3(2009)2, ISSN 1846-5900
INFLUENCE OF TIP RELIEF PROFILE MODIFICATION OF SPUR INVOLUTE GEARS ON STRESSES
Buljanović, K. & Obsieger, B.
Abstract: In this paper the linear tip relief profile modification has been observed. The amount of tip relief profile modification depends on elastic gear tooth deflection that needs to be compensated. The standard gear model without linear tip relief profile modification and also modified one have been developed and analyzed using FEM analysis to compare gear tooth root stress, influenced by mentioned profile modification.
Keywords: Spur involute gears, profile modification, tip relief, FEM
During the meshing of gear pair, there appears so-called contact shock due to the contact of two new teeth. This impact produces noise and amplifies inaccuracies in the pitch and cause deformation of the teeth under load. In order to reduce the impact influence, the involute in the tip region is modified through a relief curve. This process is called profile modification at the tip and depends on elastic gear tooth deflection that needs to be compensated .
2 LINEAR TIP RELIEF PROFILE MODIFICATION
Tip relief profile modification can be designed in few different ways. In this paper linear tip relief modification has been considered. This type of correction is shown in Fig. 1. Ca Δs(d) da d dk df Δs(d) Linear tip relief:
Fig. 1. Linear tip relief profile modification 149
35 − 0. da − dk
3 TIP RELIEF CALCULATION FOR NOMINAL LOAD
Profile relief at tooth tip Ca has been obtained as a sum of elastic deflection of the spur gear caused by distributed load and Hertz contact deformation. 68 x ) z .75−1. (3)
B = 0. 05 + 153e −8. 924 x ) z −1 . C = 1. tooth tip diameter da. b E Where: A = −1. profile relief at tooth tip Ca and diameter at the beginning of correction dk have to be calculated by (1). 638 ln ( mn z ) .1 x z −(1.
Δs (d ) = Ca
d − dk .88 + 3.
y δb Fbti αFY
yP x df
Fig. 28 − ( 2. 3. Diameter at the beginning of correction dk has been found at characteristic point B of the tooth flank. 63 + ( 7. 2.2 = bti (2) A + BeC ⋅ y + D . Elastic tooth deflection of the spur gear
Elastic tooth deflection caused by nominal transverse load has been calculated using simplified expressions [2.1 Elastic tooth deflection of the spur gear Elastic tooth deflection caused by nominal transverse load in plane of action is shown in Fig. To define changes in tooth thickness Δs(d).Tip relief profile modification is defined as thickness Δs(d) of the material removed along the tooth flank with reference to the nominal involute profile. 2.
D = −1. 06 + 0.
.6 x ) . 3]: 2 F 1 −ν δ b1.
− m (1. ⎝ rb ⎠
rp = rb cos α b .yP =
⎡ rp cos (α b − ωb ) − rf ⎤ ⎦.2 = ⎜ 1. 3. 25 − x ) .
+ invα n . ⎠
. 2 invα n = tan α n − α n .
(12) (13) (14)
cos α n . Deformation caused by Hertzian contact stress
The expression that has been used for Hertzian contact stress is: 2 Fbti (1 − ν 2 ) ⎛ mn δ H1. Deformation caused by Hertzian contact stress is shown in Fig.2 δH1
Fig. 781ln E ⎝ bH πb
calculation of deformation caused by
⎞ ⎟. 27 + 0.
(π + 4 x tan α n )
−φ . 3.
3.2 Deformation caused by Hertzian contact stress Hertzian contact stress refers to the localized stresses that develop as two curved surfaces come in contact and deform slightly under the imposed loads. This deformation is dependent on the elasticity of the material in contact. =⎣ mn mn
⎛ρ⎞ α b = arctan ⎜ ⎟ .
5 GEAR PAIR MODEL
Gear pair with following geometrical parameters has been analyzed: z1.
σ F0-B =
Ft YFYSYβ .profile shift correction
. Critical cross-section of tooth
Nominal tooth root stress for the ith point of contact on tooth flank can be determined by B-method . The stresses are analyzed on the tooth side loaded in tension because the first cracks are expected to appear there. bmn
The helix angle factor Yβ equals 1 for spur gears. 4. Although the tooth form factor YF and stress correction factor YS are defined in  at the critical cross-section. Bending stress σbn has been calculated depending on tangential force component Ft. compression and shear. 4.3 Relief at tooth tip Profile modification should be calculated for each tooth flank of the mating gears. The critical cross-section of the tooth is determined by defining tangents on the profile root fillet under the 30° angle to its axis symmetry. 2.
The mashed gears teeth are subjected to bending. One side of the tooth root is strained by tension and the other side by compression.3. as shown in Fig.2 . The maximum values of the profile relief at the tooth tip of each gear are equal to the sum of elastic tooth deflection and deformation caused by Hertzian contact stress [1.2 = δ1.
