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Estimating and design cost analysis
Robert P Charette . Brian Bowen
Time-Saver Standards: Part I, Architectural Fundamentals
Architectural Fundamentals .14 Estimating and design cost analysis 170 Time-Saver Standards: Part I.
“ In 1996. occupancy and disposal. The objective for establishing UNIFORMAT as a national and international standard was to provide a degree of consistency in cost planning. ASTM Designation E155796. Charette. E. Improvements based on experience since its first inception made it more comprehensive. In 1973. • The UNIFORMAT II classification is applicable to any building type. Means Company provided the office building data for the worked example estimates in this article.Preliminary Project Descriptions and Outline Specifications“ which recommended the use Authors: Robert P. and Marshall 1992). The classification is hierarchical to allow different levels of cost analysis. In conjunction with the General Services Administration. CVS and Brian Bowen.Estimating and design costcost analysis 14 Estimating and design analysis 14 Summary: UNIFORMAT II provides a classification and systematic approach for estimating and design cost analysis. Numerous applications demonstrate that the classification system can provide a link between all phases of facilities programming and design and for all phases of the life cycle of a project. CSI also published a practice entitled “FF/180 . the American Institute of Architects undertook to develop an elemental estimating format called MASTERCOST.81 on Building Economics appointed a task group to develop a UNIFORMAT standard. systems. Key words: assemblies. In 1989. such as Canada. The ASTM standard was approved in 1993 and designated E 1557-93 “Standard Classification for Building Elements and Related Sitework . Grant of R. Standard Classification for Building Elements and Related Sitework . Charette. The classification of building elements is separate from the classification of building-related sitework. 1 Introduction of an elemental project description (specification) based on UNIFORMAT at the schematic design phase. cost. In practice. The objective of the classification format was to improve communications and coordination among all parties involved in a project. The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) recommends UNIFORMAT II for schematic phase preliminary project descriptions. Items to be included in the classification are determined as any element that has bearing on project cost. significant either in magnitude or quantity and which help in understanding constructability and cost. Though not an official national standard. P. the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) Sub-Committee E06. The development of the first elemental classification is attributed to the British Ministry of Education following the post World War II school-expansion program. aggregation and summarization. and estimating during the programming and design phases of a project. a consensus format named UNIFORMAT was produced. and management of facilities during their life cycle. the newly revised ASTM classification of elements is listed in Table 1. that perform a given function. the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) issued a special publication (Bowen. Building elements are traditionally defined as major components. including a comparison of design vs. including construction and operations. particularly between the design team and the client. in which the name UNIFORMAT II was selected to emphasize that it is an elemental classification similar to the original UNIFORMAT. Additional references appear at the end of this article. In 1992. Architectural Fundamentals 171 . from the planning. construction method. PA: American Society for Testing and Materials. The methodology was adapted to construction programs in other British Commonwealth countries. preliminary design. it has since formed the basis for any elemental format called for in the United States. Elemental categories provide a framework for cost control and other applications such as early design specifications. The classification is outlined. UNIFORMAT II. sources of cost data. building elements classification. cost control. A classification of building elements such as UNIFORMAT II provides an approach to meeting these objectives. In 1992. feasibility and design stages through to construction. It is easily related and/or referenced to other elemental classifications such as the original UNIFORMAT and the classification of the Canadian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (CIQS). construction estimate objectives. analysis. time and quality.UNIFORMAT II. common to most buildings. cost estimates. Element selection criteria The following criteria are the basis for deciding what items to include as elements in the classification and in which parts of the classification to assign or list them.. the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) issued an interim edition of UNIFORMAT based on the work in progress of ASTM. while allowing for details appropriate for specialized buildings or cases. FRICS • Credits: Roger J.UNIFORMAT II. and then to the United States in the early 1970s. Designated as E-1557-96. building and sitework elements. regardless of the design specification. evaluation. S. West Conshohocken. Time-Saver Standards: Part I. an element may be any part of a logical work breakdown structure whose purpose is to control project scope. particularly with respect to mechanical systems and sitework. providing a distinctive alpha-numeric designation for the elements similar to that incorporated by CSI (1992). revisions were made (ASTM 1996). or materials used. References: ASTM 1996. The Need for a classification of building elements The building industry needs a format or classification framework to serve as a consistent reference for the description. and a worked example of design cost analysis. monitoring.
