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Power System Reliability
Solar Energy Technology
Sir. Prof: M. Zahir Khan
1. 2. 3. 4. Engr. Muhammad Zafran Engr. Atiq Ur Rehman Engr. Muhammad Bashir Engr. Naveed Khan
Department of Electrical Engineering University of Engineering & Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
1 The Sun……………………………………………………………….1
History of Sun..............................................................................................1 Development of Scientific understandings………………………………...3 Observation and effects…………………………………………………….5 Characteristics……………………………………………………………...6 Internal structure of the Sun………………………………………………..8 1.5.1 Core………………………………………………………………8 1.5.2 Radiative zone……………………………………………………10 1.5.3 Convective zone………………………………………………….11 1.5.4 Photosphere………………………………………………………11 1.5.5 Atmosphere………………………………………………………12 2 What is Solar Cell?………………………………………………………….15 2.1 History of Solar cells ……………………………………………………...16 2.2 Applications………………………………………………………………..16 2.4 Theory…………………………………………….………………............. 17 2.5 Efficiency…………………………………………………………..............17 2.6 Cost………………………………………………………………………...18 2.7 Materials for Solar cel……………………………………………..............19 2.7.1 Crystalline silicon………………………………………………..19 2.7.2 Thin films………………………………………………………...20 2.7.3 Cadmium telluride solar cells…………………………………...20 2.7.4 Copper indium selenide…………………………………………21 2.7.5 Gallium arsenide multi junction………………………………...21 2.7.6 Light absorbing dyes……………………………………………22 2.8 Manufacturing techniques………………………………………………...22 2.9 Life span…………………………………………………………………..23 2.10 Manufacturers and certification…………………………………………..23 2.10.1 China……………………………………………………………24 2.10.2 United States……………………………………………………24 3 The History of Solar Energy……………………………………………....25 3.1 Timeline from 7th Century B.C.to 1200 A.D.………………………….....25 3.2 Timeline from 1767 to 1891……………………………………………...26 3.3 Timeline of solar technology in 1900s…………………………………...27 3.4 Timeline of solar technology in 2000s…………………………………...33 3.5 Recent developments in Solar technology………………………………..35 3.6 Expected future direction of solar technology……………………………36 4 Solar Energy………………………………………………………………..37 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
4.1 What is Solar Energy?………………………………………………….....37 4.2 The Sun is our source……………………………………………………..38 4.3 Solar energy basics………………………………………………………..39 4.3.1 Latitude and longitude…………………………………………...41 4.4 Solar thermal Vs Photovoltaic…………………………………………....42 4.5 Competing with fossil fuels………………………………………………43 4.6 Solar thermal power plant………………………………………………...44 4.6.1 ‘Solar power tower’ power plant…………………………………45 4.6.2 ‘Distributed collector system’ power plant……………………...46 4.6.3 ‘Solar chimney’ power plant…………………………………….46 4.7 Solar energy storage………………………………………………………47 4.8 Space heating……………………………………………………………...48 4.9 Space cooling……………………………………………………………...49 4.10 Land requirements…………………………………………………………49 5 Solar energy and Pakistan…………………………………………………..50 5.1 The Solar energy future……………………………………………………50 5.1.1 Methodology and assumptions…………………………………...50 5.1.2 Power generation…………………………………………………51 5.1.3 Employment……………………………………………………...52 5.2 Solar energy and Pakistan: An overview…………………………………..52 5.3 Pakistan is most suitable for solar power…………………………………..52 5.4 Pakistan’s indulgence in solar power………………………………………53 5.5 Solar activity in Pakistan…………………………………………………...54 5.6 Activities of PCRET………………………………………………………..55 5.7 Pakistan’s Solar energy development plans………………………………...56 5.8 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..60
41 Figure-4...........2: Brightness Vs Wavelength for various temperatures…………………..4: Basic structure of silicon based solar cell and its working mech……….12 Figure-1..1: Solar cell made from mono crystalline silicon wafer…………………....……………………………………….6: Coal reservoir………………………………………………………….......50 ..47 Figure-4...4: Diagram of the Sun’s path in the sky on different ways………………...35 Figure-4...42 Figure-4..1: Direct and diffuse solar radiations……………………………………...40 Figure-4.10: Chimney solar power plant……………………………………………..2 Figure-1.4: Sun’s internal structure..1: Our galaxy system………………..46 Figure-4..........8: Parabolic solar collector………………………………………………...5: Cross section of a solar type star…………………………………………9 Figure-1.....1 Figure-1.16 Figure-2......2: Cooler stars………………..17 Figure-2..7: A central receiver solar power plant………………………………….43 Figure-4.7: Nature of plasma………………………………………………………..46 Figure-4..…………………….2: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells laminate……………………………........1: Solar energy and Pakistan………………………………………………...9: Parabolic trough solar power plant……………………………………..38 Figure-4.........6: Solar atmosphere………………………………………………………........1: Mesa Verde Cliff dwelling………………………………………………25 Figure-3.8 Figure-1.......5 Figure-1...LIST OF FIGURES Figure-1.......2: An eSolar project in California and spain……………………………….3: Sun as it appear from the surface of earth……...………...........45 Figure-4.49 Figure-5.....19 Figure-3.3: Sunlight transmitted through atmosphere Vs wavelength……………......13 Figure-2........15 Figure-2....5: Parabolic dish………………………………………………………….....………………….44 Figure-4.......11: eSolar unique approach to minimize land requirements……………….3: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells……………………………………….....
Particles within the cloud's center (core) became so densely packed that they often collided and stuck (fused) together. All stars in our galaxy and other galaxies come in different sizes and colors.1: Our galaxy system Our Sun is one of at least four hundred billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy. and this story is about the birth and life of the closest star to Earth. in a distant spiral arm of our galaxy.5 billion miles) from the center of the galaxy. did not use all of its gas and dust to 1 . The fusion process released tremendous amounts of heat and light which could then combat the compressing force of gravity. The cloud from which it formed. and our sun is a medium sized star known as a yellow dwarf. called the Milky Way. and it lives 8 kilo parsecs (2. a small cloud of gas and dust began to compress under its own weight.1 History of Sun Less than 5 billion years ago. the Sun. fortunately for us.01 THE SUN 1. the two forces reached equilibrium. The balance of fusion reactions versus gravitational collapse which occurred in this little cloud is fondly referred to as a star. Figure-1. eventually.
however. The introduction of more compression causes the new helium particles inside of the core to collide hard enough so that they can stick together and fuse.2: Cooler Stars When the envelope expands too far away from the Sun's core. and it is expected to continue to do so for another 3 to 4 billion years more. at this stage of its life. the Sun's envelope will expand to engulf all of the inner solar system out to Mars. Thus.5 billion years. however. The temperature will drop in the envelope as well. The introduction of too much energy into the envelope heats up the envelope particles so much that the envelope expands (for the same reasons that steam rises). The particles of carbon in the core are still very densely packed. A drop in temperature in a star can be seen in the change in the color of a star. The energy being pumped out of the core radiates through the outer layers of the sun called the envelope. Then gravity begins to compress the Sun under its own weight again. it will fuse more and more hydrogen in its core. but tiny about the size of the Earth. the star stops fusing hydrogen and loses its ability to combat gravity. Once all of the hydrogen is turned into helium. when this material floats off. formed the 9 planets. and so the core is very hot. gravity does not work as hard to crush the remaining core. as the particles become so spread out that they no longer are colliding enough to create tremendous heat. Since the bulk of the Sun is envelope material. the Sun will be called a red giant. Figure-1. The making of carbon. less than one percent of the original material. At this point in its life. The Sun has been fusing hydrogen into helium and hence providing us with its radiant energy for 4. The core thus begins to fuse helium into carbon to make enough energy to maintain its balance with the crushing force of gravity. and the core stops fusing. This floated-off envelope material is known as a planetary nebula. This leftover hot and tiny core will be called a white dwarf. cooler stars are redder than hotter. the envelope will begin to float off of the core and into space. bluer stars. that which was left over.make the Sun. And then what? As the sun gets older. gives off more energy than did the making of helium. 2 .