Fbti Fr Ft αFY
Fig.number of teeth x1. 3]. .2 = δ b1. ISO 6336 standard  specifies the fundamental formulae for bending stress calculations for spur gears.2 = 0 mm.2 = 58/67.2 + δ H1. so stands:
1 2 4 GEAR TOOTH ROOT STRESS
Ca1. the MAX method presumes the calculation of maximum stresses in tooth root. . That means critical position for the stress analysis is for the (YFYS)max.
.358 mm.). having two degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions and are well suited to modelling irregular meshes.normal pressure angle b1. The analysis has been carried out by using software package ANSYS 10. 5.transverse contact ratio Material assigned to both gears has been steel with following material parameters: E= 210000 N/mm2.tool tip radius factors εα = 1. These elements may be used as plane elements (plane stress.Modulus of elasticity . creep.normal module mn = 12 mm.
.2= 0. These elements are defined by 8 nodes. Only parts of the rims of the wheel and the pinion have been modelled (Fig.223/403. hyperelasticity. ρa*01. Rim thickness has been set to 100 mm that is approximately 5mn in order to avoid the influence of too thin rim on the results.2 = 330 mm. The gear models have been discretized by 2D finite elements that are adequate for the contact analysis. in turn. According to theoretical background for tip relief profile modification Ca and dk have been calculated: Ca1.Poisson’s ratio ν= 0. stress stiffening.25mn. Newton-Rapson’s method  has been used for the convergence of the results for this non-linear analysis.gear facewidth . αn = 20°. plane strain and generalized plane strain) or as axisymmetric elements. .2= 349. These elements have plasticity.061 mm.25mn. large deflection.3. Thus. Gear models have been divided in areas and they have been mashed with elements PLANE183 .25mn.1 Geometrical model of gears Modelling of entire gears in mesh would significantly increase the complexity and size of geometric and numerical model which would. . . already in modelling phase certain simplifications have been made. and large strain capabilities (Fig.2 = 1.79.2 = 0.0. . .2 = 0.diameter at the beginning of correction
6 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
Finite element nonlinear contact analysis was chosen for modelling and simulation of gear pair in mesh. The load has been applied by putting in contact pinions’ and wheels’ teeth and applying the torsion moment on the pinion.tool addendum factors ha*01. . 6.relief at tooth tip dk1. .bottom clearance factors ca*1. result in prolonged calculation time.2 Meshing of gear model Three types of finite elements have been used for meshing of gear models.).061/0. The stress state has been considered to be a plane stress and the friction has been neglected.. 6.
6. both with two whole teeth and two teeth segments . .
TARGE169 and CONTA172 contact finite elements 154
. As they can’t be used as standalone elements. 5. Geometry of gears in mesh
Fig.) with two nodes on end and one midside node each with two degrees of freedom (translations in the nodal x and y directions) are very suitable for analysis of problems with states of plane stress and plane strain. 6. PLANE183 finite element
Due to contact problem analysis the contact elements usage have been necessary. TARGE169
Fig. These parabolic elements (Fig. 7. Parts of teeth flanks in contact have been meshed with contact elements TARGE169 and CONTA172 . they must be overlaid over existing 2D solid elements – in this case PLANE183 Contact occurs when the element surface (CONTA172) penetrates one of the target segment elements (TARGE169) on a specified target surface. 7.
8. Angle of rotation Δφ of these nodes has been increasing in stepwise fashion until it resulted with momentum which has been higher then nominal torque at the pinion. φ) in a way: Δr=0. Namely. concentrated force couldn’t be applied due to high local deformation of the material which takes place near point of force action and significant influence on the results. Final value Δφ has been determined from two closest rotation steps by the interpolation method. y) in all directions i.
Contact surface (CONTA172)
Target surface (TARGE169)
Fig.e. Centre of both mentioned coordinate systems have been centre of rotation of the pinion. Meshed gear model
6. 8. Areas around contacting surfaces have been meshed with larger density of finite elements mesh because these areas are crucial for results accuracy.e.In order to further decrease calculation time. Meshed gear model is shown in Fig. The pinions’ nodes placed on inner rim radius have been constrained in global cylindrical coordinate system (r. finite element mesh has been adapted as well. Rotation of the pinions’ nodes placed on inner rim radius around the centre of the global cylindrical coordinate system has been enabled. the movements in directions of both axis have been disabled (Δx=0. After positioning the mating teeth in desired position the boundary conditions have been applied. Coarser finite elements have been used in areas of less significance such as gear rim and parts of gear teeth that are not in the contact. Δy=0). their flanks into contact due to inadequacy of other loading models .3 Boundary conditions The gears have been loaded by positioning mating teeth i. The wheels’ nodes placed on inner rim radius and on the ends of rim have been constrained in global Cartesian coordinate system (x.
