October 7, 2008

Solutions for Electrical Traction Motor Drive
FA101

Roman Filka
Systems and Applications Engineer
TM

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Session Content
►Hybrid
• •

EV powertrain

Typical hybrid system Driving hybrid – driving modes

►Freescale
• •

MCU solutions

Centralized (multi-axis) control Distributed (single-axis) control

►Electric
• •

motor control

3-phase motor control Achieving Deterministic and Precise Control

►Freescale

application solutions

Sensorless PM AC motor control

►Motor

control on Freescale Web site

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Please Ask Questions

Do you have something in mind?

?

Do I need to be more clear?

Do not hesitate to interrupt.

Do not hesitate to ask.

This session is long!

Ask when you have a question in mind.

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Typical Hybrid System

Battery Generator Power split device Power circuit Inverter Motor

Engine

• High efficiency gas engine • Planetary gear power split device AC synchronous generator • High voltage AC-DC inverter • Nickel-metal hydride battery • Permanent magnet AC motor

Drive wheels

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Typical Hybrid System
Battery Power circuit Generator Power split device Engine Inverter • High efficiency gas engine • Planetary gear power split device AC synchronous generator • High voltage AC-DC inverter • Nickel-metal hydride battery • Permanent magnet AC motor

Motor Drive Wheels
Drive power Electric power

Reduction gear

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Hybrid Powertrain Roadmap
Parallel Hybrids Full Electric Drive Engine Assist
Hybrid Functions

Regenerative Braking Engine Start/Stop
Micro Hybrid Mild Hybrid Full Hybrid Series Hybrid

2-10k 12-42V

10-20k 42-100V

20-80k 100-300V

80-110k 300-600V

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6

Driving Hybrid

Source: TOYOTA, Hybrid Synergy Drive, Information Portal

Hybrid strength
► Regenerative Braking. The electric motor applies resistance to the drivetrain causing the wheels to slow down. In return, the energy from the wheels turns the motor, which functions as a generator, converting energy normally wasted during coasting and braking into electricity, which is stored in a battery until needed by the electric motor. ► Electric Motor Drive/Assist. The electric motor provides additional power to assist the engine in accelerating, passing, or hill climbing. This allows a smaller, more efficient engine to be used. In some vehicles, the motor alone provides power for lowspeed driving conditions where internal combustion engines are least efficient.

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Hybrid Driving Modes

Battery Power circuit Generator Power split device Engine Motor Inverter Power split device Engine Generator

Battery Power circuit Generator Inverter Power split device Engine Motor

Battery Power circuit

Inverter

Motor

Reduction gear

Drive Wheels

Reduction gear

Drive Wheels

Reduction gear

Drive Wheels

Low Speed

Normal Driving

Sudden Acceleration

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Hybrid Driving Modes

Battery Power circuit Generator Power split device Engine Motor Inverter Power split device Engine Generator

Battery Power circuit

Inverter

Motor

Reduction gear

Drive Wheels

Reduction gear

Drive Wheels

Battery Charging

Regeneration

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Hybrid Vehicle
Traction Motor
Field Oriented Control AC Induction Motor Sensorless control

Battery Management
Charging mgmnt (DC/DC conversion control) Lifetime monitoring

Engine Control
Knock Detect (FFT) Control of Engine

Generator / Starter
Supervisor
Energy Flow management
Source: www.ford.com

Field Oriented Control

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Problem Statements
► Complex

distributed system

There is one MCU dedicated to synchronization of multiple controllers including the transmission controller • High bandwidth communication availability (5 ms response window)
► Motor
• •

control

Precise, fast and deterministic control timing CPU bandwidth limitation which pushes the solution to one micro per motor controlled; high bandwidth is emphasized more than memory. This may cause the need for a horsepower part with low memory requirements. • Need optimized and flexible PWM output control for 3-phase motor control linked with fast and effective analogue acquisition
► System
• •

costs

Multiple controllers and sensors Microprocessor needed for DC/DC converter also needed for control of voltage conversion

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Freescale MCU Solution

TM

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Freescale 32-bit MCU Solutions — Agenda
►Centralized

(Multi-axis) Control

System concept based on devices with eTPU • What is an eTPU? • eTPU operation in motor control application • eTPU performance in motor control application
►Distributed

(Single axis) Control

Introduction of 32-bit MCU dedicated to motor control • Motor control peripherals
PWM — unique all edge control – Timer – ADC – Cross triggering unit (CTU) – unique way to offload CPU

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Centralized Control
► Centralized

control can be based on the powerful CPU supported by the motor control “co-processors”, called eTPU.
Battery Power circuit ECU