Babylonian astronomers observed that the Sun's motion along the ecliptic was not uniform. implying either 4.000. and later adopted by Seleucus of Seleucia.C. This largely philosophical view was developed into fully predictive mathematical model of a heliocentric system in the 16th century by Nicolaus Copernicus.. the Sun maintains itself as a yellow dwarf star. he was imprisoned by the authorities and sentenced to death. Sunspots were also observed since the Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) by Chinese astronomers who maintained records of these observations for centuries. the translation of which is ambiguous.000 km) or 804. giving off radiation in all wavelengths of light including light we can and cannot see. Arabic astronomical contributions include Albatenius discovering that the direction of the Sun's eccentric is changing. it is today known that this is due to the Earth moving in an elliptic orbit around the Sun. and that the Moon reflected the light of the Sun. Galileo Galilei and other astronomers. One of the first people to offer a scientific or philosophical explanation for the Sun was the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras. Averroes also provided a description of sunspots in the 12th century. In the early 17th century. In the 1st century CE.080. and Ibn Yunus observing more than 10. with the Earth moving faster when it is nearer to the Sun at perihelion and moving slower when it is farther away at aphelion. yet is one of hundreds of billions of stars in our enormous galaxy. It is the largest object in the solar system. Eratosthenes estimated the distance between the Earth and the Sun in the 3rd century BCE as "of stadia myriads 400 and 80000".000 stadia (755. Ptolemy estimated the distance as 1. who reasoned that it was a giant flaming ball of metal even larger than the Peloponnesus rather than the chariot of Helios.000 stadia (148 to 153 million kilometers). The transit of Venus was first observed in 1032 by Avicenna. though they were unaware of why this was. Galileo made some of the first known telescopic observations of sunspots and posited that they were on the surface of the Sun rather than small objects passing between the Earth and the Sun.000 entries for the Sun's position for many years using a large astrolabe. the latter value is correct to within a few percent. For teaching this heresy. 1.210 times the Earth radius. the invention of the telescope permitted detailed observations of sunspots by Thomas Harriot. though he was later released through the intervention of Pericles.But for now.2 Development of scientific understanding In the early first millennium B. who concluded that Venus is closer to the Earth than the 3 . The theory that the Sun is the center around which the planets move was first proposed by the ancient Greek Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BCE.E.
Sun, while one of the first observations of the transit of Mercury was conducted by Ibn Bajjah in the 12th century. In 1672 Giovanni Cassini and Jean Richer determined the distance to Mars and were thereby able to calculate the distance to the Sun. Isaac Newton observed the Sun's light using a prism, and showed that it was made up of light of many colors, while in 1800 William Herschel discovered infrared radiation beyond the red part of the solar spectrum. The 1800s saw spectroscopic studies of the Sun advance, and Joseph von Fraunhofer made the first observations of absorption lines in the spectrum, the strongest of which are still often referred to as Fraunhofer lines. When expanding the spectrum of light from the Sun, a large number of missing colors can be found. In the early years of the modern scientific era, the source of the Sun's energy was a significant puzzle. Lord Kelvin suggested that the Sun was a gradually cooling liquid body that was radiating an internal store of heat. Kelvin and Hermann von Helmholtz then proposed a gravitational contraction mechanism to explain the energy output. Unfortunately the resulting age estimate was only 20 million years, well short of the time span of at least 300 million years suggested by some geological discoveries of that time. In 1890 Joseph Lockyer, who discovered helium in the solar spectrum, proposed a meteoritic hypothesis for the formation and evolution of the Sun. Not until 1904 was a documented solution offered. Ernest Rutherford suggested that the Sun's output could be maintained by an internal source of heat, and suggested radioactive decay as the source. However, it would be Albert Einstein who would provide the essential clue to the source of the Sun's energy output with his mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. In 1920, Sir Arthur Eddington proposed that the pressures and temperatures at the core of the Sun could produce a nuclear fusion reaction that merged hydrogen (protons) into helium nuclei, resulting in a production of energy from the net change in mass. The preponderance of hydrogen in the Sun was confirmed in 1925 by Cecilia Payne. The theoretical concept of fusion was developed in the 1930s by the astrophysicists Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Hans Bethe. Hans Bethe calculated the details of the two main energy-producing nuclear reactions that power the Sun. Finally, a seminal paper was published in 1957 by Margaret Burbidge, entitled "Synthesis of the Elements in Stars". The paper demonstrated convincingly that most of the elements in the universe had been synthesized by nuclear reactions inside stars, some like our Sun.
1.3 Observation and effects
Sunlight is very bright, and looking directly at the Sun with the naked eye for brief periods can be painful, but is not particularly hazardous for normal, non-dilated eyes. Looking directly at the Sun causes phosphene visual artifacts and temporary partial blindness. It also delivers about 4 mill watts of sunlight to the retina, slightly heating it and potentially causing damage in eyes that cannot respond properly to the brightness. UV exposure gradually yellows the lens of the eye over a period of years and is thought to contribute to the formation of cataracts, but this depends on general exposure to solar UV, not on whether one looks directly at the Sun. Long-duration viewing of the direct Sun with the naked eye can begin to cause UV-induced, sunburn-like lesions on the retina after about 100 seconds, particularly under conditions where the UV light from the Sun is intense and well focused; conditions are worsened by young eyes or new lens implants (which admit more UV than aging natural eyes), Sun angles near the zenith, and observing locations at high altitude.
Figure-1.3: The Sun as it appears from the surface of Earth
Viewing the Sun through light-concentrating optics such as binoculars is very hazardous without an appropriate filter that blocks UV and substantially dims the sunlight. An attenuating (ND) filter might not filter UV and so is still dangerous. Attenuating filters to view the Sun should be specifically designed for that use: some improvised filters pass UV or IR rays that can harm the eye at high brightness levels. Unfiltered binoculars can deliver over 500 times as much energy to the retina as using the naked eye, killing retinal cells almost instantly (even though the power per unit area of image on the retina is the same, the heat cannot dissipate fast enough because the image is larger). Even brief glances at the midday Sun through unfiltered binoculars can cause permanent blindness. Partial solar eclipses are hazardous to view because the eye's pupil is not adapted to the unusually high visual contrast: the pupil dilates according to the total amount of light in the field of view, not by the brightest object in the field. During partial eclipses most
sunlight is blocked by the Moon passing in front of the Sun, but the uncovered parts of the photosphere have the same surface brightness as during a normal day. In the overall gloom, the pupil expands from ~2 mm to ~6 mm, and each retinal cell exposed to the solar image receives about ten times more light than it would looking at the non-eclipsed Sun. This can damage or kill those cells, resulting in small permanent blind spots for the viewer. The hazard is insidious for inexperienced observers and for children, because there is no perception of pain: it is not immediately obvious that one's vision is being destroyed. During sunrise and sunset sunlight is attenuated due to Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering from a particularly long passage through Earth's atmosphere, and the Sun is sometimes faint enough to be viewed comfortably with the naked eye or safely with optics (provided there is no risk of bright sunlight suddenly appearing through a break between clouds). Hazy conditions, atmospheric dust, and high humidity contribute to this atmospheric attenuation. A rare optical phenomenon may occur shortly after sunset or before sunrise, known as a green flash. The flash is caused by light from the Sun just below the horizon being bent (usually through a temperature inversion) towards the observer. Light of shorter wavelengths (violet, blue, green) is bent more than that of longer wavelengths (yellow, orange, red) but the violet and blue light is scattered more, leaving light that is perceived as green. Ultraviolet light from the Sun has antiseptic properties and can be used to sanitize tools and water. It also causes sunburn, and has other medical effects such as the production of vitamin D. Ultraviolet light is strongly attenuated by Earth's ozone layer, so that the amount of UV varies greatly with latitude and has been partially responsible for many biological adaptations, including variations in human skin color in different regions of the globe.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It has a diameter of about 1,392,000 km, about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass (about 2×1030 kilograms, 330,000 times that of Earth) accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium. Less than 2% consists of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, iron, and others.
Since our galaxy is moving with respect to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) in the direction of constellation Hydra with a speed of 550 km/s.2 light years away). the Sun ranks 4th in mass.83. The enormous effect of the Sun on the Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times. however. the Sun is the brightest object in the sky with an apparent magnitude of −26.6 million kilometers (1 AU). there are a number of present-day anomalies in the Sun's behavior that remain unexplained. is a main sequence star. a stream of charged particles that extends to the heliopause at roughly 100 astronomical units. like most stars. The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way at a distance of approximately 24. and as recently as the 19th century prominent scientists had little knowledge of the Sun's physical composition and source of energy. because its visible radiation is most intense in the yellowgreen portion of the spectrum and although its color is white. and drives Earth's climate and weather.74. the heliosphere. In its core. and thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. Once regarded by astronomers as a small and relatively insignificant star. Of the 50 nearest stellar systems within 17 light-years from Earth (the closest being a red dwarf named Proxima Centauri at approximately 4. The mean distance of the Sun from the Earth is approximately 149. the sun's resultant velocity with respect to the CMB is about 370 km/s in the direction of Crater or Leo. and the Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity. An accurate scientific understanding of the Sun developed slowly. is G2V. and is informally designated as a yellow dwarf. G2 indicates its surface temperature of approximately 5778 K (5505 °C). in about 225–250 million years. from the surface of the Earth it may appear yellow because of atmospheric scattering of blue light. is the largest continuous structure in the Solar System. The bubble in the interstellar medium formed by the solar wind. within the inner rim of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy. most of which are red dwarfs.The Sun's stellar classification. based on spectral class. as viewed from the galactic north pole. as the star closest to Earth. light travels from the Sun to Earth in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds. The Sun is currently traveling through the Local Interstellar Cloud in the Local Bubble zone. In the spectral class label. though the distance varies as the Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July. The Sun's hot corona continuously expands in space creating the solar wind.000–26. At this average distance. This understanding is still developing.000 light years from the galactic center. completing one clockwise orbit. The energy of this sunlight supports almost all life on Earth by photosynthesis. the Sun fuses 620 million metric tons of hydrogen each second. 7 . the Sun is now thought to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy. The absolute magnitude of the Sun is +4. and V indicates that the Sun.
