Tomahawk (missile

The BGM-109 Tomahawk is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. Introduced by General Dynamics in the 1970s, it was designed as a medium- to long-range, low-altitude missile that could be launched from a submerged submarine. It has been improved several times and, by way of corporate divestitures and acquisitions, is now made by Raytheon. Some Tomahawks were also manufactured by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing Defense, Space & Security). Description The Tomahawk missile family consists of a number of subsonic, jet engine-powered missiles for attacking a variety of surface targets. Although a number of launch platforms have been deployed or envisaged, only naval (both surface ship and submarine) launched variants are currently in service. Tomahawk has a modular design, allowing a wide variety of warhead, guidance and range capabilities. Variants There have been several variants of the BGM-109 Tomahawk employing various types of warheads.
y y y y y y y

AGM-109H/L Medium Range Air to Surface Missile (MRASM) - a shorter range, turbojet powered ASM, never entered service BGM-109A Tomahawk Land Attack Missile - Nuclear (TLAM-N) with a W80 nuclear warhead BGM-109C Tomahawk Land Attack Missile - Conventional (TLAM-C) with a unitary warhead BGM-109D Tomahawk Land Attack Missile - Dispenser (TLAM-D) with submunitions BGM-109G Gryphon Ground Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM)]] - withdrawn from service RGM/UGM-109B Tomahawk Anti Ship Missile (TASM) - radar guided anti-shipping variant RGM/UGM-109E Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM Block IV) - improved version of the TLAM-C

Ground Launch Cruise Missiles (GLCM) and their truck-like launch vehicles were destroyed to comply with the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Many of the anti-ship versions were converted into TLAMs at the end of the Cold War. The Block III TLAMs that entered service in 1993 can fly farther and use Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to strike more precisely. Block IV TLAMs have a better Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC) system as well as improved turbofan engines. The WR-402 engine provided the new BLK III with a throttle control, allowing in-flight speed changes. This engine also provided better

satellites. using data from multiple sensors (aircraft. some missiles may also execute a Precision Strike Tomahawk Mission (PST) transmitting its status back to a ground station via satellite communication. as on the battleship Missouri. hardened warships at 900 nautical miles (1. It will be a part of the networked force being implemented by the Pentagon.fuel economy. ships) to find its target. Vertical Launch Systems (VLS) in other surface ships. Enroute. Raytheon Missile Systems proposed an upgrade to the Tomahawk Block IV landattack cruise missile that would allow it to kill or disable large. foot soldiers. These canisters are racked in Armored Box Launchers (ABL). . Tactical Tomahawk A major improvement to the Tomahawk is its network-centric warfare-capabilities. Additionally the Tactical Tomahawk is able to be reprogrammed inflight to attack one of 16 predesignated targets with GPS coordinates stored in its memory or to any other GPS coordinates. LAUNCH SYSTEMS Launch of a Tactical Tomahawk cruise missile from the USS Stethem. Also.700 km) range. It entered service with the US Navy in late 2004. UAVs. In May 2009. the missile can send data about its status back to the commander. and in submarines' torpedo tubes. tanks. It will also be able to send data from its sensors to these platforms. Each missile is stored and launched from a pressurized canister that protects it during transportation and storage and acts as a launch tube. The Block IV Phase II TLAMs have better deep-strike capabilities and are equipped with a real-time targeting system for striking moving targets. Capsule Launch Systems (CLS) in the later Los Angeles class submarines. Tactical Tomahawk equips the TLAM with a TV-camera for battlefield observation loitering that allows warfighting commanders to assess damage to the target and to redirect the missile to an alternative target. All ABL equipped ships have been decommissioned.

