φ )3 = −i . 2 Fig. (2. The flexibility matrix is (Ψ For ω = ω 3 . The deflected shaft is planar.

32η 2 − 0. where ω 0 = ω T .1404 .02 = ±1 .25⎥ ⎦ The characteristic equation (2.125 ) (η 2 −1 = 0 . the characteristic equation is (η with roots 2 − 3. η 4 = 2. 2. The only one critical speed excited by rotating unbalance is located at the intersection of the synchronous excitation line (dotted) with the line ω 2 at Ω cr = ωT . ω 1. 2. ω i ω 0 . Ω ω 0 .42 The Campbell diagram is shown in Fig. .96 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY [δ ] = l ⎡0.7404 . Fig. The frequency ratio. The overlaid lines of the translatory modes. 0. For a stationary shaft (Ω = 0 ) .96) is ( 0. η 03. η 2 = 1 . is plotted versus the speed ratio.0625l 2 ⎢ 3E I ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎥.2 = ±ω T .7678 . correspond to the Laval-Jeffcott rotor model. η 3 = −1. ) η 01.42.04 = ±1.512η − 1 ) (η 2 −1 = 0 ) with roots η 1 = −1 .

and expressions (2. ⎝ ω ⎠ Ω ⎛ ⎞ M C z = −⎜ J P − J T ⎟ ω 2ψ C . ⎝ ω ⎠ (2. M C z = ( J T − J P ) Ω 2ψ C . The components of the torque applied to the shaft are Ω ⎛ ⎞ M C y = −⎜ J P − J T ⎟ ω 2ϕC . with Ω = −ω . if the precession angular velocity is ω and the orbit is circular.76) and (2.2. For synchronous forward precession.7 Effect of the gyroscopic torque on critical speeds According to equations (2. in the case of forward precession.125.123) (2. hence to stiffen the shaft. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 97 2. & & M C z = − ( J T ψ&G − J P Ω ϕG ). as well as if the disc is perpendicular to the shaft axis.75.125. the disc acts on the shaft with a torque of components && & M C y = − ( J T ϕG + J P Ω ψ G ) . a) The gyroscopic torque produces an apparent decrease of J T (or even the reverse effect) raising the critical speed. we obtain M C y = ( J T + J P ) Ω 2ϕC . (2. .124) become M C y = ( J T − J P ) Ω 2ϕC . (2.122) Generally. which lowers the respective critical speed.124) and tend to decrease (for positive parenthesis) the slopes. then ϕG = ϕC = −α C sinω t . (2. M C z = ( J T + J P ) Ω 2ψ C . For backward asynchronous precession. a). Ω = ω .4. ψ G = ψ C = α C cosω t . b) so that there is an apparent increase of J T .

the translatory and the angular motions are out of phase. For a thin disc.23 and 2. Backward critical speeds are referred to as asynchronous critical speeds. Forward critical speeds can be encountered only in the case of corotating excitation. J P > J T . Generally. J P < J T . c) Discs mounted inclined on the shaft produce the so-called 'skewunbalance' which is a source of synchronous rotor excitation analogous to the mass unbalance.98 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY This explains the shape of the curves from figures 2. The number of critical speeds can be different from the number of natural frequencies of precession. The number of critical speeds depends on the disc inertia ratio J P / J T .4. there are two critical speeds in forward synchronous precession. When J P = J T . The additional eigenvalue is associated with the additional rotational degree of freedom. . there is only one forward synchronous critical speed. There is an 'inertial' effect. For a thick disc. i. viz. In the second mode. the disc rotation around its diameter.e. Some drum washing machines are designed to have nearly equal axial and transverse moments of inertia.24. The rotary inertia effect acts also at zero running speed. the system cannot pass through the second critical. the rotor natural frequencies depend on the running speed.8 Remarks on the precession of asymmetric rotors The new phenomena introduced by the asymmetric rotor are the following: a) The transverse disc inertia (rotary inertia) doubles the number of critical speeds. the reduction of the lowest natural frequency of the rotor in comparison to the natural frequency of the rotor with the disc modeled as a concentrated mass. There are always two asynchronous critical speeds irrespective of the disc inertia ratio. The gyroscopic effect does not act at zero running speed. Backward critical speeds can be encountered only in the case of counter-rotating excitation. In the first mode of precession. b) Due to the gyroscopic effects. the translatory and the angular motions are in phase. They are synchronous critical speeds. gyroscopic torques double the number of natural frequencies. which indicate an increase of the forward precession natural frequencies and a decrease of the backward precession natural frequencies with the increase of the running speed. 2. They occur in pairs corresponding to forward and backward precession. A constant direction harmonic force can produce both forward and backward precession.

87. Series 6. Rotordynamik. Gasch. Vol. 2. Vol. Nov 1969. Der Civilingenieur.. Föppl. J. pp 369-376..554-558. 1975. Phenomena. produce large whirl amplitudes which may result in damaged or destroyed equipment. D.Bauzeitung. Jr.The effect of want of balance. L. Whirl amplitudes grow until they achieve a steady-state limit cycle.210-214. Gyroscopic effects on the critical speeds of flexible rotors. Vol. 1919. R. 7. 8. Wiley. and Trumpler. f) Internal rotor damping from shrink-fit rubbing or material hysterezis can produce rotor instability. ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry. Since J xy = d) When the disc is attached at the middle of the shaft. 1924. Childs. 9. Aug 1925.27. pp. 1993. the forward and backward natural frequencies coincide and are independent of the running speed. New York. Above this speed.. R. Green. H. References 1. 3. pp. Vol. Mech. Vol. General Electric Review. The corresponding curves in the Campbell diagram are overlapped straight lines. Jr. Kimball. pp.. 4. B. Appl. SIMPLE ROTORS IN RIGID BEARINGS 99 1 (J P − J T ) sin 2α . Below the onset speed of instability the rotor's motion is stable and synchronous. The influence of internal friction on the stability of high speed rotor with anisotropic supports. Shaft whipping.2. Newkirk. Vol. E. it has a planar motion in the cylindrical modes of precession.28. The rotors have circular precession modes with planar deflected shapes. General Electric Review. P. and in the direction of shaft rotation.. No. destabilizing forces which are normal to the radial displacement.37... Springer.8.. all points move in circular orbits. 1948.. Jeffcott. pp.68. p. J.. pp. there is no gyroscopic effect. 5. Berlin..15. Measurement of internal friction in a revolving deflected shaft. Lateral vibration of loaded shafts in the neighbourhood of a whirling speed . 6. Neuere Beobachtungen uber die Kritischen Umlaufzahlen von Wellen. Series B. 1916.4. Modeling and Analysis. Stodola. Philosophical Magazine. Das Problem der Lavalschen Turbinenwelle. e) For rotors in rigid bearings. Turbomachinery Rotordynamics.335-342. L.304-314. Schweizer. A. 1895.169. and Pfützner. R. A. Gunter. . the effect of disc skewness can be 2 considered as a 'product of inertia' unbalance.. N.1105-1113. A. Vol.

Ewins. 17. Series B. H. R. Springer. Baldock. 11. . Vol. Bishop. p. G.89. The influence of internal friction on the stability of high speed rotors. Reviews. Series 7. Berlin.439-451. pp. D. E. ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry. Springer.. Research Studies Press.. Nov 1967. Dynamics of Rotors and Foundations. D. R. and Parkinson. Vol. pp. R. Vibration and balancing of flexible shafts. Philosophical Magazine..100 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 10. 1935..793. Philosophical Magazine. Mech. A. Nordmann. No. Appl.. Practice and Applications.21. London. 12. Butterworths. Dimentberg. Internal friction as a cause of shaft whirling. 14. 2000. Robertson.683688. 1993. J. L.. F. Vol. Transient whirling of a rotor. 1961. 16. 2nd ed. pp. Rotordynamik. 1925.49. 1968...5.. A. and Pfützner. Gunter. 2002. Krämer. Gasch. Modal Testing: Theory. Berlin. D. 13.. 15..20.724-727. Vol. Jr.. Kimball. J. Flexural Vibrations of Rotating Shafts. E. E..

The disc rotary inertia is neglected and only the planar translatory disc precession is analyzed.1 Symmetric rotors in flexible bearings This section considers single-disc rotor models. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS This chapter considers the effect of bearing flexibility and damping on the precession of flexible rotors. 3.3. 3. a b Fig. supported in identical flexible bearings and/or bearing supports. as well as hydrodynamic bearings with speed-dependent spring and damping coefficients.1 It is supposed that the bearing flexibilities and damping are uncoupled as in rolling bearings on flexible supports. with a radially and longitudinally symmetric shaft. Both isotropic and orthotropic constant parameter bearings. Only single-disc rotors supported in flexible bearings will be examined. tilting pad journal bearings and squeezefilm supports with retaining springs designed to operate in the linear range. . are considered.

1. 3.1 Equations of motion Using d'Alembert's principle. 2k 2 z B = k ( zC − z B ).1.2. and the equilibrium of forces acting on the shaft (Fig.1.1 Effect of bearing flexibility Consider a symmetric rotor supported in two identical anisotropic flexible bearings (Fig. 2. a) is written as [1]: m &&G + k ( yC − y B ) = 0 . (3. 3. a). Such bearings have two principal directions of stiffness along which the radial stiffness has extreme values. y m &&G + k ( zC − z B ) = 0 . 3. a b Fig.2 3. b). b): 2k1 y B = k ( yC − y B ).102 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 3. 3.1.3). z & J G θ& + k ( yC − y B ) e sin θ − k ( zC − z B ) e cos θ = M (t ) . For orthotropic bearings only the principal stiffnesses are considered.2) (3. Let y B . z B be the components of the displacement of the journal centre along the axes of the stationary reference frame Oxyz (Fig. The axes Oy and Oz are along the bearing principal directions of stiffness.1) .1. the dynamic equilibrium of forces and torques acting on the disc (Fig. The other notations are as for the rotors in rigid bearings (Fig.2. Let k1 and k 2 be the principal stiffnesses. 3.

2k1 + k kz = 2k 2 k .7) .5). and by k z in the second The complete solutions of equations (3. (3. zG = zC + e sinθ . (3. y m &&C + k z zC = m eΩ 2sinΩ t . established for rotors in rigid bearings. 2 ωy − Ω 2 eΩ 2 zC (t ) = Z C sin (ω z t + θ z ) + 2 sin Ω t . Because of the system symmetry. zG between equations (3.5).5).3).4) Eliminating coordinates y B . and taking into account (3. By a convenient selection of the time origin. 1 1 1 . we obtain equations (3. 2k 2 + k (3. if M (t ) = 0 . then θ& ≅0. bearings are represented by springs connected in parallel.5). the angular speed & θ = Ω =const.3) & In steady-state conditions.5) (3. z B and yG . z where ky = 2k1k . SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 103 The coordinates of points C and G are related by yG = yC + e cosθ .6). ωz − Ω 2 (3.1)(3.5) differ from equations (2. and the angular position θ = Ω t + θ 0 .4). which are different along Oy and Oz. = + k y k 2k1 equation (2. The equivalent stiffnesses are computed from 1 1 1 . and the flexible shaft is connected in series with the bearings. the equations of motion of point C can be written m &&C + k y yC = m eΩ 2cosΩ t .5) are yC (t ) = YC cos (ω y t + θ y ) + eΩ 2 cos Ω t .3. = + k z k 2k 2 Substituting k by k y in the first equation (2.6) Equations (3. only by the equivalent stiffnesses (3. θ =Ωt.

10) The orbit of point C is an ellipse whose axes are collinear with the bearing principal stiffness axes. The natural frequencies of the rotor in flexible bearings are lower than the natural frequency of the rotor in rigid bearings. 3.9) describe an ellipse. respectively.5) eΩ 2 cosΩ t .1. ⎟ ⎜ˆ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ zC ⎠ 2 2 (3. Eliminating the time between the two equations yields ⎛ yC ⎜ ⎜ˆ ⎝ yC ⎞ ⎛ zC ⎞ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 1. ωz − Ω 2 Figure 3.1. At speeds ω z < Ω < ω y the point C moves along the ellipse in the opposite direction. equations (3. ωz = kz m (3. and Oz.8) are the natural frequencies of the lateral vibrations along Oy.3 shows the magnitudes of the two motion components of point C as a function of the angular speed Ω . .2 Unbalance response The steady-state motion is described by the particular solutions of equations (3. hence its motion is a synchronous precession. the precession is backward. yC ( t ) = ˆ C cosΩ t = 2 y ωy − Ω 2 (3. The Laval-Jeffcott rotor in orthotropic bearings has two critical speeds. equal to the disc rotation period. the amplitude grows unbounded. Because yC ≠ zC . When Ω = ω z and Ω = ω y . At speeds Ω < ω z and Ω > ω y the point C moves along the ellipse in the same direction as the disc running speed.104 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY where ωy = ky m . Generally ω y ≠ ω z and if k 2 < k1 then ω z < ω y < ωn = k m. the precession is forward. Point C completes the ellipse in a time interval T = 2π Ω .9) eΩ 2 zC ( t ) = ˆ C sinΩ t = 2 z sinΩ t .

generate the elliptical motion. As the rotor moves along the elliptical orbit.3. the angular velocity of the point C along the ellipse is variable. and Ω is the angular velocity in the circular motions that generate the ellipse. the radius vector of the disc centre precession orbit can be written as rC = yC + i zC = ˆ C cos Ω t + i ˆ C sinΩ t . Using complex representation. compounded. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 105 At Ω = Ω * and Ω = Ω * * → ∞ . At speeds Ω < Ω * the ellipse major semiaxis is collinear with Oz and at speeds Ω > Ω * it is collinear with Oy.11) ( ) ( ) . 2 2i (3. the orbit is circular. The precession speed is not the angular speed of the rotor along the ellipse. The bearing orthotropy doubles the number of critical speeds and produces the synchronous precession with elliptical orbits.3 Although the precession is synchronous. it speeds up or slows down to conserve energy and angular momentum. It is equal to the constant angular speed of the forward and backward uniform circular motions that. 3. Fig. y z or rC = ˆ C iΩ t ˆ y z e + e − iΩ t + i C eiΩ t − e − iΩ t .

The second term represents a vector of length r b which rotates in the opposite direction. a) (3.) yields an ellipse (Fig. then the point C 'rotates' in the . b) rC = r f + rb cos Ω t + i r f − rb sin Ω t . with the same angular speed. 3. its motion is a forward precession. 2 2 2 (ω y − Ω 2 ) (ω z − Ω 2 ) (3.12) The first term in equation (3. z ˆ The direction of rotation of vectors rC (hence of the motion of point C along the ellipse) depends on the relative magnitude of the two vector components.4 ˆ y At t = 0 . Addition of the two circular counterrotating motions (Ω = const . ˆ rC (π / 2Ω ) = r f − rb = ˆ C = b = minor semiaxis.106 rC = DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY ˆ C + ˆ C iΩ t ˆ C − ˆ C − iΩ t y z y z e + e = r f eiΩ t + rb e − iΩ t .4). where rf = 2 2 ω y + ω z − 2Ω 2 eΩ 2 . If r f < rb .11. rC (0) = r f + rb = ˆ C = a = major semiaxis. If r f > rb . 2 2 2 (ω y − Ω 2 ) (ω z − Ω 2 ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 ω y − ωz eΩ 2 rb = − . 2 2 (3. a) represents (in the complex plane) a vector of length r f which rotates in the same direction as the rotor rotation. At t = π /(2 Ω ).11. 3. Fig.11. then the point C 'rotates' in the same direction as the disc.

the rotor critical speeds. the motion is a backward precession. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 107 opposite direction. the ellipse degenerates to a line and point C has a rectilinear harmonic motion. the part of the cross-section in tension remains in tension. the largest amplitudes occurring at ω y and ω z .9) and (3. 3. B. 3. whose semiaxes are smaller than those of the point C. Points B and C have a synchronous motion. . in damped rotors the lines O B . the backward precession changes into a forward precession. The motion of journal centres is defined by the variation in time of the coordinates of point B (Fig. Based on Fig.3).3. C and G are collinear. (3. This is due to the neglecting of damping. For speeds Ω < ω z and Ω > ω y . the motion changes from forward to backward precession. 2k1 + k ω y − Ω 2 k Ω2 z B (t ) = e 2 sin Ω t . Equations (3.2) yield ( 2k1 + k ) y B = k yC .12). ( 2 k 2 + k ) z B = k zC .14) show that the points O. As will be shown in the following. If r f = rb . During the backward precession. The motion along elliptical orbits produces variable stresses in the shaft even at constant running speed. when the running speed traverses the second critical speed. the following can be said. the precession is forward when r f > rb .1). For speeds ω z < Ω < ω y .9).3). 3. Analogously.13) Based on equations (3. and the part in compression remains in compression. At Ω = ω z the major semiaxis becomes (theoretically) infinite and as the running speed traverses the rotor first critical speed. During the synchronous forward precession. and on equations (3. the steady-speed solution is y B (t ) = k Ω2 e 2 cos Ω t . but the bending stresses vary cyclically due to the variation of the orbit radius. Equations (3. where ω z < ω y . having two reversals per rotation (Fig. (3. the bending stresses vary in an alternating non-symmetric cycle.3. B C and C G are not collinear. 2k 2 + k ω z − Ω 2 (3.14) Point B has an elliptic orbit. the precession is backward when r f < rb . at Ω = ω y .

r = rb eiω t + r f e −iω t (3. (3.108 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY When the shaft is much stiffer than the bearings. 2 (3.13) give y B = yC .15) become m && + k r + Δ k r = 0. the equations of the free precession. z B = zC . m The natural frequencies are 2 ω 1.1.1.22) . The disc centre precession orbit is identical to the precession orbit of the journal centres. 3. k y − kz 2 (3. Substituting r = r f eiω t + rb e −iω t . m m (3. z (3. (3. it can be considered that k→∞ and k y = 2k1 .17) r = y −i z. y m && + k z z = 0. obtained for e = 0 in (3.3 Natural modes of precession Dropping the index C.18) The precession behaviour can be analyzed in terms of the forward and backward componets of the motion. equations (3.17). r where k= k y + kz 2 .5).21) (3. (3.2 = k − Δk kz 2 = = ωz . k z = 2k 2 .15) Using the complex representation r = y+i z. Equations (3.4 = 3 k + Δk k y 2 = = ωy . we obtain the homogeneous set of equations ( k − mω ) r + Δ k r Δ k r + ( k − mω ) r 2 f f b b = 0. = 0. a) k m Δk .19) into (3.21.20) The characteristic equation is ( k − mω ) ω2 = 2 2 − (Δ k ) 2 = 0 .16) Δk = >0. are m && + k y y = 0. m m ω 2 .

In a first approximation.2 = ±ω z . rf Δk For ω 1. ˆ = r f + rb = 0 . 3. y z The motion is a (horizontal) vibration along the z-axis. The modal orbits of the four natural modes of precession degenerate into straight lines. omitting indices.1. with amplitude a. ˆ = r f − rb = b . For ω 3. ˆ = r f − rb = 0 .24. z (3. y zC = ˆ C sin (Ω t + θ z ) . we obtain rb = + r f .2.2 Effect of external damping In this section. The following equations of motion are obtained: & m &&C + c yC + k y yC = m eΩ 2 cos Ω t .25) (3. (3. y z The motion is a (vertical) vibration along the y-axis. y & m &&C + c zC + k z zC = m eΩ 2 sin Ω t .3.25) are yC = ˆ C cos (Ω t + θ y ) . giving rise to forces which are proportional to the disc absolute velocity.23) 3. the solutions of equations (3.24. omitting indices.5). new terms & & proportional to the disc centre velocity c yC .4 = ±ω y . with amplitude b. The main effects are the finite amplitude steady state response to unbalance and the inclination of precession elliptical orbits.1. it is assumed that the external damping is isotropic and viscous. b) (3. ˆ = r f + rb = a . a) (3.26) . z In steady motion. They may be thought of as being made up of two circular orbits of equal radii. the effect of external damping on the response of the flexibly supported rotor is considered. c zC are added in equations (3. we obtain rb = − r f . where one has forward motion and the other one has backward motion. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 109 From the first equation (3.20) we obtain the amplitude ratio rb k − mω 2 =− .1 Unbalance response For the calculation of the rotor damped precession.

27) 2 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 − Ω ⎟ + ⎜ 2ζ Ω ⎟ 2 ⎟ ⎜ y ωy ⎟ ⎜ ωy ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜1 − Ω ⎟ + ⎜ 2ζ z Ω ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ωz ⎟ ωz ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ − 2ζ y tanθ y = Ω ωy Ω2 1− 2 ωy . 2mω y 0.816 ζz = c 0 . 3 The system vertical total stiffness is two times the horizontal total stiffness. 4 This gives ky = 2 k. m The damping ratios are ζy = c 0.28).1 ⋅ 2 k m .12 . The external viscous damping coefficient is taken [2] c = 0. 3 1 kz = k . 2mω z 0.29) In the following. ˆC = z Ω2 2 ωz 2 2 (3.816 ωn .577 . 2 k y m 2mω y ζz = c c = 2 k z m 2mω z (3. for the simplicity of presentation. the notations (3. Ω ωz tanθ z = Ω2 1− 2 ωz − 2ζ z (3. k2 = 1 k. the bearing vertical stiffness is taken four times larger than the horizontal stiffness [2]: k1 = k .577ωn .1 = = 0.27) and (3. The rotor undamped natural frequencies are ωy = 2 3 k = 0. ω z = m 1 3 k = 0.1 = = 0.8) and ζy = have been used. c c = .110 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY where e ˆC = y Ω2 2 ωy 2 e .1 ⋅ 2mωn = 0.17.28) In equations (3.

31) − 0. ωn (3. The speeds where the phase difference is 90o are denoted ω1 and ∗ ω2 . a illustrates the speed-dependence of the disc unbalance response components.08 . b.885. As shown in the following. 3.2η .28) become Ω . Unlike the curves from Fig.5.816 z ⎛ ˆC ⎞ = 2. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠η = 0.3. finite amplitudes result at the critical speeds: y ⎛ ˆC ⎞ = 4.30) ˆC y = e η2 ⎛2 2⎞ 2 ⎜ − η ⎟ + ( 0 .2 η ) 3 ⎝ ⎠ tanθ y = 2 . based on equations (3. 3.577 a b Fig.5.5 The speed-dependence of the phase angles θ y and θ z is illustrated ∗ in Fig.3.27) and (3. ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠η = 0.31). ˆC z = e η2 ⎛1 2⎞ 2 ⎜ − η ⎟ + (0.2η − 0.32) Figure 3. 3. tanθ z = .2η ) 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 (3. 2 1 −η 2 −η 2 3 3 (3. the phase difference Δθ = θ z − θ y yields . SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 111 Using the dimensionless frequency η= equations (3. plotted for the undamped rotor.

2. 3. taking the Oy1 and Oz1 axes along the ellipse axes (Fig. Elimination of time gives the orbit (3. z z equation 2 2 2 2 ( zc + zs ) y 2 − 2 ( yc zc + ys zs ) y z + ( yc + ys ) z 2 = ( ys zc − yc zs )2 . the motion is described by y1 = a cos (Ω t + γ − α ) .34) Equation (3.36) . 3. (3.6). In a principal coordinate frame y1Oz1 .2 Disc precession orbit Substitution of y C and zC by y and z in equations (3.33) Equations (3. in contrast with the undamped rotors whose elliptical orbits have vertical and horizontal semiaxes. a and b. z1 = b sin (Ω t + γ − α ) .33) define an ellipse. 3.26) yields y = ˆ C cosθ y cos Ω t − ˆ C sinθ y sin Ω t = yc cos Ω t + ys sinΩ t .35) Fig. and the inclination angle α . y y z = ˆ C cosθ z sin Ω t + ˆ C sinθ z cos Ω t = zc cos Ω t + zs sinΩ t.112 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY inclined elliptical orbits for the precession of damped rotors.6 The ellipse equation in principal coordinates is ⎛ y1 ⎞ ⎛ z1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = 1.34) is more often expressed in terms of the major and minor semiaxes. (3.1. ⎝a⎠ ⎝b⎠ 2 2 (3. where γ is the phase angle at t = 0 .

