MIXING METHOD USED IN BAKING PRODUCT If excessive baking powder is used, the color will be dark and yellowish and the taste will be salty or bitter. Too little baking powder will result in the structure being heavy and dense with low volume. FAT.² General-purpose shortening compound is used in quick bread and batter production. Shortenings produce products with a soft crumb and aid in browning. EGGS.² An important ingredient in quick breads and batter is eggs, which add flavor, color, and palatability. They also provide some leavening action. Fresh whole eggs or frozen whole baking-type eggs are used. Dehydrated egg mix may be used as a successful substitute in any recipe if the eggs are sifted with the dry ingredients. This will assure even distribution and uniform reconstitution when the liquid is added. OTHER INGREDIENTS.² Other ingredients include spices; grated, whole, or chopped fruits, nuts, poppy or caraway seeds; cereals such as bran or cornmeal; and salt. Salt adds flavor. Mixing Methods How ingredients are mixed determines to a large extent the structure and texture of the finished product. All ingredients should be evenly mixed. If needed, the flour gluten should be developed to the desired degree to keep the loss of the leavening gas to a minimum during baking. These general rules apply to mixing quick breads and hatters, regardless of which mixing method is chosen: l The degree of mixing is always limited when the leavening is produced by baking powder. l The amount of mixing varies with the kind of ingredients and their proportion, except for leavening, For example, a product containing a high percentage of fat and sugar maybe mixed longer with less harm to the quality of the finished product. l Recipes in the AFRS outline should be followed, step by step, as the method for mixing quick bread halters. MUFFIN-MIXING METHOD.² This method is used for pancakes, muffins, corn bread, dumplings, and fritters. The sequence of steps for the muffin method includes sifting dry ingredients together, blending in the liquid and eggs, adding melted shortening, and mixing only until dry ingredients are moistened. Corn bread, muffin, and dumpling batters should appear lumpy. BISCUIT OR PASTRY METHOD.² This means of combining ingredients is used principally for biscuits. This dough contains more flour than liquid and is of a kneaded consistency. The dough is prepared by sifting dry ingredients together, blending in the shortening, adding the liquid, and mixing only enough to yield a uniform structure. The dough is then cut into the desired shapes and baked. CAKE METHOD.² Several quick breads and batters are mixed by the cake method. Cake doughnuts, coffee cakes. 1. Quick cakes, and muffins are mixed similarly to batter Steps used in this method are as follows: Cream shortening and sugar, Add eggs. Gradually add the dry ingredients to the moist ingredients, alternating so that you begin and end with the dry ingredients. Bread Preparation Both drop and pour soft batters and roll-out dough preparation methods are important to know. These batters and roll-out doughs are explained individually in the following sections. Coffee Cakes Coffee cakes are popular breakfast or brunch items. The recipe formulas are the same as for regular cakes eaten as desserts, except for minor ingredient changes. The major difference is in the frosting used on cakes. Coffee cakes are either topped with sweetened crumbs or combined with fruit. Crumb cake and quick coffee cake recipes in the AFRS are of this type. Serve these cakes while still warm. Quick coffee cakes may be prepared with biscuit mix.

MIXING TECHNIQUES OF CAKE BUTTER How To Mix Cake Batters For Better Results A good cake is the result of measuring accurately high-quality ingredients. Combine The Ingredients Into A Uniform Batter In order to have a uniform batter we have to be careful especially with two of the major ingredients in cakes: fat and liquid. The liquid will be held in tiny droplets surrounded by fat. uniform batter Form and incorporate air cells in the batter Develop the proper texture in the finished cake They seem pretty obvious. mixing them correctly and bake the batter at the appropriate temperature and time. but understanding them will help you to avoid many errors in the mixing process.2. This hub is all about understanding the mixing process and the different cake mixing techniques. . unmixable. The purpose of mixing is to form a uniform mixture with these unmixable ingredients (an emulsion). They are. curdling occurs. by nature. When the fat can no longer hold the liquid in emulsion. Understanding the Importance of Mixing The three main goals of mixing cake batters are: y y y Combine all ingredients into a smooth. It is essential to have a thorough understanding of the mixing procedures because errors in mixing can result in cakes with poor texture and poor volume.