Air Force.Tactical Tomahawk Weapon Control System. . Theater Mission Planning Center (TMPC)/Afloat Planning System. one per side. the missile exits the water and a solid-fuel booster is ignited for the first few seconds of airborne flight until transition to cruise. The Tomahawk Weapon System consists of the missile. the airscoop is exposed and the turbofan engine is employed for cruise flight. uses HP-UX. The sub-munitions canisters are dispensed two at a time. (2006) Other details The TLAM-D contains 166 sub-munitions in 24 canisters.Advanced Tomahawk Weapon Control System (1994). the Tomahawk uses inertial guidance or GPS to follow a preset course. and two canisters of six each to conform to the dimensions of the airframe. The missile can perform up to five separate target segments which enables it to attack multiple targets." was based on an old tank computing system. the missile's wings are unfolded for lift. the missile's guidance system is aided by Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM). However in order to achieve a sufficient density of coverage typically all 24 canisters are dispensed sequentially from back to front. after being ejected by gas pressure (vertically via the VLS) or by water impulse (horizontally via the torpedo tube).Tomahawk Weapon Control System (1983). After achieving flight.For submarine-launched missiles (called UGM-109s).S. also known as "green screens. once over land. The sub-munitions are the same type of Combined Effects Munition bomblet used in large quantities by the U. (2003). v3 ATWCS . and either the Tomahawk Weapon Control System (on surface ships) or Combat Control System (for submarines). Several versions of control systems have been used. including: y y y y v2 TWCS . Over water. 22 canisters of seven each. Terminal guidance is provided by the Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation (DSMAC) system or GPS. first Commercial Off the Shelf. v4 TTWCS .Next Generation Tactical Tomahawk Weapon Control System. v5 TTWCS . producing a claimed accuracy of about 10 meters. The USS Missouri launching a Tomahawk missile.

DSMAC .Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation.000 Operators Tomahawk operators United States Navy In the 1991 Persian Gulf War. but the government of Japan has denied that it had expressed any such view. including the new Astute class attack submarine.000. A digitized image of an area is mapped and then inserted into a TLAM mission. In 2009 the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States stated that Japan would be concerned if the TLAM-N were retired. All Royal Navy submarines are currently (as of 2010) Tomahawk capable.210. 288 Tomahawks were launched. This map is then inserted into a TLAM mission which is then loaded on to the missile. The first salvo was fired by the cruiser USS San Jacinto on January 17. Based on comparison results the missile's inertial navigation system is updated and the missile corrects its course. y Total program cost: $US11. A digital representation of an area of terrain is mapped based on digital terrain elevation data or stereo imagery. Based on comparison results the missile's inertial navigation system is updated and the missile corrects its course.TERCOM . This was repeated during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. During the flight the missile will verify that the images that it has stored correlates with the image it sees below itself. The United States Navy has a stockpile of around 3. The first missiles were acquired and test-fired in 1998. When the missile is in flight it compares the stored map data with radar altimeter data collected as the missile overflies the map.Terrain Contour Matching. .500 Tomahawk cruise missiles of all variants. Royal Navy The United States agreed to sell more than 60 Tomahawks to the United Kingdom in 1995 for use with Royal Navy nuclear submarines. The attack submarines USS Pittsburgh and USS Louisville followed. 1991.

In conjunction with other land attack systems and tactical aircraft it denies or delays forward movement of enemy forces. the UK and US governments reached an agreement for the British to buy 64 of the new generation of Tomahawk missile the Block IV or TacTom missile. three months ahead of schedule. The Royal Navy has recently purchased the Block IV tomahawk which entered service as of the 27th March 2008. Navy will most likely be called upon to defend U. Strike Planners select. and weapons assembly/storage facilities. The Unified Commander passes tasking for TLAM mission development to a Cruise Missile Support Activity (CMSA) for overland mission planning. often in high-threat environments. Tomahawk attacks high value targets such as electrical generating facilities. which also uses the SYLVER launcher. is developing a version of the Storm Shadow/Scalp cruise missile capable of launch from the SYLVER system. USE: The Tomahawk missile is a long-range. The National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) provides the necessary databases for planning. and Battle Group (BG) Commanders direct the deployment and employment of the mission. Threat databases are provided for missile attrition analysis. non-hardened targets. Unified. the British contribution to the 2003 Iraq War.In 2004. The Kosovo War in 1999 saw HMS Splendid become the first British submarine to fire the Tomahawk in combat. in crisis response. The first operational design involved global warfare using conventional Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles (TLAM) against known. France. and suppress enemy air defenses. In addition.S. interests in regional conflicts. currently the U.S.[citation needed] The Royal Navy later used them in the 2001 Afghanistan War and Operation Telic. neutralizes the enemy's ability to conduct air operations. The Tomahawk land-attack cruise missile has been used to attack a variety of fixed targets. task and coordinate TLAM strikes. The SYLVER vertical launch system to be fitted to the new Type 45 destroyer is claimed by its manufacturers to have the capability to fire the Tomahawk. or to execute national policy and Tomahawk operates from littoral seas as an integral part of joint forces. unmanned land attack weapon system capable of pinpoint accuracy. Unified Commanders develop contingency plans in response to developing strategic situations to achieve National Command Authority directed goals. Joint. It has been reported that seventeen of the twenty Tomahawks fired by the British during that conflict hit their targets accurately. Therefore it would appear that Tomahawk is a candidate to be fitted to the Type 45 if required. fixed. highly survivable. Targets and maps are generated for TERCOM and DSMAC. including air defense and communications sites. . which would give a similar land attack capability. command and control nodes. However.