Generator Inverter

MCU

eTPU CPU eTPU

Motor Engine

MCU

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What is an eTPU?
The enhanced time processor unit is a programmable I/O controller with its own core and memory system, allowing it to perform complex timing and I/O management independently of the CPU. The eTPU is essentially a microcontroller all by itself! – motor control coprocessor
Host Interface System Configuration Channel Control Development and Test Control Data Memory (up to 8k) Data Control Scheduler Channel Service request TCR1 TCR2 / Angle clock Timer Channels Channel 0 Channel 1 Channel 2

IPI

Micro-engine Fetch and Decode Execution Unit Control and data

IPI

Code Memory (up to 64k)

Code MDU Channel 31

Debug Interface

Debug

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4

Centralized Control—System Concept
► eTPU

drives a motor independently of the CPU (triggered by eTPU) samples analog quantities transfers data between eQADC and eTPU

► eQADC ► eDMA ► CPU ► CPU CPU

only sets required quantity value (speed or torque) can handle higher level tasks
eQADC
two parallel 12-bit conversions

DC-Bus Voltage Phase Currents

Hardware
DC-Bus

User Interface

enable/disable PWM signals

eDMA eTPU

PWM Signals Power Stage Sensor Signals Motor

Application State Machine

Motor Drive

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eTPU Operation
CPU eTPU DC-bus voltage i_q_required
PI i_d_required DC-bus voltage
phase_a_current phase_b_current phase_c_current
u_q_lin u_d_lin

ACIMVC
PI Decoupling Inverse Park Transform Circle Limitation
u_d u_alpha

Hardware
DC-Bus Ripple Elimination

u_dc_bus

BC

DC-Bus alpha Break
beta ADC Trigger

ASAC
i_d omega_field

i_q

u_q

u_beta

cos

required torque

PMSMVC beta /ACIMVC
required actual torque speed

alpha

duty-cycles

PWMMAC

PWMF
u_alpha

sin

Motor Inverter omega_actual
psi_r_alpha u_beta

DQ Establishment

SC

position difference & time difference

omega_field i_d

QD

cos

psi_r_beta

i_beta

Clarke Transform

required speed

Flux Model

position counter

sin

i_alpha

i_a

i_alpha i_beta

Shaft i_c Encoder

i_b

i_q QD_Index

PWM signals generation ► Shaft encoder signals processing ► eQADC trigger signal generation

PMSM/ACIMVC vector control loop ► Speed-closed loop control ► DC-bus break signal generation

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Applications based on Motor Control eTPU Library

Motor Control Functions work together to drive the following motors:
DC Motors DC Open Loop DC Speed Loop with HD DC Speed & Current Loop BLCD with HD Open Loop BLDC with HD Speed Loop BLDC with HD Speed & Current Loop BLDC with QD Open Loop BLDC with QD Speed Loop BLDC with QD Speed & Current Loop AC Motors ACIM V/Hz Open Loop with Sine Wave Drive ACIM V/Hz Open Loop with SVM Drive ACIM V/Hz Speed Loop with Sine Wave Drive ACIM V/Hz Speed Loop with SVM Drive ACIM Torque Vector Control ACIM Speed Vector Control PMSM Torque Vector Control PMSM Speed Vector Control Stepper Motors

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eTPU Performance
PMSM Vector Control
MCF5235 (simplified) CPU/eTPU Clock 150 MHz/75 MHz MPC5553/4 128 MHz 128 MHz

ACIM Vector Control
MPC5553/4

eTPU Engine Time Load average 68.7% @ 10 RPM 76.8% @ 1000 RPM peak 78.6% @ 10 RPM 84.8% @ 10000 RPM eTPU Memory Usage Code RAM Data RAM 6088 bytes 1024 bytes 7508 bytes 1000 bytes 8212 bytes 1072 bytes 45.6% @ 10 RPM 49.9% @ 1000 RPM 50.3% @ 10 RPM 54.6% @ 1000 RPM 53.1% @ 10 RPM 61.8% @ 1000 RPM 58.8% @ 10 RPM 67.5% @ 1000 RPM

Application Parameters
PWM frequency: Vector control update frequency: Speed controller update frequency: Shaft Encoder - increments per revolution: 20 kHz 20 kHz 1 kHz 4096

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Where Can I Learn More?
eTPU Product Summary Web Page http://www.freescale.com/etpu
► ► ► ► ► ► ► ►

eTPU Function Library and API eTPU Applications and Demonstrations eTPU Libraries Installation and Integration Guide eTPU Graphical Configuration Tool Links eTPU Compiler and Simulator Tools Link to eTPU VirtuaLab — Web interface to live demo Information on Trainings and Courses eTPU Documentation