⎬ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ ⎪1⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ (3. Combining equations (3. equations (3. y s . e Δ1 y s 0. = e Δ1 .2 η 0 (2 3) − η 2 0 ⎤ ⎧ yc ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ zc ⎥ ⎨ ys 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ z (1 3) − η ⎦ ⎩ s ⎥ 0 0.2 η 0.33). and α in terms of yc .2η ⋅ η 2 .2 η ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 (1 3) − η 2 0 − 0. ⎬ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ ⎪1⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ The four ellipse parameters are ⎛2 2⎞ 2 ⎜ −η ⎟ η yc ⎝ 3 ⎠ = .41) They are two-by-two decoupled.35) and (3. 2 2 2 + y s − ( zc + z s ) (3. In the considered particular case. the equations of motion (3. b.37) it is possible to obtain a.3.38) (3. z s .33). z = y1 sinα + z1 cosα .41) become ⎡(2 3) − η 2 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ − 0. a 2 ( yc z c + y s z s ) . zc .39) tan 2α = 2 yc (3.2 η ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = η 2e ⎨ ⎬ .37) a2 = 1 2 2 2 2 ( yc + y s + z c + z s ) + 2 . 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 + ( yc + y s + z c + z s ) − ( yc z s − y s z c ) 4 b= 1 ( yc z s − y s z c ) .40) Using notations (3. (3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 113 The coordinate transformation y = y1 cosα − z1 sinα .25) become ⎡k y − Ω 2 m 0 ⎢ kz − Ω 2m 0 ⎢ ⎢ −Ωc ky 0 ⎢ ⎢ −Ωc 0 ⎣ ⎤ ⎧ yc ⎥⎪ Ω c ⎥ ⎪ zc 0 ⎥⎨ y − Ω 2m 0 ⎥⎪ s 2 k z − Ω m⎥ ⎪ z s 0 ⎦⎩ Ωc 0 ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = m e Ω2 ⎨ ⎬ . The result is (3.33). leads to parametric equations of the form (3.

z c yc Equation (3.43) holds and these are different from the peak response critical speeds. when z s ys = .28) into (3. hence at the undamped critical speeds.42) becomes tan θ z = − or 1 tan θ y (3.2η ) 2 . b = 0 . the change from forward to backward precession and vice versa takes place at the system undamped natural frequencies. Δ 2 = (1 3 − η 2 ) 2 + (0. Condition (3. For damped rotors. the elliptic orbit degenerates into a straight line.43) ys = − tan θ y . 1 − 2η 2 The minor semiaxis is zero. For undamped rotors (Fig.2η ⋅ η . = e Δ2 Δ1 = (2 3 − η 2 ) 2 + (0. zs and condition (3. The inclination of the major axis is given by tan 2α = 0. In fact the two motions are in phase and the 90 0 angle shows the spatial lag between the two directions. 3.3). yc (3. possible only when the orbit degenerates into a straight line. between the projections of When the phase difference Δθ = θ z − θ y the precession motion on the axes Oy and Oz is 90 0 . Figure 3.43) we ∗ ∗ obtain the threshold angular speeds ω1 and ω2 .2η ) 2 .42) θz − θ y = π 2 .43) defines the limits between forward and backward precession. =− Δ2 e where 2 ⎛1 2⎞ 2 ⎜ −η ⎟ η zs ⎝ 3 ⎠ . On inserting (3. occurs at speeds which are different from the . b shows that there are two speeds at which condition (3.114 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY zc 0.4 η .5. the precession reversal.33) gives zc = tan θ z .

8 shows the rotor unbalance response presented as diagrams of the ellipse semiaxes as a function of running speed. where the motion components have maximum amplitude. Figure 3. Fig. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 115 peak response critical speeds. 3.7 depicts the orbits at several rotor speeds. .3.32) into (3.96η 2 + with solutions ∗ η1 = 0 . 2 = 0. Figure 3. substitution of (3.755.43) yields η 4 − 0.624 . 9 ∗ η 2 = 0.7 (from [2]) In the considered particular case.

2. the intersections of the two curves ∗ ∗ locate (for r f = rb ) the threshold (dimensionless) speeds η1 and η 2 . b / e . a). vectors r f and rb have non-zero phase angles at t = 0. unlike the Fig. 3. 3. a). then rf = a+b . b) diagrams of the semiaxes a and b of the elliptic . Figure 3. as in equation (3. Resuming. the unbalance response can be illustrated by three kinds of frequency response diagrams: a) diagrams of the motion projections y and z onto the coordinate axes (Fig. The minor semiaxis curve.3 Decomposition into two circular motions If the motion along the ellipse is represented as the sum of two counterrotating circular motions. crosses the speed axis at the ∗ ∗ threshold speeds between forward and backward precession.5. 3.4.11.44) and. ω1 and ω2 .1. 2 rb = a −b 2 (3. and for r f < rb the precession is backward. Fig. Because for r f > rb the precession is forward.8 3.9 shows the diagrams of radii r f and rb as a function of speed for the analyzed system.116 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Peak response critical speeds are located at the peaks in the major semiaxis curve a / e .

8 is the most useful in practice. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 117 orbit (Fig. q= (3.45) Δk k 2 2 ci ce ζi = . z Denoting k= k y + kz . and c) diagrams of the radii of circular motions which generate the ellipse (Fig. Δk = k y − kz .1.45) can be written in matrix form as .3 Effect of external and internal damping Considering both external and internal damping.3.7 which represents the evolution of the precession orbit with the change of speed.9 Because the maximum relative displacement between rotor and stator is given by the major semiaxis a. 3. 3. y & m &&C + (ce + ci ) zC − ci Ω yC + k z zC = m e Ω 2sin (Ω t + θ 0 ). 3. 3. 3. Fig.9). the diagram from Fig. ζe = . m ζ = ζe +ζi . 2mωn 2mωn . (3. It is used together with Fig. 2 ωn = k .8). the equations of motion of the disc centre with respect to the stationary coordinate system become & m &&C + (ce + ci ) yC + ci Ω zC + k y yC = m e Ω 2 cos (Ω t + θ 0 ) . 3.46) equations (3.

the amplitude of steady motion due to unbalance is restricted by both internal and external damping. due to the stiffness asymmetry coefficient q.by increasing the eccentricity ratio. there is no tendency to set up a whirl of the type which can be dragged forward by rotating damping until the rotating damping forces have been so far increased by rising speed that they are commensurate with the difference between elastic restoring forces in the two principal directions”. Application of the Routh-Hourwitz criterion [1]. 1933) (3. ωn (3.47) Λ= Λ .51) A comparison with equation (2. ⎟ ⎠ 2 (3. with asymmetrical bearing stiffness.118 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY & y ⎧ &&C ⎫ ⎧ yC ⎫ ⎡ ω 2 ( 1 + q ) + 2ζ ωn ⎨ ⎬ + ⎢ n ⎨ ⎬ & z ⎩ &&C ⎭ ⎩ zC ⎭ ⎢− 2ζ i ωn Ω ⎣ Denoting 2ζ i ωn Ω ⎤ ⎧ yC ⎫ 2 ⎧cos (Ω t + θ 0 ) ⎫ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ = eΩ ⎨ ⎬. especially if there is only slight dissymmetry of bearing stiffness. The onset speed of instability is (Smith. ωn η= Ω . The physical explanation of the effect of bearing stiffness orthotropy in restraining instability due to rotating damping is that “since the natural frequencies of the rotor system are different in the two principal transverse directions. . but internal damping has smaller influence in this respect. while for hydrodynamic bearings .49) with (2. 2 ωn ( 1 − q )⎥ ⎩ zC ⎭ ⎩ sin (Ω t + θ 0 ) ⎭ ⎦ (3. ( ) ( ) (3.48) the study of the motion of the perfectly balanced rotor (e = 0) .50) Ω s = ωn ⎛ ζ ⎜ 1+ e ⎜ ζi ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ q ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2ζ ⎠ ⎝ i 2 ⎞ ⎟ . For rotors supported in rolling bearings this is achieved with unequal support stiffnesses in two directions. yields the stability condition 4ζ 2 − 4ζ i2 η 2 + q 2 ≥ 0 .68) shows that the bearing support stiffness orthotropy can be used to increase the rotor onset speed of instability. Analysis of the unbalance response reveals that. leads to the characteristic equation Λ 4 + 4ζ Λ 3 + 2 2ζ 2 + 1 Λ 2 + 4ζ Λ + 1 + 4ζ i2 η 2 − q 2 = 0 .66) shows a difference only in the last term.49) A comparison of equation (3.

Using complex notation rB = y B + i z B .4 Effect of bearing damping In order to reveal the effect of bearing damping on the dynamics of rotors.1) but adding the damping forces.54) (3. rG = yG + i zG .53) (3. 3. the rotor from Fig.. (3.1. rC = yC + i zC . zG = zC + e sin Ω t .3. The viscous damping coefficients c are the same in all radial directions [3]. The bearings are assumed to have the same stiffness constant k1 in all radial directions.52) . & 2 c z B + 2k1 z B = k ( zC − z B ) and. Fig. y m &&G + k ( zC − z B ) = 0. z where yG = yC + e cos Ω t .10 At constant running speed Ω =const. For the shaft: & 2 c y B + 2k1 y B = k ( yC − y B ).10.1 is supported in damped isotropic bearings as in Fig. The bearing damping forces are assumed to be proportional to the journal absolute velocity. for the disc m &&G + k ( yC − y B ) = 0 .55) (3. 3. the equations of motion are written as for undamped bearings (see § 3. 3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 119 3.

1. (3. rC (3.4.57) ζ = 2c 2c = 2 mωn 2 k m (3.52)-(3. rC 3. m N= k . N ⎝ ⎠ 2 − ωn RB + λ ( 2 2 + ωn )R (3. The resulting equations of motion are & 2 ζ ωn rB + 1 2 2 ωn rB + ωn (rB − rC ) = 0. N (3.59) and substituting solutions of the form rB = RB e λ t .58) is defined with respect to the critical damping of the rigidly supported rotor.60) we obtain the homogeneous algebraic set of equations 1 2 ⎛ 2⎞ 2 ⎜ 2ζω n λ + ωn + ωn ⎟ RB − ωn RC = 0 . rC = RC e λ t .59) 2 && + ωn (rC − rB ) = e Ω 2 ei Ω t .1 Damped natural frequency For zero right-hand side in (3.61) C = 0.54) produce the equations of motion of the disc centre and journal centre & 2c rB + 2k1rB + k (rB − rC ) = 0. . 2k 1 (3.120 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY equations (3. m && + k (rC − rB ) = m e Ω 2ei Ω t . The requirement for non-trivial solutions is ⎞ 2⎛ 1 2 2ζω n λ + ω n ⎜ + 1⎟ − ωn ⎝N ⎠ 2 2 λ2 + ω n − ωn = 0.56) The natural frequency ωn of the rotor in rigid bearings and the ratio N between the shaft stiffness and the support (bearings in parallel) stiffness are ωn = The damping ratio k .

then λ 1 . n ⎝ n⎠ ⎝ n⎠ 3 2 (3. then equation (3.67) rC rB where ~ and ~ are complex amplitudes. rotor) is (3. (3. so that the system motion is always stable.64) There is a negative real root ( λ ωn )1 = − A and two complex conjugate roots with negative real part ( λ ωn ) 2 .1.65) The frequency of the damped free precession (of the perfectly balanced ω d = Cω n (3.3 = − B ± iC .63) If ζ ≠ 0 . the solutions are of the form rB (t ) = ~ eiΩ t . 3. The free damped motion of point C is described by a solution of the form rC (t ) = RC1 e − Aω n t + RC 2 e − Bω n t ei Cω n t + RC3 e − Bω n t e −i Cω n t .66) where C is the imaginary part of the complex roots of the characteristic equation (3.62) has positive coefficients and can be written ⎞ ⎛ λ ⎞⎛ λ2 λ ⎜ + A ⎟ ⎜ 2 + 2B + B 2 + C 2 ⎟ = 0. ⎜ω ⎟⎜ω ⎟ ωn ⎝ n ⎠⎝ n ⎠ (3. . rC (3. rB rC (t ) = ~ eiΩ t .4.62) If ζ = 0 .62). SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 121 This yields the characteristic equation ⎛ λ ⎞ λ N +1 ⎛ λ ⎞ 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ω ⎟ + 2 ζ N ⎜ ω ⎟ + ω + 2ζ N = 0. The critical speed of the rotor supported in =i ωn N +1 undamped flexible bearings is ωel = ωn N +1 .3.2 Unbalance response For the steady-state motion due to mass unbalance.

30) and substituting (3.68) C The solutions are ~ = rB eη 2 1 ⎛1 ⎞ − ⎜ + 1⎟ η 2 + i 2ζη 1 − η 2 N ⎝N ⎠ ( ) .11 Its magnitude is ~ = rB eη 2 N +1 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 η ⎟ + 4ζ 2η 2 1 − η 2 ⎜ − N N ⎝ ⎠ 2 (3.71) ( ) . (3. ⎠ ⎣⎝ ⎦ ~ + 1 − η 2 ~ = eη 2 .67) into (3.122 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Using the dimensionless frequency (3.11) is represented by the vector O B .59) we obtain ⎡⎛ 1 ⎤ ~ ~ ⎞ ⎢⎜ N + 1⎟ + i 2ζη ⎥ rB − rC = 0. 3. 1 ⎛1 Ω ⎞ − ⎜ + 1⎟ η 2 + i 2ζ 1 −η 2 ωn N ⎝N ⎠ ( ) (3.70) The motion of the journal centre B in the complex plane (Fig. 3. −r r B ( ) (3. Fig.69) ⎛1 ⎞ 2 3 ⎜ + 1⎟ η + i 2ζη ⎝N ⎠ ~ =e rC .

72) The motion of the disc centre C is represented by the vector O C . of magnitude e ( N + 1)2 4 η + 4ζ 2η 6 2 N 2 ~ = rC (3. N +1 2 ⎞ N ⎛ 1 2 − η ⎟ + 4ζ η 2 1−η 2 ⎜ N N +1 ⎝N ⎠ ( ) (3. N⎝ N ⎠⎦ N ⎣ (3. 1 N +1 2 η − N N ( ) (3. C and G are not collinear.75) .61) and (3. different from ωel and ωd (Fig. The vector O C has a phase lag θ C with respect to the excitation vector C G and the vector O B has a phase lag θ B with respect to C G (Fig. the peak values of the displacements of points B and C occur at speeds ω B . but the points O.74) The points B and C have circular orbits around the point O. 3.12). 3. for given values of N and ζ . SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 123 and the phase shift with respect to the unbalance vector C G is θ B = tan −1 − 2ζ η 1 − η 2 .11). If the radii of precession orbits (3.63) are plotted against the dimensionless speed Ω ωn . Differentiating with respect to η 2 the expressions of these displacements. B. yields two different equations.73) ⎛ 1 N +1 2 ⎞ η ⎟ + 4ζ 2η 2 1 − η 2 ⎜ − N ⎝N ⎠ ( ) 2 and phase angle θ C = tan −1 1 ⎛ ⎞ − 2 ζ η ⎜1 − η2⎟ N +1 ⎝ ⎠ .3. The condition of maximum journal displacement d ~ =0 rB 2 d (η ) gives the equation ⎡ 1⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ 1 2ζ 2η 6 − ⎢2ζ 2 − ⎜1 + ⎟⎥ η 2 − 2 = 0. and ωC respectively.

124 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. N ⎝ N ⎠ ⎥ N ⎠ N ⎝ ⎦ (3.76) . 3.12 (from [3]) and the condition of maximum disc centre displacement d ~ rC = 0 d (η 2 ) gives the equation ⎡ − 16 ζ 4η 6 + 4 ζ 2 ⎢ 4 ζ ⎣ 2 − 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ 4 ⎜1 + ⎟ η + N ⎝ N ⎠⎥ ⎦ ⎡⎛ 2 4 ⎞ + ⎢⎜1 + + 2 ⎟ 2ζ N N ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ 2 3 2 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎤ 2 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ − ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎥ η + 2 ⎜1 + ⎟ = 0.

45 rad/sec. ω el = ω n / 2 = 447. If the damping in the shaft is taken into account. being much larger. 3.45) is written as (λ ωn )3 + (λ ωn ) 2 + ( λ ωn ) + 0. a computation neglecting the bearing damping can result in erroneous values of the critical speeds. ωn = k m = 632. shaft stiffness constant k = 2 ⋅10 5 N/mm. bearing stiffness k1 = 105 N/mm. at which the radial displacements of the damped rotor have maximum values. Example 3. The critical speed of the rigidly supported rotor is nn = 6040 rpm . SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 125 ( ωB The physically acceptable solution of equation (3.225 Ns/mm [3]. Therefore.10. it is possible that The precession speeds ωC and ω B .2 rad/sec. they considerably differ from the critical speed ωel of the undamped system. the different critical speeds are in the following order ωel < ωa < ω B < ω C < ωn . ωC > ωn . bearing viscous damping coefficient c = 316.1 Consider the rotor from Fig. ζ =1. with the following characteristics: disc mass m = 500 kg. Equation (3. are referred to as peak response critical speeds. Generally. Sometimes.3.5 = 0 and the roots are . The computations yield: N =1.76) is denoted ( ωC ωn ) . The undamped critical speed of the rotor supported in flexible bearings is nel = 4270 rpm .65) is denoted ωn ) and that of equation (3.

3 Equivalent model The dependence of critical speeds on the bearing damping can be simply explained noticing that the rotor-bearing system can be represented by the simplified model from Fig.28 nel . .35 rad/sec. Equation (3.13. From the imaginary part we obtain ωd = 0. λ 2 .9076 ωn = 574 rad/sec.126 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY λ 1 ωn = − 0. connected in series to an element consisting of the dashpot of constant 2c and the spring 2 k1 connected in parallel (representing the bearings). hence ω B = 0. The peak response critical speed computed from the disc centre unbalance response is nC = 5481 rpm = 1.1. The mass m is supported by a spring of stiffness constant k (representing the shaft).6478 . Equation (3.8607. hence ωC = 0. 3.3 ωn = −0.26 nel .4. 3.8909 ωn = 563.1761 ± i 0.8607ωn = 544. The peak response critical speed computed from the journal unbalance response is nB = 5380 rpm = 1.58) is written 2 (Ω ω n ) 6 − 1 = 0 . The rotor damped critical speed is nd = 5198 rpm .59) is written − 8 (Ω ω n ) 6 + 3 (Ω ω n ) 2 + 2 = 0 . The mass is acted upon by a force F ( t ) = m e Ω 2 ei Ω t .4 rad/sec.

the lower spring is blocked and the journal displacement is zero. c = 0 . .3. ωn = k m . The frequency response curve of the disc centre (Fig. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 127 Fig. and the equivalent spring rate is k ( N + 1 ).13 Two limit cases are first considered. If the damping coefficient is infinite. Fig. rB = 0. 3. c = ∞ . 3. the springs of stiffness constants k and 2k1 = k / N are connected in series. 3.14 If the damping coefficient is zero.14) has a(n infinite) peak at the natural frequency of the system consisting of the mass and the upper spring. The case corresponds to the rigidly supported rotor.

respectively. For intermediary values of the bearing damping coefficient. 3. and Ωcr . The case corresponds to the rotor supported in undamped flexible bearings. ωn ] . within the range [ωel . for which the maximum precession amplitude has the lower value. The model from Fig.128 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The frequency response curve has a(n infinite) peak at the undamped critical speed ωel = ωn N + 1 . equal to the ordinate of the crossing point of all frequency response curves. The equivalent stiffness constant kech and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient cech can be expressed in terms of the parameters k.15). denoted c'. 3.15 There is an optimum value copt of the bearing damping coefficient. having a single spring in parallel with a dashpot (Fig. 3. plotted for different values of the bearing damping coefficient. the frequency response curves have peaks at the peak ′ ′′ response critical speeds Ωcr . Fig. c and N of the initial system as follows: . respectively.13 can be replaced by an equivalent model. and c". They correspond to the rotor supported in damped flexible bearings.

16. m cy 2 kym 1 . a shows the plot of major and minor semiaxes a and b. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 129 k2 ( N + 1) + 4 Ω 2 c 2 N2 kech = k . = 20 2 kzm Plot the unbalance response diagrams and several precession orbits for an eccentricity e = 10 μm [4].16.77) (3.15 shows the variation of these quantities as a function of the damping coefficient c. 2 2 ( N + 1) 2 2 k + 4Ω c N2 (3.3. hence when the ratio N (of the shaft stiffness to the bearing stiffness) is larger. and forward and backward circle radii r f and rb as a function of speed. Example 3.2 Consider a rigid rotor ( k → ∞ ) supported by identical orthotropic bearings with the following characteristics: ny = 30 ky m = π = 600 rpm. The equivalent viscous damping coefficient cech has a maximum value for the optimal c.78) Figure 3. Figure 3. where the orbit degenerates into straight lines. fact that explains the increase of critical speeds with the bearing damping. Figure 3. nz = 30 π kz = 500 rpm. The stiffness constant kech increases with c. The stiffness increase is higher when the natural frequencies ωel and ωn are relatively more distanced. b shows the plot of the y and z displacement components and the minor semiaxis b versus speed. 16 cz 1 . The range with backward precession is marked by the threshold speeds ∗ n1 and ∗ n2 . 2 2 ( N + 1) 2 2 k + 4Ω c N2 2c k 2 cech = . as well as the precession orbit at eight different speeds. fact that explains the lowest value of the maximum amplitude in this case. . hence the natural frequency kech m also increases with c.

16 (from [4]) . 3.130 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY a b Fig.

3. y y 2m1 &&C + m &&G + k ( zC − z B ) = 0. zG = zC + e sin Ω t ..82) .81) Fig. (3. This results in a three mass model. 3. equations (3. & z 2 c z B + 2 k1 z B + 2m1 &&B = k ( zC − z B ) and.17). For the shaft: & y 2 c y B + 2 k1 y B + 2 m1 &&B = k ( yC − y B ).1) but adding the damping forces.1.80) (3. 3.5 Combined effect of bearing damping and shaft mass In the following. At constant running speed Ω =const.17 Using the complex notation (3.55).81) yield ( m + 2m 1 ) &r&C + k ( rC − rB ) = m e Ω 2ei Ω t .79)-(3. with a quarter of shaft mass at each bearing and half of the shaft mass at the disc location (Fig. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 131 3. the effect of bearing damping on the dynamics of rotors is analyzed taking into account the shaft distributed mass. for the disc 2m1 &&C + m &&G + k ( yC − y B ) = 0 . The analysis is simplified lumping the shaft mass at the ends of each half. z z where yG = yC + e cos Ω t .79) (3. the equations of motion are written as for undamped bearings (see § 3. & 2m 1 && + 2c rB + 2k1rB + k ( rB − rC ) = 0. rB (3.

Two particular cases are considered: N = 1 . N ⎝ ⎠ 2 − ωn RB + [ 2 ωn + ( 1 + μ )λ 2 ]R (3.325 ) when the second mode becomes overdamped. (3. ⎜ω ⎟ ⎜ω ⎟ ωn N ⎦⎝ n⎠ ⎝ n⎠ ⎣ N (3. using dimensionless coordinates α ωn and ωd ωn . respectively.1.60). N ( rC − rB ) = e Ω e 2 iΩt (3.85) C = 0. 3. Root locus diagrams are presented in Fig.5.132 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Denoting the ratio of half the shaft mass to the disc mass μ= ms 2 m 1 = .87) where α is a negative attenuation factor and ωd is the damped natural frequency.5102 ωn (for ζ = 0 ) to zero (for ζ ≅ 1. 3.4682 ωn (for ζ = 0 ) to ω rig = 0. .58).18. we obtain the homogeneous algebraic set of equations 1 2 ⎛ 2 2⎞ 2 ⎜ μ λ + 2ζω n λ + ωn + ωn ⎟ RB − ωn RC = 0 . μ = 1 . The requirement for non-trivial solutions yields the characteristic equation ⎛ λ ⎞ μ ( 1 + μ ) ⎜ ⎟ + 2ζ ( 1 + μ ⎜ω ⎟ ⎝ n⎠ We denote 4 3 2 ⎞ ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ ⎤⎛ )⎜ λ ⎟ + ⎢ N + 1 ( 1 + μ ) + μ ⎥ ⎜ λ ⎟ + 2ζ λ + 1 = 0.57) and (3.83) and using (3. a). both corresponding to a relatively heavy shaft.1 Damped natural frequency For zero right-hand side in (3. For the rotor with N = 1 (Fig. 3. the first damped natural frequency ωd 1 increases from ωel 1 = 0. and N = 2.86) λ = α + i ωd .707ω n (for ζ = ∞ ).18. The second natural frequency ωd 2 decreases from ωel 2 = 1. μ = 1 . 2m m 1 2 2 ωn rB + ωn (rB − rC ) = 0 . we obtain the equations of motion & μ && + 2 ζ ωn rB + rB (1 + μ ) (3.5 .84) and substituting solutions of the form (3.84) 2 && + ωn rC .

3.3.18 (from [5]) Fig. 3.19 (from [5]) . SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 133 a b Fig.