others for special applications . all-weather.BGM-109 Tomahawk A BGM-109 Tomahawk Type Long-range.200 lb) Without booster: 5. subsonic cruise missile United States Place of origin Service history In service 1983-present Production history Manufacturer General Dynamics (initially) Raytheon/McDonnell Douglas $US 569.25 m Diameter Detonation mechanism 0.000[1] Unit cost Specifications Weight Length 1.440 kilograms (3.52 m FMU-148 since TLAM Block III.56 m With booster: 6.

TERCOM.the proven weapon of choice for contingency missions. and improved 402 turbo engines. a solid propellant propels the missile until a small turbofan engine takes over for the cruise portion of flight. a course correction is then made to place the missile on course to the target. Tomahawk is a highly survivable weapon. If necessary. The first operational design involved global warfare using conventional Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles (TLAM) against . The Tomahawk land-attack cruise missile has been used to attack a variety of fixed targets. highly survivable. low altitude flight. Time of Arrival (TOA) control.500km (1550 mi) Subsonic . Systems include Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The land attack version of Tomahawk has inertial and terrain contour matching (TERCOM) radar guidance.about 880 km/h (550 mph ) GPS. Similarly. DSMAC Vertical Launch System (VLS) and horizontal submarine torpedo tubes (known as TTL (torpedo tube launch) Wingspan Operational range Speed Guidance system Launch platform BGM-109 Tomahawk The Tomahawk is an all-weather submarine or ship-launched land-attack cruise missile. The Tomahawk missile provides a long-range. infrared detection is difficult because the turbofan engine emits little heat. unmanned land attack weapon system capable of pinpoint accuracy. an upgrade of the optical Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation (DSMAC) system. which compares a stored image of target with the actual target image. including air defense and communications sites. often in high-threat environments. The TERCOM radar uses a stored map reference to compare with the actual terrain to determine the missile's position. Terminal guidance in the target area is provided by the optical Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation (DSMAC) system. Radar detection is difficult because of the missile's small cross-section. After launch. The Surface Navy's deep strike capability resides in the Tomahawk missile system .67 m 2. Tomahawk's operational environment is changing significantly.Engine Williams International F107WR-402 turbofan using TH-dimer fuel and a solid-fuel booster 2.

non-hardened targets. in conjunction with other land attack systems and tactical aircraft. A more diverse threat coupled with a smaller U. The National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) provides the necessary databases for planning. Navy will most likely be called upon to defend U. Threat databases are provided for missile attrition analysis. The strategic assumptions underlying this environment continue to change. command and control nodes. and suppress enemy air defenses. Unified Commanders develop contingency plans in response to developing strategic situations to achieve National Command Authority directed goals. and Combat Control System (CCS) for submarines. Tomahawk attacks high value targets such as electrical generating facilities. Tomahawk Weapon Control System (TWCS) for surface ships. making Tomahawk the weapon of choice to strike reinforced. missiles are launched from torpedo tubes (with stowage in the torpedo room).S. in addition. denies or delays forward movement of enemy forces. and Battle Group (BG) Commanders direct the deployment and employment of the mission.known. fixed. and weapons assembly/storage facilities. During the critical early days of a regional conflict. The Tomahawk Weapon System (TWS) is comprised of four major components: Tomahawk Missile. or to execute national policy. The Launch platform FCS prepares and executes the TLAM mission. Theater Mission Planning Center (TMPC)/Afloat Planning System (APS). task and coordinate TLAM strikes. hardened targets. interests in regional conflicts. These systems provide the interface between the missile and FCS for missile initialization and launch as well as environmental protection. In addition. force structure place an absolute premium on system flexibility and responsiveness. The FCS supporting the ship is TWCS of ATWCS (AN/SWG-3). The launch platform launches the missile. and launch control functions. neutralize the enemy's ability to conduct air operations. in crisis response. some attack submarines have VLS located forward. then navigates . Joint. The missile boosts and transitions to cruise flight. A vertical launching system (VLS) accommodates missile stowage and launch on ships.S. Unified. Ships and submarines have different weapon control systems (WCSs). Tomahawk will operate from littoral seas as an integral part of joint forces. Tomahawk. Tomahawk Weapon System (TWS) capability is evolving into major systems with expanding capabilities. Today. CCS Mk2. database management. or AN/BSY-1. The Fire Control Systems (FCS) on both ships and submarines perform communications management. Targets and maps are generated for TERCOM and DSMAC. which will handle both stowage and launch. Strike Planners select. The FCS on submarines is the CCS MK1. The projected operational environment for Tomahawk is now characterized by scenarios in which the U. external to the pressure hull.S. Thus. Tomahawk is able to respond to rapidly developing scenarios and attack emerging land-based targets. engagement planning. On all attack submarines. The Unified Commander passes tasking for TLAM mission development to a Cruise Missile Support Activity (CMSA) for overland mission planning.