5 Internal structure of the Sun The solar interior is not directly observable. It has a density of up to 150 g/cm3 (about 150 times the density of water) and 8 . just as seismology uses waves generated by earthquakes to reveal the interior structure of the Earth. 2. 8. 5. 4. and the Sun itself is opaque to electromagnetic radiation.1 Core The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 20–25% of the solar radius. 7. 3. 6. Figure-1. However.1. Computer modeling of the Sun is also used as a theoretical tool to investigate its deeper layers. 9.5.4: Sun’s internal structure An illustration of the structure of the Sun: 1. Core Radiative zone Convective zone Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Sunspot Granules Prominence 1. the discipline of helioseismology makes use of pressure waves (infrasound) traversing the Sun's interior to measure and visualize the star's inner structure.
or about 6. Figure-1. and by 30% of the radius.192×10 megatons of TNT per second.5: Cross-section of a solar-type star (NASA) The proton–proton chain occurs around 9. The core is the only region in the Sun that produces an appreciable amount of thermal energy through fusion. Since fusing hydrogen into helium releases around 0. 9 . The energy produced by fusion in the core must then travel through many successive layers to the solar photosphere before it escapes into space as sunlight or kinetic energy of particles. Through most of the Sun's life. the mass is carried away in the radiated energy. as described by the concept of mass-energy equivalence. The rest of the star is heated by energy that is transferred outward from the core and the layers just outside.800 K.846×1026  10 W).7% of the fused mass as energy.6 yottawatts (3. Since this reaction uses four free protons (hydrogen nuclei).6 million kelvin (K). Less than 2% of the helium generated in the Sun comes from the CNO cycle. This mass is not destroyed to create the energy.a temperature of close to 13.2×1011 kg per second.26 million metric tons per second. By contrast. this process converts hydrogen into helium. the Sun releases energy at the mass-energy conversion rate of 4. inside 24% of the Sun's radius. or 9. fusion has stopped nearly entirely. energy is produced by nuclear fusion through a series of steps called the p–p (proton–proton) chain. 99% of the power has been generated. 384. Recent analysis of SOHO mission data favors a faster rotation rate in the core than in the rest of the radiative zone. rather.7×1038 protons to alpha particles (helium nuclei) every second (out of a total of ~8. the Sun's surface temperature is approximately 5.9×1056 free protons in the Sun). it converts about 3.2×1037 times each second in the core of the Sun.
This discrepancy was resolved in 2001 through the discovery of the effects of neutrino oscillation: the Sun emits the number of neutrinos predicted by the theory. The tremendous power output of the Sun is not due to its high power per volume.2 Radiative zone From about 0. theoretical models estimate it to be approximately 276.2 g/cm3) from the bottom to the top of the radiative zone. 1.The power production by fusion in the core varies with distance from the solar center. solar material is hot and dense enough that thermal radiation is sufficient to transfer the intense heat of the core outward. This zone is free of thermal convection. which travel only a brief distance before being reabsorbed by other ions. For many years measurements of the number of neutrinos produced in the Sun were lower than theories predicted by a factor of 3. Therefore it takes a long time for radiation to reach the Sun's surface.25 to about 0. Peak power production in the Sun has been compared to the volumetric heats generated in an active compost heap. and a slightly lower rate would cause the core to cool and shrink slightly.5. At the center of the Sun. The fusion rate in the core is in a self-correcting equilibrium: a slightly higher rate of fusion would cause the core to heat up more and expand slightly against the weight of the outer layers. but unlike photons they rarely interact with matter. After a final trip through the convective outer layer to the transparent surface of the photosphere. this temperature gradient is less than the value of the adiabatic lapse rate and hence cannot drive convection. Estimates of the photon travel time range between 10. a power production density that more nearly approximates reptile metabolism than a thermonuclear bomb. reducing the fusion rate and correcting the perturbation.5 watts/m3.000 and 170. while the material gets cooler from 7 to about 2 million kelvin with increasing altitude.7 solar radii. The gamma rays (high-energy photons) released in fusion reactions are absorbed in only a few millimeters of solar plasma and then re-emitted again in random direction and at slightly lower energy. but neutrino detectors were missing 2⁄3 of them because the neutrinos had changed flavor by the time they were detected. the photons escape as visible light. Neutrinos are also released by the fusion reactions in the core. increasing the fusion rate and again reverting it to its present level. Each gamma ray in the Sun's core is converted into several million photons of visible light before escaping into space. The density drops a hundredfold (from 20 g/cm3 to only 0.000 years. so almost all are able to escape the Sun immediately. Energy is transferred by radiation—ions of hydrogen and helium emit photons. 10 . but instead due to its large size.
the photosphere. The thermal columns in the convection zone form an imprint on the surface of the Sun as the solar granulation and super granulation. the visible light we see is produced as electrons react with hydrogen atoms to produce H− ions. in a phenomenon known as limb darkening. Sunlight has approximately a blackbody spectrum that indicates its temperature is about 6. it is hypothesized (see Solar dynamo). to receive more heat from the top of the radiative zone. from its surface down to approximately 200. The change in opacity is due to the decreasing amount of H− ions. At the visible surface of the Sun.2 g/m3 (about 1/6.000 km (or 70% of the solar radius). which absorb visible light easily.37% of the particle number per volume of 11 . The photosphere has a particle density of ~1023 m−3 (this is about 0. This is a region where the sharp regime change between the uniform rotation of the radiative zone and the differential rotation of the convection zone results in a large shear—a condition where successive horizontal layers slide past one another. The photosphere is tens to hundreds of kilometers thick. the solar plasma is not dense enough or hot enough to transfer the thermal energy of the interior outward through radiation. Once the material cools off at the surface. interspersed with atomic absorption lines from the tenuous layers above the photosphere. Conversely. thermal convection occurs as thermal columns carry hot material to the surface (photosphere) of the Sun. in other words it is opaque enough. slowly disappear from the top of this layer to its bottom.The radiative zone and the convection form a transition layer. matching the calm characteristics of the radiative zone on the bottom. that a magnetic dynamo within this layer generates the Sun's magnetic field. The turbulent convection of this outer part of the solar interior causes a "small-scale" dynamo that produces magnetic north and south poles all over the surface of the Sun.3 Convective zone In the Sun's outer layer.000th the density of air at sea level). 1. being slightly less opaque than air on Earth. is the layer below which the Sun becomes opaque to visible light. Above the photosphere visible sunlight is free to propagate into space. As a result.000 K. The fluid motions found in the convection zone above. Presently. it plunges downward to the base of the convection zone. an image of the Sun appears brighter in the center than on the edge or limb of the solar disk.700 K and the density to only 0. Because the upper part of the photosphere is cooler than the lower part. and its energy escapes the Sun entirely. the tachocline.4 Photosphere The visible surface of the Sun.5. The Sun's thermal columns are Benard cells and therefore tend to be hexagonal prisms. the temperature has dropped to 5. 1.5.
from radio through visible light to gamma rays.5 Atmosphere The parts of the Sun above the photosphere are referred to collectively as the solar atmosphere. the corona. the solar corona can be seen with the naked eye. The coolest layer of the Sun is a temperature minimum region about 500 km above the photosphere. however. evidence suggests that Alfven waves may have enough energy to heat the corona. The chromosphere. The reason has not been conclusively proven. extends outward past the orbit of Pluto to the heliopause. photosphere particles are electrons and protons. During early studies of the optical spectrum of the photosphere.Earth's atmosphere at sea level. the chromosphere. during the brief period of totality. They can be viewed with telescopes operating across the electromagnetic spectrum. Norman Lockyer hypothesized that these absorption lines were because of a new element which he dubbed helium. Figure-1.5. 1. transition region. and the heliosphere. The heliosphere. where it forms a sharp shock front boundary with the interstellar medium. with a temperature of about 4. so the average particle in air is 58 times as heavy). This part of the Sun is cool enough to 12 . and comprise five principal zones: the temperature minimum. some absorption lines were found that did not correspond to any chemical elements then known on Earth. In 1868. It was not until 25 years later that helium was isolated on Earth.6: Solar atmosphere During a total solar eclipse. which may be considered the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun. the transition region. and corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun. after the Greek Sun god Helios.100 K.
support simple molecules such as carbon monoxide and water. The temperature in the chromosphere increases gradually with altitude. it forms a kind of nimbus around chromospheric features such as spicules and filaments. and is in constant. but is readily observable from space by instruments sensitive to the extreme ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. in a thin (about 200 km) transition region. Rather. The temperature increase is facilitated by the full ionization of helium in the transition region. The corona continuously expands into space forming the solar wind.7: Nature of Plasma (Taken by Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope. Figure-1. ranging up to around 20.000. The low corona.) Above the chromosphere. which can be detected by their absorption spectra. meaning color. dominated by a spectrum of emission and absorption lines. It is called the chromosphere from the Greek root chroma.000 km thick. because the chromosphere is visible as a colored flash at the beginning and end of total eclipses of the Sun. which is much larger in volume than the Sun itself. chaotic motion. the temperature rises rapidly from around 20.000 K in the upper chromosphere to coronal temperatures closer to 1.000 K. Above the temperature minimum layer is a layer about 2. which significantly reduces radiative cooling of the plasma. The corona is the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun. which is very near the surface of 13 .000 K near the top. this image of the Sun reveals the filamentary nature of the plasma connecting regions of different magnetic polarity. which fills all the Solar System. In the upper part of chromosphere helium becomes partially ionized. The transition region does not occur at a well-defined altitude. The transition region is not easily visible from Earth's surface.
