# Department of Electronics and Communication

Digital Communication

INDEX Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Date Title To study and perform different types of Sampling process. To study and perform the Pulse Amplitude Modulation. To study and perform Pulse Position Modulation. To study and perform Pulse Width Modulation. To study and perform Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). To study and perform the Delta Modulation. To study and perform the Adaptive Delta Modulation To study and perform Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). To study and perform Phase Shift Keying (PSK). To study and perform Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). No of Pages 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 Marks Date of assessment Sign of Faculty

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Department of Electronics and Communication
PRACTICAL NO: 1 AIM: To study and perform different types of Sampling process. APPARATUS: Analog signal sampling/reconstruction trainer kit.

Digital Communication

THEORY: Many analogue communication systems are still in wide use today. These include AM, FM, and PM systems. If analogue signals are to be transmitted digitally, they have to be converted to discrete samples. The conversion of an analogue signal into a discrete-time sampled signal is accomplished by sampling the analogue signal at regular time intervals Ts. Ts is called the sampling period and fs = 1/ Ts is known as the sampling rate. Sampling Theorem Let m(nTs) be the sample values of m(t) where n is an integer. The sampling theorem states that the signal m(t) can be reconstructed from m(nTs) with no distortion if the sampling frequency fs > 2fm. The minimum sampling rate 2fm is called the Nyquist sampling rate. A signal m(t) is called a band-limited signal if M(f) = 0 for | f | > fm Hz where fm is the highest-frequency spectral component of m(t). Since the bandwidth of m(t) is fm, we see that the spectra do no overlap if fs > 2 fm and the spectrum associated with the signal m(t) can be separated from others using a low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of fm. When fs < 2 fm, the spectra overlap. Since the frequency content in these regions of overlap adds, the signal is distorted. The distortion is called aliasing and it is no longer possible to recover m(t) from its sample values by low-pass filtering. The process of reconstructing an analogue signal m(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In order to recover the information back one should have a reconstruction filter (low pass filter), which is restrict to max frequency of the signal m(t). Types of Sampling: 1. Flat-top sampling 2. Natural sampling PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the various blocks I/O as per given in manual. 2. Observe the input signal and output signal. 3. Observe the spectrum of input and output signal. 4. Compare the spectrum of flat top and natural sampled signal. BLOCK DIAGRAM:

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CONCLUSION: Marks Obtained Sign of Faculty In Charge Date: DATE: Page: 3 .Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication Figure (1) Waveform and spectra associated with signal sampling.

F is modulating signal frequency BLOCK DIAGRAM: Figure (1) Block diagram of PAM system PROCEDURE: 1. CRO. Connect the modulating signal to PAM Modulator block. the resultant output is the rectangular pulse or impulse train with amplitude information of modulating input signal. CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS: Page: 4 . APPARATUS: PAM kit. Output modulating stream spectra is the same of the input modulating signal spectra but equally repeated at multiple of sampling frequency instants.Department of Electronics and Communication PRACTICAL NO: 2 AIM: To study and perform the Pulse Amplitude Modulation. the sampling frequency is called Nyquest frequency. Fs u 2*F Where. Very the pulse width of sampling frequency and observe the effect of it in frequency domain. Digital Communication THEORY: Pulse Amplitude Modulation is the scheme in which rectangular pulse or impulse is multiplied to incoming modulating stream. Observe the input and output signal frequency in CRO and Spectrum Analyzer. If sampling frequency is twice than the modulating frequency than. Very the input modulating signal frequency and observe the effect of it in frequency domain. 3. Spectrum Analyzer. 2. 4. there is no overlap in modulated output spectra. Fs is sampling frequency.

THEORY: Page: 5 .Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication CONCLUSION: Marks Obtained Sign of Faculty In Charge Date: DATE: PRACTICAL NO: 3 AIM: To study and perform the Pulse Position Modulation. CRO. Spectrum Analyzer. APPARATUS: PPM kit.

Connect the modulating signal to PPM Modulator block.Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication Pulse Position Modulation is the modulation scheme in which sampling rectangular pulse and modulating signal is applied to modulator. 2. when modulating signal decays the pulse position changes from normal position to right. BLOCK DIAGRAM: PROCEDURE: 1. As the modulating signal pulse raises the pulse position changes from its normal position to left. CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS: Page: 6 . Very the input modulating signal frequency and observe the effect of it in frequency domain. 3. Observe the input and output signal frequency in CRO and Spectrum Analyzer. and the modulator output is sampling pulse train with varying in position.

As the modulating signal pulse rises the pulse width expands from its normal width. APPARATUS: PWM kit. Spectrum Analyzer. and the modulator output is sampling pulse train with varying in pulse width. CRO. when modulating signal decays the pulse width is also decaying.Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication CONCLUSION: Marks Obtained Sign of Faculty In Charge Date: DATE: PRACTICAL NO: 4 AIM: To study and perform Pulse Width Modulation. Page: 7 . THEORY: Pulse Width Modulation is the modulation scheme in which sampling rectangular pulse and modulating signal is applied to modulator.

