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Isoleucine and valine supplementation of a low-protein corn-wheat-soybean meal-based diet for piglets: Growth

performance and nitrogen balance M. M. Lordelo, A. M. Gaspar, L. Le Bellego and J. P. B. Freire J Anim Sci 2008.86:2936-2941. doi: 10.2527/jas.2007-0222 originally published online Jun 20, 2008;

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86:2936–2941 doi:10. corn-wheat-soybean meal-based piglet diet on growth performance. piglet. and Trp is necessary to achieve maximum performance in pigs consuming corn-wheat-soybean meal-based diets. diet 2 was a low-CP negative control diet (17% CP). 2004).. 1982. Jin et al. the order of AA limitation in a low-CP piglet diet is uncertain. The objective of the present experiment was to study the effects on growth performance and N balance of weaned piglets due to the supplementation of crystal- 2936 Downloaded from jas. Thr. Met. 2010. 1994.05) in piglets fed low-CP diets at wk 1 and wk 4 of feeding. in a barley-wheat-soy protein concentrate-based diet. fecal score was greater (softer feces) in piglets fed the 20% CP level compared with the remaining treatments (P < 0. Lda. for providing financial support and for donating the amino acids used in this study.. Tapada da Ajuda.† L. Therefore.2527/jas. In addition.* A. Departamento de Produção Agrícola e Animal. and in urine at wk 4 of feeding. 1996)..01). AA supply with little or no decrease in growth performance (Brudevold and Southern. respectively. Lordelo. and ‡Ajinomoto Eurolysine SAS. Fecal N excretion (g/d) was decreased (P < 0. 2008. In addition. by on November 24. 2004). 75817 Paris. Average daily gain and ADFI were similar among pigs fed the positive control. and 5 were low-CP diets to which Ile. Knowles et al. Met. and Thr (Theil et al. Diet 1 was a positive control diet (20% CP)..fass. Thr. B. . 1986. P. Val was shown to be the first limiting AA for growth rate in young pigs after Lys. All diets were supplemented with Lys. reducing dietary CP level has been reported to limit the frequency and the severity of digestive problems in piglets (Prohaszka and Baron. On wk-2 and wk-4. When using alternative feed ingredients. each consisting of 12 piglets.. As long as crystalline Lys. Val. and N balance were studied using 60 Landrace × Duroc male piglets in a 4-wk experiment. Such is the case with the utilization of spray-dried blood cells. 1998. valine ©2008 American Society of Animal Science. Kerr et al. incidence of diarrhea. Accepted June 5.. Met. Instituto Superior de Agronomia. Le Bellego. when alternative ingredients are used in a corn-soybean meal diet..0001) in pigs fed diets containing low levels of CP compared with pigs fed the 20% CP diet.utl. Figueroa et al. Produtos Químicos. Lda. M. Trp. Key words: crude protein. 4. and Trp to provide the required concentrations of these AA according to the 1998 NRC. Gaspar. has growthdepressing effects (Kerr et al. isoleucine. rue de Courcelles. 2002).Isoleucine and valine supplementation of a low-protein corn-wheat-soybean meal-based diet for piglets: Growth performance and nitrogen balance1 M. Crude protein levels or AA supplementation had no effect on N retention efficiencies.. Carter et al. or in combination with Ile. to a low-CP piglet diet with adequate levels of Lys. Thr. Portugal. The increasing availability of crystalline AA allows reduction of the CP level in piglet diets in association with adequate AA supplementation. 1980. diets 3. 2695-066 Bobadela Loures. 1987). which maintains sufficient essential 1 The authors thank Ajinomoto Eurolysine and Vetiquima-Produtos Químicos. These results indicate that the supplementation of Val alone. 1995. Sci. 2007.2007-0222 INTRODUCTION Reducing the dietary CP level of the diet and supplementing it with limiting crystalline AA can reduce N excretion. growth. Val-added. Received April 19. Freire*2 *Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. 2008. 1340-017 Lisboa. Anim. M. or the combination of Ile and Val were added. 1998). performance is not affected when reducing CP levels in a traditional corn-soybean meal-based diet (Russell et al. and Met are added. and the Val plus Ile- added diets. France ABSTRACT: The effects of Ile and Val supplementation of a low-CP. †Vetiquima.. 1995.. Nitrogen intake was decreased (P < 0. which without supplemental Ile. The 60 individually caged piglets were divided into 5 dietary treatments.‡ and J. 2 Corresponding author: jpfreire@isa. additional AA appear to become limiting in low-CP diets. which may prevent surface and ground water contamination (Bridges et al. All rights reserved.. Ball and Aherne.