5 . for μ = 1 and N = 2. r r n B [ n ] (3.20 illustrate the variation of ~ e and ~ e as a function of rC rB Ω ωn .3372 ωn (for ζ = 0 ) to 0. With increasing ζ . the first response peak is shifted to higher speeds. the increase of ζ and 1 N makes the first mode overdamped for values ζ < 1 . Figure 3. b) has a different behaviour.2 Unbalance response For the steady-state motion due to mass unbalance.676 ωn (for ζ = 1 ) then increases to ω rig = 0. and the second mode overdamped for ζ > 1 .89) 2 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎜ + 1 − μ Ω + i 2ζ Ω ⎟ 2 ⎜N ωn ωn ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ~ = rC .1. . The first damped natural frequency ωd 1 diminishes from ωel 1 = 0. 2 ⎛1 ⎞ ⎡ Ω Ω ⎟ Ω2⎤ ⎜ +1− μ + i 2ζ ⎢1 − ( 1 + μ ) 2 ⎥ − 1 2 ⎜N ωn ⎟ ⎣ ωn ωn ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎢ ⎦ e Ω2 2 ωn (3. The second damped natural frequency. For N = 2 and ζ = 1 the system has equal eigenvalues. 3.84).90) Figures 3.5. for different values of bearing damping. 3.67) into (3.98 ) when the second precession mode becomes overdamped. ωd 2 . Generally.88) C The solutions to (3.19 shows (for μ = 1 ) the variation of the dimensionless damped natural frequencies ωd 1 ωn (solid lines) and ωd 2 ωn (broken lines) as a function of the bearing stiffness. substituting the solutions (3.134 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The rotor with N = 2.88) are e ~ = rB Ω2 2 ωn 2 2⎤ ⎛1 ⎞ ⎡ ⎜ + 1 − μ Ω + i 2 ζ Ω ⎟ ⎢1 − ( 1 + μ ) Ω ⎥ − 1 2 2 ⎜N ωn ⎟ ⎢ ωn ωn ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ . (3.18.5 (Fig. N ⎝ ⎠ − ω 2 ~ + ω 2 − ( 1 + μ )ω 2 ~ = eω 2 . decreases first from ωel 2 = 1.3344 ωn (for ζ = 0 ) to zero (for ζ ≅ 0. we obtain the algebraic set of equations 1 2 ⎛ 2 2⎞ 2 rB rC ⎜ − μ ω + i 2ζ ωn ω + ωn + ωn ⎟ ~ − ωn ~ = 0. while the second response peak is shifted to lower speeds.707ω n (for ζ = ∞ ).

3.4837 ωn . 2 For μ =1. a b Fig.4 . 3. The peak response speeds Ω B are obtained from condition d ~ d (Ω ω ) 2 = 0 . ωd 2 For other values of N. For ζ = 1. μ and ζ . For these values of system parameters. the angular speeds ωd 1 and Ω B 1 tend to ωrig . Ω C 1 = 0.3745 ωn .4851 ωn . The peak response speeds Ω are obtained from condition r B n C d ~ rC d (Ω ωn ) = 0 . N =1 and ζ = 0.5589 ωn . Ω B 2 = 1.20 (from [5]) For relatively high damping. . we obtain Ω B 1 = 0. the different critical angular speeds can be ordered as follows ωel 1 < ωd 1 < Ω C 1 < Ω B 1 < ωrig < Ω B 2 < ωd 2 < ωel 2 < Ω C 2 . the order can be different. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 135 The peaks of the unbalance response diagrams occur at the angular speeds Ω B and Ω C . < ωd 1 .3 . Ω C 2 = 1. This explains why the measured critical speeds are nearer those calculated for the rigidly supported rotor than those determined for the rotor on undamped flexible bearings.

only Laval-Jeffcott rotors are considered. z B are the corresponding velocities.1 Unbalance response Consider a Laval-Jeffcott rotor as in Fig. and the stiffness matrix non-symmetry produces unstable precession motions. and y B . neglecting the disc rotary inertia.2. The bearing damping matrix is generally symmetric. z B are the projections along the axes of the fixed coordinate frame of & & the journal centre displacement. In the following. It is not possible to determine stiffness principal directions. the stiffness matrix is non-symmetric.92) and the motion equations for the disc are m &&G + k ( yC − y B ) = 0 . resolved into two components f B y . c yz = c zy . but supported in hydrodynamic bearings. The equilibrium equations for the shaft are − 2 f B y = k ( yC − y B ) . The steady-state motion produced by the disc unbalance is examined. k yz ≠ k zy . the linear theory of hydrodynamic bearings allows expressing the force exerted by the lubricant film on the rotor journal. 3. For many types of radial bearings. z where (3. f B z along the coordinate axes.10. characterized by the eight dynamic coefficients defined by equation (3. (3. − 2 f B z = k ( zC − z B ) . under the form [6] ⎧− f B y ⎫ ⎡ k y y ⎨− f ⎬ = ⎢ k ⎩ Bz ⎭ ⎣ z y k y z ⎤ ⎧ yB ⎫ ⎡ c y y + k z z ⎥ ⎨ z B ⎬ ⎢ cz y ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ c y z ⎤⎧ yB ⎫ & ⎥⎨ ⎬ . k yy ≠ k zz . with respect to which the off-diagonal elements of the stiffness matrix vanish.2 Symmetric rotors in fluid film bearings As mentioned earlier. cz z ⎦ ⎩ zB ⎭ & (3.93) . The bearings are anisotropic.136 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 3.91) where y B . 3.91). y m &&G + k ( zC − z B ) = 0.

100) z B (t ) = E cosΩ t + F sin Ω t .99) yields yC = 2 Aωn + eΩ 2 2 ωn − Ω 2 cos Ω t + 2 Bωn 2 ωn − Ω 2 sin Ω t .95) and k & & ( yC − y B ) = k y y y B + k y z z B + c y y y B + c y z z B .99) (3. zG = zC + e sin Ω t. 2 The steady-state solutions have the form y B (t ) = A cos Ω t + B sin Ω t. 2 k & & ( zC − z B ) = k z y y B + k z z z B + c z y y B + c z z z B .102) is the critical speed of the rigidly supported rotor.97) (3.94) into (3.92) we obtain m &&C + k ( yC − y B ) = m e Ω 2 cos Ω t.94) (3. y m &&C + k ( zC − z B ) = m e Ω 2 sin Ω t .3. z (3. we obtain a non-homogeneous algebraic set of equations. G and H are expressed in terms of E and F.100) into the second equation (3.97) and (3.95). (3. zC (t ) = G cosΩ t + H sin Ω t .96) (3. inserting (3. in which C and D are expressed in terms of A and B. yielding . (3. Substituting (3. Analogously. yC (t ) = C cosΩ t + D sin Ω t . Substitution into (3.93) and (3.95) and identifying the coefficients of the terms in cos Ω t and sin Ω t .98) (3. On inserting expressions (3.91) into (3.98) and (3.99) into the first equation (3. identifying the coefficients and solving the algebraic equations.101) where ωn = k m (3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 137 yG = yC + e cos Ω t.

( k z − χ ) E + Ω cz F = 0.91). (3.97). 2 2 ωn − Ω 2 (3. c z . where (3.104) the second equation is added to the third and the fourth equation is subtracted from the first equation. (3. k z . 2 2 ωn − Ω 2 ωn − Ω 2 (3. k z y A + Ω c z y B + (k z z − χ ) E + Ω c z z F = 0.138 zC = DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 2 2 Eωn Fωn + eΩ 2 cosΩ t + sinΩ t .107) . Identifying the coefficients of the terms in cosΩ t and sinΩ t . In (3. the eight dynamic bearing coefficients are reduced to four coefficients k y . defined by the equations: ⎧− f B y ⎫ ⎡ k y ⎨− f ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ Bz ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ y B ⎫ ⎡c y ⎨ ⎬+ k z ⎥⎩ zB ⎭ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦ & 0 ⎤⎧ yB ⎫ ⎥⎨ z ⎬ cz ⎦ ⎩ &B ⎭ (3. − Ω c y A + ( k y − χ ) B = 0.101) and (3.98).104) χ= k Ω2 . This yields (3. It is necessary now to establish the relationships between the four equivalent bearing coefficients and the eight dynamic coefficients defined by (3. − Ω c y y A + (k y y − χ ) B − Ω c y z E + k y z F = 0. we obtain the algebraic set of equations (k y y − χ ) A + Ω c y y B + k y z E + Ω c y z F = χ e .104) become ( k y − χ ) A + Ω c y B = χ e. in order to simplify the solution.105) In the following. − Ω c z y A + k z y B − Ω c z z E + (k z z − χ ) F = χ e . c y .96).103) The solutions (3.106) The four equations (3.103) are then substituted into (3. − Ω c z E + ( k z − χ ) F = χ e.

χz (3.112) where χz = μ 2 +ν 2 = ( k yy − χ − Ω c zy ) 2 + ( k zy + Ω c yy ) 2 . 1 (3. Putting (3.104).3. we find k y = k yy − 1 χy ( μ k yz − ν Ω c yz ) .109) μ = ( kz y − Ω cy y ) ( kz z − χ − Ω cy z ) + + ( k y y − χ + Ω cz y ) ( k y z + Ω cz z ). χ y = ( k z z − χ − Ω c y z )2 + ( k y z + Ω cz z )2 . by identification to the third (or the fourth) equation (3. we obtain . χz B=− μ F +ν E . ( k y y − χ + Ω cz y ) A − ( k z y − Ω c y y ) B = = −( k y z + Ω c z z ) E + ( k z z − χ − Ω c y z ) F . χy (3.104).107). Solving equations (3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 139 ( k z y − Ω c y y ) A + ( k y y − χ + Ω cz y ) B = = −( k z z − χ − Ω c y z ) E − ( k y z + Ω c z z ) F .108) in terms of E and F yields A= ν F −μE . χy F= ν A−μ B χy (3.108) in terms of A and B we obtain E=− where (3.108) μ A +ν B .110) ν = ( k y y − χ + Ω cz y ) ( k z z − χ − Ω c y z ) − − ( k z y − Ω c y y ) ( k y z + Ω cz z ). by identification to the first (second) equation (3.109) into the first (second) equation (3. Ω c y = Ω c yy − χy Solving equations (3. (3.113) Substituting (3.111) (ν k yz + μ Ω c yz ).112) into the third (or the fourth) equation (3.110).

z where ˆB = y tan θ y B and ˆ B = E2 + F 2 = z tan θ z B eχ (k z − χ ) 2 + (Ω c z ) 2 .107). the orbit equation is obtained as (3. 1 (3. b) A2 + B 2 = eχ (k y − χ ) 2 + (Ω c y ) 2 .117) define an ellipse. .114). a) (3. (3.113).107) being coupled two by two.110) and (3. together with (3.34) 2 2 ( E 2 + F 2 ) y B − 2 ( AE + BF ) y B z B + ( A2 + B 2 ) z B − ( AF − EB ) 2 = 0.140 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY k z = k zz − 1 χz ( μ k z y + ν Ω cz y ). F= . (3. the coefficients A. Ω c z = Ω c zz + χz Equations (3. Eliminating the time.114) (ν k z y − μ Ω c z y ). Solving equations (3.111) and (3. (3.117) Ω cy B .97) and (3. B. allow the reduction of the eight bearing coefficients to only four. =− =− A ky − χ E Ω cz = =− . F are determined as: A= eχ ( k y − χ ) ( k y − χ ) + (Ω c y ) 2 2 . E. (3.118. y z B (t ) = ˆ B sin (Ω t + θ z B ) . equations (3.116) 2 2 ( k z − χ ) + (Ω c z ) ( k z − χ ) 2 + (Ω c z ) 2 The solutions (3. B= eχ Ω c y ( k y − χ ) 2 + (Ω c y ) 2 .115) E=− eχ Ω c z eχ ( k z − χ ) .98) define the journal centre motion and can be written as y B (t ) = ˆ B cos (Ω t + θ y B ) . F kz − χ The parametric equations (3.118.

2.123) (3.1.122) (3. the end of vector rB moves along an elliptic orbit. and if b < 0 . the journal centre has a forward precession. of major semiaxis a = r f + rb and minor semiaxis b = r f − rb where a and b are functions of the running speed Ω . the disc geometric centre. which can be written as the sum of two counter-rotating vectors rB = y B + i z B = ( A + i E ) cos Ω t + ( B + i F ) sin Ω t = E − B ⎞ iΩ t ⎛ A − F E + B ⎞ −i Ω t ⎛ A+ F = r f ei Ω t + r b e − i Ω t .40) tan 2α = 2(AE + B F) . The inclination of the major axis on the Oy axis is defined by (3.124) If b > 0 . Similar conclusions are obtained from the analysis of the motion of point C. (3. ( A + B2 ) − (E 2 + F 2 ) 2 (3.119) The magnitudes of the two components are rf = 1 2 ( A + F )2 + (E − B )2 = 1 2 A2 + B 2 + F 2 + E 2 + 2 AF − 2 EB . (3.1. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 141 The distance from the origin of the stationary coordinate frame O to the journal centre B is represented in the complex plane by the vector O B = rB .2 and 3.1. +i =⎜ +i ⎟e ⎟e +⎜ 2 2 ⎠ 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ (3. As shown in sections 3.3.2. it has a backward precession.121) They rotate in opposite directions with the same speed Ω .120) respectively rb = 1 2 ( A − F )2 + (E + B )2 = 1 2 A2 + B2 + F 2 + E 2 − 2 AF + 2 EB . The forces acting on the bearing supports have the following components .

1 +ν 2 (3.125.102). z B = Z B eν ω n t . (3.127) yields YC = 1 YB . 1 +ν 2 ZC = 1 ZB . y B = YB eν ω n t .95) become m &&C + k yC = k y B . hence for yG = yC . b) Ω cy ky . For e = 0 . Analytically.142 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY & f B y = k y yB + c y yB = = eχ ( )2 ( k y − χ )2 + ( Ω cy )2 2 k y + Ω cy 2 k z + ( Ω cz cos Ω t + θ yB + φ y .2. Substituting solutions (3.95) and (3. tan φ z = Ω cz kz . y m &&C + k zC = k z B . this is studied using the equations of motion (3.128) into equations (3.130) .126) 3.127) ωn = k m (3. z The solutions have the form yC = YC eν ω n t . when the orbit radius has a sudden increase.125.129) is the critical angular speed of the rigidly supported rotor (3. a) & f Bz = k z z B + cz z B = = eχ where ( k z − χ ) 2 + ( Ω cz ) 2 tan φ y = )2 sin ( Ω t + θ zB + φ z ) . (3. (3.96) for the perfectly balanced rotor (e = 0) . ( ) (3.2 Stability of precession motion Experience has shown that the rotor synchronous precession in hydrodynamic bearings becomes unstable at a given value Ω s of the running speed. equations (3.128) (3. where zC = Z C eν ω n t .

3.132) (3. Substituting ν =iΛ into equations (3. 2 1 +ν 2 (3.131). (3. X + k z z + i Λ c z z ωn (3.134) Canceling the real and the imaginary parts of the determinant (3.130) into (3. ν is pure imaginary.131) At the stability threshold.133) (3.135) ω n Λ [ X (c y y + c z z ) − − (c z y k y z + c y z k z y − c y y k z z − c z z k y y ) ] = 0 .128) and (3. the requirement for non-trivial solutions produces X + k y y + i Λ c y y ωn k z y + i Λ c z y ωn k y z + i Λ c y z ωn =0. 2 Λ2 −1 (3. which can also be written as Λ 2 ω n2 = X 2 + (k y y + k z z ) X + (k y y k z z − k z y k y z ) c y ycz z − c y zcz y .136) . (k z y + c z y ν ωn ) YB + ( X + k z z + c z z ν ωn ) Z B = 0 . (3.137) It is useful to use the dimensionless coefficients .96) we obtain the homogeneous algebraic equations ( X + k y y + c y y ν ωn ) YB + (k y z + c y z ν ωn ) Z B = 0 .134) gives the equations X 2 + (k y y + k z z ) X + (k y y k z z − k z y k y z ) − 2 − Λ 2ω n ( c y y c z z − c y z c z y ) = 0 . X = (c z y k y z + c y z k z y ) − (c y y k z z + c z z k y y ) c y y + cz z where X= k Λ2 . where X= k ν2 . SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 143 Inserting (3.

21 [7]. A value Ω is first selected. Ci j = ci j mg mg where So is the inverse of the usual Sommerfeld number S [6]. Fig. The results are plotted as in Fig. which is inserted into (3. 2 So ΔR C y y + Cz z (3.140) The onset speed of instability Ω s can be computed using an iterative approach. . The corresponding Sommerfeld number So and the eight bearing coefficients are then computed. a new value Ω is considered and the computations are repeated until Ω = Ω s . (3. ΔR is the bearing clearance (difference between the bearing radius and the journal radius) and g is the acceleration of gravity.138) .136) become 2 Ω s2 = Λ 2ω n = = X 2 + (K y y + K z z ) X + (K y y K z z − K z y K y z ) C y yC z z − C y zC z y Ω 2. (3.140) delivers X.21 Equation (3.144 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 2 So ΔR 2 So ΔR Ω. They are given in tabular or graphic form. as functions of So for given values of the bearing clearance and length-to-diameter ratio (see Chapter 6). If Ω < Ω s . 3. K i j = ki j Equations (3. 3.139) X= m g ( Cz y K y z + C y z K z y ) − ( C y y K z z − Cz z K y y ) .139). wherefrom Ω s is obtained.

1 are analyzed.79).2 examined single-disc Laval-Jeffcott rotors. .1 Equations of motion Consider the asymmetric rotor from Fig.22 In this case. 3. hence neglecting the effect of disc rotary inertia.78) are different from those used in (2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 145 A more detailed analysis of the stability of precession for rotors supported in hydrodynamic bearings is presented in Chapter 7. 3. the flexibility influence coefficients δ ij in equations (2. considering only the disc motion in the rotor plane of symmetry. the two single-disc rotor models from Table 3.3.22. supported in orthotropic flexible bearings. In the following. Fig. 3.3 Asymmetric rotors in flexible bearings The previous sections 3.1 and 3.3. 3. The bearings are orthotropic and dissimilar.

141) Table 3.146 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The force-deflection equations can be written: ⎧y ⎪z ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ϕ ⎪ψ ⎩ ⎡ ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ =⎢ ⎬ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎭C ⎣ δ11 0 0 0 0 δ 22 δ 23 δ 32 δ 33 0 0 δ 41 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fz ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎬ ⎨ 0 ⎥ ⎪My ⎪ ⎥ δ 44 ⎦ ⎪ M z ⎪C ⎭ ⎩ δ14 ⎤ ⎧ Fy ⎫ (3.1 [7]. .1 Model I Model II δ11 = δ14 = − l3 2 2 β 2 α 2 + α β + 3EI k A1 k B1 δ11 = γ 2 ( 1 + γ )2 l3 2 γ (1 + γ ) + + 3EI k A1 k B1 β α l 2αβ (β − α ) + − 3EI k A1l k B1l δ14 = − γ 1+ γ l 2γ ( 2 + 3γ ) − − 6 EI k A1l k B1l l 1 1 (1 + 3γ ) + + 2 EI k A1l k B1l 2 δ44 = 1 1 l + (α3 + β 3) + 2 3EI kA1l kB1l 2 l3 2 2 β 2 α 2 + α β + 3EI k A2 k B 2 δ 44 = δ 22 = δ 22 = δ 23 = δ 33 = γ 2 (1 + γ ) 2 l3 2 γ (1 + γ ) + + 3EI k A2 kB2 l2 β α αβ ( β − α ) − + k A2l k B 2 l 3EI l 1 1 + (α 3 + β 3 ) + 2 3EI k A2 l k B 2l 2 δ 23 = γ 1+ γ l2 γ (2 + 3γ ) + + 6 EI k A 2l k B 2l l 1 1 + (1 + 3γ ) + 2 EI k A2l k B 2l 2 δ 33 = α= a . l β= b l γ= c l The flexibility influence coefficients δ ij = δ ji of the two rotor models are listed in Table 3.

k33 = 22 .3.146) . Δ1 Δ1 Δ1 δ δ δ 2 = 33 .54) and (2. x (3. (3.143) Using expressions (3.80) are written in the form m &&G + k11 yC + k14 ψ C = F1( t ). y m &&G + k 22 zC + k 23 ϕC = F2 ( t ). Δ2 Δ2 Δ2 (3. k 23 = − 23 . SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 147 The inverse of the flexibility matrix is the stiffness matrix given by k11 = k 22 δ44 δ δ 2 . k14 = − 14 . equations (3. Δ2 = δ22 δ33 − δ23.144) or ⎡[ m ] ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ { && } ⎫ ⎡ 0 y ⎥ ⎨ { && } ⎬ +⎢− [ g ] [ m ]⎦ ⎩ z ⎭ ⎣ & [ g ]⎤ ⎧ { y } ⎫ ⎥ ⎨ {z }⎬ 0 ⎦⎩ & ⎭ ⎡ k +⎢ y ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ ] ⎧ fy ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎧ { y }⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬ [ k z ]⎥ ⎩ { z } ⎭ ⎩ { f z } ⎭ ⎦ { } (3. Δ1 = δ11δ44 − δ14 .123) to eliminate the coordinates of the mass centre G.145) which in shorthand has the form & [ M ]{ &&} + [ G ] { x } + [ K ] { x } = { f }. k 44 = 11 .142) The equations of motion (2. && & J T ϕG + J P Ω ψ G + k32 zC + k33 ϕC = M 2 ( t ). z & & J T ψ&G − J P Ω ϕG + k 41 yC + k 44 ψ C = M 1( t ).143) are written in matrix form as ⎡m 0 ⎢0 J T ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ & y 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ yC ⎫ ⎤ ⎧ &&C ⎫ ⎡ ⎥⎪ ψ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ψ ⎪ && 0 J P ⎥ ⎪ &C ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ C ⎪+Ω ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬+ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎪ zC ⎪ & z m 0 ⎥ ⎪ &&C ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎪ & ⎭ 0 J T ⎦ ⎪− ϕ C ⎪ ⎣0 − J P ⎦ ⎩− ϕ C ⎪ ⎩ && ⎭ ⎡ k11 k14 ⎤ ⎧ yC ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢k ⎥⎪ ψ ⎪ ⎪ M ⎪ ⎢ 41 k 44 ⎥⎪ C ⎪=⎪ 1 ⎪ + ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢ k 22 − k 23 ⎥ ⎪ zC ⎪ ⎪ F2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ − k32 k33 ⎦ ⎪− ϕC ⎪ ⎪− M 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ (3.

3. The solutions of these equations can be expressed in terms of complex phasors as [8] {x }= ⎧{ y }⎫ ⎧ { yc } − i { ys }⎫ iω t = e = {Φ } e iωt .153) y z 2 2 [ m ] ){ ys } − ω Ω [ g ]{ zc } = { 0 }. {( z c s iω t c − i z s ) e iω t . es and α c . z 2 [ m ] ){ z s } + ω Ω [ g ] { y c } = { 0 } . [ m ] ){ zc } − ω Ω [ g ]{ ys } = { 0 }.148 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The vector in the right-hand side has the form { f } = { Fc } cos Ω t + { Fs } sin Ω t + { F } = ⎧ ⎪ (J ⎪ = Ω2 ⎨ T ⎪ ⎪ ( JT ⎩ ⎫ − J P ) αc ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ cos Ω t + Ω m es ⎪ − JP ) αs ⎪ ⎭ m ec − m es ⎧ ⎪ − (J − J ) α ⎪ T P s ⎨ m ec ⎪ ⎪ ( JT − J P ) α c ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ M ⎪ (3.α s are the projections of e and α along the coordinate axes. equations (3. (3. ⎪ ⎪ F2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪− M 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ where ec .152) (3.151) (3.2 Natural frequencies of precession The displacements y and z can be written as in (3. leads to the eigenvalue problem ⎡ k y − ω2 [ m ] ⎢ ⎢ − iω Ω [ g ] ⎣ [ ] ⎧{ 0 }⎫ iω Ω [ g ] ⎤ ⎧{ yc } − i { y s }⎫ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ =⎨ [ k z ] − ω2 [ m ]⎥ ⎩ { zc } − i { z s }⎭ ⎩{ 0 }⎭ ⎦ (3. } For { f } = { 0 } .148) Substituting (3.145) with zero right-hand side. ⎨ { z }⎬ ⎨ { zc } − i { z s }⎬ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ (3.148) into (3.33) z = zc cos ω t + z s sin ω t = ˆ cos ( ω t + θ z ) .149) which delivers the following four equations coupled two by two ( [ k ]− ω ( [ k ]− ω ( [ k ]− ω ( [ k ]− ω y 2 [ m ] ){ yc } + ω Ω [ g ]{ z s } = { 0 }. z y = ℜe ˆ e y y = yc cosω t + y s sinω t = ˆ cos ω t + θ y . y ( ) z = ℜ e ˆ e i θ z e iω t = ℜ e z { { iθ y iω t e } }= ℜe { ( y − i y ) e }.146) describe the rotor free precession.147) ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬ sin Ω t + ⎨ ⎬. 3.150) (3. .