Connect the modulating signal to PWM Modulator block.Department of Electronics and Communication BLOCK DIAGRAM: Digital Communication PROCEDURE: 1. Very the input modulating signal frequency and observe the effect of it in frequency domain. CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS: Page: 8 . 3. Observe the input and output signal frequency in CRO and Spectrum Analyzer. 2.

we have a PCM system. these sampled signals are often quantised and coded before transmission. The conversion process is called quantisation. 65. THEORY: We have seen that sampling a bandlimited signal at or above the Nyquist sampling rate does not destroy any information content and fully characterizes the band limited signal. The decimal-to-binary conversion can be done in various ways. instead. 256 = 28 levels are used to keep the quantisation error to a tolerable level. If the quantised samples are transmitted directly over a channel. To reduce the quantisation error. BLOCK DIAGRAMS: Page: 9 . An analogue message m(t) is first sampled at or above the Nyquist sampling rate.Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication CONCLUSION: Marks Obtained Sign of Faculty In Charge Date: DATE: PRACTICAL NO: 5 AIM: To study and perform Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). In practical digital telephone systems. we code each quantised sample into a block of digits for transmission. APPARATUS: Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) trainer kit. These sampled signals are then converted into a finite number of discrete amplitude levels. In modern communication systems. we have a quantised PAM system. If. Quantisation obviously reduces the degree of accuracy of representation of the sampled signal and introduces some error in the reproduction of the signal at the receiver. Error introduced by the quantiser is called quantisation error or quantisation noise. We have pulse code modulation (PCM).536= 216 levels are used for the CD digital system. we simply increase the total number of amplitude levels (decreasing the spacing between adjacent levels). A system transmitting these sampled values of the bandlimited signal is called a sampled data or pulse modulation system.

2. Observe the PCM coded output and spectrum of data. 4. PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the output of PCM signal to Decoder and Low pass filter blocks and compare output with original signal.Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication Figure (1) A single-channel PCM transmission system. Select the jumper sating for different output code. 3. Page: 10 . Figure (2) Message and quantised signal. Connect the various blocks I/O as per given in manual.

There is a two major source of errors. and second is granular noise. THEORY: Delta modulation (DM) is a DPCM scheme in which the difference signal (t) is encoded into just one bit. providing for just two possibilities.Department of Electronics and Communication Figure (3) Binary coding of samples. product of sampling rate and step size must be greater than or equals to maximum input changing rate. A is amplitude of input signal. f and fs is the input and sampling frequency respectively. is used to increase or decrease the estimate m^(t). S is step size. Spectrum Analyzer etc. one is slope overload. than output swings between positive and negative pulses. then the excessive disparity between m(t) and m^(t) is described ad slope overload error. Sfs 2 fA Where. CRO. Digital Communication CONCLUSION: Marks Obtained Sign of Faculty In Charge Date: DATE: PRACTICAL NO: 6 AIM: To study and perform the Delta Modulation APPARATUS: DM kit. BLOCK DIAGRAM: Page: 11 . To avoid slope overload. When input signal changes very fast compared to estimate signal rate. so called as granular noise. The single bit. When input signal is constant (DC).

CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS: Page: 12 .Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication PROCEDURE: 1. Observe the waveforms of input and output signal. Observe the output signal in frequency domain. Connect the various blocks of DM kit as per given in manual 2. 3. 4. Change the input frequency and observe the different errors in DM output.

the ADM can operate at 32kbps compare to PCM at 64kbps. e(k)= +1 if m(t)>m^(t) immediately before the kth edge. BLOCK DIAGRAM: Page: 13 . THEORY: Adaptive Delta modulation (ADM) is a modified version of Delta Modulation (DM). Rather. thereby allowing m^(t) to catch up with m(t) more rapidly. CRO. Spectrum Analyzer etc. We can now specify the step size S(k) at sampling time k. One way to adapt the step size based on error output at kth interval.Department of Electronics and Communication CONCLUSION: Digital Communication Marks Obtained Sign of Faculty In Charge Date: DATE: PRACTICAL NO: 7 AIM: To study and perform the Adaptive Delta Modulation APPARATUS: ADM kit. e(k)= -1 if m(t)<m^(t) immediately before the kth edge. the term adaptive means here step size is not kept fixed. S(k)= S(k-1) e(k) + S0 e(k-1) With the same SNR. when slope overload occurs the step size becomes progressively larger.

4. CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS: CONCLUSION: Page: 14 . 3.Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication Procedure: 1. Observe the output signal in frequency domain. Connect the various blocks of ADM kit as per given in manual Observe the waveforms of input and output signal. Change the input frequency and observe the different errors in ADM output and compare it with DM output. 2.

