VALVE TYPES Although many different types of valves are used to control the flow of fluids, the basic

valve types can be divided into two general groups: stop valves and check valves. Besides the basic types of valves, many special valves, which cannot really be classified as either stop valves or check valves, are found in the engineering spaces. Many of these valves serve to control the pressure of fluids and are known as pressure-control valves. Other valves are identified by names that indicate their general function, such as thermostatic recirculating valves. The following sections deal first with the basic types of stop valves and check valves, then with some of the more complicated special valves. Stop Valves Stop valves are used to shut off or, in some cases, partially shut off the flow of fluid. Stop valves are controlled by the movement of the valve stem. Stop valves can be divided into four general categories: globe, gate, butterfly, and ball valves. Plug valves and needle valves may also be considered stop valves. GLOBE VALVES.- Globe valves are probably the most common valves in existence. The globe valve derives its name from the globular shape of the valve body. However, positive identification of a globe valve must be made internally because other valve types may have globular appearing bodies. Globe valve inlet and outlet openings are arranged in several ways to suit varying

the gate travels up or down the stem on the threads. while the stem remains vertically stationary. Therefore. gate valves should not be used for throttling.Figure 9-18. . appropriately. Gate valves are so named because the part that either stops or allows flow through the valve acts somewhat like the opening or closing of a gate and is called. angle-flow. and cross flow. Figure 9-18 shows the common types of globe valve bodies: straightflow. GATE VALVES. the gate.-Types of globe valve bodies. On the nonrising-stem gate valve shown in figure 9-19 the stem is threaded on the lower end into the gate.-Cutaway view of a gate valve (nonrising-stem type). leaving an opening for flow through the valve the same size as the pipe in which the valve is installed.. Globe valves are used extensively throughout the engineering plant and other parts of the ship in a variety of systems. there is little pressure drop or flow restriction through the valve. Gate valves are classified as either RISINGSTEM or NONRISING-STEM valves. This type of valve almost always has a pointer-type indicator Figure 9-19. Except as specifically authorized.Gate valves are used when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum restriction is desired. The gate is usually wedge shaped. requirements of flow. the gate is fully drawn up into the valve. Gate valves are not suitable for throttling purposes since the control of flow would be difficult due to valve design and since the flow of fluid slapping against a partially open gate can cause extensive damage to the valve. When the valve is wide open. As the handwheel on the stem is rotated.

wedging the gate between them and clamping the valve shut. This design allows the gate to flex as the valve seat compresses it. saltwater. lube oil. they will expand. If a solid gate fits snugly between the seat of a valve in a cold steam system.threaded onto the upper end of the stem to indicate valve position. The rising-stem gate valve. BUTTERFLY VALVES. JP-5. the seats will compress against the gate. relatively small. shown in figure has the stem attached to the gate.. and chill water systems aboard ship. Gate valves used in steam systems have flexible gates. The butterfly valve is light in weight. The reason for using a flexible gate is to prevent binding of the gate within the valve when the valve is in the closed position. one type of which is shown in figure 9-21 may be used in a variety of systems aboard ship. thereby preventing clamping.-Cutaway view of a gate valve (rising-stem type). the gate and stem rise and lower together as the valve is operated. These valves can be used effectively in freshwater.The butterfly valve. relatively Figure 9-20. when the system is heated and pipes elongate. causing some distortion of valve bodies. F-76 (naval distillate). This problem is overcome by use of a flexible gate (two circular plates attached to each other with a flexible hub in the middle). . When steam lines are heated.

the ball is rotated so . The resilient seat is held in place by mechanical means. a butterfly disk. a stem. a notched positioning plate. are stop valves that use a ball to stop or start the flow of fluid. and can be used for throttling.Ball valves. To close or open a butterfly valve. Packing is provided to form a positive seal around the stem for added protection in case the seal formed by the seat should become damaged. The butterfly valve has a body.. a resilient seat.-Butterfly valve. thus making a seal around the periphery of the disk and both upper and lower points where the stem passes through the seat.Figure 9-21. packing. or machine work. grinding. Because the seat is replaceable. the ball rotates to a point where the hole through the ball is in line with the valve body inlet and outlet. turn the handle only one quarter turn to rotate the disk 90°. The resilient seat is under compression when it is mounted in the valve body. When the valve is shut. provides positive shut-off. When the valve handle is operated to open the valve. and a handle. This method is used especially where space limitation prevents use of a long handle. Butterfly valves are relatively easy to maintain. BALL VALVES. which requires only a 90-degree rotation of the handwheel for most valves. quick-acting. Some larger butterfly valves may have a handwheel that operates through a gearing arrangement to operate the valve. The ball (fig 9-22) performs the same function as the disk in the globe valve. the valve seat does not require lapping. and neither bonding nor cementing is necessary. as the name implies.