1 AU) to the outer fringes of the Solar System. Both of the Voyager probes have recorded higher levels of energetic particles as they approach the boundary. The heliosphere. The solar wind travels outward continuously through the heliosphere.000. where the flow becomes faster than the speed of Alfven waves. In December 2004. The average temperature of the corona and solar wind is about 1. at least some of its heat is known to be from magnetic reconnection. Its inner boundary is defined as the layer in which the flow of the solar wind becomes superalfvenic. that is. because the information can only travel at the speed of Alfven waves. Turbulence and dynamic forces outside this boundary cannot affect the shape of the solar corona within. forming the solar magnetic field into a spiral shape. 14 .the Sun.000.000.000–20. the Voyager 1 probe passed through a shock front that is thought to be part of the heliopause. which is the cavity around the Sun filled with the solar wind plasma. has a particle density around 1015–1016 m−3. until it impacts the heliopause more than 50 AU from the Sun. extends from approximately 20 solar radii (0. however. in the hottest regions it is 8. While no complete theory yet exists to account for the temperature of the corona.000.000 K.000 K.000–2.
Assemblies of cells are used to make solar modules. also known as solar panels. These are used for detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range. though it is often used specifically to refer to the generation of electricity from sunlight. is an example of solar energy. for example infrared detectors. referred to as solar power.1: A solar cell made from a mono crystalline silicon wafer Photovoltaic is the field of technology and research related to the practical application of photovoltaic cells in producing electricity from light. The energy generated from these solar modules. or measurement of light intensity.1 What is Solar Cell? A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell) is a solid state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. 15 . Figure-2.02 Solar Cell 2. Cells are described as photovoltaic cells when the light source is not necessarily sunlight.
after whom a unit of electro-motive force. Figure-2. allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from abrasion and impact due to wind-driven debris. In 1888 Russian physicist Aleksandr Stoletov built the first photoelectric cell (based on the outer photoelectric effect discovered by Heinrich Hertz earlier in 1887). 2. The photovoltaic cell was developed in 1954 at Bell Laboratories. Becquerel. which was discovered while working on the series of advances that would lead to the transistor.2 History of solar cells The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek φῶς (phōs) meaning "light". The term "photo-voltaic" has been in use in English since 1849. or both. from the name of the Italian physicist Volta. remarkable progress has been made. the volt. et cetera. hail. is named.2. In the past four decades. to create an array with the desired peak DC voltage and current. rain. E. Photovoltaic modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (sun up) side. with Megawatt solar power generating plants having now been built. Modules are then interconnected. Connecting cells in parallel will yield a higher current. The highly efficient solar cell was first developed by Daryl Chapin. by Charles Fritts. meaning electric. it was not until 1883 that the first solar cell was built. However. Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect in 1905 for which he received the Nobel prize in Physics in 1921. and "voltaic".3 Applications Solar cells are often electrically connected and encapsulated as a module. who coated the semiconductor selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to form the junctions. The photovoltaic effect was first recognized in 1839 by French physicist A. Solar cells are also usually connected in series in modules. Calvin Souther Fuller and Gerald Pearson in 1954 using a diffused silicon p-n junction. The device was only around 1% efficient. Russell Ohl patented the modern junction semiconductor solar cell in 1946.2: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells laminated to backing material in a module 16 . in series or parallel. creating an additive voltage.
in stand-alone systems. quantum efficiency. charge carrier separation efficiency and conductive efficiency. allowing them to flow through the material to produce electricity. VOC ratio. The overall efficiency is the product of each of these individual efficiencies. Resistive losses are predominantly categorized under fill factor. Figure-2. Electrons (negatively charged) are knocked loose from their atoms. Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials. other parameters are measured instead: thermodynamic efficiency. the electricity is most often fed into the electricity grid using inverters (grid-connected photovoltaic systems).4 Theory The solar cell works in three steps: 1. 2. VOC ratio.3: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells 2.5 Efficiency The efficiency of a solar cell may be broken down into reflectance efficiency. 17 . and fill factor. and fill factor. Reflectance losses are a portion of the quantum efficiency under "external quantum efficiency". the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction. but also make up minor portions of the quantum efficiency. 3. Recombination losses make up a portion of the quantum efficiency. 2. Solar panels can be used to power or recharge portable devices. An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity.To make practical use of the solar-generated energy. batteries are used to store the energy that is not needed immediately. such as silicon. VOC ratio. thermodynamic efficiency. Due to the special composition of solar cells. Due to the difficulty in measuring these parameters directly.
even if the cells themselves are more costly. The price of solar panels fell steadily for 40 years. Other analysts warned that capacity may be slowed by economic issues. The basic parameters that need to be evaluated are the short circuit current. and even state by state within various countries.6 Cost The cost of a solar cell is given per unit of peak electrical power. until 2004 when high subsidies in Germany drastically increased demand there and greatly increased the price of purified silicon (which is used in computer chips as well as solar panels). Other potential bottlenecks which have been suggested are the capacity of ingot shaping and wafer slicing industries. a higher efficiency cell may reduce area and plant cost. Manufacturing costs necessarily including the cost of energy required for manufacture. Speaking at a conference in 2007. cells. A low-cost photovoltaic cell is a thin-film cell intended to produce electrical energy at a price competitive with traditional (fossil fuels and nuclear power) energy sources. General Electric's Chief Engineer predicted grid parity without subsidies in sunny parts of the United States by around 2015. i. High-efficiency solar cells are of interest to decrease the cost of solar energy. to be useful in evaluating solar power plant economics. but that demand may fall because of lessening subsidies. This includes second and third generation photovoltaic cells.Crystalline silicon devices are now approaching the theoretical limiting efficiency of 29%. Grid parity. Many of the costs of a solar power plant are proportional to the area of the plant.e. and the supply of specialist chemicals used to coat the cells. Bush had set 2015 as the date for grid parity in the USA. 18 . Commercial efficiencies are significantly lower. The chart at the right illustrates the best laboratory efficiencies obtained for various materials and technologies. Grid parity has been reached in Hawaii and other islands that otherwise use diesel fuel to produce electricity. generally this is done on very small. must be evaluated under realistic conditions. George W. One research firm predicted that new manufacturing capacity began coming on-line in 2008 (projected to double by 2009) which was expected to lower prices by 70% in 2015. that is cheaper than first generation (crystalline silicon cells. Such feed-in tariffs can be highly effective in encouraging the development of solar power projects. It is achieved first in areas with abundant sun and high costs for electricity such as in California and Japan. the point at which photovoltaic electricity is equal to or cheaper than grid power. also called wafer or bulk cells). 2. Solar-specific feed in tariffs vary worldwide. Efficiencies of bare cells. open circuit voltage. can be reached using low cost solar cells. one square cm.
and organic polymers that are deposited on supporting substrates. the most prevalent bulk material for solar cells is crystalline silicon (abbreviated as a group as c-Si).7 Materials for Solar Cell Different materials display different efficiencies and have different costs. 2. cadmium telluride.4: Basic structure of a silicon based solar cell and its working mechanism. also known as "solar grade silicon". Materials for efficient solar cells must have characteristics matched to the spectrum of available light. 19 . Bulk silicon is separated into multiple categories according to crystallinity and crystal size in the resulting ingot. or wafer. polycrystalline silicon. Some cells are designed to efficiently convert wavelengths of solar light that reach the Earth surface. some solar cells are optimized for light absorption beyond Earth's atmosphere as well. organic dyes.2. Materials presently used for photovoltaic solar cells include monocrystalline silicon. Light absorbing materials can often be used in multiple physical configurations to take advantage of different light absorption and charge separation mechanisms.1 Crystalline silicon By far. amorphous silicon. Other materials are made as thin-films layers.7. Many currently available solar cells are made from bulk material that are cut into wafers between 180 to 240 micrometers thick that are then processed like other semiconductors. ribbon. Silicon remains the only material that is wellresearched in both bulk and thin-film forms. Figure-2. A third group are made from nano crystals and used as quantum dots (electron-confined nano particles). However. and copper indium selenide/sulfide.