During flight. Ten of the 19 problems were only temporary. featureless.100 Tomahawks. a TLAM mission was loaded 307 times into a particular missile for launch from a Navy ship or submarine. Tomahawk was used extensively during Desert Storm in 1991. This facility is the headquarters for the IIS. analysis of TLAM effectiveness was complicated by problematic bomb damage assessment data. Of the 288 actual launches. naval forces launched a Tomahawk cruise missile strike on the Iraqi Intelligence Service's (IIS) principal command and control complex in Baghdad. 1991. But TLAM performance in Desert Storm was well below the impression conveyed in DOD's report to the Congress. and effectiveness against hard targets and targets capable of mobility. thus these missile were either launched at a later time or returned to inventory. mission planning. and TLAM demonstrated limitations in range. of 297 attempted cruise missile launches. The speed. Despite initial strong positive claims made for TLAM performance in Desert Storm. . the missile will navigate using TERCOM and DSMAC and GPS (Block III). which planned the failed attempt to assassinate former President Bush during his visit to Kuwait in April 1993. 6 suffered boost failures and did not transition to cruise. in Bosnia (Deliberate Force) in 1995 and in Iraq (Desert Strike) in 1996. some missiles may also execute a Precision Strike Tomahawk Mission (PST) transmitting its status back to a ground station via satellite communication. he ordered some 23 Tomahawk missiles to be fired into Iraq to send a message to the government of Iraq and other terrorists. endurance and firepower of today s nuclear submarines were demonstrated in 1991 during America s participation in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. in Iraq in January and June 1993. as well as in internal DOD estimates. desert terrain in the theater made it difficult for the Defense Mapping Agency to produce usable TERCOM ingress routes. Four hundred Block II and Block III missiles were fired on five separate occasions. Of those 307. becoming the first submarine in history to launch a Tomahawk cruise missile against an enemy target. U. According to President Clinton. According to initial US Navy reports. single or multiple targets. 1993. During Desert Storm. Used primarily as surveillance platforms. The relatively flat. 19 experienced prelaunch problems.S. The missile executes its planned terminal maneuver and for TLAM-C hits a single aimpoint and for TLAM-D. including up to 70 against Taliban and al-Qaeda targets in Afghanistan in late 2001. stealth. Tomahawk Operational Use Since the 1991 Persian Gulf War has fired about 1. On January 19. USS Chicago and USS Louisville operated in conjunction with Allied Naval Forces in the Red Sea. USS Louisville made the transition from passive surveillance to active combatant. Two submarines and a number of surface ships fired Tomahawk cruise missiles during the Gulf War. at my direction. lethality. On June 26. 290 missiles fired and 242 Tomahawks hit their targets. Enroute.on the planned route.

occurred when inventory levels of Tomahawk missiles were at critical levels due to previous combat expenditures of 811 missiles prior to 1999. Operation Allied Force. In all. 1998. launched more than 75 Tomahawk land-attack missiles from ships and submarines against terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) military forces launched cruise missile attacks against military targets in Iraq. Block III.S. they were sent to destroy over 50 percent of key headquarters and electrical power station targets. USS Columbus (as part of the USS Carl Vinson Battle Group) participated in cruise missile attacks against military targets in Iraq in Operation Desert Fox. of which there are 72 SSN's (696 launchers) and 70 surface ships (5. There were over 4. the Navy's overall ability to fire these land-attack missiles has grown considerably. was first used in the September 1995 Bosnia strike (Deliberate Force) and again in the September 1996 Iraq strike (Desert Strike). President Clinton launched Operation Infinite Reach.S. This is because a greater number of the ships capable of firing the missile are now surface ships and surface ships are able to carry more Tomahawks than submarines. including the September 1996 attacks on Iraqi military installations. in the spring of 1999. said. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. After the Aug.The Gulf War and subsequent contingency operations.S. The Shifa plant was believed to produce a precursor to the chemical weapon agent VX. These strikes were ordered by the President of the United States and were undertaken in response to Iraq's continued failure to comply with United Nations Security Council resolutions as well as their interference with United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) inspectors. Tomahawks firing power showed a greater than 85% success rate. Used selectively throughout. with its improved accuracy and stand alone GPS guidance capability.266 launchers). Navy Tomahawk land attack missiles played a critical role in the 1999 Kosovo air campaign. the financing. 20. Gen. 1998.000 Tomahawk cruise missiles in the inventory in 1996. Success rates for both strikes were above 90%. Sudan. demonstrated that long-range missiles can carry out some of the missions of strike aircraft while they reduce the risk of pilot losses and aircraft attrition. the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. As of the beginning of 1996 the US Navy had 140 Tomahawkcapable ships with 6. On December 16. Submarine operations went from routine patrols to aggressive strike on August 20. Launched from the sea to shape the battle . As justification. Shelton. 7 bombings of U. the U.570 launchers). and the execution of the attacks on the US embassies. On Aug. Osama bin Laden s network of terrorists was involved in the planning. Submarine and surface ships of the USS Abraham Lincoln Battle Group launched Tomahawk cruise missiles against Sudan and terrorist training camps in Afghanistan 13 days after terrorists bombed the U. Then on December 16. US attack submarines fired Tomahawk Land-Attack Missiles at two targets linked to bin Laden s terror network a training camp in Afghanistan 60 miles south of Kabul and the Shifa pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum. Although the number of ships (including attack submarines) capable of firing the Tomahawk grew only slightly--from 112 to 119--between 1991 and 1996. 1998. Henry H.

About 15 landbased bombers. and British ships and submarines. Three other SUBPAC submarines. USS Key West was within the Fifth Fleet Operating Area and was the first ship to arrive off the coast of Pakistan. Myers. firing Tomahawk cruise missiles into Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. TLAMs were continuously present in the theater. his influential sons Uday and Qusay. and US and British ships and submarines launching approximately 50 Tomahawk missiles have struck terrorist targets in Afghanistan. Richard B. USS Louisville. Gen. He said. also participated in the very successful strike mission responsible for the early successes of coalition . and B-52 bombers. Six ships and three submarines from two U. Two versions of TLAM were used in this operation. while the TLAM-D carries conventional submunitions. The first Tomahawk missile to be fired into Iraq in the second Gulf War roared off from the San Diego-based cruiser Bunker Hill at 5. Tomahawk was often a weapon of choice for targets with the potential for high collateral damage. Unfortunately. Navy battle groups and one UK submarine launched 218 missiles in preplanned and quick-reaction strikes. Intelligence reports seemed confident that Hussein. The allies seized upon this opportunity to decapitate Saddam s regime with a single blow. the United States initiated military actions in afghanistan by means of operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). later reports proved that the intelligence was faulty: Hussein and his sons were not in the bunker. and massed firepower on key enemy targets. warship to fire Tomahawk cruise missiles into Baghdad. Tomahawk missiles utilize a solid propellant rocket motor to accelerate the missile through the initial boost phase of flight until the turbofan engine takes over for the cruise and terminal phases. B-2. carrierbased F-14 and F/A-18 fighters. announced the action at an Oct. thirty-six Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles (TLAMs) hit the complex early in the morning on March 20.S. 2001 terrorist attacks. Navy Tomahawks achieved a 90-percent success rate against these vital targets in allweather conditions. some 25 strike aircraft from carriers.inland. initiative. 7 DOD news briefing. Early operations used land-based B-1.S. March 20. and was used to attack numerous targets in Belgrade. Following the September 11.S. All TLAMs expended during Operation Allied Force were the Block III configuration. The TLAM-C has a conventional unitary warhead. In response to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. and could be used to execute timely attack. Simultaneously. the JCS Chairman. USS Columbia. and other regime leaders were in the same bunker at the same time and that the coalition knew where it was. and USS Key West. and Tomahawk cruise missiles launched into Afghanistan from both U. This gave the joint force commander the ability to utilize the principles of surprise. When Operation Iraqi Freedom commenced in March 2003.25am. Target types ranged from traditional headquarter buildings and other infrastructure targets to relocatable targets such as aircraft and surface-to-air missile launchers. USS Cheyenne became the first U. USS PHILIPPINE SEA (CG 58) participated in Operation Enduring Freedom by launching the first wave of Tomahawk Missiles into Afghanistan.

forces. Coalition forces fired more than 725 Tomahawk cruise missiles by early 2003. one-third of the entire number in the inventor .