which means we want very little gluten development. A coarse texture is the result of large or irregular air cells. uniform air cells. the more the gluten develops. Wheat flours are classified as strong or weak. . This air provides all the leavening when no chemical leavener is used. In general. Thus. If we are using baking powder or baking soda. the friction will warm the ingredients too much forming less and irregular air cells. and fat that is too warm is too soft. A smooth texture is the result of small. The mixture is first whipped at high speed and the final stages are done at medium speed to retain the air cells. the air cells provide places to hold the gases released by the chemical leavener.Factors that can cause curdling: y y y y y Using the wrong type of fat Having the ingredients too cold Mixing fat and sugar too quickly Adding the liquids too quickly Adding too much liquid Forming Air Cells In The Batter In cake batters air cells are important for texture and for leavening. I we mix at high speed. In egg-foam cakes (angel food. y Correct mixing speed Mixing speed should be moderate (medium speed if using a mixing machine). What helps to leaven a cake is the air trapped in a mix that expands with the heat of the oven. the air cells are formed by whipping eggs and sugar. bread doughs are kneaded for a long time to develop the gluten and cakes for a short time to be tender. Gluten is a substance made up of proteins present in wheat flour. We want cakes to be tender. For a good air cell formation we need: y Correct ingredient temperature Cold fat is too hard to form good air cells. Developing The Proper Texture In The Cake One factor of mixing that affects texture is gluten development. the more a dough or batter is mixed. Strong flours have a high protein content and are used for breads. depending on their protein content. The egg and sugar mixture should be slightly warm to obtain better results. It gives structure and strength to baked goods. sponge). chiffon. Weak flours have a low protein content and are used for cakes.

The important thing is to understand the mixing process and to know that cakes can be classified into two main groups.Basic Cake Mixing Methods You can find different mixing classifications that varied from one pastry chef to another and from one book to another. . y y High-fat or shortened cakes Low-fat or foam-type cakes The basic mixing methods are: y y y One-step mixing method Creaming method Egg-foam method One Step Mixing Method This is one of the easiest and less time consuming mixing methods.

This method. shortening does not. also called the conventional method. I recommend using butter instead of shortenings. . The development of emulsified vegetable shortenings led to a simpler mixing methods for cakes containing great amount of sugar. liquid and fat.Butter adds flavor to the cakes.Creaming Mixing Method Used when making high-fat cakes. Butter also influences texture because it melts in the mouth. the creaming method is still widely used. This mixing method requires some time so be patient to achieve better results. was for a long time the standard method for mixing high-fat cakes. However.

These cakes have a springy texture and are tougher than high-fat cakes. Most European cakes are made using this mixing method. Chiffon. The sponge method has also many variations. and Sponge. . The three main egg-foam methods are: Angel Food.Egg-foam Mixing Method This mixing method is used when making low-fat cakes. Most egg-foam cakes depend on the air trapped in beaten eggs for most or all their leavening.

-For high-fat cakes.Pan Preparation Prepare pans before mixing cake batters so cakes can be baked immediately. The batter must be able to cling to the sides so it does not sink back into the pan after rising. bake in tube pans and do not grease them. grease the bottoms but not the sides of the pans. layer pans must be greased. -For sponge cake layers with little or not fat. -For angel food and chiffon cakes. .

When the whisk or beaters are lifted. It will also flow when the bowl is tilted. add an extra fresh white and beat until you have a glossy foam that holds the desired peaks. shiny and bright white. Foamy The egg whites are just lightly whipped to a frothy but still fluid consistency. STAGES OF WHIPPING EGG WHITES The different stages of whipping egg whites The most important thing you need to know about beating egg whites is when to stop. the foam will form a dull peak. The foam will not hold any peaks when the whisk is lifted from it. Stiff Peaks At this stage. You will know that the egg whites are overbeaten when the foam begins to look dry and granular. Here are the stages.3. when the bowl is tilted. then pile softly or gently curl over. Most recipes indicate a certain stage to which the foam should be beaten. Overbeaten This is a common mistake. They will consist of large bubbles on the surface that readily pop. . To rescue overbeaten egg whites. particularly when whipping with electric mixers. or will just barely flow. the foam maintains its glossy sheen and holds an upright peak when the whisk or beaters are lifted. it will not flow. At this point. Soft Peaks This means that the foam is moist. plus a description of overbeaten egg whites. the foam has reached its maximum volume.