and because they are cut from cylindrical ingots. IMEC's roadmap. can potentially be one-sixth that of making polysilicon. do not completely cover a square solar cell module without a substantial waste of refined silicon. also known as UMG Si. envisions use of 0. it may also reduce energy conversion efficiency. as this approach does not require sawing from ingots. Ribbon silicon] is a type of multi crystalline silicon: It is formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon and results in a multi crystalline structure. Poly. John Wohlgemuth. current cells use between eight and nine grams of silicon per watt of power generation. Hence most c-Si panels have uncovered gaps at the four corners of the cells. reported that his company has qualified modules based on 0. 3. and ease of integration.180 mm thick wafers and is testing processes for 0. staff scientist at BP Solar. Monocrystalline silicon (c-Si): Often made using the Czochralski process. At 2008 spring's IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists' Conference (PVS'08).1 mm wire. presented at the organization's recent annual research review meeting. Thin-film silicon cells have become popular due to cost. but are less efficient. with wafer thicknesses in the neighborhood of 0. Poly-Si cells are less expensive to produce than single crystal silicon cells. Solarbuzz has reported that the lowest quoted thin-film module price stands at US$1.48 per watt-peak. a semiconductor layer to absorb and convert sunlight into electricity.3 Cadmium telluride solar cell A cadmium telluride solar cell use a cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film. US DOE data shows that there were a higher number of multi crystalline sales than mono crystalline silicon sales. with the lowest crystalline silicon (c-Si) module at $2. but save on production costs due to a great reduction in silicon waste. 20 . 2. lighter weight. Analysts have predicted that prices of polycrystalline silicon will drop as companies build additional polysilicon capacity quicker than the industry’s projected demand.1. Singlecrystal wafer cells tend to be expensive.7. Though this reduces material cost. 2.or multi crystalline silicon (poly-Si or mc-Si): Made from cast square ingots — large blocks of molten silicon carefully cooled and solidified.08 mm wafers by 2015. director of IMEC's organic and solar department. Manufacturers of wafer-based cells have responded to thin-film lower prices with rapid reductions in silicon consumption. flexibility. 2. the cost of producing upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon.200 mm. On the other hand.7. According to Jef Poortmans. compared to wafer silicon cells.2 Thin films Thin-film technologies reduce the amount of material required in creating a solar cell.16 mm wafers cut with 0. These cells have lower efficiencies than poly-Si.76 per watt-peak.
This technology is currently being utilized in the Mars Exploration Rover missions which have run far past their 90 day design life. Recent developments at IBM and Nanosolar have been targeting to lower the cost by using non-vacuum solution processes.7% efficiency under "500-sun" solar concentration and laboratory conditions. germanium metal prices have risen substantially to $1000– $1200 per kg this year. their use in terrestrial concentrators might be the lowest cost alternative in terms of $/kWh and $/W. Those materials include gallium (4N. or more precisely. It has the highest efficiency (~20%) among thin film materials (see CIGS solar cells). in a more stable and less soluble form. 21 . However. these products are critical to the entire substrate manufacturing industry. arsenic (4N.4 Copper-Indium Selenide Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) is a direct-bandgap material. are seeing demand rapidly rise. Tandem solar cells based on monolithic. Traditional methods of fabrication involve vacuum processes including co-evaporation and sputtering. 6N and 7N Ga).The cadmium present in the cells would be toxic if released. 2. pyrolitic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles for growing crystals. and boron oxide. The semiconductors are carefully chosen to absorb nearly all of the solar spectrum. release is impossible during normal operation of the cells and is unlikely during ﬁres in residential roofs.3% triple junction metamorphic cell. Each type of semiconductor will have a characteristic band gap energy which. but at present. These multijunction cells consist of multiple thin films produced using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. reaching a record high of 40. loosely speaking. A triple-junction cell. and also by the Dutch solar cars Solutra (2005). 2. causes it to absorb light most efficiently at a certain color.7. to absorb electromagnetic radiation over a portion of the spectrum. Ge. for example. the cost of 4N gallium metal has risen from about $350 per kg to $680 per kg. gallium indium phosphide (GaInP). thus generating electricity from as much of the solar energy as possible. series connected. This was surpassed in October 2010 with a 42. may consist of the semiconductors: GaAs.7. GaAs based multijunction devices are the most efficient solar cells to date. A square meter of CdTe contains approximately the same amount of Cd as a single C cell Nickel-cadmium battery. and GaInP2. In just the past 12 months (12/2006 .12/2007). Twente One (2007) and 21Revolution (2009). Additionally. 2005 and 2007. gallium arsenide GaAs.5 Gallium arsenide multi junction High-efficiency multijunction cells were originally developed for special applications such as satellites and space exploration. and germanium Ge pn junctions. Triple-junction GaAs solar cells were also being used as the power source of the Dutch fourtime World Solar Challenge winners Nuna in 2003. 6N and 7N) and germanium.
so they can be made in a DIY fashion.com).g24i.The Dutch Radboud University Nijmegen set the record for thin film solar cell efficiency using a single junction GaAs to 25. The wafers are usually lightly p-type doped. its price/performance ratio should be high enough to allow them to compete with fossil fuel electrical generation. The circuit is completed by a redox couple in the electrolyte.6 Light-absorbing dyes (DSSC) Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are made of low-cost materials and do not need elaborate equipment to manufacture. The first commercial shipment of DSSC solar modules occurred in July 2009 from G24i Innovations (www. 2. In bulk it should be significantly less expensive than older solid-state cell designs. they share many of the same processing and manufacturing techniques as other semiconductor devices such as computer and memory chips. the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells. and the holes are absorbed by an electrolyte on the other side of the dye. with the potential for lower processing costs than those used for bulk solar cells. and is typically manufactured by screen printing and/or use of Ultrasonic Nozzles. Single crystalline wafers which are used in the semiconductor industry can be made into excellent high efficiency solar cells.7. DSSC's can be engineered into flexible sheets. as compared to approximately 10 m2/g of flat single crystal). The DSSC has been developed by Prof. Poly-crystalline silicon wafers are made by wire-sawing block-cast silicon ingots into very thin (180 to 350 micrometer) slices or wafers. and although its conversion efficiency is less than the best thin film cells. the dyes in these cells also suffer from degradation under heat and UV light. but they are generally considered to be too expensive for large-scale mass production. In spite of the above.8% in August 2008 using only 4 µm thick GaAs layer which can be transferred from a wafer base to glass or plastic film. This forms a p-n junction a few hundred nanometers below the surface. which can be liquid or solid. However. and the cell casing is difficult to seal due to the solvents used in assembly. a surface diffusion of n-type dopants is performed on the front side of the wafer. The photogenerated electrons from the light absorbing dye are passed on to the n-type TiO2. Typically a ruthenium metalorganic dye (Ru-centered) is used as a monolayer of lightabsorbing material. Most large-scale commercial solar cell factories today make screen printed poly-crystalline silicon solar cells. 2. possibly allowing players to produce more of this type of solar cell than others. The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200–300 m2/g TiO2. To make a solar cell from the wafer. this is a popular emerging technology with some commercial impact forecast within this decade. Michael Gratzel in 1991 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (CH). This type of cell allows a more flexible use of materials. 22 . However.8 Manufacturing techniques Because solar cells are semiconductor devices.
in fact.9 Lifespan Most commercially available solar cells are capable of producing electricity for at least twenty years without a significant decrease in efficiency. After the metal contacts are made. Silicon nitride has gradually replaced titanium dioxide as the antireflection coating because of its excellent surface passivation qualities. 23 . the solar cells are interconnected in series (and/or parallel) by flat wires or metal ribbons. Germany. typically aluminium. The wafer then has a full area metal contact made on the back surface. wherein the output shall not fall below a specified percentage (around 80%) of the rated capacity. Some solar cells have textured front surfaces that. The typical warranty given by panel manufacturers is for a period of 25 – 30 years. though in some cell designs it is printed in a grid pattern. but those with a balance between low-cost production and efficiency high enough to minimize area-related balance of systems cost. 2. Such surfaces can usually only be formed on single-crystal silicon. ultimately be the lowest cost net electricity producers. though numerous other nations have or are acquiring significant solar cell production capacity. Solar panels have a sheet of tempered glass on the front. Mainland China. and a polymer encapsulation on the back. Usually this contact covers the entire rear side of the cell. to increase the amount of light coupled into the solar cell.Antireflection coatings. like antireflection coatings. and assembled into modules or "solar panels". Taiwan and United States. Those companies with large scale manufacturing technology for coating inexpensive substrates may.10 Manufacturers and certification Solar cells are manufactured primarily in Japan. The paste is then fired at several hundred degrees Celsius to form metal electrodes in ohmic contact with the silicon. are typically next applied. and a grid-like metal contact made up of fine "fingers" and larger "busbars" are screen-printed onto the front surface using a silver paste. Some companies use an additional electroplating step to increase the cell efficiency. the most effective cells for low cost electrical production are not necessarily those with the highest efficiency. It prevents carrier recombination at the surface of the solar cell. even with cell efficiencies that are lower than those of single-crystal technologies. It is typically applied in a layer several hundred nanometers thick using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). serve to increase the amount of light coupled into the cell. though in recent years methods of forming them on multicrystalline silicon have been developed. The rear contact is also formed by screen-printing a metal paste. While technologies are constantly evolving toward higher efficiencies. 2.