UNIFORMAT II Classification 172 Time-Saver Standards: Part I.14 Estimating and design cost analysis Table 1. Architectural Fundamentals .
they provide a general outline of what to expect in that element consistent with the selection criteria outlined above.Standard Foundations) rock excavation unless associated with Special Foundations (see A1010Standard Foundations and A2010 . Level 2 for group elements.Estimating and design cost analysis 14 decision as to where. Description of UNIFORMAT II Elements for A10 .Standard Foundations Includes ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° wall and column foundations foundation walls up to level of top of slab on grade anchor plates pile caps foundation excavation backfill and compaction footings and bases perimeter insulation perimeter drainage Excludes ° ° ° ° general excavation to reduce levels (see G1030 -Site Earthwork) excavation for basements (see A2010-Basement Excavation) basement walls (see A2020 Basement Walls) under-slab drainage and insulation (see A1030-Slab on Grade) A 1020 . as building and building-related sitework.Special Foundations Includes ° ° ° ° ° ° piling caissons underpinning dewatering raft foundations any other special foundation conditions Excludes ° ° pile caps (see A1010 . Level 3 for individual elements. It is obviously based upon the definition of elements in the construction of buildings. An example of inclusions and exclusions presented in the standard is shown in Table 2 for A10 Foundations. Exclusions are listed to help readers find items quickly.Floor Finishes) Time-Saver Standards: Part I. A 1010 . Listings of inclusions and exclusions are not intended to be exhaustive.Foundations (after ASTM Standard E1557-96).Floor Finishes) hardeners and sealers to the slab (see C3020 . • UNIFORMAT II is not intended to classify elements of major civil works other than buildings. If it is not obvious based on where a particular item may logically be placed in the building system. Architectural Fundamentals 173 . Description of UNIFORMAT II elements Tables B-1 and B-2 (See Appendix B-10) present the UNIFORMAT II classification. Rather.Basement Excavation) A 1030 . A full description or index of specific items included and excluded at Level 3 is provided in ASTM (1996). Table 2. a simple guideline is to choose that classification category or element where design and building professionals in current practice normally look for such items. to include specific items among various categories or classification elements is based on professional judgment.Slab on Grade Includes ° ° ° ° ° ° structural inclined slabs on grade trenches and pits bases under-slab drainage under-slab insulation Excludes ° ° standard applied floor finishes (see C3020 . The UNIFORMAT II classification of building-related sitework has been developed to provide a compatible system for guidance so that planners of the larger infrastructure related to buildings do not have to resort to multiple elemental classifications for one project. respectively and given as three hierarchical levels: Level 1 for major group elements.
1 illustrates a brick face and concrete block insulated wall (Element B2010) priced at $20. escalation. that is the specifications are used as the key reference in contractor estimates and bid proposals. widely adopted in the building trades. This is a stand alone estimate that provides the total estimated cost of the building (including all contingencies. Elemental costs can be built up from component and assemblies costs. A caution. ft. or built up from assembly and component costs. in critical cases verified by site observation of total time and materials utilization for similar elements and assemblies. Many trades incorporate products from more than one CSI/CSC Division. but not the General Contractor percentage for general conditions. Construction estimates based on product classification most commonly reference the CSI/CSC MASTERFORMAT Divisions 1-16. area. A brief description or outline specification based on the UNIFORMAT II classification is presented in the caption.Exterior Walls and A1010 . overhead and profit) as well as analytic parameters and ratios for design cost analysis. Costing based on components. Means “Square Foot Cost Data“ manual also includes an assemblies section based on the original UNIFORMAT. Having a suitable WBS established early and consistently developed throughout the project is one of the basic principles of effective project management. logical. i. verifying and updating cost data from previous projects to develop data base of accurate. early design specifications based on UNIFORMAT II can be directly linked to the specification. one basement parking level. Elemental estimate objectives Using UNIFORMAT II to structure elemental estimates during the programming and design phases of a project will assist in: • Breaking down construction tasks into a simple. 