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Distributed Control
► Distributed

control is based on micro-controllers with dedicated motor control peripherals such as 6-ch. PWM, position sensor decoders, etc.
Battery Power circuit ECU MCU1
FlexRay CAN

Generator Inverter MCU1

MCU2 PWM Timer ADC CPU MCU

Motor Engine

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MPC5604P
System Integration
VReg Osc/PLL Interrupt Controller FlexRay™ Controller

(Execution)

Crossbar Masters
e200 Core

Debug
JTAG Nexus

Power Architecture® Core • Up to 64 MHz e200 zen0h core Memory •512 KB Program Flash with ECC •4 x 16 KB DataFlash® with ECC •40 KB SRAM with ECC I/O •1 x High speed FlexCAN with 32 Message Buffers (MB) •1 x Safety port (can be used as additional FlexCAN – 32 MB) •1 x FlexRay Dual Channel with 32 MB •2 x LinFlex •4 x DSPI (4 independent chip selects each) •1 x FlexPWM (4 channels with 4 fault inputs) •1 x eTimer (6 channels incl. quad decode) •1 x eTimer (6 channels for general purpose) •2 x ADC •2 x 12 ch.(4 shared channels), 10-bit, conversion time 700 nsec ( 2x 6 ch., 4shared on 100-pin package) •1 x CTU triggering unit: 8 events System •2 x PLL (one FM-PLL, one for FlexRay™) •16-ch. eDMA •Fault collection unit •16 MHz internal RC OSC •Junction temperature sensor •JTAG (2 pin or 5 pin) / Nexus Class 2+ •3.3V single supply (5V mask option) with external ballast transistor •100- and 144-pin thin quad flat pack (TQFP)

eDMA

VLE

CROSSBAR SWITCH

I/O Bridge

PROGRAM Flash

SRAM

DATA Flash
Boot Assist Module (BAM)

Crossbar Slaves

Communications I/O System

1 eFlexCAN

FlexPWM

4 x DSPI

2 LINFlex

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2 eTimer

Safety

CTU

2 ADC

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Key Highlights
► Feature
• • • • • • • • • •

set specifically addressing electric motor control applications

Timer resolution and functions PWM channel number and function ADC

► Safety

focus

Peripheral protection through access control Core test capability Flash and SRAM memories have error code correction ( ECC ) FlexRay™ networking

► Software

ecosystem

Model based tools development AUTOSAR Optimized libraries for motor control and signal processing

► Zen
• •

32-bit Power Architecture covers a complete range of performance and cost
easy migration as requirements grow Signal processing engine (on Z3 and above) for fast signal processing

► Proven

eSys architecture used in most of the world’s powertrain control products

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MPC560xP Functional Safety Highlights
Power Architecture® Core: • Core self test planned Vreg • Spreads power losses over PCB • Allows high temp operation RC OSC • Provides seperate clock to system watchdog FlexRay Option • 2-channel w/32 MSG buffers, 10 Mbps

Fault Collection Unit • Detects when errors have occurred and the source and sets a flag •Independant of software operation RAM • Provides ECC support in HW • Offers higher safety than SW signature at no speed constraint

Interrupt Controller

™ PowerPC e200z0

FMPL

JTAG C - JTAG

IEEE -ISTO

Nexus

5001-2003

4-40 MHz
X -OSC

Vreg
3.3 to 1.2V Ext NPN

VLE 16 Ch.
eDMA FlexRay

16 MHz
RC-OSC

Crossbar Switch

I/O Bridge

SIU

512K FLASH EEE

40K SRAM

4+1 Ch. PIT

Boot Assist Module

Junction temp. Sensor

Flash + Data Block • Provides ECC for both program Flash and Data Flash

I/F 10bit S&H Mux

I/F 10bit S&H Mux

Safety Port • Allows CRC signed communication to slave MCU (if needed) • May be used as second CAN

Safety P.

FlexCAN

There are many different features in MPC560xP that introduce redundancy and enhance functional safety

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Timer

Timer

PWM

eSCI eSCI

dSPI dSPI dSPI

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24

MC Peripherals System Diagram MCU
CTU
Timer/ Pos. decoder compare

eTimer

Trigger Generator

Scheduler

eTimer
(Pos Counter)

PWM Triggers

ADC Cmd SHARED

ADC1

flexPWM

PWM Reload

ADC Trig & Ackw

PWMs

Real PWMs

External Signal

External Trigger

ADC Inputs

ADC2

Real PWMs

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Electric Motor Control Peripherals
Cross Triggering Unit
• Allows mcTIM, PWM, ATD to be synchronized • Automatic ADC & eTimer acquisitions • No CPU intervention during the control cycle
CTU
eTimer
Timer/ Pos. decoder compare