47 25.00 18.50 10. Co.15% Val.03 mg. Starter diets were corn.200 0.23 0. % Lys.44 0. as-fed basis Diet Item Ingredient.20 2. .210 0.0 × 0. antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene).5 mg. cyanocobalamin.855 0. Temperature at the animal level was 28°C initially and was reduced by 1°C each week thereafter.66 0. 30 mg.09 — — 1.64 0.000 IU. % Trp.46 90. 3 mm in diameter.25 0.50 10. MJ/kg DM. Met.260 0. 160 mg as copper sulfate.905 0.66 0.50 0. to a low-CP corn-wheat-soybean meal-based diet.23 0.455 0.23 0.20 13.990 0. vitamin K3.45 25.595 1.8 m) with a singlehole feeder and 1 nipple drinker and were allowed free access to water and feed.92 ± 0. Piglets were allowed to adapt to the cages for a period of 4 d after which the experimental diets were fed Downloaded from jas.5 mg.64 0.32 25.09 — 0.73 2 49.08 mg. Isoleucine and Val were supplemented to meet the NRC (1998) recommendations of these AA of pigs between 5 and 20 kg as presented in Table 1.25 0. 200 mg.09 0. MJ/kg GE.50 0.44 0.29 1.50 10.260 0.845 0.13% Ile and 0. 48% CP Corn oil l-Lys.00 18.13 — 1.3 mg as sodium selenite. line Ile. or both.29 1. Fe. pyridoxine. and soybean mealbased and formulated to differ in CP and AA quantities (Table 1).38 0.795 0. The piglets were randomly assigned to the experimental diets based on average BW at weaning in a complete block design.00 28.33 13.20 2.66 0.64 0.10 3.50 10.58 0.20 0.00 18. 0. wheat. Each piglet represented an experimental unit.00 0. and diet 5 was supplemented with both 0.25 0. were allotted into 5 dietary treatments (Table 1). Composition of the experimental diets.255 0.15 1. The piglets were individually housed in cages (1.37 0. Mn. % Ile:Lys Met + Cys:Lys Thr:Lys Trp:Lys Val:Lys 1 39.03 0.70 5 49. diet 3 was supplemented with 0.269 0. In diets 2 to 5 the CP level was reduced to 17%.270 0. Cages were equipped with perforated stainless steel trays underneath for feces and urine collection.000 IU.04 — — 1.61 0.66 0.22 0.190 0. 0. Diet 1 was the positive control and contained 20% CP.62 90.50 0.830 by on November 24. % Val. 1 mg.30 17. 20 IU.275 0. 2. folic acid. niacin.58 16.58 3 49.15% Val (Table 1). Zn.08 20.440 0. MATERIALS AND METHODS All animal procedures followed the Portuguese Guidelines for the Protection of Animals Used in Experimental Research and Other Scientific Purposes. % Ile.62 0.260 0.20 2.44 0. and Trp to provide recommended levels according to the 1998 NRC (Table 1). riboflavin.44 0.533 0.52 0. 2.630 1.40 0.20 0. 2 Both GE and ME were calculated according to INRA (2002).35 13.23 0.26 0.445 0.5 mg as cobalt carbonate.245 0.690 0.740 1.49 90.440 0. 2010. Se.5 mg.83 16. vitamin C. 0. 140 mg as zinc oxide. 1 mg as potassium iodate.fass.60 25.38 17. I. 0.745 1.Isoleucine and valine in piglet diets 2937 Table 1.20 2.13 0.66 0.00 18.285 0.31 13.825 1.30 0. 1.70 1 Provided per kilogram of diet: vitamin A.715 0.10 0.60 0. HCl dl-Met l-Thr l-Trp l-Ile l-Val Calcium carbonate Dicalcium phosphate Sodium chloride Premix1 Calculated and analyzed composition2 ME. diet 4 was supplemented with 0.795 0. Thr. % Cys. Cu.25 0. 30 mg.26 0. Val.08 0. % Met.13% Ile.50 0. The feed was provided as pellets. % CP. each consisting of 12 piglets.64 0.15 1. choline chloride.33 13. 0. 15 mg.23 0. thiamin. % Corn Wheat Soybean meal. vitamin D3.58 0. 15.26 0. % Thr.58 0.50 89.220 0. pantothenic acid.29 1.271 0.23 0.23 0.61 kg.50 10. 5 mg.67 0.23 0. with a mean initial BW of 6. Animals and Diets Sixty individually caged 4-wk-old Landrace × Duroc male piglets.800 0. All other values represent analyzed values.310 0.60 4 49.49 91.26 0.09 0.29 1.70 25. 120 mg as ferrous carbonate.20 1. 50 mg as manganese oxide.50 0. All diets were fortified with Lys. 300 mg.790 0.68 0. vitamin E. Diet 2 was not supplemented with crystalline Ile or Val (negative control). biotin.