that is expected to produce 500 MW of solar cells per year when it reaches full production in 2011.1 China Backed by Chinese government's unprecedented plan to offer subsidies for utility-scale solar power projects that is likely to spark a new round of investment from Chinese solar panel makers. In late September 2008. Oregon. In early October 2008. JA Solar and ReneSola have already announced projects in cooperation with regional governments with hundreds of megawatts each after the ‘Golden Sun’ incentive program was announced by the government. The new development of solar module manufacturers with thin-film technology such as Veeco and Anwell Technologies Limited will further help to boost the domestic solar industry.180 MW in 2007 making it the largest producer in the world. Oregon. began production at its manufacturing plant in Hopewell Junction. announced its decision to build a manufacturing plant for solar ingots and wafers in Salem. Oregon. Inc.10. Ohio. and Texas promise to add enough capacity to produce thousands of megawatts of solar devices per year within the next few years from 2008. Michigan. In March 2010. 24 . according to statistics from China Photovoltaic Association. SpectraWatt. Ltd. China produced solar cells/modules with an output of 1. Sanyo Electric Company. broke ground on an expansion of its Perrysburg. Inc. New York. Some Chinese companies such as Suntech Power. Ohio. LDK Solar Co. The company expects to complete construction early next year and reach full production by mid-2010.2. NY. bringing its total capacity to roughly 192 MW per year. which is expected to produce 120 MW of solar cells per year when it reaches full production in 2011.2 United States New manufacturing facilities for solar cells and modules in Massachusetts. Chinese companies have already played a more important role in solar panels manufacturing in recent years.10. In mid-October 2008. facility that will add enough capacity to produce another 57 MW per year of solar modules at the facility. First Solar. Yingli. 2. SolarWorld AG opened a manufacturing plant in Hillsboro. The plant will begin operating in October 2009 and will reach its full production capacity of 70 megawatts (MW) of solar wafers per year by April 2010.
C. 3rd Century B. We started out concentrating the sun’s heat with glass and mirrors to light fires. Its history spans from the 7th Century B. Here is about the milestones in the historical development of solar technology. Magnifying glass used to concentrate sun’s rays to make fire and to burn ants.03 The History of Solar Energy Solar technology isn’t new.C.1: Mesa Verde cliff dwellings 3.C. the Greek 25 . As early as 212 BC.D. and year by year. 2nd Century B. to 1200 A. Figure-3. century by century. Magnifying glass used to concentrate sun’s rays to make fire and to burn ants.Greeks and Romans use burning mirrors to light torches for religious purposes.C. Today. Magnifying glass used to concentrate sun’s rays to make fire and to burn ants. we have everything from solar-powered buildings to solar powered vehicles.C. Greeks and Romans use burning mirrors to light torches for religious purposes. 7th Century B. to today.1 Timeline from 7th Century B.
in his spare time. he built heat engines in his home workshop. By trade.D. 1873 Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of selenium. Scotland.scientist. Sunrooms on houses and public buildings were so common that the Justinian Code initiated “sun rights” to ensure individual access to the sun. The famous Roman bathhouses in the first to fourth centuries A. This engine was later used in the dish/Stirling system. Archimedes. 1767 Swiss scientist Horace de Saussure was credited with building the world’s firstsolar collector. 1st to 4th Century A. the Greek navy recreated the experiment in 1973 and successfully set fire to a wooden boat at a distance of 50 meters.D. 3. 1816.) 20 A. Robert Stirling was actually a minister in the Church of Scotland and he continued to give services until he was eighty-six years old! But.D. Chinese document use of burning mirrors to light torches for religious purposes. Ancestors of Pueblo people called Anasazi in North America live in south-facing cliff dwellings that capture the winter sun. 1200s A. 1839 French scientist Edmond Becquerel discovers the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with an electrolytic cell made up of two metal electrodes placed in an electricity-conducting solution. 6th Century A.D. Abel Pifre.2 Timeline from 1767 to 1891.D. constructed the first solar powered engines and used them for a variety of applications. 1860s French mathematician August Mouchet proposed an idea for solar-powered steam engines. Robert Stirling applied for a patent for his economizer at the Chancery in Edinburgh. had large south facing windows to let in the sun’s warmth. a solar thermal electric technology that concentrates the sun’s thermal energy in order to produce power. These engines became the predecessors of modern parabolic dish collectors. electricity-generation increased when exposed to light. used the reflective properties of bronze shields to focus sunlight and to set fire to wooden ships from the Roman Empire which were besieging Syracuse. later used by Sir John Herschel to cook food during his South Africa expedition in the 1830s. he and his assistant. Lord Kelvin used one of the working models during some of his university classes. 1876 26 . (Although no proof of such a feat exists. In the following two decades. 1816 On September 27.
When radiation falls on the wire. which is used to measure light from the faintest stars and the sun’s heat rays. they proved that asolid material could change light into electricity without heat or moving parts. 1880 Samuel P. Although selenium solar cells failed to convert enough sunlight to power electrical equipment. 1908 1908 William J. This increases the electrical resistance of the wire. Bailley of the Carnegie Steel Company invents a solar collector with copper coils and an insulated box—roughly. 1916 Robert Millikan provided experimental proof of the photoelectric effect. 1887 Heinrich Hertz discovered that ultraviolet light altered the lowest voltage capable of causing a spark to jump between two metal electrodes.3 Timeline of solar technology in the 1900s. 1905 Albert Einstein published his paper on the photoelectric effect (along with a paper on his theory of relativity). 1904 Wilhelm Hallwachs discovered that a combination of copper and cuprous oxide is photosensitive. 1883 Charles Fritts. 1932 Audobert and Stora discover the photovoltaic effect in cadmium sulfide (CdS). 27 . 1914 The existence of a barrier layer in photovoltaic devices was noted. 1918 Polish scientist Jan Czochralski developed a way to grow single-crystal silicon. 1921 Albert Einstein wins the Nobel Prize for his theories (1904 research and technical paper) explaining the photoelectric effect. it’s present design. 1891 Baltimore inventor Clarence Kemp patented the first commercial solar water heater. an American inventor. 3. described the first solar cells made from selenium wafers. It consists of a fine wire connected to an electric circuit. it becomes very slightly warmer. Langley. invents the bolometer.1876 William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day discover that selenium produces electricity when exposed to light.
fabricates n-on-p silicon photovoltaic cells (critically important for space cells. Explorer III.W. Later that year. Mid 1950s Architect Frank Bridgers designed the world’s first commercial office building using solar water heating and passive design. U. Bell Telephone Laboratories produced a silicon solar cell with 4% efficiency and later achieved 11% efficiency. which profiled forty-nine of the nation’s greatest solar architects. makes the first theoretical calculations of the efficiencies of various materials of different band gap widths based on the spectrum of the sun. 3. and Sputnik-3 were launched with PV-powered systems on board. This solar system has been continuously operating since that time and the Bridgers-Paxton Building. it was used successfully in powering satellites. 1958 1. is now in the National Historic Register as the world’s first solar heated office building. approaches RCA Labs’ Paul Rappaport and Joseph Loferski about developing photovoltaic cells for proposed orbiting Earth satellites.S.1947 1947 Passive solar buildings in the United States were in such demand. and Gerald Pearson develop the silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell at Bell Labs—the first solar cell capable of converting enough of the sun’s energy into power to run everyday electrical equipment. Wayne State University. Signal Corps Laboratories. as a result of scarce energy during the prolonged W. Dan Trivich. Hoffman Electronics achieves 9% efficient photovoltaic cells. It became the accepted energy source for space applications and remains so today. Calvin Fuller. U. 1954 1954 Photovoltaic technology is born in the United States when Daryl Chapin. Vanguard II. 1955 Western Electric began to sell commercial licenses for silicon photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Mandelkorn. more resistant to radiation). that Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company published a book entitled Your Solar House. 28 . 1956 William Cherry. 1957 Hoffman Electronics achieved 8% efficient photovoltaic cells. Despite faltering attempts to commercialize the silicon solar cell in the 1950s and 60s.S. Early successful products included PV-powered dollar bill changers and devices that decoded computer punch cards and tape.II. 1953 Dr. Signal Corps Laboratories. The Vanguard I space satellite used a small (less than one watt) array to power its radios. T. 2.