3 illustrates the application of the UNIFORMAT II classification for estimating. elemental budgets for future projects (cf. and the need for designers to clearly understand costs related to their early planning and design decisions. and a total gross floor area of 54. assemblies and systems permit a designer to understand costs based on design decisions directly at hand. Historical costs from similar projects adjusted for inflation are a valuable source of data input for elemental estimates. Preparing relatively simple but overall accurate estimates during programming and early design.072 ($88. unit costs assumptions might be reviewed with experienced builders and construction managers and. UNIFORMAT II estimates are structured to facilitate design cost analysis and monitoring from the programming phase through to completion of working drawings. Architectural Fundamentals . of gross ft. i. and overhead and profit should be formatted in a consistent manner. the UNIFORMAT classification is more suitable for design cost analysis and budget control.. escalation. Therefore. historical cost data. the element cost would be built-up from assembly costs for the floor structure and the columns. evidenced by the record of design drawings. that follows the construction sequence.Slab on Grade. in which case costs are listed by materials quantities independent of their place in the construction assembly or an elemental classification (also referred to as an “assemblies” or” systems” classification) in which case costs are directly attributable to component and assembly quantities. averages costs. Although currently structured according to the original UNIFORMAT. realistic. The estimate summaries are presented in four distinct tables to facilitate design cost analysis. Indicating the anticipated quality level of a building and its elements. This classification system. overhead and profit. 2 illustrates a slab-on-grade (Element A1010) priced at $2. Parker and Dell’Isola 1991). with rates based on U. $4. which find their validity in the accuracy and currency of the element cost figures. MASTERFORMAT is not to be considered a non-redundant “trade classification. which links the estimate directly to the specification. Table 4 is an example building elemental cost summary. Fig. Means Mechanical and Electrical cost manuals. the total estimated cost for the building only is readily identified. thereby improving project team communications and coordination. Means “Assemblies Cost Data“ manual provides element and assemblies costs.54 per sq. (Note that unit costs include all sub-contractor mark-ups.40 per square foot.” MASTERFORMAT may also be used for design estimates because specifications are based on MASTERFORMAT. S. Given the criticality of cost assumptions.. hierarchical Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) of elements / systems / assemblies. such estimates are not recommended for preparing trade estimates and are not a substitute for MASTERFORMAT. Elemental estimate example • • • 3 • Office building example A simple office building described in Fig. In the case of B1020 . is that due to the differences noted. whose primary application is for construction documents-phase specifications. Reutilizing. The building has eight floor levels above ground level. • Published elemental cost data. The annual R. Figs.781. Furthermore. Readily assessing the costs of major changes at any phase of programming and design. Identifying cost overruns and clarifying design and specification alternatives at the earliest possible so that corrective action may be initiated without delay. This is also a stand alone estimate that allows total estimated • • • • 174 Time-Saver Standards: Part I. S.e. Percentages for allowances. For example. Built-up elemental cost data.73 per square foot. Fig. derives from contractor practices for convenience of price quotations from traditional construction materials/product sources. ft. • • Table 3 illustrates an example element cost calculation for floor finishes. 1 and 2 illustrate how costs are built up from component costs for B2010 .14 Estimating and design cost analysis 2 Design versus construction estimates • Overview Building design and construction estimates in North America are based either on a product classification. however. Setting Design-to-Cost (DTC) targets for each discipline based on the facilities program estimate and establishing effective monitoring of costs element by element from the facilities programming phase through completion of final design (the audit trail).e.Floor Construction. The annual R.) Historical elemental cost data. Element cost data sources Element costs are obtained from published cost manuals. contingencies. Table 5 indicates an example sitework elemental cost summary. S. including R.000 sq. as do other annual cost manuals. Given the emphasis now being placed on limited project budgets defined in design phases if not before. Such data will be most easily used if structured in the same format as UNIFORMAT II. by reference to both design specification and cost impact reflected in the element unit rates and providing effective design cost analysis based on the parameters and ratios generated in the system summaries. S. the data can readily be used for UNIFORMAT II estimates as in the example presented below.