151) yield { yc } = −ω { ys ( [ k ]− ω } = −ω ( [ k ] − ω y y y 2 2 [m ]) [m ]) −1 −1 Ω [ g ] { z s }. ⎟ ⎠ −1 Ω [ g ]⎞ { z s } = { 0 }. by proper normalization. { zc } = β { zs }. but the natural modes of precession are planar. Equation (3.155) yields { ys } = − β { yc }. the eigenvectors are complex quantities due to the spatial character of the precession and the gyroscopic coupling. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 149 Equations (3.158) and (3. the inclination angle α = 0 and the ellipse axes are collinear with the coordinate axes. From equations (3.155) into (3. hence the precession modes are planar.154) (3.148) we obtain ⎧{ y } − i { ys }⎫ {Φ } = ⎨ c ⎬ ⎩ { zc } − i { z s }⎭ ay ⎫ ⎧ { yc } ⎫ iγ ⎧ = ( 1 + iβ ) ⎨ ⎬ =e ⎨ ⎬ ⎩− i { a z }⎭ ⎩− i { z s }⎭ (3. . Inserting (3.154) and comparing the result with equation (3.161) According to expression (3.159) { } (3.40). (3.158) into equation (3. the elements of vectors { Φ } become real in the xOy plane and pure imaginary in the xOz plane. Ω [ g ] { zc }.159) into (3.160) where { a y } and { a z } are real vectors. (3. For undamped rotors.156) (3.158) Substituting equation (3.157) Comparing equations (3.152) and (3.154) and (3.150) and (3. ⎟ ⎠ (3.148) and (3.155) Inserting (3.156) and (3.160) shows that.3. (3.157) it can be noticed that the two solutions are proportional to one another where β is a real constant.153) we obtain ⎛ [ k ] − ω 2 [ m ] − ω 2Ω [ g ] ⎜ z ⎝ ⎛ [ k ] − ω 2 [ m ] − ω 2Ω [ g ] ⎜ z ⎝ ( [ k ]− ω [ m ] ) ( [ k ]− ω [ m ] ) 2 −1 y 2 Ω [ g ]⎞ { zc } = { 0 }.149) we obtain y z β =− s = c yc z s yc zc + y s z s = 0.

163) The requirement for non-trivial solutions is [ k y ] − ω 2 [ m] ω Ω [g] or k11 − ω 2 m k 41 k14 ω Ω [g] =0 [ k z ] − ω 2 [ m] (3.164) k 44 − ω J T 2 0 0 0 ω Ω JP 0 0 ω Ω JP 0 = 0. Inserting ω = Ω into (3.166) which can be written as a generalized eigenvalue problem . The horizontal asymptotes correspond to zero angular precession of the disc for Ω → ∞ . ⎥ ⎨ ⎩− i { a z } ⎭ ⎣[ 0 ] − i [ I ]⎦ ⎩{ a z }⎭ where [ I { } { } (3. The symmetry with respect to the ω and Ω axes is due to the odd powers in equation (3.163).165). [ k z ] − ω 2 [ m ]⎥ ⎩{ a z }⎭ ⎩{0}⎭ ⎢ ω Ω[g] ⎣ ⎦ (3.150 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Using the transformation to real vectors ⎧ a y ⎫ ⎡[ I ] [ 0 ] ⎤ ⎧ a y ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎬.149) ⎣[ 0 ] i [ I ]⎦ [I ] becomes ⎡[ k y ] − ω 2 [ m ] ω Ω [ g ] ⎤ ⎧{ a y }⎫ ⎧{0}⎫ ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬.165) Figure 3. 2 k 22 − ω m − k 23 − k32 k33 − ω 2 J T The frequency equation has the form ω8 − ( A6 + B6 Ω 2 ) ω6 + ( A4 + B4 Ω 2 ) ω 4 − ( A2 + B2 Ω 2 ) ω 2 + A0 = 0.23 presents a plot of the natural frequencies of precession ω as a function of the running speed Ω . (3. equation (3. for J P > J T .162) ] is an identity matrix. and pre-multiplying by ⎡ ⎢ [0] ⎤ ⎥ . the synchronous precession critical speeds are obtained from ⎡[ k y ] − Ω 2 [ m ] Ω 2 [ g ] ⎤ ⎧{a y }⎫ ⎧{0}⎫ ⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬ 2 [ k z ] − Ω 2 [ m ]⎥ ⎩{a z }⎭ ⎩{0}⎭ ⎢ Ω [g] ⎣ ⎦ (3.

a depicts the Campbell diagram for the same rotor supported in rigid bearings. 3. ⎣ ⎦ (3. Fig. . The eigenvectors {Ψ r } define the semiaxes of the disc precession orbit at the related critical speed and the directivity of precession (forward or backward). b (first quadrant of Fig.. Unlike the rotor supported in isotropic bearings. As will be shown in section 3. 3.4. the unbalance will also excite the backward critical speeds.167) The eigenvalues Ω r give the synchronous critical speeds.24.24. The motions with angular speeds ω1 and ω3 are backward precessions.23). SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 151 (r = 1. the consideration of damping can substantially modify the shape of the diagram.23 Substituting ω = −Ω into (3. but the same critical speeds are obtained. Fig..166) become negative. The shape of the curves in the Campbell diagram from Fig. the off-diagonal elements of the matrix from equation (3. For comparison. The Campbell diagram is shown in Fig.. b is typical for lightly damped rotors. while the motions with angular speeds ω2 and ω4 are forward precessions. The points where the line ω = Ω intersects the precession natural frequency lines define the critical speeds.24.3.3.4 ) ⎡[ k y ] [ 0 ] ⎤ 2 ⎢ [ 0 ] [ k ]⎥ {Ψ r } = Ω r z ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ [ m ] − [ g ]⎤ ⎢− [ g ] [ m ] ⎥ {Ψ r }. 3.163). 3. 3.

44).25.25.169) into (3.169) Substituting (3.152 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY a b Fig. 2 − Ω [ G ]{ X c ) } + ([ K ] − Ω [ M ] { X s } = { Fs }.170) The two components of the disc translational displacements are given by equations of the form (3. The horizontal asymptotes correspond to natural frequencies of pure translatory precession.168) and (3.3 Unbalance response Considering equations (3. They are utilized for the calculation of the elliptic orbit parameters of the unbalance response. b) [2].40) and (3. .3. The rigid disc has J P > J T .33). (3. 3.25 presents separately the effects of bearing flexibility. for a synchronous excitation { f } = {Fc } cos Ω t + {Fs } sin Ω t . the steady-state response has the form { x } = { X c } cos Ω t + { X s } sin Ω t . 3.146) we obtain the algebraic set of equations ([ K ] − Ω 2 [ M ] { X c } + Ω [ G ]{ X s } = { Fc }.24 Figure 3. using equations (3. supported in isotropic bearings (Fig. 3. 3.38) to (3. ) (3.168) (3. a) and in orthotropic bearings (Fig.146). disc diametral mass moment of inertia and gyroscopic coupling on the Campbell diagram of single-disc asymmetric rotors.

3.25 . SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 153 Fig. 3.

k A1 = 333 N/μm . n2 = 761 rpm. parameters: m = 8000 kg . ζ4 = 2 k11m 2 k 22 m 2 k33 J T 2 k 44 J T (3. ζ3 = . it is considered that ζ 1 = ζ 2 = ζ 3 = ζ 4 = ζ . . some form of damping has to be taken into account. n3 = 1282 rpm.8 m. c = 0.2a Consider a rotor with an overhung disc (Model II) with the following J T = 4260 kg m 2 .171) Usually. In the left-hand side of equation (3. d = 0. l = 4 m. k B 2 = 167 N/μm . . J P = 8520 kg m 2 . 3. ζ = 0. The second critical speed is in forward (synchronous) precession.3 N/μm.3 m.146). k A2 = 667 N/μm. a diagonal damping matrix [ D ] = diag [ c11 c44 c22 c33 ] is added to the gyroscopic matrix. E = 210 GPa .26 Figure 3. k B1 = 83. ζ2 = . Fig. The others are in backward (asynchronous) precession. The intersections with the synchronous line determine the damped critical speeds: n1 = 437 rpm. Its elements are calculated assuming given values of the damping ratios ζ1 = c33 c22 c44 c11 .154 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY In order to calculate the finite amplitudes of motion at the peak response critical speeds.02 . Example 3.26 presents the Campbell diagram with the running speed on the horizontal axis.

The crossing points with the horizontal axis locate the threshold speeds where the precession orbit degenerates to a straight line. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 155 Figure 3. d presents the diagrams of the radii r f and rb of the two circular counter-rotating motions that generate the ellipse. The peaks in the major semiaxis diagram (Fig. Note that the threshold speeds are different from the critical speeds.27. Although the first and the third critical speed correspond to backward precession modes.27 d In figure 3.27.27. c shows the diagrams of the y and z components of the disc centre displacement. 3. a b c Fig. 3. The maximum value of the major semiaxis in the operating speed range is usually compared to admissible limits. b the minor semiaxis diagram is added. The two ranges with negative values define the operation speeds with backward precession produced by the unbalance. Figure 3.27.3. The ranges where the radius rb of the circle with backward motion is larger than the radius . they are excited by the rotating unbalance. At these speeds the orbit changes from forward to backward precession and vice versa. Figure 3.27 shows the unbalance response diagrams. a) locate the peak response critical speeds.

the following quadratic eigenvalue problem is obtained ( λ2 [ M ] + λr [C ] + [ K ] ) { ur } = { 0 } ( r = 1.4 ) . The complex eigenvalues have the form λ r = α r + i ω r . It is easy to see that they correspond to ranges with negative minor semiaxis in Fig.4 Effect of bearing damping Including the effect of bearing damping.176) The imaginary part ωr is the damped natural frequency (of precession) and the real part α r is an attenuation ( or growing) constant.146) become & [ M ]{ &&} + [ C ]{ x } + [ K ]{ x } = { f }. r (3. trying solutions of the form { x } = { u } eλ t . x where (3. equations (3.175) (3.3.. the damping is expressed in terms of the modal damping ratio ζr = − αr α r2 + ωr2 ≅− αr . ωr (3.. λr = α r − i ω r and are functions of the running speed Ω .172) ⎡ [ c yy ] [ c yz ] ⎤ [C ] = ⎢ ⎥+Ω ⎣ [ c zy ] [ czz ] ⎦ ⎡ [0] [ g ] ⎤ ⎢− [ g ] [ 0 ] ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (3. 3. For { f } = { 0 } .27. Usually. 3.177) . b.156 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY rf of the circle with forward precession define the speed ranges with backward precession.173) is the sum of the damping and gyroscopic matrices.174) The eigenvalues λr are real numbers for overdamped modes and complex numbers for underdamped modes.. (3.

28. d = 0.4 m.094 kg ⋅ m 2 . Fig. The end carrying a thin rigid disc with m = 16.5 kg.180) where { uc } = { ar } = ℜe { u r }. considering α r = 0 and approximating the expression (3.179) by { xr (t ) } = { uc } cos ωr t + { u s } sin ωr t (3. E = 210 GPa . 3. Sometimes it is presented together with the stability diagram α r = α r (Ω ) or the damping ratio diagram ζ r = ζ r (Ω ) .179) and describes spiralling orbits. The support has principal stiffnesses k1 = 5 ⋅ 105 N/m and k 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 N/m. and damping coefficients proportional to the related stiffness. with l = 0.28 Example 3. is flexibly supported.186 kg ⋅ m 2 . J P = 0. J T = 0. (3.3. For underdamped systems. However it is agreed to represent the orbits as incomplete (open) ellipses. 3. . the complex eigenvectors have the form { u r } = { ar } + i { br }.178) The solution for the free precession can be written as { xr (t ) } = 2 eα r t ( { ar } cos ωr t − { br } sin ωr t ) . c1 = β k1 and c2 = β k 2 . (3.3 Consider the cantilevered rotor from Fig.02 m. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 157 The Campbell diagram is a plot of the dependence ωr = ωr (Ω ). { u s } = − { br } = −ℑm { ur }. { ur } = { ar } − i { br }.

so that if the number of stations in the model is small.29 It can be seen that the curves corresponding to the first mode of precession change significantly with the bearing damping. Hopefully. not a global property.29 depict the Campbell diagrams and the diagrams of the modal damping ratio for three values of the coefficient β . with limited zones of reverse precession. 3. 3.29. . the first precession mode becomes overdamped within a certain speed range. the motion at all stations of interest having the same direction. the directivity of precession is a local. For large damping levels (Fig. However. 3. at a given speed. This enables a logical mode labeling.5 Mixed modes of precession The rotor precession is usually described by modal characteristics associated with forward and backward modes. where the corresponding peak is missing. A rotor can have mixed modes. then the mixed character of the precession is lost.158 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Figures 3. In most cases. This mode is not 'seen' in the unbalance response diagrams. a b c Fig. with both forward and backward precession coexistent at different stations. the precession of rotors in almost isotropic bearing systems can be classified as pure forward or pure backward.3. mixed modes are predominantly forward or backward. c).

the stiffness and damping coefficients are different at the both ends. then mixed in the region of curve veering. Inclusion of bearing damping can change the sequence. the damped natural frequency curves in the Campbell diagram do not cross. At the station where only one modal form crosses the rotor longitudinal axis. a mode can be forward over a given speed interval. changing to backward away of that region. and c) an asymmetric rotor with orthotropic bearings. The abrupt continuous change of mode shapes within the speed interval of natural frequency curve veering yields mixed modes. Even with physically identical bearings. . bearing orthotropy yields different rotor deflected shapes in two orthogonal directions. For reasonable amounts of dissymmetry and coupling effects. Along a natural frequency curve. The compounding of two different modes gives rise to mixed precession. a forward mode from a lower pair approaches a backward mode from a higher pair. giving rise to curve veering. Simultaneous plotting of the speed dependence of modal damping ratios helps understanding the nature of mixed modes. As a first example. a simple rotor system is taken. the mixed nature of some precession modes is lost if the motion is analyzed at a relatively reduced number of stations along the rotor. yielding either a crossing or a curve veering in the Campbell diagram. For a large class of actual rotor systems. In this case. the precession orbit degenerates into a straight line. The coupling of two (even slightly) different rotor orthogonal eigenforms yields mixed precession modes. at the same rotational speed. the deflected shapes in two orthogonal planes correspond to mode shapes plotted at two instants with a quarter of period time difference. the mode at lower frequency has backward precession and the mode at higher frequency has forward precession. The massless rigid shaft was modeled with values of E = 2 ⋅ 1015 Pa and ρ = 1 kg m3 in the computer simulation [9]. b) a symmetric rotor with orthotropic bearings.3. denoting modal coupling and compound modes. The bearing cross-coupling stiffnesses increase the gap between the natural frequencies of a backward-forward pair. This can be easier explained for conservative rotor-bearing systems that have planar precession modes. In some academic examples. In a rotor with oil-lubricated bearings. separating portions of forward and backward motion along the rotor [9]. This way. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 159 In anisotropic rotor-bearing systems. Three cases are considered: a) a symmetric rotor with isotropic bearings. the slightest asymmetry yields small differences in load and oil temperature between the two bearings. precession modes occur in pairs. Overdamped modes can transform into underdamped modes and appear in the Campbell diagram only in limited speed regions. consisting of a rigid disc attached to a massless rigid shaft supported by two identical bearings at the ends.

at 6209 rpm and 6876 rpm. due to gyroscopic effects. J T = 1. For rotor systems with isotropic bearings. The disc has a translational motion not influenced by gyroscopic effects and decoupled from the angular motion.35m ) of a massless rigid shaft and the shaft is supported by identical isotropic bearings at both ends.2 kg m 2 . In the case of unbalance excitation. Fig. backward modes cannot be excited by synchronous excitation. The critical speeds are determined as the abscissae of the crossing points with the natural frequency lines.30.4 a DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY A rigid disc is mounted at the centre (l 1 = l 2 = 0. The third and fourth ‘conical’ modes. The Campbell diagram is shown in Fig. Due to bearing isotropy the two curves start from the same point at zero rotational speed. 3. The natural frequency of the forward mode increases with rotor speed. 6 The bearing stiffness and damping coefficients are k yy = k zz = 7 ⋅ 10 N/m and c yy = c zz = 200 Ns/m . . As the rotor speed increases. hence overlaid straight lines. labeled 2B and 2F. the natural frequency of the backward mode decreases and crosses the line of the cylindrical modes.30 The synchronous excitation line is plotted with dotted line.48 Hz have natural frequencies independent of the rotational speed.8 kg m 2 . The two ‘cylindrical’ modes at 103.160 Example 3. The disc mass and mass moments of inertia are m = 30 kg. Forward modes are labeled ‘F’ while backward modes are labeled ‘B’. 3. the only one critical speed is located at the intersection with the line of mode 1F. J P = 1. are decoupled from the cylindrical modes.

3. The mode shape at t = 0 is plotted with solid line and the mode shape at t = π 2Ω is drawn with broken line. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 161 a b c d Fig. a quarter of a period later. so that the motion along the orbit takes place from the point lying on the solid line. They are plotted as incomplete (“open”) orbits to help recognizing the motion directivity. Due to bearing isotropy. 3. at t = 0 . the orbits at any station are circles. Fig.31 The precession mode shapes at 10000 rpm are shown in Fig. 3.3. to the point lying on the broken line.32 .31.

The bearing vertical stiffness coefficients are k yy = 5 ⋅ 106 N/m . 3.32 as a function of the rotational speed. Due to bearing anisotropy the two curves in a pair start from different points at zero rotational speed. They are independent of the rotational speed due to system symmetry.33. The natural frequency of the mode 2F increases with rotor speed. only one peak occurs in the diagram. but with orthotropic identical bearings . . the horizontal stiffness coefficients are k zz = 7 ⋅ 106 N/m . Example 3. the natural frequency of the mode 2B decreases and crosses the lines of the cylindrical modes. are decoupled from the cylindrical modes. As the rotor speed increases. The third and fourth ‘conical’ modes. due to gyroscopic effects. The two ‘cylindrical’ modes 1B and 1F have different natural frequencies at 88. for a 30 g mm unbalance of the disc. 3.63 Hz and 103. 3. at the natural frequency of mode 1F.48 Hz due to the bearing anisotropy.33 The Campbell diagram is shown in Fig. Fig. and the damping coefficients are c yy = c zz = 2 ⋅10 2 Ns/m [10].4 b Consider the symmetric rotor of Example 3.4 a. As expected.162 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The radius of the unbalance response orbit at the disc location is plotted in Fig.

Fig.3. a b c d Fig. denoting no coupling effects.35 . 3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 163 The synchronous excitation line intersects the natural frequency lines at the points whose abscissae determine the damped critical speeds at 5318 rpm .34 The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig.34. 3. Backward modes are more damped than the forward modes of the same pair. 3. 6209 rpm and 6341 rpm. The curves for the conical modes cross those of cylindrical modes.

The orbits of the two ‘cylindrical’ modes 1B and 1F at 88. a b Fig. 3. b . 3.36. 3. the mode shape at t = 0 is plotted with solid line and the mode shape at t = π 2Ω is drawn with broken line. 3.48 Hz are almost straight lines due to the strong bearing anisotropy and decoupling of the two motions. for a 30 g mm unbalance of the disc. 3. curve a is for the major semiaxis and curve b is for the minor semiaxis. The orbits of modes 2B and 2F are elliptical.63 Hz and 103. 3. In Fig.37 The unbalance response curves calculated at the disc station are shown in Fig.36.36.36 Fig.35. In Fig. curve r f is . to the point lying on the broken line. a . The motion along the orbit takes place from the point lying on the solid line.164 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The precession mode shapes at 10000 rpm are shown in Fig. As before.

Useful information is given by the root locus diagram (Fig.3 m. or by rb > r f . The bearing stiffness coefficients are k yy = 5 ⋅ 106 N/m . there is no coupling between modes and no compound or mixed modes of precession can occur. l 2 = 0.37). The rotor translational and angular motions are coupled. When the curves are distant of each other. 3. Curve 2B no more crosses the lines 1B and 1F and. 3. This is a plot of the damped natural frequency versus negative damping ratio. k zz = 7 ⋅ 106 N/m . for each mode of precession. The synchronous excitation line intersects the . Example 3. Fig.4 m ) . mode 2B becomes a mixed mode and tends to change into the first forward mode. while mode 1F becomes a mixed mode and tends to change into the first backward mode. veers away from the line 1F. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 165 for the forward circle radius and rb is for the backward circle radius. The two peaks indicate that only two of the three possible damped critical speeds become peak response critical speeds due to the high damping of mode 2B. near the rotational speed of 8000 rpm .3.38 The Campbell diagram is shown in Fig. and the damping coefficients are c yy = c zz = 2 ⋅10 2 Ns/m [10].37.4 b. 3. Between the two peaks there is a speed range with backward precession indicated by negative values of the orbit minor semiaxis.38. 3. but with the rigid disc mounted off the shaft centre (l 1 = 0. as in Fig. The shaft is rigid and massless.4 c Consider the rotor of Example 3. With increasing rotational speed.

according to their shapes at low rotational speeds.40 . The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig. 3. With increasing rotational speed. When the root loci are close to each other. two modes with nearly the same natural frequency and different mode shapes can combine to yield a compound mode which has mixed backward and forward precession due to the coupling between modes. curve 2B transforms into the former 1F. while 1F transforms into the former 1B and curve 1B follows the former line 2B. These transformations take place in the speed range with curve veering in the Campbell diagram.166 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY natural frequency lines at the points whose abscissae determine the damped critical speeds 5236 rpm . Fig. 3. 6051 rpm and 6532 rpm.39 The root locus diagram is presented in Fig.40.39. 3. 3. Modes are labeled as before. Fig.

to the point lying on the broken line. Such lines do not appear in Fig. 3.41 due to the small number of stations where orbits have been drawn. 3. the portions of backward and forward motion are separated by a location where the precession orbit degenerates into a straight line.42 Along the rotor. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 167 a b c d Fig. For mixed modes. 3.3.41.41 The precession mode shapes at 10000 rpm are shown in Fig. 3. a b Fig. . the precession along the ellipse is marked by B (backward) or F (forward) and takes place from the point lying on the solid line. at t = 0 . a quarter of a period later.

3. k zz = k zz = 1. diameter 90 mm .168 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The unbalance response curves calculated at the disc station are shown in Fig.2 ⋅ 108 N m . 3.11 ⋅ 10 4 Ns m [9]. 3. Again. Fig. Modes 1B and 1F have natural frequencies independent of rotational speed. the speed range with backward precession is indicated by negative values of the orbit minor semiaxis or values of rb larger than r f . 3.5 a A rigid disc is mounted at the middle of a uniform shaft (Fig. the disc translational and angular motions are decoupled. c′yy = c′yy = 2.44 m . The abscissae of the three peaks indicate the peak response critical speeds. for a 30 g mm unbalance of the disc. and yy yy c′ = c′′ = 1.43 The mass of the disc is 560 kg. Young’s modulus 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 7800 kg m 3 . zz zz The Campbell diagram is shown in Fig.1 ⋅108 N m . due to gyroscopic effects. 3.2 ⋅10 4 Ns m . When b = 0 and rb = r f the orbit degenerates into a straight line. Due to bearing orthotropy.42. .43) of length 0. the natural frequency of the mode 2B decreases and crosses the lines of the cylindrical modes. while the diametral and polar mass moments of inertia are 18 kgm 2 and 32 kgm 2 . As the rotor speed increases. respectively.4 Simulation examples Example 3. Due to the system symmetry. the two curves in a pair start from different points at zero rotational speed.44. The shaft is supported at the ends by identical bearings with the following constant coefficients: ′ ′′ ′ k ′ = k ′′ = 2.

3. Fig. 3. c′yy = 2.25 ⋅ 108 N m .4 a. backward modes are more damped than the forward modes of the same pair.5 b Consider the rotor of Example 3.05 ⋅ 108 N m . As in Example 3.45 Example 3.44 The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig. c′ = 1.15 ⋅ 10 4 Ns m . c′yy = 2. 3.15 ⋅104 Ns m .25 ⋅ 10 4 Ns m and c′′ = 1.5 a supported by bearings with slightly different stiffness and damping coefficients (Fig.45. The curves for the conical modes do not cross those of cylindrical modes. zz .3.15 ⋅108 N m .43): k ′ = 2. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 169 Fig. yy ′ k zz = 1. k ′′ = 2. zz yy ′′ ′ k zz = 1.15 ⋅ 108 N m .05 ⋅ 10 4 Ns m [9]. 3.

while curves 2B and 1B do cross each other at about 2065 rpm. 3. Fig. 3.46 for the first four modes of precession.5 a.170 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The Campbell diagram is shown in Fig. 3. though there are speed intervals with mixed modes. 1B. at 600 rpm. 3. respectively a peak.47 the damping ratio curves of modes 2B and 1F have a trough. The curves in the diagram are labeled in the usual way. Fig. 2B and 2F.46 In Fig. 1F. Curve 2B crosses the line 1F at 600 rpm and veers away from line 1B at 2065 rpm. not crossing each other.47 . as for Example 3.