MCU

Timer Module:
• DSC based • Six Ch IC/OC • Double buffered registers for detecting two edges in a row • eDMA supported • Integrated quad decoder support • 2 x BUS frequency high resolution

Trigger Generator

Scheduler

eTimer
(Pos Counter)

PWM Triggers

SHARE D

ADC 1

Real PWM’s

PWM Reloa d

ADC Trig & Ackw

ADC 2

flexPWM

ADC Cmd

Real PWM’s PWM’s

2x ADC
External Signal External Trigger ADC Inputs

FlexPWM
• Based on DSC PWM • Optimized for 3ph motor control • One „extra“ pair of PWM integrated • Includes dead time insertion, fault channels, center/edge alignment, Distortion correction, … • Register protections • Double buffered registers • eDMA supported • 2 x BUS frequency high resolution
PWM0 Ch0 PWM0 Ch1 Control PWM1 Ch0 PWM1 Ch1 PWM2 Ch0 PWM2 Ch1 PWM3 Ch0 PWM3 Ch1
6 2
DC/DC

M

• Up to 24channels, with 4 shared. • 10-bit • 700 nsec conversion time • Limit checking & zero crossing detect

I/F 10bit S&H MUX

I/F 10bit S&H MUX

M
8

11 1

4

1 11

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Motor Control PWM Peripheral Module
PWM0 PWM0 PWM1 Control PWM1 PWM2 PWM2 PWM3 PWM3 Ch0 Ch1 Ch0 Ch1

Complementary Pairs PWM Modes auX


Main Features
4 Submodules, each with complementary PWM generation, Isense IC/OC and fault input 16 bits of resolution for center, edge aligned, and asymmetrical PWMs PWM outputs can operate as complimentary pairs or independent channels Independent control of both edges of each PWM output Independently programmable PWM output polarity Separate dead time for rising and falling edges Each complementary pair can operate with its own PWM frequency and deadtime values All outputs can be programmed to change simultaneously via a "Force Out" event Double buffered PWM registers
• •

auX

Ch0 Ch1 Ch0 Ch1

Faults

auX

Independent Channel PWM Modes

► ►

auX

Internal triggers • • • • • • • •

Independent CMP1 Edge Control

CMP2

Integral reload rates from 1 to 16 Half cycle reload capability

Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM, PMAC) Brushless DC motor (BLDC) Brush DC motor (BDC) AC induction motor (ACIM) Switched reluctance motor (SRM) Variable reluctance motor (VRM) Stepper motors DC/DC converters


► ►

Safety
Write protection for critical registers Fault inputs can be assigned to control multiple PWM outputs Programmable filters for fault inputs

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Quasi-Centre Aligned PWM (Full Resolution) – Normal Polarity
Val0 3
0 -3 INIT -4 4

ValOFF ValON

PWM output

Case A 0%

Case B 100%

Case C 62.5%

Case B 100%

Case A 0%

Case A
• Duty cycle – 0% General
– – – – – – – – – –

Case B
• Duty cycle – 100% General
– – – – – – – – – –

Case C
• Duty cycle – <0%,100%> General
– – – – – – – – – – –

x% = 0% ValON = 0 ValOFF = 0 MOD = 8 x% = 0 INIT = -4 Val0 = INIT + MOD – 1 = -(INIT) -1 = 3 TMP = MOD/2 * x% = 0 ValON = -round(TMP) = 0 ValOFF = truncate(TMP) = 0

x% =100% ValON <= INIT ValOFF >= -(ValON) = -(INIT) > Val0 MOD = 8 x% = 100% INIT = -4 Val0 = INIT + MOD – 1 = -(INIT) -1 = 3 TMP = MOD/2 * x% = 4 ValON = -round(TMP) = -4 ValOFF = truncate(TMP) = 4

Example

Example

x% = <0%,100%> TMP = MOD/2 * x% ValON = -round(TMP ValOFF = truncate(TMP) MOD = 8 x% = 62.5% INIT = -4 Val0 = INIT + MOD – 1 = -(INIT) -1 = 3 TMP = MOD/2 * x% = 2.5 ValON = -round(TMP) = -3 ValOFF = truncate(TMP) = 2

Example

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Other PWM Paterns — Example
►3-ph

PWMs can be divided into:

Standard – center aligned Two active vectors – left aligned
60° - 120° 120° - 180°

Three active vectors – sequential Two active vectors – centered
60° - 120° 240° - 300°

Three active vectors – center aligned (double switching)

0° - 60°

60° - 120°

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Motor Control eTimer Peripheral Module
eTimer
Peripheral Clock

Channel
Output

Prim. Input

PRESCALER WD Count OUTPUT Output Disable MUX OFLAG Edge Detect. MUX

PRIMARY SECONDARY OTHER CTNTRS

UP/DN

COUNTER

COMP.