The gearing does. air. sanitary. Most ball valves are of the quick-acting type (requiring only a 90-degree turn to operate the valve either completely open or closed).-Typical seawater ball valve. trim and drain. . increase the operating time for the valve. however. Ball valves are normally found in the following systems aboard ship: seawater. and oil transfer. but many are planetary gear operated. Some ball valves contain a swing check located within the ball to give the valve a check valve feature. This type of gearing allows the use of a relatively small handwheel and operating force to operate a fairly large valve.Figure 9-22. and flow is stopped. hydraulic. the hole is perpendicular to the flow openings of the valve body.

That' where the lug style valve comes in. A different installation procedure is used for each one.Types of Butterfly Valves 1 Plastic Butterfly Valves 2 Wafer Style Valves 3 Wafer Butterfly Valves 4 Lug Style Valves 5 Lug Style Butterfly Valves 1 Plastic Butterfly Valves Plastic butterfly valves are available in two types or styles. 3 Wafer Butterfly Valves Wafer butterfly valves are installed between two flanges using bolts or studs and nuts. The wafer style butterfly valves is just about the "standard". For example most sizes of Hayward butterfly valves mounted between two flanges have a 150 psi pressure rating. This set up permits either side of the piping systems to be disconnected without distributing the other side. 4 Lug Style Valves Lug style valves have metal inserts installed in the valve's bolt holes. in dead end service. This type of installation. 5 Lug Style Butterfly Valves Lug style butterfly valves used in dead end service generally have a reduced pressure rating. makes it impossible to disconnect just one side of the piping system from the valve. of course. This allow them to be installed into a system using two sets of bolts and NO nuts. The same valve mounted with one flange. wafer or lug. has a 75 psi rating. The valve is installed between two flanges using a separate set of bolts for each flange. They take it for granted that if they order a "butterfly valve" they will get a wafer style one. It's so common that no one even bother to use the word wafer when ordering a butterfly valve. . 2 Wafer Style Valves Wafer style is the more common of the two and is less expensive than the lug style. These inserts are threaded on both ends.

Simply. the valve independently seals material to the upstream and downstream side. aluminum. Body A butterfly valve body can be made of cast iron. The valve is made up of a body. seat. viton. Lug style valves contain tapped holes that allow them to be bolted directly to a mating flange. natural rubber. and actuator. gas. lug valves may be used to isolate downstream equipment that may require replacement or maintenance. Typically the material is air. In the closed position. Choice of seat material depends on . ductile iron. Certain dry materials may also be handled through a butterfly valve. Teflon. chlorbutyl. there is nothing to seal material either upstream or downstream from the removal point. disc. carbox. Wafer style valves are installed ³sandwiched´ between pipe flanges. carbon steel. Each component part is available in a variety of materials called ³trim features. white buna. buna. This style of valve is easier to replace or install.´ Properly combining trim features to address material handled and environment is important in selecting the correct model valve for its intended service. stem. Because of this independent sealing. The interior of the valve body is lined with an elastomer seat. a butterfly valve consists of a circular disc with its pivot axis at right angles to the direction material is flowing. or liquid.How & Why Are Butterfly Valves Used? A Butterfly Valve is used to control the flow of material through a circular pipe or tube. Seat Resilient seated valves are the most commonly used types. Butterfly valves are available in wafer and lug style. steam. stainless steel and exotic metals. Seats may be made of EPDM. or white neoprene as well as other materials. replacing a wafer valve requires the conveying line to be drained. However. Once the valve is removed.