Gear tooth root stresses along the path of contact in standard model have been calculated and then compared to the stresses in modified one to present the influence of determined profile modification on gear tooth root stresses. The results of FEM analysis for pinion and wheel are shown in Fig. Tooth root stress for pinion (σF01) and wheel (σF02) for the i th point of contact
For standard unmodified model stands that when double contact exceeds into single contact (point B on path of contact) and reverse (point D on path of contact) gear
tooth root stress changes rapidly i. mm E modulus of elasticity. Nonlinear analysis has been used because it gives the most accurate results. The same situation appears at point E. mm c* bottom clearance factor.B’.e. it occurs lower on tooth flank (point A’ on path of contact).
The standard gear model and also modified one have been developed and analyzed by using finite element method. mm Ca profile relief at tooth tip. mm bH half of the Hertzian contact width between the meshing teeth. Gear tooth root stress increment between points A’ and B’ (double contact) and decrement between points D’ and E’ (double contact) are almost linear. The analysis also showed that the highest values of the tooth root stresses appear in point B on path of contact for standard and in point B’ for modified model. A. da tip diameter. 157
. The same situation appears at the end of contact between meshing gears with linear tip relief profile modification. Obtained results show that in case of standard unmodified model when double contact exceeds into single contact and reverse gear tooth root stress changes rapidly i.A’.D. Also. and causes the additional dynamic load as visible in Fig. Numerical calculation methods.B. This phenomenon results in a way that gear tooth root stress increment and decrement on double contact zones are almost linear so gear pair with linear tip relief profile modification runs smoother then standard gear pair. such as finite element method.. unlike. N/mm2 Fbt transverse load in plane of action (base tangent plane). and causes the additional dynamic load.. the wheel speed changes at two shifting points.E. N Ft tangential force. There aren’t rapid stress changes at the shifting points so gears run smoother then standard gear pair without additional dynamic load. Instead of the first contact between meshing gears with linear tip relief profile modification on the pinion tooth tip (point A on path of contact).E’ characteristic points on path of contact. mm df root diameter. mm dk diameter at the beginning of correction. b facewidth.e. in case of modified model wheel speed don’t change rapidly so there aren’t rapid stress changes at the shifting points.D’.
A. instead of the first contact between meshing gears with linear tip relief profile modification on the wheel tooth tip it occurs lower on tooth flank. N Fr radial force. provides easier stress calculations on teeth with no limits in gears’ geometrical specifications and also allows determination of stress distribution on whole path of contact. N * ha 0 tool addendum factor.D auxiliary factors for calculating tooth deflection. 9.B. the wheel speed changes at two shifting points.C.
Starek. Križan. ° Indexes 1 pinion 2 wheel i i th point of contact
    Obsieger. (Ed. R.). ν Poisson’s ratio. Intern. mm δH Hertzian contact deformation. (2003. mm base radius. (2006. M. International standard. mm distance between point of application of the force and centre of gear. L. Y.). C-27 (159-164). 1981 Franulović. Advanced Engineering Design AED 2006. B. helix angle factor.. ° αn normal pressure angle. rad tooth form factor. mm * ρ a0 tip radius of the tool factor. 1977 Basan. ° αFY angle of action of nominal transverse load. introduction and general influence factors Part 2: Calculation of surface durability (pitting) Part 3: Calculation of tooth bending strength ANSYS Structual analysis Guide // Canonsburg: ANSYS Inc. STROJARSTVO 31(1989)1. 17-23.) Influence of base pitch deviation on stresses in involute gearing. Masters Thesis. B. On tooth deflection calculation and profile modification of spur gear teeth. 2008 Franulović. Musilek. J. mm addendum modification coefficient. London. M. nominal tooth root stress. Vol. αb auxiliary angle. Some considerations to the choice of profile correction of involute gears. B. pp. (2008. auxiliary angle. mm εα transverse contact ratio.). ρ roll distance. mm δ deflection. & Basan. N/mm2 σF0 ωb auxiliary angle. & Nagamura. The Finite Element Method. 2004 Zienkewich. Proceedings of XII International conference on mechanical engineering.). Proc.mn rb rP x Φ YF yP YS Yβ z
normal module. pp. Rijeka. Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears.. Symp. 1996 Part 1: Basic principles. Bratislava.C. (1997). Numerical model and procedure for determination of stresses in spur gears teeth flanks. R.) Calculation methods of load carrying capacity of spur gears. Prag. ° Δs removed material. University or Rijeka. ISBN 0562-1887 Terauchi. 2003 ISO 6336 (1996. O. Gearing and Power Transmission. Mc Graw-Hill. bending arm. II. & Križan. L. number of teeth. mm stress correction factor. mm δb bending deflection. (1989). Faculty of Engineering. J. Tokyo. Franulović. 2006
   
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