COMP.

Sec. Input

CONTROL STATUS & CONTROL DMA IF

TMRLOAD

TMRHOLD

CAPTURE

CAPTURE

TMRCMP1

TMRCMP2

CAP Buf.1

CAP Buf.1

CMPLD1

CMPLD2

DATA BUS


► ►

Main Features
Six 16-bit general purpose up/down timer/counter per module Powerful multiplexer between external pins and internal signals for external triggers Individual channel capability:
• • • • • •

► ►

Dual action capability per channel

PWM measurement 0% to 100% rotor position rotor zero speed detection (position watchdog)

Quadrature decoder
• •

Input capture trigger Output compare Many counting modes (gating; triggered; one-shot) Separate prescaler for each counter Selectable clock source Rotation direction flag (Quad decoder mode)

ADC trigger can also trigger input capture for rotor position measurement (ex: sin/cos sensor) Cascade able for higher precision (32 bits)

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eTimer — Encoder Interface Mode

The counter is clocked by each valid transition on IC 1 or IC 2 by incremental encoder Depending on the sequence the counter counts, automatically, up or down The Output of Encoder Interface can be connected to Encoder Index to reset the counter on zero position detection The timer can provide information on encoded position To obtain dynamic information (speed, acceleration, deceleration) by measuring the periods between two encoder events using a second timer IC 1 IC 2

Trigger/Clock Controller
Encoder Interface

output trigger

PRESCALER 16-BIT

► ►

Encoder Index
16 bit counter

ARR

Input Capture

Output Compare

forward IC1 IC2

jitter

backward

jitter

forward

Counter

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Encoder Interface Mode — Safety
What happens when PHASE A is cut off ?

Incr. Encoder

Position WATCHDOG Timer/Counter

PHASE A PHASE B Normal Operation

Two successive counts indicate proper operation and will reset the timer. The timeout value is programmable. When a timeout occurs, an interrupt to the processor can be generated.

+/-1 Position Counter Operation at phase cut off Watchdog timeout

This timer is separate from the watchdog timer in the COP module.

+/-1 counts of the Position Counter do not reset the Watchdog timer! The Watchdog can detect the encoder signal line cut off!

Pos. Watchdog Int. Request ISR

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32

Motor Control ADC Peripheral Module
ADC Unit
AIN0 AIN1

Results FIFOs
ANALOG MUX SAMPLE & HOLD 10 bit Convertor ADC data registers

► ►

Main Features 2 Independent units
• •

. . .

<=12channels on ADC1, <=12 channels on ADC2, 4 channels shared on ADC1 and ADC2 3 for phase currents 1 for other acquisitions

4 shared signals for motor control acquisitions
• •

►D0 ►D1 ►. ►.
► ►
END OF CONVERSIO N END OF INJECTION THRESHOLD VIOLATION INTERRUPTS

SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION A/D CONVERTER

AIN15

760 ns conversion time, including 125 ns sampling time 10-bit resolution (+/- 2LSB; target +/-1,5LSB) Single sample and hold per ADC

AIN0 AIN1

►. ►D14
ANALOG MUX SAMPLE & HOLD 10 bit Convertor

Dual sample through ADC cross triggering

. . .

►D15
►ADC_INTER

Separate sampling and conversion clock pre-scalers

RUPTS
► SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION A/D CONVERTER ADC_CONT

AIN15

Trigger Event for conversion Trigger event for injected conversion

ROL
►Analog

I/F 12bit S&H MUX

I/F 12bit S&H MUX

watchdog

10

4

10

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33

Motor Control Cross Triggering Unit
2 x CLK
► ► Presc.

Main Features Two modes of operation:
• •

PWM reload PWM triggers odd PWM triggers even Real PWM’s/ IsenseX eTimer1 eTimer2/ Pos. decoder compare External signal

Trigger 0..7

CTU

Sequential mode Triggered mode

Trigger ADC Command Bus
► ►

Schedule acquisition of the state variables (ADC, position counter, PWM duty cycle decoder) with respect to PWM cycle ADC commands stored in ADC lists Support for over-sampling Triggers activate an ADC list
• •

Trigger Generator Subunit

Scheduler Subunit
eTimer1 eTimer2/ Pos. decoder compare External trigger

ADC commands can be static Triggers are changed according to space vector location

Master Reload

Trigger generation, ADC commands and ADC lists are double-buffered Manages both ADCs No real time involvement of CPU Compliant with ISO26262 for reduction of CPU interrupts DMA support