care must be taken in specifying the proper material of construction and disc shape. ductile/nickel plated.temperatures. Some of these features include: the manner in which the stem and disc are attached. Other considerations Depending on the application. attaches to the actuator. and positions the disc for material flow control and shut off. and availability of a ring seal between the seat and valve . undercutting of disc. aluminum/bronze. Disc materials are available to meet a variety of application demands: stainless steel. pneumatic. Depending on the application and valve size. Also. Stem The stem passes through the center of the valve. ductile iron. the way the stem and disc assembly mount inside the valve body. stems may be one or two-piece construction. The seats of some inexpensive butterfly valves are typically molded into the body and cannot be repaired or replaced. Some discs are designed to allow increased flow patterns through the piping. Typical materials of construction include carbon steel and different grades of stainless steel. electric and electro-hydraulic. Precision butterfly valves typically contain removable seats that are repairable or replaceable. actuators that may be enclosed in special housings and buried are available for certain underground applications. additional valve features that may need to be considered. Actuator A variety of actuators are available for butterfly valves: manual handle. type of material used in stem bushings and packing. gear. ductile/nylon II coated as well as others. pressures and material handled. Disc The valve disc (controlled by the actuator) regulates the flow of material within the conveying line. ductile/epoxy coated. As the disc is directly in the material flow stream.

Listed below is a brief introduction to some of these other types. . Care must be taken when applying a butterfly valve in semiabrasive or abrasive dry material applications (this includes slurry applications that contain suspended particles because: 1) A valve disc closing on dry bulk material will create premature wear to the rubber seat.body. steam.g. positive shut-off valve for handling materials (e. and liquid applications. bi-directional shut off. They offer an excellent. Butterfly Valves are generally specified for most air. 2) The obstructed orifice created by the disc may cause bridging of material on the inlet side of the valve. gas. economically priced. 3) A disc opening or closing on a standing column of dry material may cause the material to jam / pack. Other Types of Butterfly Valves As a person becomes familiar with butterfly valves. Working with a company that can offer and properly apply a variety of trim features will enhance the success of the butterfly valve in a specific application. When handling this type of material. they will undoubtedly discover other types of butterfly valves on the market. gases and liquids) that are easily displaced by the valve disc as it closes. bubble-tight. butterfly valves provide a reliable. causing conveying line inefficiencies. Applications As stated earlier. 4) Particles of dry material or suspended particles in slurries may become trapped between the disc and seat.

Pros: 1) A reliable butterfly valve for handling higher temperature and pressure applications. additional controls are needed to identify whether the bladder is inflated or not. even though controls identify that a seal has been established. causing the disc to ³cam´ into place upon closure. 2) Again. requiring periodic replacement. Pros: 1) Since the seal is created after the disc closes. 2) The bladder may be damaged and not creating a seal. High Performance -.Double Offset Butterfly Valve This type of butterfly valve is ideal for applications involving higher temperatures (up to 1200º F) and higher pressures (up to 1440 psig). The disc and stem are double offset. Once the disc is brought to the closed position. 4) The inflatable bladder is subject to damage and abrasion. A smaller sized actuator costing less money is can be used. less torque is required to move the disc into the closed position. These controls add cost to the valve. Cons: . 3) The valve must be located near an air supply to pneumatically inflate the bladder.Inflatable Seated Butterfly Valves Inflatable seated butterfly valves utilize an inflatable seat or bladder to create a seal around the disc. Cons: 1) In addition to the controls needed to verify the position of the disc. minimal abrasion exists between the disc and the seat. because the seal is created after the disc closes. the bladder is inflated pneumatically.

and are fire safe. steam.considerably more expensive than standard butterfly valves. diverter valves and iris valves for handling dry bulk material.1) Cost -. High Performance -. Most triple offsets utilize a metal on metal seat and disc closure. Pros: 1) A reliable valve for extreme applications. Salina Vortex Corporation manufacturers a variety of slide gates.more expensive than the double-offset butterfly valve. Vortex butterfly valves are available for air. Cons: 1) Cost -. The double and triple offset butterfly valves are specialized valves for extreme applications. liquid and certain dry material applications. are rated up to 600# class.Triple Offset Butterfly Valve This type of butterfly valve is often used in refinery and off shore applications where more extreme conditions exist. .

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