Also modes 2B and 1F have a range of equal natural frequencies and this can also produce compound modes with mixed precession.49 shows the evolution of mode 1M between 1700 and 3000 rpm. 3. while mode 1B changes into 2B.48 A closer look at the shape of precession modes is useful. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 171 With increasing rotational speed. the latter becomes a conical horizontal mode. 3.48) indicates the possible coupling of modes 1B and 2B. With increasing rotational speed. especially at their evolution within the speed intervals with modal interaction. mode 2B becomes a mixed mode and changes into the first backward mode. 3. Fig. whose loci are close to each other. a b c Fig. .49 Figure 3.3. Mode 1M results from the coupling of a vertical conical mode 1B with a horizontal cylindrical mode 1F. The root locus diagram (Fig.

the vertical and horizontal conical components cross the rotor longitudinal axis at different locations.52 .172 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY a b c Fig.46) the mode is mixed. a b c Fig. Despite the crossing of natural frequency curves (Fig. 3. but at low speeds. 3. Mixed modes exist even when there is no curve veering in the Campbell diagram. It is the result of the compounding of a cylindrical vertical mode and a conical horizontal mode. 3.50 Figure 3. 3. At these points the precession orbit degenerates into straight lines that mark the change from backward to forward or vice versa. It is basically the second backward mode 2B.51 Figure 3.51 presents the evolution of mode 3M between 250 and 1000 rpm. a b c Fig.50 shows the evolution of mode 2M between 200 and 1000 rpm.

2 kg m 2 . zz zz Fig. Young’s modulus 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 7750 kg m 3 carries at the middle a rigid disc of mass 566 kg .53 .04 ⋅10 4 Ns m and c′′ = 2.43): k ′ = 1. a shows that the vertical and horizontal conical components cross the rotor longitudinal axis at different locations so that there is a portion with forward precession not revealed with only five stations. yy ′ c′ = 2.52 shows the evolution of mode 3M between 1700 and 2500 rpm. 3. to illustrate the above statements.14 ⋅ 10 4 Ns m . Its mixed nature is overlooked due to the small number of stations at which the orbit is drawn. c′yy = 1.14 ⋅ 10 4 Ns m .437 m .6 A uniform shaft of length 0. The shaft is supported at the ends by orthotropic bearings with the following constant stiffness and damping coefficients: (Fig. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 173 Figure 3.14 ⋅108 N m . 3. diametral and polar mass moments of inertia 18.24 ⋅104 Ns m [11]. A closer look at Fig. A similar rotor system with slightly different parameters is presented in the following. Horizontal stiffnesses are larger in this case than the vertical stiffnesses. c′yy = 1.04 ⋅108 N m . the precession mode is mixed. respectively.24 ⋅108 N m . k zz = 2.1 kg m 2 and 36.52. k ′′ = 1. 3.3. Example 3. yy ′ ′′ k zz = 2. At 1700 rpm the mode is apparently still backward 2B. Because the vertical component remains conical.14 ⋅108 N m . At 2100 rpm the horizontal mode becomes cylindrical. diameter 91 mm .

53 for the first four modes of precession. at 400 rpm.55 . respectively a peak. a b c d e f Fig.54 With increasing rotational speed. In Fig. Fig. while curves 2B and 1B do cross each other at about 1800 rpm. 3. not crossing each other. 3.174 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The Campbell diagram is shown in Fig. 3. mode 2B becomes a mixed mode and changes into the first backward mode 1B. while mode 1B changes into 2B. 3.54 the damping ratio curves of modes 2B and 1F have a trough.

9 m . The bearings are located at stations 1 and 6 having the following constant stiffness and ′ damping coefficients: at station 1.3.57).56 shows the evolution of mode 1M between 1900 and 2400 rpm.56 Figure 3.8 m .7 Consider a rotor with two bearings and a single disc overhung at one end (Fig. l 3 = 0. k zz = (1 3) ⋅ 109 N m .32 m . The rigid disc. Mode 3M is obtained from the coupling of a horizontal conical mode 2B with a vertical cylindrical mode 1B.55 shows the evolution of mode 3M between 1000 and 2000 rpm. 3.1 m . d 4 = 0.57 Example 3. k ′′ = (2 3) ⋅ 109 N m . polar mass moment of inertia 8520 kgm 2 and diametral mass moment of inertia 4260 kgm 2 . d1 = 0. yy ′′ c′yy = c′ = 105 Ns m . Fig.7 m . l 4 = 0. a b c Fig. 3. at the right end. and is modeled by 6 beam elements. zz yy ′ c′yy = c′′ = 105 Ns m [7]. The shaft with Young’s modulus 2.4 m . k ′ = (1 6 ) ⋅109 N m . k zz = (1 12 ) ⋅ 109 N m . is located at station 7.3 m . d3 = 0. 3. d 2 = 0. With increasing rotational speed. zz . the latter becomes a vertical cylindrical conical mode 1F. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 175 Figure 3.34 m .1 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 7800 kg m 3 has four different sections with the following lengths and diameters: l 1 = 0. with mass 8000 kg . l 2 = 2. at station 6.

3.58 The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig.58. 3. Fig. 3.58 for the first six natural modes. 3. although there is neither curve veering nor curve crossing at 2400 rpm in figure 3. Fig.176 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The Campbell diagram is presented in Fig. Modes are numbered in ascending order and labeled with their index without mentioning the directivity.59 for the same six modes.60.59 The shape of the first six modes of precession at 2400 rpm is shown in Fig. 3. The natural frequencies of modes 2 . The system has 4 mixed modes.

SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 177 and 3. are approaching each other. a b Fig. 3.61.60 The unbalance response curves calculated at the bearing stations are shown in Fig. for a 80 g mm unbalance of the disc. Mode 2 is predominantly forward (2F) and its mixed character is the result of the different crossing points of the vertical and horizontal component modes with the rotor axis. 3. as well as those of modes 4 and 5. a b c d e f Fig. belonging to different pairs. The abscissae of the five peaks indicate the peak response critical speeds.3. 3.61 . The peak due to the first mode is barely noticeable at 413 rpm.

The identical bearings are located at stations 1 and 3 having the following constant stiffness and damping coefficients k yy = 2.63 .02 kgm 2 .62). The rigid disc. Fig. 3.5 kg . 3. and c yy = c zz = 5 ⋅ 103 Ns m [12]. k zz = 4 ⋅ 107 N m . and is modeled by 4 equal length beam elements. at the right end. 3.5 ⋅107 N m .8 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Consider a rotor with two bearings and an overhung disc (Fig. polar mass moment of inertia 0. The shaft with Young’s modulus 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 8000 kg m 3 has diameter d = 50 mm and total length l = 1 m . with mass 7. is located at station 5.62 Fig.178 Example 3.04 kgm 2 and diametral mass moment of inertia 0.

3. Fig.3. 3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 179 The Campbell diagram for the first six modes is presented in Fig. 3. The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig.63.64 The root locus diagram is shown in Fig.64 for eight modes. around 13000 rpm. due to the interaction of modes 2F and 3B.63 and a curve crossing in Fig.64. Fig. 3. There is a curve veering in Fig.65 for the first six modes and speeds up to 30000 rpm. 3. 3.65 . Mode 4 is mixed. 3.

67 The unbalance response curves at the bearing stations 1 and 3 are shown in Fig. a b c d e f Fig. .66 The first six mode shapes at 10000 rpm are presented in Fig. Peaks occur at the eigenfrequencies of forward modes. 3. 3. 3. 3.67. because backward modes are relatively highly damped. 3.180 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The evolution of the mixed mode with the rotor speed is shown in Fig.66.68 for a disc unbalance of 15 g mm . a b c d e f Fig.

The first two ‘rigid body’ backward modes are overdamped and do not appear in the diagram. They interact. The curves of the first two forward modes follow closely the halffrequency excitation line. 3.69 shows the variation of the undamped natural frequencies of modes 3 to 6. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 181 a b Fig. Modes 4 (2F) and 5 (3B) have different shapes but almost equal natural frequencies.5 ⋅107 N m and k zz = 4 ⋅ 107 N m . The vertical lines indicate the bearing vertical and horizontal stiffness coefficients k yy = 2.69 In the following examples. as a function of the bearing stiffness.3. The Campbell diagrams of these systems have specific features. at 12000 rpm. 3. Fig.68 Figure 3. giving rise to a compounded mixed mode. the rotors are carried in oil-film journal bearings. The two-node flexural forward mode interacts with the .

The massless flexible shaft of diameter 25.70 The bearings have diameter D = 25. with a fully cavitated film. i. . the mode labeling for these systems is more difficult than for rotors carried by supports with constant coefficients. The stability diagrams are useful to locate the onset speed of instability. 3. and oil dynamic viscosity μ = 0.4 mm and Young’s modulus 2. the polar mass moment of inertia 1 kg m 2 and the diametral mass moment of inertia 0.7 kg m 2 . even the forward modes become overdamped and disappear from the diagram.2 μm . sometimes referred to as ‘convex cylindrical’ and ‘concave cylindrical’. In some cases. with the oil film extending only 180 0 . The rigid disc has the mass 20 kg . radial clearance C = 35.1 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 has lengths l12 = 85 mm and l 23 = 255 mm [13] and is modeled with only two elements. Generally. The damping ratio diagrams help locating this threshold speed and show also when some modes are overdamped. and the pattern of mode pairs with backward and forward precession is either changed or difficult to recognize. is shown in Fig.4 N and W2 = 53.4 mm . length L = 16 mm . Example 3. The root locus diagrams give an overview of the eigenvalue variation with the rotor speed and can be used to explain the occurrence of mixed modes of precession. 3. calculated based on Ocvirk’s short bearing assumptions [14]. Fig. The speed dependence of the stiffness and damping coefficients.70 supported in two identical journal bearings. 3.71.9 a Consider the rotor from Fig. The static loads on bearings are W1 = 142.182 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY cylindrical forward rigid body mode giving rise to compounded modes.8 N .02 Ns m 2 .e.

71 The Campbell diagram is presented in Fig. At the crossing points with the synchronous excitation line. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 183 a b Fig.72 for the first six natural modes of precession. the damped critical speeds are determined as 2186. The curves of modes 3F and 4B cross each other at about 12600 rpm but the two modes do not interact. 3. If both sliding bearings are replaced by rigid bearings then both lines disappear. 3. Modes 1F and 2F are ‘rigid body’ modes controlled by the hydrodynamic bearings and follow closely the half-frequency excitation line ω = Ω 2 .72 Modes 1B and 2B are overdamped and do not appear in the diagram. . Fig. 3.3. one of these lines disappears. 6047 and 9442 rpm. If one sliding bearing is replaced by a rigid bearing.

3. 3.74 The stability diagram is plotted in Fig. Looking at the associated point in the Campbell diagram.73 for the same 6 modes. describing the bearing instability known as the ‘oil whirl’. .73 The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig.74 for only four modes. Mode 1F becomes unstable at 10331 rpm. 3. 3. Fig.184 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. it can be seen that the whirling takes place at a frequency of about half the spin speed.

75 The shape of the first six eigenmodes at 15000 rpm is shown in Fig. 3.76 The root locus diagram for the first six modes and for speeds up to 15000 rpm is shown in Fig. indicating the loss of stability. The curve of mode 1F crosses the vertical at zero damping ratio. . The forward modes. Fig. 3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 185 a b c d e f Fig.3. with larger relative displacements in bearings.75.76. have higher damping ratio values. 3. 3.

The damped critical speeds are 2179. a b Fig. Fig.9 a using the Moens’ impedance model [15] for plain cylindrical bearings. 3.77 The Campbell diagram is presented in Fig. 6047 and 9322 rpm. The speed dependence of the bearing stiffness and damping coefficients is shown in Fig. 3.9 b DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Solve the problem of Example 3. Modes 1F and 2F are ‘rigid body’ modes and their curves follow closely . 3.79.186 Example 3.78 and the damping ratio diagram in Fig.78 Modes 1B and 2B are overdamped and do not show up in the Campbell diagram. 3. 3.77.

80 . Mode 1F becomes unstable at 10016 rpm. Fig. use of the short bearing approximation is not recommended in stability analyses. The curves of modes 3F and 4B cross each other twice. 3. 3.80.79 The stability diagram for only four modes is given in Fig. but the modes do not interact. which is lower than the onset speed of instability calculated for Ocvirk bearings. 3. Fig.3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 187 the half-frequency excitation line ω = Ω 2 . Thus.

3. 3.81 The root locus diagram in presented in Fig. 3. their shape is approximate. 3. Fig. a b c d e f Fig.82 .81. With only three nodes in the model.82 for the first six modes and speeds up to 15000 rpm.188 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The shapes of the first six eigenmodes at a rotor speed of 15000 rpm are shown in Fig.

7638 and 9519 rpm. 3. is shown in Fig.84 .9 c Consider the rotor of Example 3.9 a supported now by two-lobe bearings with L = 12. Modes 1F and 2F do not follow the halffrequency line. Fig. calculated based on data from Someya’s book [16] for L D = 0. 3.5 and a preload factor m p = 3 4 .7 mm . The curves of modes 3F and 4B do not cross each other. The speed dependence of the bearing stiffness and damping coefficients.84. 3.83. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 189 Example 3. a b Fig. The damped critical speeds are 2182.3.83 The Campbell diagram is presented in Fig. 3.

which is much higher than the onset speed of instability for cylindrical bearings. 3.86 . 3.85 for only two modes.86. 3.190 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The damping ratio diagram in presented in Fig. Mode 3F becomes unstable at 13854 rpm. 3.85 The same information is given by the stability diagram from Fig. Fig. Fig.

3. 3.07 kg .3.10 a Consider the rotor of Fig. The curve of mode 3F intersects the zero damping line at the point marking the damped natural frequency at the instability threshold. a b Fig. The rigid disc has the mass 9. 3.88 for an unbalance of 20 g mm on the disc. the polar mass moment of inertia 0.43 supported in two identical plain cylindrical bearings. Fig.0305 kg m 2 .87 The unbalance response curves calculated at the left bearing and disc locations are presented in Fig.0468 kg m 2 and the diametral mass moment of inertia 0. 3.87 for the first six modes and speeds up to 16000 rpm. The . Modes 1F and 2F are highly damped. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 191 The root locus diagram in presented in Fig. 3.88 Example 3.

The speed dependence of the stiffness and damping coefficients. Fig. is shown in Fig. The bearings have diameter 25.192 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY massless flexible shaft of diameter 22 mm and Young’s modulus 2. The damped critical speeds are 384. calculated based on Moens’ impedance model. The static loads on bearings are W1 = W2 = 44.2 μm .90.90 .4 mm . 3. 1141. 1739 and 2790 rpm.4 mm .508 m and is divided into four equal elements [17].89. clearance 203.49 N . and oil viscosity 0. Fig. 3. 3. 3.145 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 has the total length 0.0241 Ns m 2 .89 The Campbell diagram for the first four modes is presented in Fig. length 25.

Mode 3F∗ becomes unstable at 4061 rpm. 3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 193 The damping ratio diagram in presented in Fig.91 The same information is given by the stability diagram from Fig. 3. Fig. 3.92.91.92 . Fig. 3.3.

93 for speeds up to 6000 rpm.194 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The root locus diagram in presented in Fig. 3. Fig. 3.94 .93 The first six mode shapes at 3000 rpm are presented in Fig. 3. a b c d e f Fig.94. 3. The curve of mode 3F∗ intersects the zero damping line at the point marking the damped natural frequency at the instability threshold.

a b Fig.3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 195 Mode 3 ( 3F∗ ) is a convex-cylindrical mode.96 a b Fig.95 a b Fig. while mode 2 (2F) is a concave-cylindrical mode.97 . 3. 3. 3.

084 ⋅ 10 −4 m of the disc mass. 876. Mode 1F becomes overdamped beyond 1000 rpm.97 gives the diagrams of the radii of the forward and backward generating circles.98 The Campbell diagram for the first four modes of precession is presented in Fig. as in [18]. Around 3000 rpm. length L = 25. Example 3. The speed dependence of the stiffness and damping coefficients.2 mm and Young’s modulus 2.95 show the diagrams of the ellipse semiaxes. 3. while the disc orbit is elliptical. 3. The damped critical speeds are 805. is shown in Fig.10 b Consider the rotor of Example 3. Fig. radial clearance C = 1. 3. while Fig.038 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 .99. 3. Fig. The plain cylindrical bearings have diameter D = 25. calculated based on Moens’ impedance model. and oil dynamic viscosity μ = 960 ⋅ 10 −5 Ns m 2 . . the orbits in bearings are circular. Figures 3.98.196 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The unbalance response curves are calculated at locations 1 and 3 for an eccentricity of 1.10 a. 3. 1778 and 2817 rpm. The massless flexible shaft has the diameter 22.4 mm .96 presents the diagrams of the vertical and horizontal components.8796 ⋅10 −4 m . with small modifications.4 mm .

. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 197 Fig.100 The same information is given by the stability diagram from Fig.99 The damping ratio diagram in presented in Fig.101.100 for only three modes. 3.3. 3. Mode 3F∗ becomes unstable at 5180 rpm. 3. Fig. 3.

3. 3.102 The first three mode shapes at 2500 rpm are presented in Fig. 3. 3.103.101 The root locus diagram in presented in Fig. Fig. .198 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig.102 for speeds up to 6000 rpm. The curve of mode 3F∗ intersects the zero damping line at the point marking the damped natural frequency at the instability threshold.

3. 3. 3.104 show the diagrams of the ellipse semiaxes.084 ⋅ 10 −4 m of the disc mass. 3.103 The unbalance response curves are calculated at locations 1 and 3. a b Fig. Figures 3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 199 a b c Fig.104 a b Fig. while Figs. 3.3.106 give the diagrams of the radii of the forward and backward generating circles. Figs.105 present the diagrams of the vertical and horizontal components.105 . for an eccentricity of 1.

b). the polar mass moment of inertia 5.3572 ⋅ 10 −4 kg m 2 and is located at l = 22. a b Fig.107.4 mm from the right end. with backward precession at the disc and forward precession at bearings. 3. 3.200 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Around 3000 rpm. a).106 Between about 2200 and 2800 rpm. sintered bronze) bush supported on a rubber O-ring at the left inboard end.7835 ⋅ 10 −4 kg m 2 . a b Fig. At 5200 rpm the steady state precession is forward (Fig.107.11 The rotor rig of Fig. while the disc orbit is elliptical. the orbits in bearings are circular. and by an oil lubricated Lucite plain cylindrical journal bearing at the outboard end.81 kg . The flexible shaft of diameter .108 is carried by an Oilite (oil impregnated. 3. the steady state response due to unbalance is a mixed mode (Fig. the diametral mass moment of inertia 3. The rigid disc has the mass 0. 3.107 Example 3. 3.

76 ⋅ 105 N m . and 2867 rpm. L = 13 mm . . density 7860 kg m 3 and Young’s modulus 2. a b Fig. C = 120 μm . b.54 ⋅105 N m .110. 3. The Campbell diagram for the first three modes of precession is presented in Fig.59 m and is divided into six elements [19]. 3. c yy = 26.109.1 Ns m .109 The speed dependence of the stiffness and damping coefficients. μ = 0. 3. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 201 9.8 N .91 mm .06 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 has total length 0. 3. The damped critical speeds are 2648. Fig. The journal bearing parameters are D = 24. k zz = 4. calculated based on Moens’ impedance model. The static loads on bearings are W1 = 2.02784 Ns m 2 .3.108 (from [19]) The parameters of the left bearing are k yy = 4.87 Ns m and c zz = 23. is shown in Fig.38 N and W2 = 8.525 mm .

Fig.202 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. Mode 3F becomes unstable at 5070 rpm. 3.111 The same information is given by the stability diagram from Fig. .110 The damping ratio diagram in presented in Fig. 3. 3.11. 3.112.

SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 203 Fig.113 The first four mode shapes at 4000 rpm are shown in Fig.113 for speeds up to 8000 rpm.3. The curve of mode 3F intersects the zero damping line at the point marking the damped natural frequency at the instability threshold. 3. 3. . 3. Fig.114. 3.112 The root locus diagram in presented in Fig.

predominantly backward. 3.204 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY a b c d Fig. a b Fig.115. . a) and at the oil-film bearing 7 (Fig.115.0305 m of the disc mass. 3.114 Mode 3 is a mixed mode.115 The unbalance response curves are calculated at the disc location 5 (Fig. b) for an eccentricity of 0. 3. 3.

On the effect of bearing damping on the critical speeds of flexible rotors. 1952. (Irretier. Politehnica Bucureşti. Braunschweig. V. Radeş. NACA TN 20808.2.3.. H. 6. Umdruck zur Vorlesung. R.. M. pp.. Nica.-J... Editura tehnică. 1980. Mixed precession modes of rotor-bearing systems. Springer.198-219. Schwingungen in rotierenden Maschinen III. H. J.. Univ. C. New eigensolutions and modal analysis for gyroscopic/rotor systems. 1995. Y.. and Nedelcu. Mec.. Short bearing approximation for full journal bearings.30. W. 1987. Dynamics of Machinery. Rotordynamik.165-176. Journal-Bearing Databook. pp. Ceptureanu. and Pfützner...6. Modal testing theory of rotor-bearing systems. 8. 5. Darmstadt. E. T. 16. 1989/90. Influenţa amortizării lagărelor asupra turaţiilor critice ale rotorilor elastici.. Journal bearing impedance descriptions for rotordynamic applications. F. No. P. M. and Vatta. S. J. R. T. Elastisches Wuchten.. Berlin. Gh. H.. Ocvirk. Al. pp.. 2. 1984. Bhat. 15. Gasch. J of Lubrication Technology.-G. pp. Radeş. and Kirckhope. D.. Maschinendynamik. 14.59. Maschinendynamik. F. Pascovici. and Reliability in Design. Politehnic Bucureşti.. H.. and Springer. 13. 1977. pp.. Nordmann. St. Springer. Berlin. Lagăre cu alunecare. Berlin. 11. 4. 1980. Dynamic behavior of a simple rotor with dissimilar hydrodynamic bearings by modal analysis. M.. H. Kellenberger. 1995. Y. . pp 159-170.). R. Int. Childs. 1988. ASME J. Vol.101-112..-W. Radeş. 3.107. Subbiah..175. and Sankar. Modal Analysis Conf. 1994. Jei. M.903-911. Vol.42. SIMPLE ROTORS IN FLEXIBLE BEARINGS 205 References 1. Part 1: Undamped systems. pp. 9. Springer. Springer. Stress. eds. and Kim. and van Leeuwen. (ed. N.. B. 1991. Wölfel. Berlin.. D. Kluwer Academic Publ. ASME Journal of Vibration.. 12. of Vibration and Acoustics.. Dordrecht. T. p. Sound Vib.2. G. Cerc. Wang.267-269. W. 1980. M.. Vol. 7. 1993. H. A lubricated bearing element for FEM rotor dynamics.. Genta. 1975.3. Vol. Bucureşti. Moens. Proc. Radeş.115. Constantinescu... Someya. Vol. No. Lee... 17. 10.). April 1993. Vibration Analysis of Rotors. Vol. April 1985. pp 969-975. 153-164. Buletinul Inst. R. Krämer. Acoustics. H. No. Şt. Vieweg. Apl.

Ibrahim. R.A. AMDVol. A. and Van Campen. B. and Rao. eds. De Kraker. L. S.. Symposium on Nonlinear and Stochastic Dynamics. WAM of ASME. N. R. Instability in Rotating Machinery.192.206 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 18. NASA CP 2409. B. Bhat. H. Steady-state behaviour of flexible rotor dynamic systems with oil journal bearings..Bajaj. DE-Vol. Fey.78. Sankar. T. Namachchivaya. . B. H. pp. 1985.. Van de Vorst. J.. Proc. R. (A. D.S.. E..). 1994. S. Backward whirl in a simple rotor supported on hydrodynamic bearings.K. R. 19.. New York. Subbiah.107-114..

the disc mass properties or the shaft geometry. 4. In the prediction (design) phase of rotor dynamic analysis. When the bearings have different stiffnesses. the associated undamped isotropic system is used for critical speed computation. a single mean value is considered.4. and 4) the response to transient excitation such as blade loss.1 Effect of support flexibility The simplest rotor with distributed mass consists of a shaft with uniform cross-section. they can be shifted outside this range by modifying bearing and support stiffnesses. 4. over the whole operating range of the machine. . ROTOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS In order to understand the dynamic response of a rotating machine it is necessary to have information on the following aspects of its behavior: 1) the lateral critical speeds of the rotor-bearing-pedestal-foundation system.1 Undamped critical speeds For lightly damped rotor systems. the main concern is the placement of critical speeds with respect to the machine operating speed.1. In order to ensure smooth and safe operation.1 shows the influence of bearing flexibility on the first four lateral critical speeds of the undamped rotor system. the threshold speed for stable whirling due to the rotor/bearing and/or working fluid interaction. the bearing span. 3) the rotor onset speed of instability. most standards require at least 15% separation margin between the operating speed and the critical speeds.e. 2) the precession orbits as a response to different unbalance distributions. simply supported at the ends on flexible bearings of equal stiffness k B 2 . i. Figure 4. When the critical speeds are within the undesirable range.