► ► ►

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ADC Commands
► ► ► ► ► ►

ADCs must be in CTU control mode 16 channels for each ADC (12 + 4 shared channels) Commands List of 24 commands Commands List registers are double-buffered Single conversion mode or dual conversion mode The result of each conversion, in both modes, can be stored in one of the 4 FIFOs The interrupt request bit is used as an interrupt request to the CPU when ADC will complete the command The commands in the list will allow to have control on:
• •

Conversions only triggered by CTU
eTimer, FlexPWM CTU
Channel Conversion Command

• • • •

channel A number: number of ADC channel to sample from ADC unit A (4 bits) channel B number: number of ADC channel to sample from ADC unit B (4 bits) FIFO selection bits for the ADC unit A/B (2 bits) Conversion Mode selection bit first command bit (only for CTU internal use) interrupt request bit

ADC

CPU/eDMA

Result FIFOs

ch0 ... chN ... ch23

1 trigger from CTU initiate an ADC command list; this command list can require several ADC acquisitions

Memory

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Use Case for Cross Triggering Unit No.1
pwm a pwm b pwm c

DC-bus current

Calibration
t1 t2

t1’

t2’

Position

Calibration

Position DC bus voltage DC bus voltage

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Use Case for Cross Triggering Unit No.2
Internal counter Desired PWM

Overall delay: ~0.4 ÷ 6 us
Low pass filter delay + Topto: ~1us

Real feedback signal at ADC pin

ADC trigger output event ADC clock sync. ADC MUX selection S&H

ADC Sample Trigger advancement to compensate ADC delays

ADC delays

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Motor Control Peripheral
► Freescale

motor control peripherals are well suited to handle various PWM patterns and ADC sampling schemes including very complex ones. and versatile cycle-by-cycle control is possible while keeping SW driver load at minimum. triggering unit (CTU) allows for two modes of operation (relative trigger timing to PWM cycle or to PWM edges); thus, you can select the most static mode with minimum CPU or SW load. case of static pattern (e.g., PWM type, CTU trigger timing, ADC sampling scheme) whole operation is fully automatic with zero CPU or SW involvement.

► Effective ► Cross

► In

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In Summary
► Power Architecture upward compatible • Scalable performance Z0 to Z7

roadmap

► Reliable supply • Dual source — Single architecture, separate manufacturing and distribution • Competitive sales and support ► Strong electric motor control • Timer resolution and functions • PWM channel number and function • ADC ► Next Geneneration safety approach • Core fault detection Lockstep and core self test • Peripheral protection through access control • Flash and SRAM memories have error code correction ( ECC ) • FlexRay™ communications networking ► Software ecosystem • Model based tools development • AUTOSAR • Optimized libraries for motor control and signal processing ► Proven

eSys Aachitecture used in most of the world’s powertrain control products

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AC Motor Control

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Inverter Topology
►Typical

representation with six switch configuration

A

Gate Driver with Isolation
Current Feedback

B C

Motor

Position Feedback Resolver or Encoder Type

ECU
Typical circuit configuration used to control a 3-ph motor are the inverter is shown. Six powerMOSFET or insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switches are used in the inverter.

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Fast and Precise Control — FOC

Inner Loop (faster) ~100μs

Outer Loop (slower) ~ 1-5ms

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Torque Production Principle
► Electromagnetic

torque production by the stator magnetic flux and magnet flux

space vectors

Te = c ⋅ ΨR × ΨS = c ⋅ ΨR × ΨS ⋅ sin γ

max(Te ) → γ = 90°
γ γ

γ

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DC Motor Principle
► The ► The

stator of a permanent magnet DC motor is composed of two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. rotor is composed of windings connected to a mechanical commutator, which mechanically ensures the angle between wire current and magnetic field ~ 90°.
motion
nt re r cu

S
nt re r cu

N

rotation

commutator

“Mechanical” FOC

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Creation of Rotating Magnetic Field
► The

space-vectors can be defined for all motor quantities. is = i Ae j 0 + iB e j120 + iC e j 240
B
o o

3-ph currents/MMF
A
1

B

C

A
0

is

-1 π 2π

C

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45

Transformation to 2-ph Stationary Frame
3-ph currents/MMF

is = i αe j 0 + iβ e j90
β

o

A
1

B

C

3-ph quantities
0

-1 π 2π

α
is 1.5

α

β

Stationary 2-ph quantities
0

-1.5 π 2π

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Transformation to 2-ph Synchronous Frame
► Position

and amplitude of the stator flux/current vector is fully controlled by two DC α β values
1

