A systematic high resolution remote sensing capture for the Magela Creek Catchment: A case study using WorldView 2
Spatial Sciences & Data Integration Program Presenter: Dr R Bartolo#
e: renee.bartolo@environment.gov.au
# Program Leader, Spatial Sciences and Data Integration Supervising Scientist - working to protect the environment from the impacts of uranium mining

■ Study Region ■ Problem statement and method question ■ Description of WorldView 2 satellite ■ Scheduling a capture
– Specifications, costs and logistics

■ Ground Control Targets
– Size & material – Positioning & layout

■ Radiometric Calibration Targets ■ Results ■ Lessons Learned
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Study Region: Alligator Rivers Region

Darwin Jabiru

Alligator Rivers Region 28,000 km2

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Study Region: Alligator Rivers Region (KNP)


Kakadu National Park 19,804 km2

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Study Region: Magela Creek Catchment
Magela Creek Catchment 1,640 km2 Magela Floodplain 236 km2




ag el a

Cr ee k

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Problem statement: Geometeric control ■ For the Alligator Rivers Region and in particular the Magela Creek Catchment & floodplain area, there has been a lack of geometric control for high resolution satellite data.

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X = Differentially corrected location
100 Man Camp X X

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Problem statement: Calibration of data to reflectance values ■ How do we correct raw image data to reflectance values (removal of atmospheric effects)? Why do we need to do this?
Atmospheric refraction

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After Jensen, 2000


Atmospheric Scattering
Type of scattering is a function of: 1)Wavelength of the incident radiation 2) Size of the gas molecule, dust particle &/or water vapour

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After Jensen, 2000


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Conversion Raw Data Data

Radiance Data


■ Raw DNs: surface reflectance, solar irradiance curve, atmospheric effects, variation in illumination resulting from topographic effects, instrument response. ■ Raw Data Radiance Data removes instrument effects ■ Radiance


L0(λ)=Lsun(λ) T(λ) R(λ) cos(θ) + Lpath(λ)
– – – – – L0(λ) = observed radiance at sensor Lsun(λ) = Solar irradiance above atmosphere T(λ) = total atmospheric transmittance R(λ) = surface reflectance Note: θ = incidence angle Reflectance data scaled to get to integer data (typically x 10,000) Lpath(λ) = path scattered radiance

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Why calibrate and correct data?
■ To compare multi-date images – some data sets even have different atmospheric properties across a scene ■ To compare data sets from different sensors ■ Needed for quantitative analysis, e.g., working with field data ■ When using band ratios such as EVI, NDVI, MNDWI ■ Reflectance data needed to compare data spectra with library reflectance spectra – helps in identifying materials based on their absorption features ■ To use spectral library to map materials, image must be in reflectance.
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Method Question: ■ How do we undertake a systematic remote sensing capture?
– Logistics – What data do we acquire (format, bands etc) – Resources

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■ Launch date: 08 October 2009
– Estimated mission life is 7.25 years – Operating at full capability on 4 January 2010

■ Part of the DigitalGlobe constellation
– WorldView 1 and QuickBird

■ Altitude: 770 kms ■ Revisit capability
– 1.1 days at 1m GSD or less – 3.7 days at 20° off-nadir or less (52 cm GSD)
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The 8 Spectral Bands of WorldView-2
4 New Spectral Bands
Coastal Band (400 – 450nm) can be used in vegetation identification & analysis (chlorophyll characteristics) Yellow Band (585 – 625nm) identify “yellow-ness” characteristics of targets, Important for vegetation applications
Pan Coastal Blue Green Yellow Red Red Edge NIR1 NIR2
350 450 550 650 750 850 950 1050

Wavelength (nm) Sensor Resolution (GSD)

Red Edge Band (705 – 745nm) analysis of vegetation condition. Directly related to plant health via chlorophyll production. NIR2 (860 – 1040nm) - overlaps NIR1 band but less affected by atmospheric influence. Used for vegetation analysis & biomass studies.
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Panchromatic: 0.46 meters GSD at nadir 0.52 meters GSD at 20° off-nadir Multispectral: 1.84 meters GSD at nadir 2.08 meters GSD at 20° off-nadir
(note that imagery must be re-sampled to 0.5 m (Pan) and 2m (mulit) for non-US Government customers)

Swadth Width: 16.4 kms at nadir

Scheduling a Capture ■ How do we undertake a systematic remote sensing capture?
– Specifications – Costs – Logistics

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Setting up a back up base station

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Ground Control Targets

• 27 3.5 x 3.5 m square silver–coloured tarpaulins positioned on the ground prior to the image acquisition window • 6 image objects (features such as cross roads evident in previous image data) • Centre of each of the tarpaulins and image objects were measured with a GPS & differentially corrected to within 12 mm x,y accuracy.
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Field Data: Panorama using MS-ICE & Photosynth

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Field Data: Google Earth

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Radiometric Calibration Targets & Recording Atmospheric Conditions

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Radiometric Calibration Targets

Black synthetic upholstery

Silver plastic weave tarpaulin

White plastic weave tarpaulin

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Pseudo-invariant Features: Golf Green

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Results: Geometric Correction
Root Mean Square Error for the WV-2 Multispectral band Eriss = orthorecitification GCPs & RPC file DEM DigitalGlobe = Standard map ready product
DigitalGlobe Standard Multispectral 4.6 3.9 6.4 3.8 6.4 8.8 5.6

Site 25 31 32 100 ManCamp ENRAD Bld Bush humpy Mean RMSE

ERISS Multispectral 2.6 0.4 3.2 2.0 0.5 2.2 1.8

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Results: Geometric Correction
Root Mean Square Error for the WV-2 Panchromatic band Eriss = orthorecitification GCPs & RPC file DEM DigitalGlobe = Standard map ready product

Site 25 26 31 32 100 ManCamp Westcott Bld ENRAD Bld Bush humpy Mean RMSE

ERISS Panchromatic 2.1 0.8 1.1 2.7 0.4 2.6 0.4 1.4 1.4

DigitalGlobe Panchromatic 6.0 7.2 6.1 6.3 4.3 6.5 4.4 8.8 6.2

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Results: Conversion to Reflectance ■ Conversion to reflectance methods
1) Scene derived (statistics): eg. Internal Average Relative Reflectance (IAR) 2) Ground calibration methods Empirical Line Regression 3) Radiative Transfer Models: eg FLAASH

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Results: Conversion to Reflectance

Native Grass

A total of nine field targets were used to derive the calibration model, resulting in a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.99) for all 8 multispectral bands. Accuracy assessment of the calibration model was undertaken by comparing the image reflectance values against the surface reflectance values of 17 validation field targets.
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Some issues:
• Majority (95%) of the areas of the three requested scenes were captured with the specified scene parameters (nadir angle of 13.8º and total cloud cover <2%) on 11 May. • The remaining five percent of one of the scenes was captured on 22 May (nadir angle of 11.6º). All 27 ground control tarpaulins were visible in the imagery.

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