1 The third and fourth critical speed ratios first exhibit a rapid decrease with increasing bearing flexibility and then level out and asymptotically approach values of 2. . 4.25. the ratio of the rotor critical speed on flexible bearings to the first critical speed on rigid bearings ω 1 ( k B = ∞ ) is plotted against the dimensionless flexibility parameter deflection of bearings.1. These two modes are referred to as the first and second flexible “free-free” modes of the system. from those corresponding to rigid bearings to the ‘cylindrical’ and ‘conical’ rigid-body mode shapes. At the same time. the associated mode shapes gradually transform.27 and 6. The first and second critical speed ratios show a continuing decrease with increasing bearing flexibility. [δ ( g B 2 ω1 )] 12 . 4. where δ B is the static Fig.208 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY In Fig.

as shown in Fig. calculated as . rpm. and the vertical scale is rotor speed. the horizontal scale represents support stiffness.2. For relatively highly damped rotors. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 209 In Fig.2 4. 4. The curves are drawn calculating the first few lateral critical speeds for different values of an average constant stiffness of the bearings. 4. N m .3. In such a chart. the first four critical speed ratios are plotted against the dimensionless stiffness parameter δ B [ (g 2 ω1 )] −1 2 .1. an equivalent dynamic stiffness is used.4.2 Critical speed map A convenient means for analyzing the influence of rotor support dynamic properties on the dynamic performance of a rotor-bearing system is by a critical speed map. 4. Fig.

3 shows a rotor having a “soft” support in the horizontal direction. and a “harder” stiffness in the vertical direction. Such a shift can be accomplished by a small geometric change in . respectively. 4. In the vertical direction. one should not design the machine to operate at the critical speed. To determine the actual critical speeds.4. hence the vibration amplitude. In this position. DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY (4. The lower stiffness mode shape in the horizontal direction at the first critical speed is almost cylindrical. There are two ways that this can be avoided: 1) change bearing stiffness.1) where k and c are the average stiffness and damping coefficients. higher support stiffness causes this rotor to be almost simply supported. Fig. But few actual bearings retain constant stiffness with speed change. 4. The intersections between the rotor curves and the bearing characteristic are the critical speeds for the actual rotor in its bearings. and Ω is the rotor angular speed.210 kd = k2 + ( Ω c )2 . The first method works when the support stiffness curves cross the critical speed curves in the sloped region (Fig. k yy .3 (from [1]) In order to minimize the rotor precession radius. it is necessary to plot the bearing stiffness versus speed characteristic over the rotor critical speed lines. Figure 4. an undesirable resonance can be shifted upward and downward in frequency by changing the support stiffness. a). k zz . 2) change rotor geometry.

The support stiffness curves are in the flat part of the critical speed curves. The shaft is much more flexible than the bearing supports.4.4 (from [1]) High bearing stiffness (Fig.5) or change the .5 (from [1]) Rotors with stiff bearings operating near criticals change the engineer options to the rotor shaft. He can modify the shaft diameter (Fig. 4. 4. b) is undesirable. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 211 the bearings such as decreasing the clearance or increasing the preload to raise the critical speed (10 to 20%). 4. a b Fig. where simple geometric bearing changes have minor effects on resonance.4. Fig. 4.

For other bearings having high damping. 4. In some applications. The critical speed map provides a useful guide to the dynamic performance of rotor-bearing systems. Many machines are designed to work between the second and the third critical speed where. bearing stiffness alone does not determine rotor behaviour. especially at high speeds. there is the largest speed range between criticals. The first two ‘rigid-body’ precession modes have relatively large orbit radii in soft bearings so that the motion at the critical speeds can be completely damped and the rotor passes through the critical without noticeable vibrations. Apart from showing just undamped critical speeds.7 shows such a diagram for a 15 MW synchronous electrical . in the region of soft bearings.6. Bearings with vertical preloading on the pad are ‘more anisotropic’ than the bearings with loading between pads. 4.6 (from [1]) Critical speed maps are also constructed for machines on more than two bearings. An increase in resonance in the asymptotic region of stiffness-speed curves is dependent on rotor construction. and for externally pressurized gas bearings. Damping plays an equally important part. Figure 4. Attempts to alter resonance conditions in this region by bearing stiffness changes are often doomed to failure. the insensitivity of the third critical speed to support stiffness permits a range of operating speeds that does not traverse any of the critical speeds.212 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY bearing span. Fig. oil lubricated hydrodynamic journal bearings. especially for lightly damped machines such as those in rolling element bearings.g. e. The critical speed map is particularly useful for rotors in tilting pad bearings. as shown in Fig. it shows only possible critical speeds.

Fig. but the difference between the corresponding mode shapes is small. The hatched area marks the speed range below onethird the first critical speed for rigid supports ( α = 0 ).8. In the expected range of bearing flexibility α = 1 − 2 mm MN . 4. 4. The rigid coupling places a firm restraint on the shaft end. b. changing the critical speed. 4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 213 motor without slip rings. but occur at different speeds. 4. The first two mode shapes of the generator in three bearings (as it is balanced) are shown in Fig. Figure 4.4. where the mode shapes are also shown for various bearing flexibilities.9.9 shows the differences in the mode shape forms of a turbogenerator. the first critical speed is 2100 − 2400 rpm and the other critical speeds are above the maximum operating speed of 5000 rpm [2]. .7 (from [2]) Another critical speed map for a generator rotor on three bearings (used for balancing) is presented in Fig. coupled and uncoupled. a.9. The first and second mode shapes of the generator alone are recognized in the first and fifth mode shapes of the shaft line. The first five mode shape forms and the corresponding critical speeds of the shaft line of the generator G coupled with the turbine T are shown in Fig.

9 (from [3]) .214 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. 4. 4.8 (from [3]) Fig.

10 shows the critical speed map for an industrial turbine rated 50 MW.10 (from [4]) . turbine T and exciter E . ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 215 Figure 4. 4. The mode shapes of the shaft line show the predominance of each component – generator G.4.at the respective critical speed. Fig. Comparing the operating speed of 3600 rpm with the critical speed lines it is concluded that the practical region of bearing flexibility is between 5 and 10 μm tf .

The larger the displacement. to avoid excessive vibration. the following important conclusions are useful. This is especially true when trying to specify the location of second and third modes for the purpose of meeting specification on their closeness to maximum continuous operating speeds. API Standards. Undamped critical speeds calculated taking into account the bearing support stiffness are lower than those predicted by rigid support analysis. thus. the more likely the mode shape nodes will be displaced from the bearings. nor should it be within 10 per cent of any operating speed. the larger the damping force. Undamped and damped critical speeds are different from the speeds of peak steady-state unbalance response. This relative motion produces a velocity-dependent force. as required by. For special-purpose steam turbines. the percentage deviation of the first critical lies within a range of ± 6% . the API Standard 612 [7] requires a 10 per cent margin for rigid-shaft rotors while the first critical speed of a flexible-shaft rotor should not exceed 60 per cent of the maximum continuous speed. relative motion between the bearing and shaft will occur at the critical speeds. The plotting of undamped critical speeds versus static stiffness in order to predict peak response speeds can be very misleading and should be avoided. Flexible-shaft compressors must operate with the first critical speed at least 15 per cent below any operating speed. With the nodes displaced from the bearings. The amount of increment depends on the degree to which the undamped critical speeds are depressed from the rigid support criticals and on the location of the nodal points with respect to the bearing centre lines. The same conditions are imposed by API Standard 613 [6] for gear units. The second lateral critical speed must be 20 per cent above the maximum continuous speed. the first lateral critical speed of rigid-shaft compressors must be at least 20 per cent higher than the maximum continuous speed. damped critical speeds and peak response speeds. The less stiff the bearings are relative to the shaft. Bearing damping (inherent in hydrodynamic bearings) has the effect of raising the undamped critical speeds. In general. . Bearing damping does not raise the undamped critical speeds if these are close to rigid support critical speeds. for example. This requires unbalance response analyses. the variations may be significantly greater than 6 percent. According to the API Standard 617 [5]. the larger the velocity and. For higher critical speeds. Damped critical speeds will be determined using the Campbell diagrams. It is of paramount importance to distinguish among undamped critical speeds.216 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY In practice.

so that they can be overlaid to obtain the critical speeds of the combined system.3 Influence of stator inertia An interesting application of a critical speed map is the selection of bearings for a balancing facility [3]. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 217 4.12.12. 4. instead of frequency. 4. Plotting the speed versus flexibility in semi-logarithmic coordinates (Fig. Fig. as in Fig. the bearing dynamic characteristic encompassing both stiffness and mass effects is obtained. b).4.11.1. . the bearing dynamic flexibility (ratio of deflection to force amplitude) can be plotted versus speed.12. Figure 4. a. It has the same format as the critical speed map of a rotor mounted in idealized elastic bearings (springs).11 (from [3]) Neglecting the damping. Figure 4. The driving point displacement is plotted against the excitation frequency for constant amplitude of the sinusoidal excitation force.11 shows a resonance curve measured on a bearing pedestal using a vibration exciter. transformed as in Fig. The speed-flexibility curve of the bearing from Fig. 4. 4. 4. the quality factor being Q = 14 . a shows the critical speed map for the rotor of a turbo generator rated 130 MVA ( 60 Hz ) . The narrow bandwidth and the sharp phase change at resonance indicate practically negligible damping. is overlaid.13.

two critical speeds lie very close to the overspeed. 4100 and 4400 rpm. a b Fig.218 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY a b Fig. If the bearing pedestal is the softest element in the chain.13 (from [3]) The bearings are too ‘soft’. which is undesirable. In the range from zero to slightly above overspeed (4320 rpm) there are four critical speeds. then it should be stiffened. 4. at 1000. Unfortunately. making the balancing difficult.12 The cross-over points of the two curves give the critical speeds for the combined rotor-bearing system. 2900. 4. .

and c) tabular values of the eight dynamic dimensionless coefficients as a function of either speed or the Sommerfeld number.. The dynamic characteristics of a bearing can be represented by four stiffness and four damping coefficients. Spline interpolation is used in the last case for calculations at speeds not included in the initial data. f z are the components acting in the y .13. as for most hydrodynamic bearings. This leaves only two critical speeds. They are determined solving the eigenvalue problem of the linearized damped rotor system. as shown in Chapter 6. In this case. For journal bearings.. the main concern is the computation of damped critical speeds and their associated damping ratios. c zz ⎦ ⎩ z ⎭ & (4. In the following applications. 4. in the same directions. at 1000 and 2900 rpm.4. the eight dynamic coefficients k yy .. When the damping is significant. Operating a rotor at or near a forward critical speed causes large and potentially damaging deflections and should be avoided.2) where f y . c yy . z directions. having a higher natural frequency of 128 Hz (7690 rpm). z are the journal displacements and velocities. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 219 Figure 4. respectively. y . b shows the critical speed map of the same rotor in which the speed-flexibility characteristic of another stiffer bearing is overlaid. c zz are functions of the Sommerfeld number (see Chapter 6). the bearing coefficients can be assumed to be constant and with the cross coupling coefficients equal to zero. For rolling element bearings.. ...2. well below the operating speed and the overspeed. three kinds of data will be used for hydrodynamic bearings: a) the Moens’ impedance model [8] and b) the Ocvirk short bearing model [9] for plain circular bearings. the bearing dynamic flexibility is almost constant 5 μm t f . z & & and y ..2 Damped critical speeds Bearing damping shifts the critical speeds to larger values. as given in Someya’s book [10]. The forces acting on the shaft journal can be expressed as in (1.1 Linear bearing models The nonlinear characteristics of the sliding bearings can be linearized at the static equilibrium position. k zz . 4.1) ⎧− f y ⎫ ⎡k yy ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ − f z ⎭ ⎣ k zy k yz ⎤ ⎧ y ⎫ ⎡c yy ⎨ ⎬+ k zz ⎥ ⎩ z ⎭ ⎢ c zy ⎦ ⎣ c yz ⎤ ⎧ y ⎫ & ⎥⎨ ⎬ .

3) in the state space form & [ A ]{ q } + [ B ]{ q} = { 0} . where [ G ] is the skew-symmetric gyroscopic matrix. 0⎥ ⎦ {q} = ⎧ ⎨ & x⎫ ⎬. x (4.2 Equations of damped motion Rotor-bearing systems are modelled as an assemblage of rigid discs. stiffness and damping matrices are established (see Chapter 5). but it can be unsymmetrical when the internal damping or structural damping due to shrink fits is taken into account.4) [ A]= ⎡ ⎢ M ⎣0 0⎤ .2. I⎥ ⎦ [ B]= ⎡ ⎢ C ⎣− I K⎤ .6) ( λ [ A ] + [ B ] ){ y } = { 0 } .220 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 4. ⎩x⎭ (4. they can be assembled to obtain the global system matrices. The damping matrix [ C D ] is usually symmetric. the stiffness matrix [ K ] is usually unsymmetrical due to the cross coupling terms of hydrodynamic bearings and the clearance excitation factors.2. (4.3) where { x } is the global vector of nodal coordinates and [ C ] = [ C D ] + Ω [ G ] . Ω is the rotational speed.3).4) of the form { q } = { y } eλ t we obtain the linear eigenvalue problem (4.3 Eigenvalue problem of damped rotor systems It is convenient to write the system equation (4. and [ C D ] is the damping matrix. [ M ] is the symmetric mass matrix. In (4. 4. The damped critical speeds and system stability limits are determined from the homogeneous form of the equations of motion & [ M ]{ &&} + [ C ]{ x } + [ K ]{ x } = { 0} .5) On trying a solution to equation (4. distributed mass and stiffness shaft elements. and discrete bearings and seals.7) . Once the element mass. where the matrices [ A ] . [ B ] and the vector { q } are defined as (4.

{ u r } = { ar } − i { br } (4.8) are real numbers for overdamped modes and complex numbers for underdamped modes. the complex eigenvalues must occur in complex conjugate pairs and have the form λr = α r + iω r . the damping is expressed in terms of the modal damping ratio ζr = − αr α r2 2 + ωr ≅− αr . ⎩ { ur } ⎭ (4.9) is an unsymmetrical real matrix.2. Because the matrix has real elements. (r = 1. ⎩ { ur } ⎭ { yr } = ⎨ ⎧ λr { u r } ⎫ ⎬. −1 (4.4.13) so that only the lower half is considered. the complex eigenvectors have the form { yr } = ⎨ where ⎧ λr { ur } ⎫ ⎬.8) ( − [ A] −1 [ B ] )= ⎢ − [ M ] [C ] [I ] ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ − [M ] −1 [ K ] ⎤ ⎥ [0 ] ⎥ ⎦ (4. ωr (4. λr = α r − iω r and are functions of the rotational speed Ω . Usually.10) The imaginary part ω r is the damped natural frequency (of precession) and the real part α r is an attenuation (or growth) constant. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 221 Since matrix [ A ] is a positive definite real symmetric matrix and [ B ] is an arbitrary real matrix....4 Campbell diagrams . 4.12) { u r } = { ar } + i { br }.) (4.3. the eigenvalues λr of equation (4. the generalized eigenvalue problem (4. 2 .11) For underdamped systems..7) can be reduced to the standard form (− [ A] where −1 [ B ] ){ y } = λ { y } . Due to the generally unsymmetrical matrices [ C ] and [ K ] .

Mixed modes (M) are difficult to label.14 shows a typical Campbell diagram for a multi-mass flexible rotor.222 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Plots of the damped natural frequencies ω r as a function of the rotor speed Ω are called precession speed maps. The speed-dependent bearing coefficients. require the calculation and use of precession mode shape forms for the proper labeling of modes in the Campbell diagram. Figure 4. the rotor precession is usually described by forward (F) and backward (B) modes. 4. or indicate the two basic components of a compounded mode which influence each other to give rise to the M mode. For actual rotors. softening the B mode (lowering its natural frequency) and stiffening the F mode (increasing its natural frequency).14 In some cases. It is common practice to plot also the damping ratios versus the rotor speed.5. Fig. These plots will be referred to as the damping ratio diagrams. One can either mention the percent of F and B motion along the rotor stations. The gyroscopic effect splits a B and F mode pair. with mixed B and F precession. the normal sequence of B and F modes can change. As shown in Section 3. the high damping levels and the formation of compounded modes. When these plots contain the excitation lines overlaid they are referred to as interference diagrams or Campbell diagrams. .3. The stator anisotropy gives rise to pairs of backward and forward modes. it is better to use a mode numbering based on the index of the eigenfrequencies (sorted in ascending order) and not based on the mode directivity B or F.

14) by (4. This way. For κ ≅ 1 2 . (4. One approach for determining critical speeds is to use the diagram of damped natural frequencies versus speed and overlap all excitation frequency lines of interest. marking the intersection points of the two families of curves.4) with a particular root substituted { xr (t ) } = 2eα r t ( { ar } cos ωr t − { br } sin ωr t ) . ω = 2Ω is the misalignment excitation line.15 shows a typical precession mode shape. However it is agreed to represent the orbits as incomplete (open) ellipses. An excitation frequency line has an equation ω = κ Ω . considering α r = 0 and approximating the expression (4. ω = Ω is the synchronous excitation line. . Figure 4. When Ω equals Ω r . the excitation frequency κ Ω r creates a resonance (critical) condition.2.4. The intersection of this line with the damped natural frequency curve ω r defines the damped critical speed Ω r . 4. Their abscissae determine the damped critical speeds. the directivity of the motion along each orbit is from the solid line to the broken line. while the points at a quarter of a period later are connected by a broken line.15) { xr (t ) } = ℜe { u r } cos ω r t − ℑm { u r } sin ω r t . ω = Ω 2 is the half-frequency subharmonic excitation line due to oil whirl in plain bearings. It is a line of slope κ passing through the origin of the Campbell diagram. For κ = 1 . It is common practice to plot spatial precession mode shapes by first drawing an ellipse at each station. For κ = 2 . the points corresponding to t = 0 are connected by a solid line. usually due to mass unbalance.14) which describes spiralling orbits. then connecting the points on the ellipses at all stations along a rotor (at a given time t). ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 223 A critical speed of order κ is defined as the rotor speed for which a multiple of that speed coincides with one of the system natural frequencies of precession.5 Orbits and precession mode shapes A damped mode shape can be solved from equation (4. In the following examples.

In machines with journal bearings. As shown in Example 3. these criticals are slightly different from the damped critical speeds and depend on the location along the rotor where they are calculated. Both are ‘possible’ critical speeds.1. [12]. For a turbine shaft. 4. a quality grade G2. The abscissae of peaks in the plots of the unbalance response at a rotor station as a function of the rotational speed determine the so-called peak response critical speeds. 4. and ellipses degenerated into straight lines. The largest orbit radius (major semiaxis for ellipses) is an indication of the severity of rotor precession. Mixed modes are described in Section 3. as far as nothing is said about the level of damping. Figure 4.224 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig.15 There are ellipses with forward precession (denoted F).16 shows an example of unbalance response numerical simulation for an industrial turbine rotor. .5. indicate the peak response critical speeds. the relative motion between journal and bearing is measured with proximity transducers. First. for a given unbalance magnitude and location. Of practical interest are the rotational speeds at which the rotor response has the largest value.5 is usually selected.3 Peak response critical speeds Undamped and damped critical speeds have been defined based on the coincidence of an excitation frequency with a rotor natural frequency. The peaks in the diagrams of the steady state synchronous response at a rotor section.3. ellipses with backward precession (denoted B). the total unbalance is estimated based on existing standards on permissible residual unbalance values (ISO 1940) [11].

(4. as in Figs. 4. Using a finite element model of the rotor.000 = ≈ π nN nN nN 30 [ μm ] (4. The total unbalance is U = me = 24. Apart from the first three modes of vibration. For a turbine operating at 3000 rpm. Then. 4. Fig.000 ⋅ m nN [ mm ⋅ g ] .16) where n N is the operating speed .16.5 ⋅ 1000 23.4. the vibration produced by the overhang half couplings is also considered. kg.16. .17) where m is the mass of the rotor section between two bearings. the worst unbalance distribution for each mode is considered. 4. subdividing the total unbalance into suitable individual unbalance components. a − d . e. usually all modes below the trip speed and the mode just above the trip speed. the first modes of lateral vibration are calculated. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 225 The value G = 2. the permissible residual unbalance is U = 8m [mm g]. rpm.885 24. The amplitude A is calculated as the major semiaxis of the precession elliptical orbit.16 (from [12]) The result of the unbalance response calculation at the left bearing location is shown in Fig.5 mm/s corresponds to a centre of gravity offset e= G ω = 2. Each unbalance distribution results in a different amplitude versus speed curve.

e. the peak at n2.2 are the critical speeds for the first unbalance distribution. n2. In figure 4.1 and n2.16.2 higher than A lim is beyond the operating speed range. (4. .2 are the critical speeds for the second unbalance distribution. n 1.16. e. In Fig.18) Taking a safety factor of 1. Fig. as a limit of 'good' vibration performance. the limit value is established at A lim = smax A 1 . 4.226 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The positions of the amplitude peaks along the horizontal axis indicate the peak response critical speeds.1 and n 1.19) For a turbine operating at 3000 rpm. 4.7 = 1400 nN [μm] . The amplitudes of the unbalance response have to be compared with limit values given by guidelines and standards for the operating speed n N . a maximum value of the journal orbit radius smax A = 2400 nN [μm] . The guideline ISO 7919-2 [13] indicates. A lim = 26 μm . (4.7. The condition A ≤ A lim must be satisfied at all speeds up to n N .17 (from [12]) The effectiveness of the unbalance response calculation is illustrated in the following by means of an example concerning a turbine rotor used for mechanical drive with variable operating speeds [12].

According to Fig. in the horizontal and vertical directions. b. The softer the oil film is in relation to the shaft rigidity. while α r < 0 is a decaying factor. The operating behavior of the shaft was smooth. The unbalance response calculation confirmed the observed operating behavior. the rotor reaches the instability threshold. The average value of oil film flexibilities of both bearings for the first mode is α v =1.3 mm/MN in the vertical direction and α h =3. The solution (4. The corresponding imaginary part defines the precession frequency of the incipient rotor instability. 4. n s . The commissioning report. however. A positive damping exponent indicates instability.17. the whirling motion is along a spiral with growing radius. there are two unbalance response peaks.4 Stability analysis The stability of a linear rotor-bearing system depends on the damping exponent α r (4. and the second at 5000 rpm with a predominant vertical response. bearing housing vibrations are 1− 3 μm .7 mm/MN in the horizontal direction. Shaft vibration amplitudes of both bearings show absolutely no resonance peaks near the critical speeds (solid lines in Fig. Despite this. 4.14) shows that α r > 0 is a growth factor.17. As shown in Fig.17.10). the whirl being along a spiral with decreasing radius. the more the shaft moves in its bearing so that oil film damping becomes fully effective. The rotational speed at the threshold of instability. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 227 The critical speed map for the first two modes of vibration is shown in Fig. b). there are two undamped critical speeds within the speed range from 2600 to 5800 rpm. 4. since in this case it was short and quite rigid and was also provided with a soft oil film. a. Critical speeds could not be determined" [12]. The turbine must therefore be operated at both critical speeds which is inadmissible according to the conventional critical speed design considerations. the first at 3250 rpm with a predominant horizontal response. Turbine shaft amplitudes are 8 − 10 μm . When the real part of one of the roots changes from negative to positive. is called the onset speed of instability. there are two critical speeds in the operating speed range which can be determined if the unbalance response is calculated with the oil film damping reduced to 10% (dotted lines). α r = 0 .17. 4.4. . 4. a. the first at 3250 rpm and the second at approximately 5000 rpm. stated: "Turbine operating behavior is very good irrespective of load and speed.

and . The oil film wedge drives the journal within the bearing at slightly less than half the running speed. The results of the linear theory predict the onset speed of instability but do not indicate the degree of instability.e.228 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY In most applications. drives the rotor in an orbital motion. the rotor whirls in its first forward precession mode. The self-excited motion is along a spiral with increasing radius until is limited by nonlinear effects. b) misaligning the bearing purposely to achieve greater loading. using pressure dams and pockets. A sliding bearing can be made stable by increasing its natural frequency or by increasing the bearing eccentricity ratio ε = e C . when the system becomes unstable. where e is the journal eccentricity and C is the radial clearance. A common type of instability for rotors with oil-lubricated bearings is the “oil whirl”.20) where R = D 2 is the bearing radius. neither the violence of the motion at onset nor the growth of the unstable motion with increasing speed. hence the name of “half-frequency whirl”. away from its equilibrium position. Changing the natural frequency of the bearing is considerably more difficult than adjusting the ε ratio. there is a subsynchronous component to the rotor motion whose amplitude diverges exponentially with time and is a forward motion. The onset speed of instability always exceeds the rotor first critical speed. The following changes have a tendency to decrease the Sommerfeld number: 1) increasing the bearing average pressure p = W L D by: a) grooving the bearing circumferentially to reduce the surface loading area. Most of the destabilizing forces in rotor systems are “cross-coupled” in two directions. μ is the oil dynamic viscosity and N = Ω 2π is the journal rotational frequency. Above this speed. C is the bearing radial clearance. L is the bearing length. A radial deflection of the shaft. gives rise to a tangential force which. Below n s the rotor motion is stable and synchronous. The latter can be increased by decreasing the Sommerfeld number (see Chapter 6) or by decreasing the bearing length/diameter ratio. The Sommerfeld number is defined as S=μ NLD⎛ R⎞ ⎜ ⎟ . i. W ⎝C ⎠ 2 (4. if it is larger than the opposite damping force. The motion associated with an instability becomes unbounded in time. The destabilizing force is proportional to the shaft deflection and grows larger as the radius of the whirl grows.