Feces were collected twice daily. Samples of feces were freeze-dried and ground by a hammermill through a 1-mm mesh screen. in wk 4 (Table 3). or as a percentage of N consumed.6 and close to the positive control. to the low-CP diet increased (P < 0. according to a randomized complete block design (block and dietary treatment were considered class variables). When Val was supplemented to the low-CP. The addition of either Val alone. cornwheat-soybean meal diet. regardless of AA supplementation. Nitrogen analysis was performed using the Kjeldahl method.05) in piglets fed diets with low-CP levels in wk 1 and 4. Average daily gain of piglets fed Ile-supplemented diets was similar to piglets fed the negative control (Table 2).org by on November 24. representative sample of feces and urine were individually prepared. For each week. During the experimental period. feed intake and growth rate improved in comparison to an unsupplemented control diet. IL).15% Val allowed the Val:Lys to be similar to the positive control diet (Table 1). samples of each diet were ground through a 1-mm screen. DISCUSSION All diets in the present experiment were supplemented with Lys. N.. was not different among treatments at either measured time period (Table 3). Urine N excretion was not affected by diet in wk 1 but was decreased in pigs fed all the low CP diets. whereas sup- Downloaded from jas. Dry matter was calculated after oven-drying at 105°C for 24 h and GE was measured with a isoperibol calorimeter (Parr 1261. In the N balance portion of the experiment. France). and urine was continuously collected directly to a container which contained 50 mL of sulphuric acid (5% vol) solution to prevent N loss and then frozen daily at −20°C. (1999). BW was monitored at the beginning and at the end of each week. or Ile and Val. Thr. energy. Moline. All statistical procedures were conducted using the GLM procedures (SAS Inst. For all experimental weeks. or Ile and Val (Table 2). had decreased (P < 0. with the exception of piglets fed a Val-supplemented diet in wk 4. 1998). and severe diarrhea = 3. Individual feed intake and mortality were monitored daily. there was a decrease in N intake when piglets were fed the lowCP diets during wk 1 and 4 (Table 3). In addition. 1998) and provide similar total concentrations as those in the 20% CP diet. Gain:feed was not different among treatments (Table 2). soft = 1. Although pigs were fed twice daily. The feces were scored as normal = 0. Nitrogen excretion in the feces decreased (P < 0.. which was analyzed using AFNOR method (standard NF EN ISO 13904). The N retained by the piglets as a percentage of N absorbed. Inc. Pigs consuming the negative control diet. and nitrogen balance data were analyzed by ANOVA. Similarly. but feed efficiency was unaffected. Chemical Analyses At the end of each collection period. All diets were analyzed for DM. When the F-value in the ANOVA was significant. digestibility. As a result pig performance was not different compared with pigs consuming the 20% CP diet. cumulative BW gain was similar among piglets fed the positive control diet and piglets fed a diet containing crystalline Val. or in combination with Ile in wk 1 and of piglets fed Val alone in wk 3 (Table 2). The consistency of feces of each individual pig was recorded daily during the entire experimental period and was characterized by using the fecal consistency score described by Marquardt et al. Our results for Val supplementation of a corn- RESULTS The supplementation of diets 3 and 5 with 0. the fecal score was greater (P < 0.fass.05) cumulative BW gains than pigs fed the positive control diet (Table 2). Statistical Analyses Animal performance. and Trp to meet or exceed the required levels of these AA (NRC. frozen. This decrease was more noticeable when piglets were fed