Inc. of Dodgeville. commercially available photovoltaic cells.1959 1. the world’s largest array at that time. bringing price down from $100 a watt to $20 a watt. Sharp Corporation succeeds in producing practical silicon photovoltaic modules. Japan installs a 242-watt. 1972 1. 2. to provide astronomical data in the ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths filtered out by the earth’s atmosphere. the Explorer VI satellite is launched with a photovoltaic array of 9600 cells (1 cm x 2 cm each). It starts producing selenium and silicon photovoltaic cells. 1965 Peter Glaser conceives the idea of the satellite solar power station. Solar cells begin to power navigation warning lights and horns on many offshore gas and oil rigs.. Hoffman also learns to use a grid contact. Elliot Berman. railroad crossings and domestic solar applications began to be viewed as sensible applications in remote locations where grid connected utilities could not exist affordably. 2. powered by a 1-kilowatt photovoltaic array. Hoffman Electronics achieves 10% efficient. 1963 1. Hoffman Electronics achieves 14% efficient photovoltaic cells. story parabolic mirror. on October 13. the Explorer VII satellite is launched. designs a significantly less costly solar cell. On August 7. photovoltaic array on a lighthouse. with help from Exxon Corporation. the Telstar (initial power 14 watts). 1969 The Odeillo solar furnace. This featured an 8- 1970s Dr. Silicon Sensors. reducing the series resistance significantly. is founded. 29 . Wisconsin. 1964 NASA launches the first Nimbus spacecraft—a satellite powered by a 470-watt photovoltaic array. 1966 NASA launches the first Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. France was constructed. located in Odeillo. 2. 1960 1. The French install a cadmium sulfide (CdS) photovoltaic system to operate an educational television at a village school in Niger. Then. 1962 Bell Telephone Laboratories launches the first telecommunications satellite. lighthouses.
David Carlson and Christopher Wronski. The system is a PV/thermal hybrid.S. At the University of Delaware. These systems provide such diverse applications as vaccine refrigeration. 1981 Paul MacCready builds the first solar-powered aircraft—the Solar Challenger—and flies it from France to England across the English Channel. with fans blowing the warm air from over the array to phase-change heat-storage bins. 2. telecommunications. In addition to electricity. The PV system was then dedicated to pumping water from a community well. Department of Energy launches the Solar Energy Research Institute http://www. 1978 1978 NASA’s Lewis Research Center dedicates a 3. 1973 The University of Delaware builds “Solar One. 2. The U. working on it from 1976-1985 and then again from 1992-1995. grain milling.5-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) system it installed on the Papago Indian Reservation located in southern Arizona—the world’s first village PV system. the arrays acted as flat-plate thermal collectors. 1980 1. Total photovoltaic manufacturing production exceeds 500 kilowatts.htm “Solar Challenger” in flight. when grid power reached the village. 1976 1. water pumping.” one of the world’s first photovoltaic (PV) powered residences. which produced 3.2. 2. a federal facility dedicated to harnessing power from the sun.nrel. 1977 1. The Institute of Energy Conversion is established at the University of Delaware to perform research and development on thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal systems. The system is used to provide for water pumping and residential electricity in 15 homes until 1983. and classroom television. becoming the world’s first laboratory dedicated to PV research and development.000 solar cells mounted on its wings. The aircraft had over 16. fabricate first amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells. 1982 30 . the first thin-film solar cell exceeds 10% efficiency using copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide. The roof-integrated arrays fed surplus power through a special meter to the utility during the day and purchased power from the utility at night. medical clinic lighting. The Smithsonian Institute National Air and Space Museum has a photo of the http://www.nasm. ARCO Solar becomes the first company to produce more than 1 megawatt of photovoltaic modules in one year. The NASA Lewis Research Center starts installing 83 photovoltaic power systems on every continent except Australia.edu/nasm/aero/aircraft/maccread.000 watts of power.gov/ “National Renewable Energy Laboratory”. room lighting. RCA Laboratories. The Center completed the project in 1995.
California.000-2. 4. The solar field contained rows of mirrors that concentrated the sun’s energy onto a system of pipes circulating a heat transfer fluid. 1984 The Sacramento Municipal Utility District commissions its first 1-megawatt photovoltaic electricity generating facility. the final year of operation. Tholstrup is the founder of the http://www. located in Kramer Junction. 5. Volkswagen of Germany begins testing photovoltaic arrays mounted on the roofs of Dasher station wagons. 1986 1. begins operating Solar One. Australian Hans Tholstrup drives the first solar-powered car—the Quiet Achiever— almost 2. generating 160 watts for the ignition system. unmanned facility supplies the Pacific Gas & Electric Company’s utility grid with enough power for 2. with modules on 108 dual-axis trackers. The Florida Solar Energy Center’s http://www.htm#recentcon “Southeast Residential Experiment Station” begins supporting the U.500 homes. 6.S. ARCO Solar dedicates a 6-megawatt photovoltaic substation in central California.S.au/2003/home.solar “World Solar Challenge” in Australia. It has a 1-megawatt capacity system. Solar Design Associates completes a stand-alone.3 megawatts. photovoltaic megawatt-scale power station goes on-line in Hisperia. Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 9. In 1988. Department of Energy. was commissioned. 31 . The heat transfer fluid was used to produce steam.fsec. the system could be dispatched 96% of the time. 2. 1983 1. 1986 The world’s largest solar thermal facility. ARCO Solar releases the G-4000—the world’s first commercial thin-film power module.3 megawatts. 1985 The University of South Wales breaks the 20% efficiency barrier for silicon solar cells under 1-sun conditions.edu/About/quals/index. along with an industry consortium. Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 21.800 miles between Sydney and Perth in 20 days—10 days faster than the first gasoline-powered car to do so. a 10-megawatt central-receiver demonstration project. The first. The U. developed by ARCO Solar. California. 3.wsc.ucf. The project established the feasibility of power-tower systems. which powered a conventional turbine to generate electricity. a solar-thermal electric or concentrating solar power technology.org. 3. The 120-acre. 4-kilowatt powered home in the Hudson River Valley. Department ofEnergy’s photovoltaics program in the application of systems engineering. 2. 2. considered the world championship of solar car racing.1. with sales of more than $250 million.
First solar dish generator using a free-piston Stirling engine is tied to a utility grid. 1992 University of South Florida develops a 15. 2. the energy in the light is transferred to electrons in the metal. The world’s most advanced solar-powered airplane. As sunlight hits the metal strips. Subhendu Guha. Lepcon consists of glass panels covered with a vast array of millions of aluminum or copper strips. which escape at one end in the form of electricity. 1994 1. in Monrovia. 1998 1.S. A 7. led the invention of flexible solar shingles. California. each less than a micron or thousandth of a millimeter wide. Operated until 1999. 2. long chains of molecular plastic units. The 500-kilowatt system was the first “distributed power” effort. 80.000 super-efficient solar cells. 2.1988 Dr. It also fostered commercial interest in power towers. the Icare. Lumeloid uses a similar approach but substitutes cheaper. 1996 1. The U. 2. film-like sheets of plastic for the glass panels and covers the plastic with conductive polymers. with a total area of 21 m2. the tallest skyscraper built in the 1990s in New York City.000 feet. 1992 1. along with an industry consortium.9% efficient thin-film photovoltaic cell made of cadmium telluride. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory develops a solar cell—made from gallium indium phosphide and gallium arsenide—that becomes the first one to exceed 30% conversion efficiency. breaking the 15% barrier for the first time for this technology. Alvin Marks receives patents for two solar power technologies he developed: Lepcon and Lumeloid. a noted scientist for his pioneering work in amorphous silicon. flew over Germany. Solar Two demonstrated how solar energy can be stored efficiently and economically so that power can be produced even when the sun isn’t shining. solar-powered aircraft. 1993 1993 Pacific Gas & Electric completes installation of the first grid-supported photovoltaic system in Kerman. “Pathfinder” sets an altitude record. 1999 1. 1999 Construction was completed on 4 Times Square. on its 39th consecutive flight on August 6. a roofing material and state-of-the-art technology for converting sunlight to electricity. This altitude is higher than any prop-driven aircraft thus far. California.5-kilowatt prototype dish system using an advanced stretched-membrane concentrator becomes operational. It incorporates more energy-efficient building techniques than any other commercial skyscraper and also includes building-integrated photovoltaic 32 . begins operating Solar Two—an upgrade of its Solar One concentrating solar powertower project. The wings and tail surfaces of the Icare are covered by 3. Department of Energy. The remote-controlled.
com/ “Million Solar Roofs” program. Two new thin-film solar modules. 33 .800 solar cells. Home Depot begins selling residential solar power systems in three of its stores in San Diego. Inverters convert the direct current (DC) electrical output from solar systems into alternating current (AC).millionsolarroofs. Spectrolab. break previous performance records. which is the standard current for household wiring and for the power lines that supply electricity to homes. The measurement of 18. astronauts begin installing solar panels on what will be the largest solar power array deployed in space. The cell performed most efficiently when it received sunlight concentrated to 50 times normal. To use such cells in practical applications. Sandia National Laboratories develops a new inverter for solar electric systems that will increase the safety of the systems during a power outage. 2000 1.4 Timeline solar technology in the 2000s. Cumulative worldwide installed photovoltaic capacity reaches 1000 megawatts. at the world’s largest photovoltaic manufacturing plant with an estimated capacity of producing enough solar panels each year to generate 100 megawatts of power. and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory develop a photovoltaic solar cell that converts 32. 2001 1.6% conversion efficiency and a power output of 91.square-foot home and family of eight.5 watts — the highest power output for any thin-film module in the world.8 percent efficiency for the prototype solar cell topped the previous record by more than 1 percent.(BIPV) panels on the 37th through 43rd floors on the southand west-facing facades that produce a portion of the buildings power. At the International Space Station. the cell is mounted in a device that uses lenses or mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto the cell. 4. The system provides most of the electricity for the 6.000.9-squaremeter module achieved 10. 3. installs a 12-kilowatt solar electric system on its home— the largest residential installation in the United States to be registered with the U. developed by BP Solarex. 5.3 percent of the sunlight that hits it into electricity.S. 4. Department of Energy’s http://www.8 % conversion efficiency—the highest in the world for thin-film modules of its kind. A family in Morrison. 2. Such “concentrator” systems are mounted on tracking systems that keep them pointed toward the sun. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory of US achieves a new efficiency record for thin-film photovoltaic solar cells. First Solar begins production in Perrysburg. The high conversion efficiency was achieved by combining three layers of photovoltaic materials into a single solar cell. Ohio. And its 0.5-square-meter module achieves 10. 3. Each “wing” of the array consists of 32. Colorado. 3. 2. The company’s 0. California. A year later it expands sales to include 61 stores nationwide. Inc.