The uniform shaft of diameter 80 mm has lengths l 1 = l 3 = 0. For each circular sector an oil wedge is formed producing a radial pressure distribution giving rise to forces that centre the rotor. The eccentricity ratio can be increased by preloading. Fig. Young’s modulus 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 8000 kg m3 . which improves the stability (see Chapter 6). Plain cylindrical bearings have been replaced by two-. The identifying frequency of this condition is either slightly less than or slightly greater than half the running-speed frequency. 4. With increasing speed. the difference of cross-stiffness coefficients k yz − k zy decreases with decreasing Sommerfeld number. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 229 c) changing the valve-opening sequence to increase the loading due to partial admission bearing reaction. becoming an oil whip. .4. This type of bearing has zero cross-coupling stiffness coefficients so that it is theoretically completely stable. At high Sommerfeld numbers.3 m . 2) increasing the bearing clearance.2 m . increasing the difference.18. three. the coefficient k zy has negative values. where the circular arcs are displaced towards the bearing centre to obtain the preloading. the oil whirl frequency increases until it reaches the natural frequency of the rotor-bearing system when it dwells on this frequency. For plain cylindrical bearings. 3) increasing the bearing temperature which reduces the oil viscosity. Bearings operating at speeds with positive k zy values are recommended. This observation led to the construction of multilobe bearings.18 The increase of the onset speed of instability by changing the bearing type was studied [14] for the rotor from Fig. also called resonant whirl.or four-lobe bearings with improved stability. 4. l 2 = l 4 = 0. stabilizing it. Changing from sleeve type journal bearings to tilting-pad bearings also eliminates oil whirl.

J T = 0. J P = 0. 12.19 for the given rotor configuration. radial clearance C p = 300 μm and oil dynamic viscosity 5 ⋅ 10−3 N s m 2 .05 kg m 2 . The onset speeds of instability are 9.332 rpm for cylindrical bearings with pressure dam. 9.244 rpm for 4-lobe bearings.760 rpm for 2-lobe bearings.220 rpm for cylindrical bearings with two axial grooves.230 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The three identical discs have the following mass and mass moments of inertia: m = 15 kg. the preload factor is m p = 1 − Cb C p = 3 4 .19 (from [14]) The stability diagrams for six different bearings are overlaid in Fig.389 rpm for 3-lobe bearings and 14. Fig.155 rpm for cylindrical bearings without axial grooves.5.1 kg m 2 . 4. where C b is the assembled clearance and C p is the machined clearance. When applicable. The speed dependence of the bearing stiffness and damping coefficients was taken from [10]. 11. The bearings have the length/diameter ratio 0. 12. . 4.

0646 kg m 2 . Example 4. k yz = k zy = 0 . ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 231 4. It was divided into 13 beam finite elements of length 0. J P1 = 0. m 3 = 55. Fig.3 m and diameter 0.20 The three rigid discs. J P 2 = 0. c yy = 7 ⋅102 Ns m .123 kg m 2 .20) is considered in this example [15].58 kg.171 kg m 2 . located at stations 3. 4. The two identical orthotropic bearings are located at stations 1 and 14.94 kg. c zz = 5 ⋅102 Ns m .498 kg m 2 . The numerical results are dependent on the spatial discretization error (number of finite elements in the model) and the speed resolution (number of speeds in a given interval). J T 2 = 0.976 kg m 2 . and have the following stiffness and damping coefficients: k yy = 7 ⋅ 107 N m . J T 3 = 0. have the following masses and mass moments of inertia: m 1 = 14.602 kg m 2 . J T 1 = 0. c yz = c zy = 0 . J P 3 = 1. m 2 = 45.13 kg. k zz = 5 ⋅107 N m .1 m each. 4.4. The shaft of length 1.1 A simply supported rotor with three discs (Fig. 6 and 11.1 m has the Young’s modulus 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and the mass density 7800 kg m3 .5 Simulation examples In the following. examples of rotor dynamic analysis are given for selected rotor models taken as benchmark examples. .

4. the gyroscopic effect makes the two lines in a pair to become more . 4.22. and the upper with forward precession. The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig. With increasing mode index.232 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. the lower mode in a pair with backward precession.21 The Campbell diagram for the first 10 natural modes is shown in Fig.21. 4.22 The precession modes occur in pairs. Fig. 4.

a b c d e f g h i j k l Fig.23 Twelve precession mode shapes at 25000 rpm are shown in Fig. etc. 3798 . The orbits at any station are ellipses due to bearing anisotropy. 4. 16769. 10017. 11278. The synchronous excitation line (dotted line) intersects the natural frequency lines at the points whose abscissae determine the damped critical speeds 3620 . 4. The line 5B crosses the line 4F so that beyond 20000 rpm the mode ranking is changed. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 233 divergent.4. Modes are labeled according to their order at low rotational speeds. 26604 rpm. The mode shape at .23. 24397.

Fig. c′yz = c′ = 0 . yy yz ′ ′ c′yy = 6 ⋅103 Ns m . k zz = 4 ⋅107 N m . c′yz = c′′ = 0 . a quarter of a period later.5 ⋅ 107 N m . so that the motion along the orbit takes place from the point lying on the solid line. to the point lying on the broken line. When a lower index forward mode approaches a higher index backward mode.1.24 for the orbit major semiaxis (solid line) and minor semiaxis (broken line). Modes 2B and 2F are almost ‘conical’. Modes 1B and 1F are almost ‘cylindrical’. as for modes 4 and 5. zz zy The Campbell diagram for the first eight modes is shown in Fig. k ′ = k ′ = −4 ⋅ 107 N m .25. the result is a .24 The unbalance response curves calculated at station 6 are shown in Fig. at t = 0 . k ′′ = k zy = −4. etc. Modes 3B and 3F are ‘two-node’ flexural. k zz = 5 ⋅107 N m . A mass unbalance of 200 g mm on the disc at station 6 was considered. but with the following bearing stiffness and damping coefficients [16]: ′ k ′ = 7 ⋅ 107 N m . zz zy ′′ ′′ k ′′ = 6 ⋅ 107 N m . modes 4B and 4F are ‘threenode’ flexural.2 Consider the rotor of Example 4. Example 4. 4. The conservative cross-stiffness increases the interval between the eigenvalues in a pair corresponding to the same modal index. 4. yy yz zy c′yy = 7 ⋅103 Ns m .234 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY t = 0 is plotted with solid line and the mode shape at t = π 2Ω is drawn with broken line. c′ = 4 ⋅ 103 Ns m . 4. c′′ = 5 ⋅103 Ns m .

Fig. 4. Predominantly backward modes (like 1 and 3) are more damped that their (predominantly) forward pair (2 and 4). they are labeled in ascending order. 4. Because all modes are mixed. The relative departure of the two curves in a pair gives rise to mixed modes. . ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 235 curve veering in the Campbell diagram (at about 28000 rpm) with a corresponding crossing of damping ratio curves.26 The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig. with their eigenvalue index at very low rotational speeds.4. 4.26.25 Fig.

For mixed modes. . The bearings have the principal axes of stiffness oriented at + 45 0 and − 45 0 .27 Twelve precession mode shapes at 25000 rpm are shown in Fig. 4.27. respectively. so that the elliptical precession orbits have inclined axes. 4. at t = 0 .236 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY a b c d e f g h i j k l Fig. relative to the vertical axis. a quarter of a period later. to the point lying on the broken line. the precession along the ellipse takes place from the point lying on the solid line.

There is no peak corresponding to the 5th mode. two modes with nearly the same natural frequency (4 and 5) and different deflected shapes can combine to yield a compounded mode which has mixed backward and forward precession due to the coupling between modes. 4.28. The ordinate in Fig. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 237 The root locus diagram is presented in Fig.29 for the orbit major semiaxis (solid line) and minor semiaxis (broken line). The latter shows better the regions with backward precession. b is linear. 4. 4.4. 4. a b Fig. a is logarithmic and in Fig. A mass unbalance of 200 g mm on the disc at station 6 was considered. 4. due to the relatively high damping.29. Fig. where the minor semiaxis has negative values.28 The unbalance response curves calculated at station 6 are shown in Fig. When the root loci are close to each other.29 .29. 4.

1 38.31 for the first six modes of precession.2 30.4 Inner radius.2 17.7 38.1 Element no. mm 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15. mm 12.00136 kgm2 and 0. The damped critical speeds. and c yy = czz = 1.3 17. mm 0 0 0 0 0 0 15. determined at the intersections with the synchronous excitation line.7 12.30) 3 has Young’s modulus 2.752 ⋅103 Ns m .7 5.7 7.401kg .3 25.1 25.8 10. mm 5.30 Table 4. At station 5 it carries a rigid disc of mass 1. The shaft is supported at stations 11 and 15 by isotropic bearings with the following constant stiffness and damping coefficients: k yy = k zz = 4.7 Outer radius.3 20. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Length.3 Inner radius.7 15.2 12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Length.238 Example 4.378 ⋅107 N m .3 30. Fig. The geometric data are given in Table 4.4 12.8 0 Element no.1 20.3 20.7 38.2 7. mm 30. mm 12. diametral and polar mass moments of inertia 0. . are also shown in the diagram.4 12. 4.3 30.4 38.3 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY A 11 multi-stepped 2 rotor (Fig.00203 kgm2 .2 15.6 12. respectively.4 25.6 Outer radius.1 [17].7 12.1 7.2 The Campbell diagram is shown in Fig. 4.6 20.5 25.078 ⋅ 10 N m and mass density 7806 kg m .1 10.7 12. 4.1 20.

Fig.32.4.32 . 4. 4.31 The damping ratio diagram is presented in Fig. 4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 239 Fig.

240 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The first six precession mode shapes at 50000 rpm are shown in Fig. 4.34 . 4.33 Figure 4. Fig.34 shows the unbalance response orbit radius versus speed at station 15 (right bearing) for an unbalance of 200 g mm on the disc at station 5. In the considered speed range. a b c d e f Fig. there are only two peak response critical speeds at the frequencies of modes 1F and 2F.33. 4.

44 .4 152. Details of the rotor configuration are listed in Table 4. 1 2 3 4 Station 1 4 5 12 Mass. mm 42.2 53.8 45. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Length.70 17.2 28. mm 59 59 59 59 59 59 Inner diameter.2.4 28.0 96.4 39.4 28.35 Table 4. and 12.0 16.35 [18].61 44. 10 2 ⋅ kg m 2 19.3 Disc no.8 Element no. kg 11. The four rigid discs which represent the fan.8 75.48 Diametral mass moment of inertia.7 21.7 Polar mass moment of inertia. mm 28.8 78.82 8.2 Element no. 7 8 9 10 11 12 Length.9 46. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 241 Example 4.35 8.4 152.80 22.2 The shaft has Young’s modulus 2.1 Outer diameter.069 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 8193 kg m 3 .4 A rotor is modeled as a 13 station (12 elements) assembly with stations as indicated in Fig. Table 4. mm 152.38 7.4 152.0 Outer diameter. 6 and 13. mm 59 59 59 59 59 59 Inner diameter.8 53. Fig. 5. 4. 4. 4.2 165. 10 2 ⋅ kg m 2 9.53 16. mm 53.4.3. the low and high pressure compressors and the turbine are located at the stations 1. The disc data are given in Table 4. It is supported by bearings at stations 3.4 149.4 28.4 46.88 7.8 53.

36 The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig. 4. The two modes do not interact. the damped critical speeds are determined as 2807. 4.4 Bearing no.37 for the same 8 modes. 3670. 10841 and 17278 rpm.368 1 1 1 The Campbell diagram is presented in Fig.242 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The isotropic bearing data are given in Table 4. Table 4. Fig.751 96. 10 −3 ⋅ N s m 1. 10 −6 ⋅ N m Damping coefficients.36 for the first 8 natural modes.95 13. At the crossing points with the synchronous excitation line. 1 2 3 Station 3 6 13 Stiffness coefficients. 10631. The line 3F crosses the lines 4B and 4F. . The curve 3F has a peak and the curve 4F has a trough at the speed where the corresponding lines cross each other in the Campbell diagram.4. 4.

6 and 13 are shown in Fig.38. . ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 243 Fig. for a 200 g mm unbalance on disc 1. 4. 4.39. 4.37 The shape of the first six modes of precession at 25000 rpm is shown in Fig.4. 4.38 The unbalance response curves calculated at the three bearing stations 3. a b c d e f Fig.

40) is supported by plain cylindrical bearings at the ends. 4.244 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY a b c Fig. . 4.41 The shaft has a material with Young’s modulus 2. at the stations 1 and 9 [19]. Fig.40 Fig. 4.39 Example 4.068 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 7833.4 mm . 4.6 kg m3 . The plain cylindrical bearings have length 25.5 A uniform shaft (Fig.

42 Fig. The speed dependence of the bearing stiffness and damping coefficients is shown in Fig.94 ⋅ 10−3 N s m 2 .6 mm . radial clearance 51μm and oil dynamic viscosity 6. 4.6 N .43 The Campbell diagram is presented in Fig. Modes 1B and 2B are overdamped and do not show up.4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 245 diameter 101. 4. The static loads on bearings are 395. Fig. Modes 1F and 2F .41. 4.42 for the first 4 natural modes. 4.

4.246 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY follow closely the half-frequency excitation line (lower dotted line). The shape of the first four modes of precession at 6000 rpm is shown in Fig. The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig.43 for the same 4 modes.44. the onset speed of instability. 4. a b c d e f Fig.44 . 4. For mode 1F it becomes negative at 9060 rpm.

4. which is characteristic for the type of instability called ‘oil whirl’ or ‘half-frequency whirl’. Fig. 4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 247 Fig.45 The stability diagram is shown in Fig. 4. 4. 4. mode 1F becomes unstable.46.41). 4.45.46 The root locus diagram is presented in Fig. . The precession frequency at the onset of instability is very close to one-half of the rotor speed (lower dotted line in Fig. At 9060 rpm.

4.06 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 7850 kg m3 [20].6 A solid rotor is mounted in plain cylindrical bearings. The major semiaxis has maximum values at different speeds in the two bearings. 4. 4.248 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The unbalance response curves calculated at the stations 1 and 5 are shown in Fig.5 . 4.48 The shaft dimensions are given in Table 4. The peak response critical speeds cannot be predicted from the Campbell diagram.47 Example 4. a b Fig. Fig. for an unbalance of 512 g mm at station 2.47.48) and has Young’s modulus 2. The shaft consists of 12 elements (Fig.

85 2.0 6.28 3.84 7.86 5.422 0.05 1.3 16.74 1.32 2.31 1.7 1. .17 2.6 n rpm 800 1000 1300 1500 1700 2100 2600 3000 3400 3500 3600 4000 4200 4500 5000 5500 6000 6600 5.7 2.75 1.7 2.45 5.4 5.02 3.4 2.12 4.98 2.29 1.7 k yy k yz 2.5 4.0 9.15 2.15 6.65 1.37 4. mm 660 590 550 Length.98 7.44 2.25 2.84 10−9 N m 10-6 Ns m The rotor is symmetrical.51 3.5 4.0416 -0.955 c zz 11.3 0.712 0.90 3.685 1. k yz ≠ k zy .59 czy 13.295 1.68 1.16 2.65 7. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 249 Table 4.49.17 4.8 7.65 4.7 11.25 5. mm 260 570 280 Element 4 and 9 5 and 8 6 and 7 Diameter. They have different cross stiffnesses.325 1.36 1.0 1.3 1.35 c yy 38.05 1.5 4.81 4.5 -0. which produce unstable whirling. Note that c yz ≠ c zy ! Table 4.28 2.7 2.8 1.97 4.9 1.75 1.4.66 1.315 1.21 2.95 k zz 1.0 1.14 2.5 Element 1 and 12 2 and 11 3 and 10 Diameter.08 5.0 3.82 5.72 4.9 4.67 1.0 4.4 3.6 [21] and Fig.65 -0.32 1. mm 340 1100 990 The bearings are located at nodes 3 and 11.45 -0.05 2.81 1.67 2.2 2.303 1.8 -0.9 -0.4 8.08 7.8 1.3 1.71 1.49 5.76 13.57 0.5 2.175 -0.7 3.44 7.91 1. mm 657 970 1100 Length.32 1.3 -0.306 1.25 10.56 -0. The eight bearing dynamic coefficients are given in Table 4.49 3.35 2.2 4.02 2.34 9.7 29.91 1.7 6.322 1.0 3.52 5.33 1.75 -0.63 c yz 7.58 4.0 6.38 2.3 2.1 4.55 2. 4.34 1.5 19.3 2.7 22.75 6.9 5.49 2.6 -0.38 2.295 1.437 -0.232 0.0 8.4 1. so that the physically identical bearings have also identical dynamic properties.7 k zy 0.

the Campbell diagram is shown in Fig.50 . 4. 4.50.250 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig.49 For the first six modes of precession. Fig. Modes 1B and 2B are overdamped at low rotational speeds. 4.

Fig. 4. Fig. Curves are labeled with both the eigenvalue index and the mode index showing the directivity.52 .52.51 The root locus diagram is shown in Fig. 4. 4. 4.51.4. Mode 1F becomes unstable at 4911 rpm. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 251 The damping ratio diagram is given in Fig.

is drawn with dotted line. a b c d e Fig. . 3324 and 4171 rpm. ω = Ω . due to the speed variation of bearing coefficients. 2823. The abscissae of its crossing points with the curves in the Campbell diagram give the damped critical speeds at 1865. the synchronous excitation line. the damped natural frequencies have a strong variation with the rotor speed. Mode 1B is highly damped so that it will not produce a peak in the unbalance response. 4.252 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Despite the absence of discs on the shaft (no gyroscopic effects).50.53 f In Fig. 4.

for which the lines 1F and 2F follow closely the synchronous excitation line and not the half-frequency excitation line. This is probably due to the values of the bearing coefficients. where the damping ratio becomes negative. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 253 The shape of the first six precession modes at 5576 rpm is shown in Fig. 4. the point on 1F at 4911 rpm (81. In the Campbell diagram.7 a A multi-stepped rotor used in laboratory experiments (Fig. 4. They correspond to the rotor so-called rigid body precession in flexible bearings. while modes 2B and 2F are ‘conical’. 4.54.55) is supported by hydrodynamic bearings at stations 6 and 23. . Example 4. where the real part of four relevant eigenvalues is plotted versus speed. This can also be seen in the stability diagram from Fig.54 Mode 1F becomes unstable at 4911 rpm.53. 4. Two balancing discs are located at stations 12 and 17 [22]. This is known as the ‘half-frequency’ or ‘oil-whirl’ type of instability.4. Curve 1F crosses the zero ordinate line at 4911 rpm – the onset speed of instability.9 Hz. It transforms into ‘oil-whip’ at the natural frequency of mode 1F and remains almost constant with increasing rotational speed. Note the atypical behaviour of this rotor. Fig.8 Hz) has a damped natural frequency of about 39 Hz. Modes 3B and 3F are ‘two-node flexural’. which is a little less than half the driving frequency 40. Modes 1B and 1F are ‘cylindrical’.

mm 38.254 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig.4 25.1 38.6 44.8 Element no. The static loads on bearings are 272. diameter 100 mm .1 38. .7 38.1 77.35 25.1 100 100 Details of the rotor configuration are listed in Table 4.6 101.45 44.45 44. respectively.1 38.4 101. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Length. Table 4.2 25.55 The shaft has Young’s modulus 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 7850 kg m3 .6 Outer diameter.1 38.1 109.9 38.1 38.4 25.1 100 100 38. mm 76.9 102. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Length.2 76. mm 38.4 25.6 101.4 44.45 44. mm 6.1 38.7.45 44.45 44.7 Element no.1 102.1 38.4 25.4 Outer diameter.2 76.8 116.45 25.45 N and 251. 4.77 N .45 44.45 101. The plain cylindrical bearings have length 30 mm . radial clearance 125μm and oil dynamic viscosity 9 ⋅10−3 N s m 2 .6 38.1 116.

10 2 ⋅ kg m 2 1 2 12 17 2. 4. Note again the lines 1F∗ and 2F following closely the synchronous excitation line. the damped critical speeds are determined as 549.8. . Fig.808 Polar mass moment of inertia.585 The speed dependence of the stiffness and damping coefficients for bearing 1 is shown in Fig. with increasing rotational speed.56 The Campbell diagram is presented in Fig. 4. At the crossing points with the synchronous excitation line. The third forward mode is denoted 3F∗ because it changes from a two-node flexural to an almost cylindrical mode. Station Mass. The first forward mode is denoted 1F∗ because.8 Disc no.4. 4.33 4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 255 The disc data are given in Table 4.51 1. 10 2 ⋅ kg m 2 Diametral mass moment of inertia. Table 4.56. Modes 1B and 2B show up only above 5700 rpm. it changes from cylindrical to a two-node flexural mode. 2400.118 1.97 3. and 4446 rpm. 2949. kg 4.57 for the first 6 natural modes.

Modes 1F∗ and 3F∗ .58 for the same 6 modes.59. 4. 4.58 The shape of the first six modes of precession at 7000 rpm is shown in Fig. . 4.57 The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig.256 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. whose lines intersect in the Campbell diagram. Fig. are in fact almost interchanged. 4.

ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 257 a b c d e f Fig.59 Fig.60 .4. 4. 4.

4.60.258 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Mode 3F∗ becomes unstable at 4876 rpm. 4.62 .61 Fig. 4. This can also be seen in the stability diagram from Fig. a b c d Fig. where the damping ratio becomes negative. where curve 3F∗ crosses the zero ordinate line at 4876 rpm.

The damped critical speeds are located at 2241.7 b An alternate set of simulation results has been obtained for the rotor of Example 4. c and d show the speed-variation of the radii of forward and backward circles which generate the elliptical precession. Curve 3F∗ crosses the zero damping vertical. The speed dependence of the bearing stiffness and damping coefficients is shown in Fig. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 259 The unbalance response curves calculated at the bearing stations 6 and 23 are presented in Fig.63 The Campbell diagram for the rotor with modified oil viscosity is presented in Fig. The root locus diagram is presented in Fig.64.4. a using a ten times smaller oil viscosity 9 ⋅ 10−4 N s m 2 . It is compared with admissible limits given in standards and recommendations.62 for speeds up to 7000 rpm. 4947 and 5143 rpm. the rotor is more stable with these bearings.61. The difference k yz − k zy being smaller than in the previous ( ) example.61. 4. marking the threshold of instability.63. The curves of modes 1F and 2F start with slopes higher than the synchronous excitation line . Modes 1B and 2B are overdamped at relatively low running speeds. 4. a and b show the speed variation of the major and minor ellipse semiaxes. This means that the selected speed range corresponds to relatively low values of the Sommerfeld number. Example 4. 4733.7. Figures 4.61. a b Fig. 2961. The peak value of the major semiaxis defines the peak response critical speed. 4. for a 433g mm unbalance on disc 1. 4. 3551. The stiffness coefficient k yz has only positive values. Figures 4. 4.

4. .65 for the same 6 modes.65 The unbalance response curves calculated at the bearing stations 6 and 23 are shown in Fig. for a 433g mm unbalance on disc 1. 4. 4. 4.64 The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig. There is no negative value in the considered speed range.66.260 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. Fig.

1.19 kg . 0. 61. respectively. 2. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 261 a b c d Fig. 3B and 3F. The two discs.6422 kg m 2 . Example 4.9389 kg m 2 . The shaft is modeled with 19 axisymmetric beam elements (4 DOFs/node) with consistent mass and gyroscopic matrices. is presented in Fig. 0. and the coupling located at node 1 have masses 35.00208 kg m 2 .8 A rotor test rig.08 kg .00192 kg m 2 .67 [23]. and diametral mass moments of inertia 0. The second peak is narrower due to the low damping of mode 3B.9789 kg m 2 . .65 kg . The finite element model of the rotor-bearing system is shown in Fig. designed for rotor dynamic experiments. polar mass moments of inertia 0. The shaft has a material with Young’s modulus 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 7850 kg m3 . 4.3258 kg m 2 .4. 4. 0. located at nodes 6 and 19.66 The three peaks occur near the natural frequencies of modes 1F. 4.68.

262 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. 4.68 . 4.67 Fig.

Modes 1F and 2F are controlled by bearings.69. 1304.00345 kg m s . and oil dynamic viscosity 0. a b Fig. Fig.70 . respectively. and 2687 rpm.69 The Campbell diagram is presented in Fig. The static loads on bearings are 179. diameter 40 mm . 4. The speed dependence of the bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The associated backward modes are overdamped.70 for the first 6 natural modes. the damped critical speeds are determined at 847. At the crossing points with the synchronous excitation line. 2210. are plain cylindrical. radial clearance 17. 4. located at nodes 2 and 17. with length 30 mm . calculated using Moens’ [5] impedance model. is given in Fig.5 μm .44 N .37 N and 925. 4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 263 The two journal bearings. 4.4.