m(t) = 1 or 0. 2. and T is the bit duration. E = PT is the energy contained in a bit duration. APPARATUS: Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) trainer kit. PROCEDURE: 1.Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication Marks Obtained Sign of Faculty In Charge Date: DATE: PRACTICAL NO: 8 AIM: To study and perform Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). so that A =  2P. For binary digital modulation. 4. 3. Connect the output of balanced modulator to diode detector or product detector for async. BLOCK DIAGRAM: Page: 15 . The low-frequency signal is often frequency-translated to a higher frequency range for efficient transmission. 5. Observe the output in time domain and frequency domain waveforms. fc is the carrier frequency. binary frequency-shift keying (BFSK) and binary phase shift keying (BPSK). THEORY: The source signals are generally referred to as baseband signals. It has a power P = A2/2. In the modulation process. the baseband signals constitute the modulating signal and the high-frequency carrier signal is a sinusiodal waveform. Binary Amplitude-Shift Keying (BASK) A binary amplitude-shift keying (BASK) signal can be defined by s(t) = A m(t) cos(2 fct) 0<t<T (1) where A is a constant. There are three basic ways of modulating a sine wave carrier. Select the appropriate clock frequency for NRZ data generation. Connect the NRZ data out and RF carrier frequency output to input of Balance modulator. The process is called modulation. Or sync demodulation. Select the RF Carrier frequency for Balance Modulator. they are called binary amplitude-shift keying (BASK). Thus equation (1) can be written as s(t) =  2P cos(2 fct) 0<t<T = PT  P/T cos(2 fct) 0<t<T = E  P/T cos(2 fct) 0<t<T Where.

(b) spectrum of (a). Page: 16 . Figure (3) (a) Modulating signal.Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS: Figure (a) RZ data in and output of Balance Modulator. and (c) spectrum of BASK signals.

Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication CONCLUSION: Marks Obtained Sign of Faculty In Charge Date: DATE: Page: 17 .

m(t) = 1 or -1. binary frequency-shift keying (BFSK) and binary phase shift keying (BPSK). Observe the BPSK signal spectrum.Department of Electronics and Communication PRACTICAL NO: 9 AIM: To study and perform Phase Shift Keying (PSK). so that A =  2P. and T is the bit duration. Observe the BPSK signal. The process is called modulation. It has a power P = A2/2. E = PT is the energy contained in a bit duration. they are called binary amplitude-shift keying (BASK). BLOCK DIAGRAM: CIRCUIT WAVEFORMS: Page: 18 . Apply the BPSK signal to Demodulator and compare demodulated signal to original signal. A is a constant. For binary digital modulation. 4. APPARATUS: Phase Shift Keying (PSK) trainer kit. fc is the carrier frequency. There are three basic ways of modulating a sine wave carrier. Thus equation (1) can be written as s(t) = s 2P cos(2 fct) = sPT  P/T cos(2 fct) = sE  P/T cos(2 fct) Where. PROCEDURE: 1. the baseband signals constitute the modulating signal and the high-frequency carrier signal is a sinusiodal waveform. 2. Binary Phase-Shift Keying (BPSK) A binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signal can be defined by s(t) = A m(t) cos(2 fct) 0<t<T (1) Where. 3. In the modulation process. Connect the various blocks I/O as per given in manual. The low-frequency signal is often frequency-translated to a higher frequency range for efficient transmission. Digital Communication THEORY: The source signals are generally referred to as baseband signals.

Page: 19 . Figure (2) (a) Modulating signal.Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication Figure (1) RZ data in and output of Balance Modulator. (b) spectrum of (a). and (c) spectrum of BPSK signals.

Page: 20 . APPARATUS: Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) trainer kit.Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication CONCLUSION: Marks Obtained Sign of Faculty In Charge Date: DATE: PRACTICAL NO: 10 AIM: To study and perform Frequency Shift Keying (FSK).

Observe the BFSK signal. 4. 0<t<T else ware. A is a constant. so that A =  2P. Apply the BFSK signal to Demodulator and compare demodulated signal to original signal. The signal has a power P = A2 /2. Thus equation s(t) =  2P cos(2 f0t) =  2P cos(2 f1t) = PT  P/T cos(2 f0t) = PT  P/T cos(2 f1t) = E  P/T cos(2 f0t) = E  P/T cos(2 f1t) Where. E = PT is the energy contained in a bit duration. 0<t<T else ware 0<t<T else ware BLOCK DIAGRAM: Page: 21 . The process is called modulation. they are called binary amplitude-shift keying (BASK). 3. Binary Frequency-Shift Keying (BFSK) A binary frequency-shift keying (BFSK) signal can be defined by s(t) =A cos(2Tf0t) 0e t e T A cos(2Tf1t) elsewhere Where. the baseband signals constitute the modulating signal and the high-frequency carrier signal is a sinusiodal waveform. 2. The low-frequency signal is often frequency-translated to a higher frequency range for efficient transmission. In the modulation process. and T is the bit duration. binary frequency-shift keying (BFSK) and binary phase shift keying (BPSK). There are three basic ways of modulating a sine wave carrier. f0 and f1 are the transmitted frequencies.Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication THEORY: : The source signals are generally referred to as baseband signals. For binary digital modulation. PROCEDURE: 1. Observe the BFSK signal spectrum. Connect the various blocks I/O as per given in manual.

Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication Figure (1) RZ data in and output of BFSK Modulator. Page: 22 .

and (c) spectrum of BASK signals. CONCLUSION: Marks Obtained Sign of Faculty In Charge Date: Page: 23 . (b) spectrum of (a).Department of Electronics and Communication Digital Communication Figure (2) (a) Modulating signal.