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Developmental data is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression. It is the capacity and skill of a

person to adapt to the environment. It is the attainment of intelligence, and it is a problem-solving ability, which begins in

infancy stage and ends in the old age stage.

A variety of factors influence an individual’s developmental stage. Heredity guides every aspect of physical,

cognitive, social, emotional, and personality development. Family members, peer groups, the school environment, and the

community influence how a person think, socialize, and become self-aware. Biological factors such as nutrition, medical

care, and environmental hazards in the air and water affect the growth of the body and mind. Economic and political

institutions, the media, and cultural values all guide how a person lives their lives. Critical life events, such as a family

crisis or a national emergency, can alter the growth of personality and identity. Most important of all, a person contributes

significantly to their own development. This occurs as they strive to understand their experiences, respond in individual

ways to the people around them, and choose activities, friends, and interests. Thus, the factors that guide development

arise from both outside and within the person.

Robert Peck’s adult development theory

In past, development was viewed as complete by the time of physical maturity, and aging was considered a decline

following maturity. The emphasis was on the negative rather than on the positive aspects of aging. However, Robert peck

believes that although physical capabilities and functions decreases with old age, mental and social capabilities tend to

increase in the latter part of life. And so, like others, miss A is also subjected to Peck’s three developmental tasks

necessary at her age.

Tasks Description Result Justification

-Ego - An adult’s identity and ACHIEVED - It can be said that although the patient
differentiation feeling of worth are highly cannot do her routinely activities without
versus work- dependent on that persons the partial aid of the nurse and that she
role work role. cannot teach anymore, she is well aware
preoccupation of her body capability and accepts the
things she cannot do. Thus, the patient
belongs to ego differentiation aspect.

-Body ACHIEVED -During the interview, the patient is aware

transcendence - This task calls for an of her decreasing muscle strength and that
versus body individual to adjust to she accepts her deteriorating body
preoccupation decreasing physical functions. She always manages to adapt
capacities and at the same with it with the help of her children. Thus,
time maintain feelings of body transcendence is prevalent.
well-being. Preoccupation
with declining body
functions reduces
happiness and satisfaction
with life.
versus ego
- Ego transcendence is the
preoccupation ACHIEVED
acceptance without fear of
one’s death as inevitable.
This acceptance includes
being actively involved in
one’s own future beyond
death. Ego preoccupation
by contrast, results in
holding into life and a
preoccupation on self-

Psychosocial Theory of Development by Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson describes 8 stages of development. Hhe envisions life as a sequence of levels of each stage signals a

task that must be achieved. The 8 tages reflects both positive and negative of critical life periods. The developmental

tasks can be viewed as a series of crisis and successful resolution of these crises is supportive to person’s ego and

likewise failure to resolve the crises is damaging to the ego.

Stage Description Result Justification

Integrity vs. This involves reflecting on the past ACHIEVED A clear understanding of patient’s life is
Despair and either piercing together a necessary. It can be said that her
positive review or concluding that satisfaction on her life was achieved. She
ones life has not been well spent. even told us about her past experiences
and the places she had been. She smiles
when she talked about her children and
how successful they were. There is an
acceptance of worth and uniqueness of her
own life and the acceptance of death.
Despite of her declining strength she was
able to gain wisdom and understanding.
Thus, it can be concluded that the patient
achieves integrity.

Robert Havighurst’s Developmental Milestones Theory

Robert Havighurst believed that learning is basic to life and that people continue to learn throughout life. A

developmental task is a task which arises at or about a certain period in the life of an individual, successful, achievement

of which leads to his happiness and to success with the later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness in the individual,

disapproval by society and difficulty with later tasks.

Stage Description Result Justification

Later In this stage, once that the later
maturity maturity had been established and
stage reached it is expected that the
person will do the following:
• Adjusting to decreasing ACHIEVED - the patient is completely aware of her
physical strength and health weakening body

• Adjusting to requirements
and reduced incomes ACHIEVED -She is not working currently and that her
children provided her of her basic needs

• Establishing an explicit
affiliation with once age - Other than her children and
groups grandchildren, she used to be with her
friends in their neighborhood that has the
same age as her.
• Establishing satisfactory
physical living
ACHIEVED -she is staying with her youngest daughter.
More often than not, she visits her other
children and grandchildren.

Cognitive Theory of development of Jean Piaget

The best-known theory of cognitive development was developed by Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, who became

interested in how children think and construct their own knowledge. Based on his studies and observations, Piaget

theorized that children proceed through four distinct stages of cognitive development. Cognitive development is an

orderly, sequential process in which a variety of new experiences must exist before intellectual abilities can develop.

Stage Description Result Justification

Formal In this stage individuals move ACHIEVED One great manifestation of this stage is that
Operational beyond concrete experiences and a person is able to finish school, reason-out
Stage: think in abstract and more logical abstractly and logically, able to draw
ways. As part of thinking more answers from information that is available,
abstractly, an individual develop and able to apply whatever is being thought
images of ideal circumstances. in school. The first one is not that important
This describes how a person at all because in this country not are able to
thinks systematically and uses finish school at the right time. But the other
more logical reasoning. It is also manifestation that is correlated to this stage
characterized thinking according is greatly evident to Granny. First, she was
to ethics and justice. They can able to apply her learning's in her life
also reason about hypothetical experiences and shared this knowledge.
possibilities and deduce new She was well aware of her illness and
concepts. seeks medical help whenever necessary.
Though, her illness was a tough milestone,
she was able to accept the truth on what
was happening and continue to be
concrete on her decisions and aspiration in