478.000 SF FPA. communications and coordination among team members is improved.6-100-0060 6.76 16.00 109.74  3. Client and owner representatives can submit comments earlier because their quality expectations are described in the outline specifications and are reflected in the element unit rates presented to them.196.25 2. appropriate units of measurement can be selected to allow elemental unit rates to be developed for cost analysis.175 2. and based on a 150ton chiller plant.: Element units of measurement are consistent.31 139. Numerous parameters and ratios are generated to allow effective design cost analysis.74 / SF of finished floor area shown for element C3020-Floor Finishes. Architectural Fundamentals 175 . Element Costs for C3020 .75 14.55 per SF (note that in the summary.791. The cost in the example is $160.989.e. C1010 .200.350 33. allowing unit costs to be readily analyzed. The unit rate is $5. Code  Description Qty (SF) Rate ($) Cost ($) C3020 6. B3010 . Time-Saver Standards: Part I.Roof Coverings are measured in terms of roof area (SF).012.g.Partitions are measured in terms of the area of partitions (SF).Standard Foundations are measured in terms of footprint area (FPA). With design estimates formatted in a consistent manner from programming phase through to final design and from project to project. i.Cooling Generation is measured in terms of tons refrigeration (TR).. The unit rate is $915 per TR. Table 3. with a breakdown of costs and percentages to analyze the total construction cost of $4. e. Means “Assemblies Cost Data“ manual.Floor Finishes.00 6.100 7.846 and based on an element quantity of 28.084.979 SF.000 SF of roof area the unit rate is $2. is an average rate for the element based on the total quantity and total cost of floor finishes. - Element units of measurement For most elements.6-100-1720 Notes:  The Code designations for line items are from 1997 R.075 3.116. a meaningful number for cost analysis.Estimating and design cost analysis 14 sitework costs to be treated as a distinct separate entity from the building costs.506 and based on an element quantity of 6.6-100-1100 Floor Finishes Office Carpeting Terrazzo for lobby. The cost in the example is $17.41 6. The cost in the example is $137. For example: A1010 .92 / SF roof area. corridor and toilet rooms Ceramic tiles for washrooms 37.  The resulting rate of $3. $208.. The cost of A1010 in the example is $30. • Table 6 is an example total construction cost summary. The elemental cost summaries shown in the example tabulations incorporate the features that facilitate this result. the rate is the average unit cost of partitions). The unit rate is $5.433 and based on an element quantity of 6. S.07 / SF per unit FPA. D3030 .
Architectural Fundamentals .14 Estimating and design cost analysis 176 Time-Saver Standards: Part I.
Estimating and design cost analysis 14 Time-Saver Standards: Part I. Architectural Fundamentals 177 .
Exterior wall components Source: Means (1997). Element B2010 . Architectural Fundamentals . 178 Time-Saver Standards: Part I.14 Estimating and design cost analysis Fig. 1.
Element A1010 .Estimating and design cost analysis 14 Fig. Time-Saver Standards: Part I.Slab-on-grade components Source: Means (1997). 2. Architectural Fundamentals 179 .
Vertical venetian blinds for all exterior windows. GENERAL: Building size . C30 INTERIOR FINISHES . 3 watts/SF. aluminum and glass at 1st floor level. water supply. ceiling heights . paved parking stalls with barriers and painted lines. insulated automatic basement garage door. A20 BASEMENT CONSTRUCTION . D10 CONVEYING SYSTEMS .Steel columns.2 Watts/SF.hollow metal. Specialties . 9 hose cabinets.toilet accessories. smoke and heat detectors. 48. dock leveler. trees and hydraulic seeding for landscaping. lawn sprinkler system. mahogany paneling on furring.The one acre site (43. geared elevators.. one roof access hatch. Doors . service sinks. 25% window. Architectural Fundamentals . remainder plaster finish to ceiling height (partition and wall surfaces). D30 HVAC . Elevator power. Corridors . Windows.Wall hung lavatories and water closets. office and corridor. G SITEWORK . gas service piping. underground electrical power and cabling in conduit.M. Pneumatic control system with central control. wall switches. R12. 3 hr. D20 PLUMBING . 2 Watts/SF. composite steel frame and deck with concrete slab. D60 ELECTRICAL .1st and 2nd floor . Doors. normal soil conditions for excavation.6" lightweight concrete block partitions. S.lobby. South.2 Watts/SF.Steel with concrete fill. fire rated. 4 ply. two 10-HP 230 volt motors. Air conditioning. 8 floors. 