the negative control or the diet supplemented with Ile alone. whereas urine samples were analyzed for N only. NC). Feces and urine were individually collected from each pig on the first and last week of the experimental period for determination of N balance. and the diet supplemented with Ile alone. with the exception of piglets fed Val alone. mild diarrhea = 2. These results are similar to a previous experiment in which nursery pigs fed a lowCP corn-soybean meal-whey diet showed positive responses to Val supplementation (Mavromichalis et al. using AFNOR method (standard NF EN ISO 13903).01) in piglets fed the 20% CP level than the other dietary treatments. except for Trp. the amount of feed offered was enough to ensure there was approximately 10% of feed refusals each day. ADG was similar to the positive control when piglets were fed diets supplemented with either Val or Ile and Val (Table 2). All AA analyses were performed by Ajinomoto Eurolysine (Amiens. Met.13% crystalline Ile increased the Ile:Lys to a value greater than 0.05. the means were compared by a Duncan’s multiple range test. and AA. indicating that the type of diet that the piglets were fed affected fecal consistency. . Cary. 2010.2938 Lordelo et al. for 4 consecutive wk.01) feed intake in comparison to pigs fed the negative control or the addition of Ile alone (Table 2). Feed refusals were collected daily. plementation of diets 4 and 5 with 0. and differences were considered significant when P-values were less than 0. Fecal samples and feed refusals were analyzed for DM and N. and pooled by wk for determination of the DM.

73a 73.43 Within a row.286 0. 2010.81a 6. or Ile and Val on feed intake and growth performance of piglets (as-fed basis) and on fecal score1 Diet Item CP.63b 9.863a 0..2 g G:F. means without a common superscript letter differ (P < 0.09a 11.90a 6. the addition of Val to a low-CP.39b 2.77b 85.667a 2 17 − − 820b 509c 0.45b 1. 1987.17a 39.030 Within a row.452b 0.411b 0.55bc 0.91a 8.85b 14.2 g/g Cumulative BW gain.56ab 10.45bc 6.077 0.582bc 0.386 0.275bc P-value SEM 0.05).92 ± 0.164 0.122 0. The average initial BW was 6.005 0. Effect of dietary CP level and the supplementation of Ile.39 21.889a 0.40 66.07b 12.076 <0.418bc 0. % Ile Val ADFI.91 0.011 0.03a 2.59b 11.119 0.24b 2.61a 83. 1 = soft feces.001 0.621 2.78a 11. it is important to note that Brude- Table 3.01 <0.297b 0.06 73. g/d Wk 1 Feces Urine Wk 4 Feces Urine N retention Wk 1 g/d % of N absorbed % of N intake Wk 4 g/d % of N absorbed % of N intake a–c 1 20 − − 18.77 5. 2 = mild diarrhea.92b 33. means without a common superscript letter differ (P < 0..001 0.88a 77. 4 Fecal score: 0 = normal. Thr. Figueroa et by on November 24.33a 0.97 0.418c 0.217 0.001 <0.02b 77.34b 1.628 2.99ab 0.20c 2.795ab 0. Trp.70a 87. g/d Wk 1 Wk 4 N excretion.54a 16.58 3.041 0.425b 5 17 + + 955a 594a 0.621 2. 2 Cumulative performance over the 4-wk experiment.43 71.Isoleucine and valine in piglet diets 2939 Table 2.011 0.61 15. and Trp were necessary for growth to be similar to piglets fed the positive control diet.63 1.19bc 4. Thr.76c 2.002 0.58a 82.107 0.84 62.95ab 15.48b 80.068.33b 9.238 0.711a 0. ∆Wk 4 = Wk 4 − Wk 0.98a 12.27b 9.04ab 4.56 5. sorghumsoybean meal-based diet supplemented with Lys.20 4.81 <0.51 66.33b 2.035 0.88 68.667 1. Val.78 4.26c 0.2 g ADG.515 0.274c 0.fass.001 0.34b 1.001 0. Downloaded from jas.028 <0. and 3 = severe diarrhea.05).91c 5. His. Nevertheless.80b 9. and in some cases Met.33b 5.59a 3. In those studies.003 <0. or Ile and Val on nitrogen balance of piglets during the first and last experimental week Diet Item CP.87 23.88a 7.35 16. Effect of dietary CP level and the supplementation of Ile.013 0.02c 29.017 0.61 21.149c 4 17 − + 941a 571ab 0. % Ile Val N intake.001 14.266 0. and the addition of Ile. increased feed intake and daily gain but did not improve feed efficiency in growing pigs.01a 87. ∆Wk 3 = Wk 3 − Wk 0.62a 0. Brudevold and Southern (1994) reported that the addition of Val by itself to a low-CP.037 0.29 0. ∆Wk 2 = Wk 2 − Wk 0.032 0.93 67.25ab 83.607 2.482ab 0.171 0.260 0.11 18. 