β

Stationary 2-ph quantities
0

-1 π 2π

α
is 1
iq

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id

d

q

Rotating 2-ph quantities
0

-1 π 2π

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47

Transformation to 2-ph Synchronous Frame
► Position

and amplitude of the stator flux/current vector is fully controlled by two DC α β values
1

β

Stationary 2ph quantities
0

-1 π 2π

α
is 1 iq

d

q

Rotating 2ph quantities
0

-1 π 2π

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FOC Transformation Sequencing

Phase B Phase C

3-Phase to 2-Phase

β

Stationary to Rotating

Control Process

Phase A

α

d q

d q

Rotating to Stationary

α β

Phase A

SVM

Phase B Phase C

From measurement From measurement
AC Stationary Reference Frame

3-Phase System

2-Phase System DC

? ?
AC

3-Phase System

Rotating Reference Frame

Stationary Reference Frame

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49

Deterministic Control
► ►

Sample the A/D on at least 2 of the phase currents simultaneously and read motor position. The A/D sample is performed on the same point during the PWM cycle (ex. midpoint of off time).
Mid-Point of PWM Off Time PWM Period (50 us) Read Motor Position Motor Control (50 us) A/D Conversion of Motor Currents (~1us) A/D Conversion always done at same point of profile Motor Control (FOC) Time (~10us)

Current Ripple Profile Max 0.5 us delay b/t successive A/D sample

50us

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A/D Converter-PWM Synchronization Benefits
ADC sampling helps to filtering the measured current – anti-aliasing ► Noise free ADC sampling when the power switch is not acting ► ADC sample is taken when shunt resistor signal (information) is available

Sampled and Average Currents Phase Current

PWM Period

Shunt Resistor Signals

PWM top PWM Bottom A/D calc. New PWM Parameters Calculation with Half-cycle Reload

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51

Freescale Application Solutions
Sensorless PM AC Motor Control

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Sensorless Control Basics

What does it mean?
Controlling of electric motors without position/speed sensors • Utilizes motor phase voltage and current sensors • Uses models and algorithms to estimate the state variables (e.g., speed, mag. flux, resistance …)

Supply
Position/speed sensor

Ic

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53

M

M ot oro la

D av e’ s Con tr ol C enter

Ib

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Electric Motor Type Classification
ELECTRIC MOTORS AC ASYNCHRONOUS SYNCHRONOUS DC VARIABLE RELUCTANCE Reluctance

Induction

Sinusoidal

Brushless

SR

Stepper

Permanent Magnet Surface PM Interior PM Wound Field

• Stator same • Difference in rotor construction If properly controlled • Provides constant torque • Low torque ripple

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Sensorless Control of PM Motors
►Classifications

of Used Sensorless Algorithms

Utilization of Magnetic Saliency
rotor position detected by tracking magnetic saliency carrier signal superimposed to main voltage excitation

Calculating an Appropriate Motor Model
proper motor parameters, voltage & current required issue at zero and low speed estimation
measured current low, distortion by inverter non-idealities – parameter deviation becomes significant with lowering speed

Combination of two sensorless algorithms
covering the entire speed range

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IPMSM Saliency Identification

►HF

Salient Pole Motor Salient Pole Motor

Verification of motor magnetic saliency at higher frequencies under varying load conditions D-Q axis impedance difference gets smaller with increased load and might eventually be zero causing failure of sensorless algorithm

Impedance Measurement

This is caused by saturation of q-axis inductance with increased load.

►Armature

Increasing load generates stronger armature reaction The motor armature reaction shifts the resulting magnetic saliency towards the direction of qaxis

Reaction Effect


Decreased Saliency Decreased Saliency Saliency shift due to Saliency shift due to armature reaction armature reaction

50V @500Hz

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Saliency Tracking Observer for Low Speeds
Vm ΔZ sin (2θ err ) iq = − 2ωhf Z d Z q

PI regulator results in steady state error value servoing to zero!

►Adding additional signal into rotating coordinates excites the motor at low and zero speed and makes the magnetic saliency signature visible. ►Signal frequency chosen sufficiently high so no to interfere with base motor operating frequency. ► Signal amplitude chosen such that the hf currents generated by this signal are measurable with sufficient accuracy. ►If the two frames are misaligned, a high frequency signal injected in estimated d-axis will also be coupled into estimated q-axis and hf current response will be generated in estimated q-axis.

s q axi t) (es xis qa
is d ax

t) (es xis da

θ actual

θerr

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Initial Axis Alignment
►PM polarity detection starts after initial axis alignment ►STO settling time varies depending on whether the STO stabilizing trajectory starts in an unstable region or not