This can also be seen in the stability diagram from Fig.72 . where curve 3F crosses the zero ordinate line at 3146 rpm. Fig. where the damping ratio becomes negative. Fig.72.71 Mode 3F becomes unstable at 3146 rpm. 4. 4. 4. 4.264 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig.71 for only four modes.

4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 265 The shapes of the first six modes of precession at 10000 rpm are shown in Fig. a b c d e f Fig. 4.74 for eccentricities of 35 μm at 90 0 on the disc at location 6. . 4. and 44 μm at − 90 0 on the disc at location 19. 4.73.73 Unbalance response diagrams at bearing 2 are shown in Fig.

2 m . The uniform shaft of diameter 80 mm has lengths l 1 = l 3 = 0. . 4. 4. Young’s modulus 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 and mass density 8000 kg m3 .05 kg m 2 .75 Example 4. b. a.9 a Consider the rotor with three discs from Fig.75. 4. l 2 = l 4 = 0. 4. J T = 0. The root locus diagram for selected four modes is presented in Fig. 4.74 The root locus diagram for the first six modes is presented in Fig.266 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY a b Fig.76 carried by journal bearings at the ends.75.3 m . Mode 3F becomes unstable at the point marked by a circle. Modes 1F and 2F are highly damped. J P = 0. The three identical discs have the following mass and mass moments of inertia: m = 15 kg.1 kg m 2 . a b Fig.

The damping ratio of mode 1F becomes negative at 7964 rpm. Curves 1F and 3F merge at a speed about 2700 rpm. The static loads on bearings are 403. 4.25. calculated using Ocvirk’s short bearing model [6].77 The Campbell diagram for the first four natural modes is shown in Fig.038 ⋅ 10−3 N s m 2 [24].78. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 267 The bearings have the length/diameter ratio 0.79.25 N and 432. The damping ratio diagram is presented in Fig. where there is an apparent switching.68 N . a b Fig. 4. Curves 1F and 2F start along the synchronous excitation line. This is due to the short bearing approximation and will be explained in Example 4.77.76 The speed dependence of the bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. 4. respectively. The curves 1F and 3F cross each other at the speed where their corresponding pairs merge in the Campbell diagram.4. . Fig. is given in Fig. 4. radial clearance C = 50 μm and oil dynamic viscosity 7.9 b. 4.

4. 4.268 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY the threshold of instability.6 Hz point on the half-frequency excitation line.79 . The corresponding point in the Campbell diagram is very near the 66. Fig.78 Fig.

4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 269 Fig. The onset speed of instability is marked at 7964 rpm.80 The stability diagram is shown in Fig. 4. 4. Fig.81 . where the damping constant becomes positive. 4.80.

. Curve 1F crosses the zero damping vertical at the onset speed of instability. 4. Mode 3B is ‘two-node’ backward.83 The unbalance response curves calculated at stations 1 and 3 are shown in Fig. a b c d e f Fig.81 for speeds up to 10000 rpm. Modes 4B and 4F are three-node flexural. 4. Modes 1F and 3F are compounded cylindrical and two-node forward.82 Six precession mode shapes at 3000 rpm are shown in Fig. 4. Mode 2F is ‘conical’.270 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The root locus diagram is shown in Fig. 4.83 for a mass unbalance of 150 g mm on the disc at station 3. 4. a b Fig.82.

4. Note that the curves 1F and 3F∗ are clearly separated now. Fig. 4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 271 Example 4.85 .84 The Campbell diagram for the first four natural modes is shown in Fig.4.84.9 b Consider the rotor of Example 4. 4. Fig.9 a and use Moens’ impedance model [8] for the calculation of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients.

86 The stability diagram is shown in Fig. .87 The root locus diagram is shown in Fig. where the damping exponent of mode 1F becomes positive. 4. Curve 1F crosses the zero damping line at 7826 rpm. Fig. 4. The onset speed of instability is marked at 7826 rpm. 4.87 for speeds up to 10000 rpm.85. 4. Curves 1F and 3F∗ are crossing each other. 4. Fig.272 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY The damping ratio diagram is shown in Fig.86.

160) ⎧{ y } − i { y s }⎫ {Φ } = ⎨ c ⎬ ⎩ { zc } − i { z s }⎭ ay ⎫ ⎧ { yc } ⎫ iγ ⎧ = ( 1 + iβ ) ⎨ ⎬. Undamped rotors in orthotropic bearings have spatial precession modes with elliptical orbits.6 Planar modes of precession Undamped rotors in isotropic bearings exhibit planar modes of precession with circular orbits. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 273 4.148) { x } = {Φ } eiωt where (3. It was shown [25] that a certain class of damped gyroscopic systems has planar modal vectors describing elliptical orbits with coinciding principal directions and the same phase angle of the motions at different rotor stations. By a proper transformation. otherwise treated by a perturbation technique. There is no need to expand the problem and to solve it in the state space. b) conservative cross-coupling forces. hence the precession modes are planar.6. This approach gives an alternative modal analysis solution for the steady-state response of the considered damped gyroscopic systems. With suitable scaling. the precession modes are planar in the principal planes of orthotropy. with appropriate scaling.145). The characteristic phase angles and the mode shapes are speed-dependent. 4. the elements of vectors { Φ } become real in the xOy plane and pure imaginary in the xOz plane. ⎬ =e ⎨ ⎩− i { a z }⎭ ⎩− i { z s }⎭ { } The above equation shows that. A planar unbalance distribution yields planar deflected shapes. Damped gyroscopic systems have complex modal vectors describing spatial deflected shapes with “damped” elliptical orbits. The planar modes of precession form an orthogonal basis and can be used to decouple the equations of motion. . rotated with respect to each other at different rotor stations. the equations of the free precession can be written in the form (3.4.1 Response of undamped gyroscopic systems For rotor-bearing systems having: a) axi-symmetric rotor. solutions of a real eigenvalue problem in the configuration space. The solutions have the form (3. and c) orthotropic bearings with coincident principal directions of stiffness and damping. the complex monophase modal vectors can be transformed into equivalent real vectors. and so is the deflected shape due to planar unbalance.

274

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

The rotor deflected line in the xOy plane has a + 90 0 or − 90 0 phase shift with respect to the deflected line in the xOz plane, which corresponds to a quarter of rotation of the rotor. This implies that, as a phasor, − i { a z } has a 90 0 phase lag with respect to a y . The orbits of the rotor stations are ellipses with axes

{ }

coincident with the y-z axes. The inclination angle is either 0 0 or 90 0 . By proper scaling of eigenvectors, the ellipse points at the reference time t = 0 are on the yaxis, where the phase angle γ = 0 .

**4.6.2 Response of damped gyroscopic systems
**

The equation of motion of a damped gyroscopic system can be written as

**& y ⎡ [0] [ g ]⎤ ⎞⎧{y}⎫ ⎡[k y ] [0] ⎤ ⎧{ y }⎫ ⎧ f y ⎫ ⎡[m] [0] ⎤ ⎧{&&}⎫ ⎛ ⎡[c y ] [0] ⎤ ⎢ [0] [m]⎥ ⎨{&&}⎬ + ⎜ ⎢ [0] [c ]⎥ + Ω ⎢− [ g ] [0] ⎥ ⎟⎨{z}⎬ + ⎢ [0] [ k ]⎥ ⎨{ z }⎬ = ⎨ { f } ⎬ ⎜ ⎟ z ⎦ z ⎦⎩ ⎦ ⎠⎩ & ⎭ ⎣ ⎭ ⎩ z ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ z ⎭ ⎝ ⎣ ⎣ (4.21)
**

where

{ }

{ f y } and

{ fz }

are the forcing vectors in the xOy and xOz planes,

respectively, [ c y ] and [ c z ] are positive definite damping matrices. Using phasor notation, consider the unbalance excitation

⎧ fy ⎫ 2 ⎧ {U } ⎫ iΩ t , ⎬=Ω ⎨ ⎬e ⎨ ⎩− i {U }⎭ ⎩ { fz }⎭

{ }

(4.22)

where {U } is the unbalance complex subvector. The synchronous unbalance response is y ⎧{ y }⎫ ⎧ { ~ } ⎫ iΩ t ~ = X e iΩ t ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ~ ⎬e { z }⎭ ⎩ { z } ⎭ ⎩ ~ where X is a complex vector.

{ }

(4.23)

{ }

It is of interest to find an excitation of the form (4.22), with {U } a real vector, able to produce a synchronous planar response. This is a particular kind of precession, expressed by equation (3.160), in which all displacements have the same phase angle γ with respect to the unbalance plane:

{ X }= ⎧ ⎨

{ y } ⎫ ⎧ {a y } ⎫ iγ ⎬e . ⎬=⎨ ⎩ { z } ⎭ ⎩− i { a z }⎭

(4.24)

4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS

275

The response vector (4.24) is a planar mode of precession, defined by elliptical orbits whose axes coincide with the y-z coordinate axes, and whose generating radius at t = 0 has a phase angle γ with respect to the plane of unbalance. Substituting equations (4.22)-(4.24), and using the transformation (3.162), equation (4.21) becomes

⎛ ⎡[ k ] − Ω 2 [ m ] [0] ⎤ ⎞ ⎧ a y ⎫ iγ ⎧Ω 2 {U }⎫ ⎡Ω [ c y ] Ω2 [g ] ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜⎢ y ⎟⎨ +i ⎢ ⎥ ⎬e = ⎨ 2 ⎬ 2 ⎜⎢ Ω2 [ g ] Ω [c z ]⎥ ⎟⎩{ az }⎭ [ 0] ⎪Ω {U }⎪ [ k z ] − Ω [ m ]⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎦ ⎝⎣ (4.25)

{ }

or

**( [ BR (Ω ) ] + i [ BI (Ω ) ] ){ q }eiγ = { f }, where { q } and { f } are real vectors.
**

Separation of real and imaginary parts in equation (4.26) yields

(4.26)

**( [ BR ] cosγ − [ BI ] sin γ ){ q } = { f }, ( [ BI ] cosγ + [ BR ] sin γ ){ q } = { 0 }.
**

If cos γ ≠ 0 , denoting

(4.27, a) (4.27, b)

λ = tan −1γ ,

(4.28)

the homogeneous equation (4.27, b) can be written as a generalized eigenvalue problem

[ BR ] {Φ r } = −λr [ BI ] {Φ r } .

(4.29)

Both the eigenvalues λr and the modal vectors {Φ r } are real and speed dependent. Vectors {Φ r } , referred to as planar response modal vectors, represent a specific type of precession, in which all stations execute synchronous motions along elliptical orbits, having the same phase shift γ r with respect to a reference unbalance plane. Their spatial shape varies with the speed. They are produced only by the external forcing defined by the planar excitation modal vectors { Fr } derived from equation (4.27, a):

{ Fr } =

1 + λ2 [ B I r

] {Φ r }.

(r ≠ s )

(4.30)

The planar response vectors satisfy the bi-orthogonality conditions

{Φ s }T [ BI ] {Φ r } = 0,

(4.31)

276

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

{Φ s }T [ BR ] {Φ r } = 0,

{Φ s }T { Fr } = 0 .

(4.32)

They can be conveniently normalized so that

{Φ r }T [ BI ] {Φ r } = −sin γ r ,

{Φ r }T [ BR ] {Φ r } = cosγ r ,

The coordinate transformation

{Φ r }T { Fr } = 1.

(4.33)

{ q } = ∑ {Φ r } ν r

r =1

4n

simultaneously diagonalizes the matrices [ B R ] and [ BI ] . This way, a spectral decomposition of the system response is obtained in terms of the planar response vectors

{q } = ∑

4n

r =1

eiγ r {Φ r }{Φ r }T { f }.

(4.34)

The transformation (3.162) is then used to obtain { X become

} from { q } .

If cos γ = 0, then γ r = −90° and λr = 0. Equations (4.29) and (4.30)

[ BR ] {Φ r } = { 0 }, [ BI ] {Φ r } = { Fr }.

(4.35, a) (4.35, b)

Equation (4.35, a) coincides with equation (3.166) so that the undamped normal mode {Ψ r } is the r-th planar response vector {Φ r } calculated at Ω = Ω r , which corresponds to λr = 0 in equation (4.29). The eigenvalues λr of the generalized problem (4.29) vary with the rotor angular speed. Each eigenvalue cancels at, and only at, the corresponding undamped critical speed, i.e. λr (Ω r ) = 0 . Plotting λr against speed, each curve crosses only once the speed axis, so undamped critical speeds can be easily located. This diagram can be used as a Real Mode Indicator Function (RMIF).

**4.6.3 Planar precession modes
**

A planar precession mode is defined by three speed-dependent elements: a) a planar response vector, whose elements are the semiaxes of the elliptical orbits, and the corresponding slopes at the rotor stations; b) a planar forcing vector, whose elements give the planar unbalance distribution which produces the planar

4. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS

277

response; and c) a characteristic phase angle, the same at all stations, between the response plane and the unbalance plane. A planar response mode is shown in Fig. 4.88. The orbit axes are along the coordinate axes. The phase angle γ is measured in the positive direction of rotational speed Ω , between the point in the plane of unbalance and the point at t = 0 on the major generating circle. The construction presented in the next section helps understanding the physical meaning of the characteristic phase angle.

Fig. 4.88 The rotor finite element model has 4n degrees of freedom and is excited by planar unbalance forces applied at the n rotor stations. At any rotational speed Ω , there exist 2n independent sets of unbalance distributions, each of which excites the corresponding planar precession response, in which all points have the same phase lag with respect to the unbalance plane. The phase angle between the unbalance and the generating radius is different for each mode. As the rotor speed changes, so do the characteristic phase angles, planar response vectors and planar forcing vectors. At an undamped critical speed, one of the characteristic phase angles becomes − 90 0 and the corresponding planar response mode coincides with the undamped normal mode of precession.

**4.6.4 Ellipse from two concentric circles
**

The method of two concentric circles for constructing an ellipse is illustrated in Fig. 4.89.

278

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY

Consider an ellipse with semiaxes a and b, and the angle α between the major semiaxis and the y-axis. The y1Oz1 coordinate system has the axes along the ellipse axes.

Fig. 4.89 First, two circles are drawn, with the centre at the origin of the coordinate system y1Oz1 and radii equal to the ellipse semiaxes. Second, the circles are intersected with a line OM passing through the origin and which rotates anticlockwise with an angular speed Ω , equal to the rotor speed. From the crossing point with the small circle, P1 or P2 , a line is drawn perpendicular to the Oz1 axis. From the crossing point with the large circle, M, a line is drawn perpendicular to the Oy1 axis. These two orthogonal lines cross each other at a point on the ellipse, C1 or C 2 . When the crossing points M and P are on the same side of the origin, 1 point C1 moves along the ellipse in a forward precession. When the crossing points M and P2 are on both sides of the origin, point C 2 has a retrograde motion called backward precession. In principal coordinates y1Oz1 , the ellipse is defined by the parametric equations (3.35). If O D1 is the ellipse vector radius at the reference time t = 0 , then the phase angle γ 1 defines the position of the generating line ON1 , at t = 0 ,

4. for backward precession. The undamped critical speeds are determined at the crossing points with the synchronous excitation line. The phase angle γ 2 defines the position of the generating line O N 2 . 4.90. Example 4.91. Undamped critical speeds are located at the intercepts with the horizontal axis. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 279 for forward precession. Note that the angular frequency of the precession motion is equal to the angular speed of the generating points M and P or P2 on the two circles. For comparison. which is not constant. at t = 0 .1 with c yy = c zz = 500 Ns m .90 (from [25]) The Campbell diagram of the associated undamped system is presented in Fig. the RMIF diagram (eigenvalues λr versus speed) is shown in Fig.4.10 Consider the three-disc rotor of Example 4. . and not 1 to the angular speed of the ellipse vector radius. 4. Fig.

4. 4. They have been determined from the monophase modal vectors calculated at the corresponding natural frequency. .91 (from [25]) Fig.280 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY Fig. 4.92.92 (from [25]) Precession mode shapes at the first six undamped critical speeds are illustrated in Fig.

1998.. p. and Springer. 16.. 1979. Chichester.415. The converter-fed synchronous motor as a variable-speed drive system. The mechanical design of steam turbosets.. Chemical and Gas Industry Services.151-156. R. Busse.. pp.69. A. No. pp. M. and van Leeuwen. 1980. Lalanne.399-411. ISO 1940.198-219. H. P. Vol. Centrifugal Compressors for Petroleum. 1996. and Leader.63.. 7. Turbomachines: How to avoid operating problems..6. 1976. Schweickardt.67. No. Schwingungen in rotierenden Maschinen III. A. NACA TN 20808. Rotordynamics Prediction in Engineering... Aspects of shaft dynamics for industrial turbines. 15. D.Part 2: Large LandBased Steam Generator Sets. 1952. Ch. 1977. Vieweg. 1995..125. 1973. Mixed precession modes of rotor-bearing systems. No. Special Purpose Steam Turbines for Petroleum. pp 292-299. 2. pp. API Standard 617. Predicţia stabilităţii rotorilor în diferite tipuri de lagăre hidrodinamice cu ajutorul analizei modale. eds. H. Chemical and Gas Industry Services. Weber. H.. Overspeed testing and balancing of large rotors. API Standard 612... Hohn..6. Ocvirk.. Hydrocarbon Processing.379-391. pp.. 8. API Standard 613. Braunschweig. H. (ed. ROTORDYNAMIC ANALYSIS 281 References 1. Vol. and Heiberger. M. 3. 1979. Someya. W. 9. Radeş. M. 2nd ed. J of Lubrication Technology. Berlin. 1982. 5.. 1995.. and Strozzi.). 1988. H. G. 12. Braşov. Moens. Vol. 14. Childs.5. L. D. and Ferraris. 11. Jackson.. Short bearing approximation for full journal bearings. and Meyer.. Brown Boveri Rev.). Nordmann. Brown Boveri Rev. 10. Journal-Bearing Databook. Wiley. . ISO 7919-2. T. Vol... 13. Mechanical Vibration of Non-Reciprocating Machines Measurements on Rotating Shafts and Evaluation Criteria . F. (Irretier. Springer. Buletinul Conferinţei Naţionale de Dinamica Maşinilor CDM97. H. 6. Kellenberger. Brown Boveri Rev. 153-164.4. 29-31 mai 1997. pp.63.. No. E. 1976.... H. Meyer. Journal bearing impedance descriptions for rotordynamic applications. Brown Boveri Rev. Balance Quality of Rotating Rigid Bodies. Nov. G. Scarlat. 4.. Special-Purpose Gear Units for Refinery Services. 1995.

1981. 18. pp. Schwingungen in Rotierenden Maschinen IV. Analiza modală a rotorilor elastici în lagăre cu alunecare. W.. p. T. Transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems using component mode synthesis. Technique et Documentation. Radeş. Friswell. Bigret.. 22. Series B. C. G. Nordmann. Penny. S. (Irretier. and Springer.. Sound Vib.509-517. The optimal design of squeeze film dampers for flexible rotor systems. ASME J. pp 17-24. 24-25 Nov 1994.81-GT-110. J. and Meacham. Chen. S.. Vibrations des machines tournantes et des structures. 19.1533-1539. M.213. Lund. M. D.. Rajan. 1998.96. J.2. ASME Paper No. Lee. M. R. H. J....).. H. of Engineering for Industry.166-174.-W. Dinamica Maşinilor CDM94. Nelson. Kluwer Academic Publ. M. pp.. E. Dordrecht.1. 1980... Braunschweig.. 1974. ch. Transmission and Automation in Design. Vieweg. of Mechanism. M. eds. 25. ...282 DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY 17. Garwey. Paris. 1988. L. Vibration Analysis of Rotors. Stability and damped critical speeds of a flexible rotor in fluidfilm bearings. W. pp. 1998. D.. Santa Barbara..105-112. D. 24. Vol. Radeş. pp. I.. Braşov. Proc.40.10. J. 21. No. Bul.139-158. Use of monophase modal vectors in rotordynamics. and Nelson. pp. California.. Vol. 23. Naţ.. 1993.110. H. D. ASME J. Vol. and Smart. tome 2. H. Rajan.. W.. Modal Analysis Conf. On modal testing of flexible rotors for unbalance identification. Kreuzinger-Janik. 16th Int. and Irretier. H. 1997. No. R. Computing critical speeds for rotating machines with speed dependent bearing properties. Conf. T. 20.

148 − damped 48. 132. 144 Orbits 25. damping 59. 154 − rotating 54 − stationary 67 − viscous 47 Decay factor 48 Eigenvalue problem 220 Eight bearing coefficients 138 Elliptical orbit 105. 72. 102. 105. 207 Damped rotors 158 − asymmetric 154 − symmetric 46 Damping 62 − coefficient 128 − external 47. 117 − hysteretic 50 − optimum 127 − ratio 47. 117 Fans 14 Forward precession 77. 112 Ellipse 104 Equations of motion 41. 116 Free precession 47 − − damped 47. 106 Mass unbalance 43 Minor semiaxis 86. 221 − undamped 47 Nyquist plot 51 Onset speed of instability 64. 106 Mixed modes of precession Matrix. 224 − undamped 45. 121 Gas turbines 6 Gravity loading 65 Gyroscopic torques 71. 110. 58 Critical speed 67 − backward 84 − damped 219 − forward 82 − map 209 − peak response 82. 186 . 117 − internal 54. 62. 60. 156 − flexibility 102 Blowers 14 Campbell diagram 87. 118. 62. 109. 105. 75 Mode of precession 75 − shapes 90. 114. 152. 92 Model 29 − Laval-Jeffcott 39 − Stodola-Green 39 158 Natural frequency 67. 116 Bearing 26 − damping 119. 62. 109. 223 Overdamped modes 183. 147 Equivalent stiffness 103 External damping 47.Index Angular momentum 70 − precession 68 − speed 42 Axial compressor 9 Backward precession 77. 111. 120. 222 Centrifugal compressors 10 − pumps 15 Complex eigenvalues 221 Coordinate system 154 − rotating 56 − stationary 56. 97 Harmonic force 84 Hydraulic turbines 18 Hysteretic damping 62 Inertia torques 69 Influence coefficients 146 Internal damping force 54 − − ratio 60 Major semiaxis 86. 154 − flexibility 75 − stiffness 59. 131. 111.

207 − natural frequency 47 Undamped rotors 40 MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS − asymmetric 68 − symmetric 40 Underdamped modes 221 Viscous damping 47. 105 − free damped 47 − radius 50 − synchronous 44. 67 − backward 78. 52 Reference frames 69 Rotor 6 − asymmetric 145 − rigid 26 − symmetric 101 Rotor bearing dynamics 22 Routh-Hourwitz criterion 63. heavy 53 − high 53 Stability 59. 123 Planar modes 273 Polar diadram 52 Precession 23. 121. 227 Stator inertia 217 Steady state precession 49 − response 43 Stiffness coefficients 40 − matrix 59. 152 − diagrams 50. 134. 62 − coefficient 47 Whirling 61 . 105 − forward 77. 75 Symmetric rotors 101 − damped 46 − in flexible bearings 101 − in fluid film bearings 136 − in rigid bearings 40 − undamped 40 Synchronous excitation 88 − precession 44. 118 Rigid body modes 208 Rotating damping 54 Shaft 26 − bow 66 − mass 131 Sommerfeld number 228 Spiral 48 Spot. 142. 225 Undamped critical speed 45.284 Phase angle 50. 52 Threshold speed 113 Turbo-generators 18 Unbalance response 104.

- 48796859 M Rades DynamicsOfMachinery1
- Turboexpander Tc
- Questions
- 0995402
- M Rades - Dynamics of Machinery 2
- R-CR-001r1
- Part 6 API Standard 617 8th Sept. 2014 Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors_Part
- Applied Thermodynamics Software Solutions 2
- Turbo 1
- 19780025165_1978025165
- MW54 Modelling
- RR250--C30 OMM
- 4B-4014 - Compressors & Lubrication[1]
- RE-SPG 31.29.00.00-005 Rev0 Rotor Balancing
- Motor Bearings - ABB
- A SEMINAR ON UNDER WATER WINDMILL-PPT full Download _ Mechanical Engineering World _ Project Ideas _ Seminar Topics _ E-books (Pdf) _ New Trends.pdf
- MP Mikro Pulverizer Hammermill
- daerius
- Toolpath Optim5 axis machine turbine ion for a Turgo Turbine Runner
- 08cmre44 Thermodynamics Set 2
- Airplane Turbofan Engine Operation and Malfunctions
- 0704
- Endashaw Tesfaye.pdf
- How Generator Works and Compete With Load Set Point - Copy
- 5CaronArzola
- D5.2_PromisingLoadEstimationMethodologies
- 1025a Anderson Beating Betz
- kawasan.doc
- 24. Risk Analysis of Ice Throw - Seifert - 2003 and 1998 Papers
- 3q00cohen

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd