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Course Code: CSE102 Course Title: Exposure to Computer Disciplines

School: LITCA Department: CSE/IT

Name of the faculty member: Rani Geetika

Class: Term:2 Section: K1001 Batch:2010

Max. Marks: 5 Date of Allotment:21/1/2011 Date of



ROLL NO.-RK1001B48

Part (A)

1.Brief some of the current memory architecture used in Laptop and desktop computers
and major issues surrounding them?

ANS.1).On the basis of speed computers memory’categories are

a)register memory

b)cache memory

b1)level 1

b2)level 2


most of the data that we want to store get stored in ram,cpu then stores piece of data it
will need to accessnoften in cache and maintain certain special instruction in registers.

Storage capacity:RAM>cache memory>registers


There are main types of RAM:



Description about them is below

SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM)

Almost all systems used to ship with 3.3 volt, 168-pin SDRAM DIMMs. SDRAM is not
an extension of older EDO DRAM but a new type of DRAM altogether. SDRAM started
out running at 66 MHz, while older fast page mode DRAM and EDO max out at 50
MHz. SDRAM is able to scale to 133 MHz (PC133) officially, and unofficially up to
180MHz or higher. As processors get faster, new generations of memory such as DDR
and RDRAM are required to get proper performance.

DDR (Double Data Rate SDRAM)

DDR basically doubles the rate of data transfer of standard SDRAM by transferring data
on the up and down tick of a clock cycle. DDR memory operating at 333MHz actually
operates at 166MHz * 2 (aka PC333 / PC2700) or 133MHz*2 (PC266 / PC2100). DDR is
a 2.5 volt technology that uses 184 pins in its DIMM.


DRAM comes in two major form factors: DIMMs and RIMMS.

DIMMs are 64-bit.DIMMs for SDRAM and DDR are different, and not physically
compatible. SDRAM DIMMs have 168-pins and run at 3.3 volts, while DDR
DIMMshave 184-pins and run at 2.5 volts.RIMMs use only a 16-bit interface but run at
higher speeds than DDR. To get maximum performance, Intel RDRAM chipsets require
the use of RIMMs in pairs over a dual-channel 32-bit interface

2.“Power management is implemented in the latest motherboard”. Delineate the key idea
behind this statement.

ANS)A method for power management of a motherboard is provided to manage a power

supply on the motherboard and specially to manage an output power of a power
management module on the mother board. The motherboard at least comprises a
microprocessor, and the power management module provides a power with a number of
output phases to the microprocessor. First, a first load of the microprocessor is detected in
a first time. Then a second load of the microprocessor in a second time is detected. When
the second load is less than the first load and is lower than a first predetermined value, the
number of output phases of the power outputted from the power management module is
3.Suppose we have a Pentium III and we want to enjoy the features of Pentium IV for
graphics. What are the considerations to be taken to upgrade a motherboard?

ANS.)To enjoy the features of Pentium IV on pentium III for graphics we should have an
AGP slot.
Part (B)

4.)Write the BIOS features and the major areas the BIOS support the CPU, chipsets,
memory, drives, plug and play support, power management, USB, parallel port and so on.
4ANS.)The term is incorrectly known as Binary Input/Output System, Basic Integrated
Operating System and occasionally Built In Operating System.but actually it means basic
input output.The features of BIOS are explained below:

1)BIOS identify and initiate component hardware (such as hard disk, floppy and optical
disk drives). This is to prepare the machine so other software programs stored on various
media can load, execute, and assume control of the PC. This process is known as booting,
or booting up, which is short for bootstrapping.
2)Its main function is that it load operating system.
3)Some of the other common tasks that the BIOS performs include: A power-on self-test
(POST) for all of the different hardware components in the system to make sure
everything is working properly
4)They manage things like the keyboard, the screen, and the serial and parallel ports,
especially when the computer is booting
5)Managing a collection of settings for the hard disks, clock, etc.
The BIOS is special software that interfaces the major hardware components of your
computer with the operating system. It is usually stored on a Flash memory chip on the
motherboard, but sometimes the chip is another type of ROM

5.If Hi-Speed USB 2.0 is 40X faster, why is it that a CDRW, for example, is

6.Write down the role of Tracks, Cylinders and Sectors with a data organization on a hard
drive and typical layout of hard drive sector.

6ANS.)To store the data on hardisk it is necessary that we do formatting of hardisk.

FORMATTING:-formatting means dividing the harddisk into tracks,sectors and

cylinders.Now a days disk comprises number of platters with tracks on both side.

TRACK:-When we do formatting harddisk got divided into number of concentric circles

known as tracks.Numbering of tracks is done from outside to inside,given zero number to
outermost track.
• SECTORS:- A sector is the basic unit of data storage on a hard disk. The term
"sector" comes from mathematics in which sector is known as angular section of
circle having pie shape,surrounded from two sides by radii of circle and from
third side by perimeter of circle.

An explanation in its simplest form, a hard disk is comprised of a group of

predefined sectors that form a circle. That circle of predefined sectors is defined
as a single track. A group of concentric circles (tracks) define a single surface of a
disks platter. Early hard disks had just a single one-sided platter, while today's
hard disks are comprised of several platters with tracks on both sides, all of which
comprise the entire hard disk capacity. Early hard disks had the same number of
sectors per track location, and in fact, the number of sectors in each track was
fairly standard between models. Today's.) platter from a 5.25" hard disk, with 20
concentric tracks drawn over the surface. Each track is divided into 16 imaginary