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PM Polarity Detection Principle
►Utilizing the effect of stator slot saturation in direction of the rotor flux ►hf carrier voltage signal injected into d-axis ►Amplitude of the exciting hf signal must be sufficiently large to cause visible ►Depending on PM flux direction, one half of the hf signal period creates flux that adds up with PM flux whereas the other half acts against PM flux. ►Signal visible at second harmonic of hf carrier

Measured Ld = f(id)

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PM Polarity Detection Experiments

without PM polarity detection

with PM polarity detection

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Sensorless Control of PM Motors
►Classifications

of Used Sensorless Algorithms

Utilization of Magnetic Saliency
rotor position detected by tracking magnetic saliency carrier signal superimposed to main voltage excitation

Calculating an Appropriate Motor Model
proper motor parameters, voltage & current required issue at zero and low speed estimation
measured current low, distortion by inverter non-idealities – parameter deviation becomes significant with lowering speed

Combination of two sensorless algorithms
covering the entire speed range

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Sinusoidal PM Motor Model in DQ Rotating Frame
►Salient

vs. Non-Salient Machine Model in DQ rotating frame
ωre ⎤ ⎡ψ sd ⎤ 0 ⎤ ⎡isα ⎤ ⎡ s ⋅⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ i ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ψ ⎥ Rs ⎦ ⎣ s β ⎦ ⎣ −ωre s ⎦ ⎣ sq ⎦
0 ⎤ ⎡isd ⎤ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ i ⎥ + ψ PM Ls ⎦ ⎣ sq ⎦ 0 ⎤ ⎡isd ⎤ ⋅ + ψ PM Lq ⎥ ⎢ isq ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
ΔL = Ld − Lq 2
s d dt

Stator Voltage Equations

⎡usd ⎤ ⎡ Rs ⎢u ⎥ = ⎢ ⎣ sq ⎦ ⎣ 0

Stator Flux Linkages of Non-Salient Machine

⎡ψ sd ⎤ ⎡ Ls ⎢ψ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎣ sq ⎦ ⎣ 0

⎡1 ⎤ ⋅⎢ ⎥ ⎣0 ⎦ ⎡1 ⎤ ⋅⎢ ⎥ ⎣0⎦ Ld ≠ Lq

Direct & Quadrature Inductance Not Equal

Stator Flux Linkages of Salient Machine

⎡ψ sd ⎤ ⎡ Ld ⎢ψ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎣ sq ⎦ ⎣
Ld + Lq 2

L the average inductance & ΔL the zero-to-peak differential inductance

L=

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Saliency Based Back-EMF Observer

Saliency based back-EMF voltage is generated due to Ld≠Lq Because back-EMF term is not modeled, observer actually acts as a back-EMF state filter Observer is designed in synchronous reference frame, i.e. all observer quantities are DC in steady state making the observer accuracy independent of rotor speed.

dL dλ dθ dλ = voltage causes , which when combined with , causes dθ dθ dt dt

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Position Estimation Using Saliency Based Back-EMF

Position estimation steady state error at constant speed

Position estimation steady state error during speed ramp change

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Sensorless Control of PM Motors
►Classifications

of Used Sensorless Algorithms

Utilization of Magnetic Saliency
rotor position detected by tracking magnetic saliency carrier signal superimposed to main voltage excitation

Calculating an Appropriate Motor Model
proper motor parameters, voltage & current required issue at zero and low speed estimation
measured current low, distortion by inverter non-idealities – parameter deviation becomes significant with lowering speed

Combination of two sensorless algorithms
covering the entire speed range

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Full Speed Sensorless Control Operation
Accurate at low speeds

Full Operation Speed Range covered by two dedicated algorithms Crossover Merging Algorithm - based on FUZZY logic merges the two algorithm outputs into a single position/speed estimation.

Sensorless Algorithms ► Initial Position Detection

avoids conventional alignment

Accurate at high speeds

Low Speed Algorithm

Saliency Tracking Observer

High Speed Algorithm

State Filter Observer

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IPMSM Speed Sensorless FOC

Speed control loop

PWM generation

Current control loop Position estimation Speed estimation Software Portion Hardware Portion

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Low Speed Operation

30 [rpm] reversal

15 [ ° ] el. degree error = 1.5 [ ° ] mech. degree error

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Entire Speed Operation — Speed Profile

High-Speed Operation

Low-Speed Operation

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69

Full Speed Sensorless Experimental Results

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Entire Speed Operation — Reversal Detail

HF signal injection based sensorless control Transition to full EEMF observer control

HF injection OFF

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Motor Control on Freescale Web site
Reference designs, application notes, …

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Freescale Motor Control Web Pages
www.freescale.com/motorcontrol

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Session Material
Session Location – Online Literature Library
http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/homepage.jsp?nodeId=052577903644CB

Demos
Pedestal ID Demo Title

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