8" lightweight concrete block insulated. C10 INTERIOR CONSTRUCTION . dry sprinklers in basement parking area. full height. B20 EXTERIOR CLOSURE . steel beams. toilet rooms. B10 SUPERSTRUCTURE . copper distribution piping throughout. Washroom vanities. aluminum. East and West. 16. concrete. signals.Walls.office building plans and elevation (source: R.60' x 100'.9' in office area and 8' in core area. North. Perimeter hot water finned tube radiation with wall to wall enclosures. open web joists and deck. 2/1000 SF. corridors and toilet rooms. shrubs.Core . drains in each washroom floor and parking level. Lighting. Emergency lighting generator. ceramic tiles. 4' high parapet. Example . Fire detection system.Fire tube gas-fired water boiler and 150 ton water-cooled chiller installed in penthouse. E10 EQUIPMENT . Basement 10 fluorescent fixtures / 1000 SF. 1. 12' floor-to-floor height. directory board. E20 FURNISHINGS . 2 Watts/ SF. Receptacles 1st thru 8th.3 5/8" steel studs with fire rated gypsum board. full height. 4 Watts/SF. 180 Time-Saver Standards: Part I. Basement. 1st thru 8th.24" x 48" fiberglass board on Tee grid. 4" CI roof drains and PVC piping. 200 F.P. brick and lightweight concrete block with 2" cavity insulation. remainder. panel board and feeder. exterior lighting. 30 KW. bay size 25' x 30'. full basement with 11'-8" floor to floor. sanitary and storm sewers. 4" concrete slab on grade.Wall Finishes . paint. 10% window.Tar and gravel. pull stations.5 / 1000 SF. 12" thick waterproofed basement walls.1st floor lobby. Example office building and sitework description. Gas-fired domestic hot water heater and reservoir. Ceiling Finishes . 10 receptacles / 1000 SF.Automatic parking garage access gate. Cast iron sanitary waste piping. tenant developed 2nd thru 8th.Two 2500 lb capacity. Toilet partitions. One acre site. C20 STAIRCASES .Service. carpet. 5500 CFM direct gas-fired parking garage air handling ventilation unit with air supply distribution and exhaust system. roof. 3. 15 fluorescent fixtures / 1000 SF.12' high. 3'-0" x 5'-4" insulating glass. waste handling compactor. 9 stops. Floor Finishes . miscellaneous connections 1. terrazzo.Concrete spread and strip footings. 4" standpipe. 2" rigid insulation. wide flange. floors.560 SF) must be cleared and excavated in part to obtain required elevations.5. 2000 amps. Low velocity air supply and return air distribution.000 CFM built-up air handling unit for office floors. A10 FOUNDATIONS . duct bank for telephone cabling. Means 1997). D40 FIRE PROTECTION .Standard sprinkler system in office area. B30 ROOFING .14 Estimating and design cost analysis Fig.
1%.Electrical is 18.g. i.781. Q: Does the building design GFA conform to space program requirements? A: Table B1 parameters indicate that the current design at 54.. what is the unit cost and percentage of total building construction cost? A: The unit cost $11.687 has been included for a design allowance and $145. based on a quality level scale of one to four developed by the General Services Administration (GSA). effective design cost analysis can be performed rapidly if the data generated is suitably structured. $209. the area per ton is 320 SF.g.000 SF exceeds the program area of 52. there is 0. Note that construction contingencies.60 per SF GFA.00 $12.4% of the total building construction costs.2% and 2. that can be developed from documentation and experience. contingencies. Q: What amounts have been included in the total construction cost of $4. and corrective action taken to contain costs within the allocated budget.55 / SF. as a result. Commercial Granite Curtain Wall Sandwich Wall Metal Cladding $65.00 Time-Saver Standards: Part I. from the example the cost of D50 ..989.Exterior Walls could be selected from Table 7.Cooling Generation Systems) and the area per ton of refrigeration? A: The cost per ton is $915. Some of the questions that could be asked in analyzing the office building estimate example. within the range of acceptable costs for this type of building. from the example. will facilitate the preparation of elemental budget estimates and the rapid analysis of detailed elemental estimate summaries. A standardized presentation format for these costs will facilitate the reconciliation of estimates from different sources.54 SF of partition.350 SF is $3. • • • An understanding of parameters and ratios. contingencies and overhead and profit must be presented in a consistent manner for all estimates. Elements whose cost exceeds the norm can be identified early on in a project.g. Q: What is the ratio of partition area to GFA and how is the partition (C1010) unit elemental rate interpreted? A: The ratio is 0. using cost modeling techniques. the format is based on a logic that facilitates cost analysis.000 SF by 2. Q: What is the unit cost of quality level of exterior walls (B2010)? A: The unit cost is $15. Quality Level Element Description Cost ($/SF) 1.750 SF (Ratio QTY/NSA). the average cost / SF based on the actual quantity of 37. for every square foot of floor area.45 / SF.000 SF or 3.600 SF.54 SF per SF GFA. which is 50% of the net site area of 36. Percentage trade cost of Level 2 Group Elements (Column “% Trade Cost“) e. Q: For the Superstructure B10.9% of the total building cost.Floor Finishes. though part of project costs. Allowances. which indicates better quality than standard metal stud and gypsum partitions. Corporate 4. a total of 7. are not included in the estimate summaries when represent the anticipated General Contractor’s bid. from the example for D4010 . 