The Air Bo ttle is linke d to the Air start in g manif old th ro ug h the Automatic air starting valve, which has a non-return valve to prevent the possibility of a blow-back, from a starting air line explosion, to the Air bottles. The Automatic air starting valve is operated by means of the pilot valve shown, which in turn is operated by the starting lever through the starting valve. The turning gear interlock prevents the engine from being started, with the turning gear engaged. The starting air, from the starting valve, also acts to engage the Distributor. This is a safety feature, which prevents the engine from accidentally being started, in the event of air leakage from the Automatic air starting valve. The cylinder air starting valves are operated by the Distributor, in the correct sequence for starting (the Firing order). Reversing : In case of reversal, two things need to be done – firstly the fuel cams need to be repositioned correctly for the astern direction, and secondly

Marine Engineering Department


The Running direction interlock in this en g ine is connected to the camshaft. the camshaft is repositioned by a reversing Servo-motor.e. as can be seen in the sketch below. If the camshaft does not reverse.KATUNAYAKE the Distributor cam needs to be repositioned. and the Distributor also gets its drive from the same source. since the fuel cams are mounted on the camshaft. Running Direction interlock : If the direction of rotation of the engine is contrary to the command from the Telegraph. in case the engine is already runnin g . i. Thus fuel is cut-off. then oil pressure does not act on the fuel cut-off servomotor. Marine Engineering Department 2 . In addition. the starting air is not allowed to be released.INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY . thus preventing the re-starting of the engine in the wrong direction. In this situation. the fuel cut out servo must operate to shut-off fuel. In the engine shown. to do both these things. the camshaft. we consider it as the 'wrong' direction. to give the correct sequence for starting in the astern direction. and will be operated by the movement of the camshaft.

which moves the ahead cams clear of their followers which now engage the astern cams.INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY . arrangements of clutches and reverse gears may be used. allow the use of unidirectional (non-reversible) engines. Ramps (sloping sides) fitted between corresponding ahead and astern cams cause the follower roller to slide gently from one to the other. by means of reversing the propeller drive or by altering propellers. In many ships.KATUNAYAKE CONTROL Direct reversing engines In order to manoeuvre a ship. For –stroke engines will require a change in timing of the fuel pumps. however. Marine Engineering Department 3 . To maintain alignment of the camshaft drive. The retiming may be carried out by altering the position of the distributor cam drive with respect to its drive from the main camshaft. Engines operating with constant pressure turbocharger systems have almost symmetrical exhaust valve timing. but engine driven pumps must be reversible. To obtain all these changes on the same camshaft a separate set of astern cams are fitted. Turbochargers are of course unaffected by reversal of the engine. locking devices and safety cutouts ensure that the camshaft ahs carried out its full movement and is in the correct position before the engine can be restarted. consequently no change in timing is necessary for exhaust cams. all the operations in the engine cycle may need retiming. a spline coupling may be necessary. it is necessary for the main engines to be reversible and able to operate efficiently in both ahead or astern. The starting air must first rotate the engine in the reverse direction and this will require retiming the distributor to supply compressed air to the appropriate cylinders in the correct order. Each one is fitted to the camshaft adjacent to its corresponding ahead cam. The reversing procedure is then carried out by moving the whole camshaft axially. and yet another for the exhaust valves. The axial movement is carried out by a hydraulic cylinder fitted to the camshaft. the propeller thrust must be reversible. Large two-stroke engines have scavenge ports to control scavenge timing. a different change for the air inlet valves. In systems of limited power using medium or high speed engines through gearboxes. or diesel-electric drive. The number of other readjustments to be made and the methods used depend upon the engine cycle and type. This must therefore be symmetrical and will this be unchanged when reversing. To run in the astern direction.

77). or moved back. through a given angle with respect to the ‘new’ direction of rotation. The link is self-locking in either position and a sensor to shut off the pump in the event of mal-operation. MAN-B&W MC engines have their fuel pump cams fixed directly to the camshaft but the follower rollers can be displaced to alter the pump timing as shown in Fig.INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY . Marine Engineering Department 4 . 78. This is particularly useful if rotating balancing systems are in use. ‘Lost motion’ is the term used to indicate that the timing has been retarded. any auxiliary drives taken from it are unaffected. Sulzer RTA engines have oil pressure operated hydraulic ‘lost motion’ seryomotors on the camshaft which rotate the fuel pump cams to their astern positions (Fig. Fuel pumps and their cams are grouped in pairs along the camshaft and a servomotor is fitted for each pair of adjacent cams.KATUNAYAKE Fuel pump timing must be readjusted since it will be the opposite flank of the cam which will now raise the pump plunger to deliver fuel. As the camshaft timing has not been altered. Oil pressure secure each servomotor in its correct position while the engine is running. The link which displaces each follower is actuated by a pneumatic piston using compressed air from the starting systems. There are altermative methods employed to change the fuel pump timing without altering the main camshaft and two are illustrated and described.

Marine Engineering Department 5 .KATUNAYAKE Reversing servomotor. Sulzer RTA engines. MAN – B & W reversing system. The link is self-locking in either position. A similar servomotor is used to retime the starting air distributor at its drive from the camshaft.INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY . Pnuematic cylinders are fitted to each fuel pump and will cut off the fuel if the reversing lever is in the incorrect position.



KATUNAYAKE AIR VESSELS Material used in the construction must be of good quality low carbon steel similar to that used for boilers. filter. Drains for the removal of accumulated oil and water are fitted to the compressor.35% silicon (max. impact and tensile tests together with micrographic and examination.) 0. e. 0. e. annealing must be carried out at a temperature of about 600 0C and a test piece must be provided for bend. cotton waste that could foul up drains or other outlets. Some of the main points relating to class 1 welding are that the welding must be radiographed. 460 MN/m2. melting point approximately 1500C. and if carbon dioxide is used for fire fighting it is recommended that the discharge from the fusible plug be led to the deck. If above 35 bar approximately then class 1 welding regulations apply. Nothing has been left inside the air vessel. 2. Mountings generally provided are shown in Fig If it is possible for the receiver to be isolated from the safety valve then it must have a fusible plug fitted.).). Stop valves on the receiver generally permit slow opening to avoid rapid pressure increases in the piping system.g.05% sulphur (max.t. All doors are correctly centred on their joints.). u.1% manganese.g.05% Phosphorus (max. 3. 0. Welded construction has superseded the riveted types and welding must be done to class 1 or class 2 depending upon operating pressure.INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY . separators. receivers and lower parts of pipe-lines. Before commencing to fill the air vessel after overhaul or examination. and piping for starting air has to be protected against the possible effects of explosion. Check pressure gauge against a master gauge. Marine Engineering Department 8 . ensure : 1.2% Carbon (Max.0.s. 0.

harmless to personnel.KATUNAYAKE Run the compressor with all drains open to clear the lines of any oil or water.INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY . of course. any cleaner which gives off toxic. Cleaning the air receiver internally must be done with caution. such as a graphite suspension in water could be used. ensure that it is isolated form any other interconnected receiver which must.. etc. Marine Engineering Department 9 . observe pressure. be in a fully charged state. A brush down and a coating on the internal surfaces of some protective. check for leaks and follow up on the door joints. inflammable or noxious fumes should be avoided. When emptying the receiver prior to overhaul. and when filling open drains at regular intervals. After filling close the air inlet to the bottle.

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