3 ∆Wk 1 = Wk 1 − Wk 0.72c 27.96 24. Val.65 71.71 9.518b 0.14b 32.004 0. and Glu did not result in improved pig performance. wheat-soybean meal starter pig diet are also consistent with previous experiments with growing pigs (Russell et al.623 2.88 2 17 − − 13.36b 5.003 0.08 74. 2003).084 0.85b 14.789 0. corn-soybean meal-based diet with supplemental Lys. . In contrast.336 0.88 71.138c 3 17 + − 836b 520bc 0.35a 16.308bc 0.40 17 3 + − 17 4 − + 17 5 + + P-value SEM 14.3 kg ∆Wk 1 ∆Wk 2 ∆Wk 3 ∆Wk 4 Fecal score4 Wk 1 Wk 2 Wk 3 Wk 4 a–c 1 1 20 − − 932a 583a 0.880a 0.

2010.. S. 11:1–7. Kidd. Effect on performance and carcass characteristics of nursery to finisher pigs fed reduced crude protein. L.. K. Diedrichsen. Cromwell. Aherne. Paris.. supplemented with Lys. Sci. Turner. However. This was not surprising because diets for early weaned pigs usually contain increased quantities of protein. W. Sci. 2002. A. 1982. These data show that with the aid of crystalline AA. J. 20. indicating that the capability of retaining N by the animals was not altered with the diet used. 1995. Passive protective effect of egg-yolk antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+ infection in neonatal and early-weaned piglets. decreased N excretion on a grams per day basis. Anim. 1998. cornsoybean meal diet did not contribute to improved pig performance (Russell et al. Han. Anim. 2... J. INRA Editions et AFZ. Sci. L. Friesen. Reducing the CP content in the AA-supplemented diets reduced total N intake and thus. Marquardt. Maxwell. 73:3000–3008. Le Bellego and Noblet. K. Ball and Aherne. J. J. amino acid-supplemented diets on nitrogen and energy balance in grower pigs. France. animals fed the diet to which only Val was included excreted less total N and had less soft feces compared with pigs fed diets supplemented with both Val and Ile. 1998). O. Anim. L. A. which may promote proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Thr. Turner. R. S. Cuaron.. Anim. Miller. and F.. Can.. A. Cromwell. Easter. The total N excretion after feeding the low-CP diet supplemented with Ile and Val for wk 1 was reduced by 26% compared with the high-CP diet. 67:1105–1115. P. 2004. G. Sci. 2003). in a low-CP cornwheat-soybean meal-based starter diet leads to growth performance responses similar to those obtained when feeding a high-CP diet. and S. a 10% reduction in total N excretion is possible for every 1% reduction in CP content of the diet. Effect of feeding reduced by on November 24. M. O. Gómez. 1980. J. A. carcass traits. or in combination with Ile. Kerr. L. C. Anim. Aherne. Shriver et al. N retention as a percentage of N intake was not affected. Met. Growth. J. Anim. Isoleucine has also been shown to be less limiting than Val in a reduced CP corn-soybean meal-whey diet for young pigs (Mavromichalis et al. H. the wk 4 total N excretion was 35% less than the positive control. T. isoleucine. 1987). 1995. and R. 62:907–913. In the current work. Brudevold. J. J. V. X. Pierce.. . Diedrichsen. this research indicates that piglets can optimally perform on low-CP corn-wheat-soybean meal diet. and E. D. C. Fang. Lewis. S. Parr. J.. 74(Suppl. Nitrogen metabolism and growth performance of gilts fed standard corn-soybean meal diets or low-crude protein.. Therefore. and plasma amino acid concentrations of gilts fed low-protein diets supplemented with amino acids including histidine. Appl. vold and Southern (1994) utilized experimental diets with CP levels as low as 12%. T. Eng. S. J. McKeith. 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