4 Design cost analysis UNIFORMAT II elemental estimate cost summaries as shown in Tables 4 to 6 provide analytic data that would be difficult if not impossible to extract from trade or MASTERFORMAT Divisions 1-16 estimates.Partitions. As seen from the above. the costs attributed to B2010 . the average unit rate for partitions is $5. $1. These mark-ups could be formatted as shown in Tables B1 and B2.000 and the cost / SF $88. from the example for C1010 . Architectural Fundamentals 181 . The average rate for an element based on the quantity.49 / SF and the superstructure represents 16.Estimating and design cost analysis 14 Element rates and quality levels Element rates are indicative of the their quality level.g. Monumental 2.9% of total construction costs respectively.313 for inflation.00 $18. 0. i.e. a commercial quality level (Level 3). these numbers represent 4. Q: What is the cost per ton of the chilled water plant (D3030 . Quantity of the element per unit gross floor area (ratio “Qty/GFA“) e.000 for design and inflation allowances. e.e. Federal 3. for C3020 . follow: Table 7.00 $38. this is one of the first items to address in reducing the cost of the building. what may be expected for a water-cooled chiller system of this capacity. and what percentage of the total do they represent? A: From Table B3. a task that is usually most difficult and time consuming because they are usually calculated in any number of ways. thus avoiding time consuming and costly redesigns at a later date. Q: What is the parking lot surface percentage of total net site area? A: The parking lot G2020 has 18. overhead and profit Allowances.74..54. Analytic parameters and ratios The following analytic parameters and ratios can be automatically generated in elemental estimate summaries: • Cost of the element per unit gross floor area (Column “Cost Per Unit GFA“) e.. Q: What is the total estimated building construction cost exclusive of taxes and unit rate per GFA? A: The total building construction cost is $4. relatively accurate estimates can be prepared at the programming and schematic phases without detailed drawings. Quality Levels and Costs for B2010 Exterior Walls. an average figure.Sprinkler Systems. For example.54.7%. and the answers.
“FF/180: Preliminary Project Descriptions and Outline Specifications. Means Square Foot Estimating.” Chapter 25. VA: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Washington D. For performance specifications and design criteria. and classifying construction graphic standards. Means Company. “Using UNIFORMAT II in Preliminary Design and Planning. Building construction. Facilities and assets management. Kingston.” CSI Manual of Practice.14 Estimating and design cost analysis Other applications Additional applications have emerged since the publication@of UNIFORMAT II as an ASTM standard in 1993. commissioning. Kingston. MA: R. For progress reports. Alexandria. R. Second Edition. Means. “Construction Cost Management. American Institute of Architects. reserve funds. Means Assemblies Cost Data Manual. For schematic and design development phase specifications. Robert Charette. mortgage monitoring. MA: R. life cycle costing data. risk analysis (Monte Carlo simulation). The range of applications extends from the planning phase of a facility to all phases of its construction and life cycle maintenance and covers: • Facilities planning and programming. deficiency reports. Brian. Gaithersburg. space program requirements schedules. Project Budgeting for Buildings. and directing value engineering sessions. 1997. Robert and Anik Shooner. Other applications include structuring element / assemblies cost data manuals. editor. 1991. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Brian. and Dell’Isola. NIST Special Publication 841. Alphonse J. VA: The Construction Specifications Institute. maintenance and repair cost data manuals. 182 Time-Saver Standards: Part I. 1992. filing product literature. building condition assessment. Donald E. 1992. S. S. functional area estimates. S. long term capital replacement budgeting. UNIFORMAT II . Facilities design.” The Architect’s Handbook of Professional Practice. David Haviland. 1995. Bowen. design estimates and cost control. • • • • Additional references Bowen. budgeting and program estimates. AIA Press.A Recommended Classification for Building Elements and Related Sitework. and Harold Marshall. scheduling. capital cost evaluation. For maintenance planning and budgeting. CSI. code conformity analysis. Parker. 1994. Architectural Fundamentals . CAD layering. C. Means Company. Charette.
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