5. 34 . Union Pacific Railroad installs 350 blue-signal rail yard lanterns.18 megawatt system—at the Santa Rita Jail in Dublin. The technology is not new. The largest solar power facility in the Northwest—the 38.2. The canopy is built using translucent photovoltaic modules made of thin films of silicon deposited onto glass.863 feet. rail yard—the largest rail yard in the United States.S. at its North Platt. A satellite carrying large solar panels would use a laser to transmit the power to an airship at an altitude of about 12 miles. It was championed by Texas Instruments (TI) in the early 1990s. The gridconnected system is unusual in that its solar energy capacity—175 kilowatts— is actually larger than its wind energy capacity of 50 kilowatts. Such hybrid power systems combine the strengths of both energy systems to maximize the available power. in September. California. a test demonstrated its use as an aerial imaging system for coffee growers. announces plans to develop a satellite-based solar power system that would beam energy back to Earth. But despite U. The National Space Development Agency of Japan. researchers demonstrated the aircraft’s use as a high-altitude platform for telecommunications technologies. remote-controlled aircraft called Pathfinder Plus. Then.7-kilowatt White Bluffs Solar Station—goes online in Richland. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. The Indianapolis station is the first U. a model that BP intends to use for all new or significantly revamped BP service stations. 6. Nebraska. This capability allows the modules to be integrated into buildings as skylights. 4. TI dropped the initiative. which incorporate energy saving light-emitting diode (LED) technology with solar cells. “BP Connect” store. TerraSun LLC develops a unique method of using holographic films to concentrate sunlight onto a solar cell. 2002 1. The technology—based on tiny silicon beads bonded between two sheets of aluminum foil—promises lower costs due to its greatly reduced use of silicon relative to conventional multicrystalline silicon solar cells. NASA successfully conducts two tests of a solar-powered. PowerLight Corporation places online in Hawaii the world’s largest hybrid system that combines the power from both wind and solar energy. ATS Automation Tooling Systems Inc. Washington. or NASDA. 2003 Powerlight Corporation installs the largest rooftop solar power system in the United States—a 1. 2. TerraSun claims that the use of holographic optics allows more selective use of the sunlight. 3. NASA’s solar-powered aircraft—Helios sets a new world record for non-rocketpowered aircraft: 96. in Canada starts to commercialize an innovative method of producing solar cells. British Petroleum (BP) and BP Solar announce the opening of a service station in Indianapolis that features a solar-electric canopy. which would then transmit the power to Earth. In the first test in July. Concentrating solar cells typically use Fresnel lenses or mirrors to concentrate sunlight. allowing light not needed for power production to pass through the transparent modules. 4. more than 18 miles high. 3. called Spheral Solar technology.S.
and a total capacity of 300 MW is expected to be installed in the same area by 2013. 54 MW). is Europe's first commercial CSP system. and updated in 2009 with the passage of the Green Energy Act. 2009 the proposed FIT was increased to 80¢/kWh for small. global warming concerns. Spain. the largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are the Finsterwalde Solar Park (Germany. 53 MW).7 MW).2: An eSolar project in California and Abengoa’s PS10 project in Seville. and the improving economic position of PV relative to other energy technologies. the Strasskirchen Solar Park (Germany. Since 2006 it has been economical for investors to install photovoltaics for free in return for a long term power purchase agreement. As of November 2010. while drawing power from the grid at an average rate of 6¢/kWh.Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park (Spain.5 Recent developments in Solar technology (2001-2010) Between 1970 and 1983 photovoltaic installations grew rapidly. The 11 MW PS10 power tower in Spain. Figure-3. 80. roof-top systems (≤10 kW). 50% of commercial systems were installed in this manner in 2007 and it is expected that 90% will by 2009. Commercial concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) plants were first developed in the 1980s. introduced in 2006. and 14. 35 . CSP plants such as SEGS project in the United States have a balanced energy cost (LEC) of 12–14 ¢/kWh.6 GW at the end of 2007.e. Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant (Canada. with governments offering incentive programs to make "green" energy a more economically viable option. PV development has accelerated due to supply issues with oil and natural gas. and the Puertollano Photovoltaic Park (Spain. the government) at 42¢/kWh. In March.. allows residential homeowners in Ontario with solar panel installations to sell the energy they produce back to the grid (i. Photovoltaic production growth has averaged 40% per year since 2000 and installed capacity reached 10. The program is designed to help promote the government's green agenda and lower the strain often placed on the energy grid at peak hours.3. Solar installations in recent years have also largely begun to expand into residential areas. Nellis Air Force Base is receiving photoelectric power for about 2. 50 MW).2 ¢/kWh and grid power for 9 ¢/kWh. 80 MW). 60 MW). but falling oil prices in the early 1980s moderated the growth of PV from 1984 to 1996.73 GW in 2008. In Canada the RESOP (Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program). Since 1997. the Lieberose Photovoltaic Park (Germany. completed in late 2005.
A desert area 10 miles by 15 miles could provide 20. The price of photovoltaic power will be competitive with traditional sources of electricity within 10 years. or solar thermal electricity. Concentrating solar power. and novel approaches to solar material and product development. Technology roadmaps for the future outline the research and development path to full competitiveness of concentrating solar power (CSP) with conventional power generation technologies within a decade. Photovoltaic’s research and development will continue intense interest in new materials. and environmentally friendly electricity. cell designs. the building will conserve enough and produce its own energy supply to create a new generation of cost-effective buildings that have zero net annual need for non-renewable energy. producing hydrogen for fuel cells for transportation and buildings. while the electricity needs of the entire United States could theoretically be met by a photovoltaic array within an area 100 miles on a side. The potential of solar power in the Southwest United States is comparable in scale to the hydropower resource of the Northwest. domestically secure. It is a future where the clothes you wear and your mode of transportation can produce power that is clean and safe. Solar electricity will be used to electrolyze water. In effect. could harness the sun’s heat energy to provide large-scale.000 megawatts of power.6 Expected future direction of solar technology All buildings will be built to combine energy-efficient design and construction practices and renewable energy technologies for a net-zero energy building. 36 .3.
But the helium atom contains less mass than the four hydrogen atoms that fused.000 miles per second. which. the land. Only a small portion of the energy radiated by the sun into space strikes the earth. produces rainfall. and then just a little over eight minutes to travel the 93 million miles to earth. or sends out. The hydrogen atoms in the sun’s core combine to form helium and generate energy in a process called nuclear fusion. The rest could be used to supply our energy needs. lifted into the atmosphere. Yet this amount of energy is enormous. Another 30 percent is used to evaporate water. Four hydrogen nuclei fuse to become one helium atom. an enormous amount of energy. The solar energy travels to the earth at a speed of 186. The sun radiates more energy in one second than people have used since the beginning of time! Where does the energy come from that constantly radiates from the sun? It comes from within the sun itself.04 Solar Energy 4. Like other stars. the sun is a big ball of gases—mostly hydrogen and helium atoms.1 What Is Solar Energy? Solar energy is radiant energy that is produced by the sun. the sun’s extremely high pressure and temperature cause hydrogen atoms to come apart and their nuclei (the central cores of the atoms) to fuse or combine. During nuclear fusion. Solar energy also is absorbed by plants. Every day enough energy strikes the United States to supply the nation’s energy needs for one and a half years! Where does all this energy go? About 15 percent of the sun’s energy that hits the earth is reflected back into space. and the oceans. 37 . one part in two billion. Every day the sun radiates. The lost matter is emitted into space as radiant energy It takes millions of years for the energy in the sun’s core to make its way to the solar surface. the speed of light. Some matter is lost during nuclear fusion.
but it is accepted that when it is gone the party is over. especially in areas such as the Mediterranean and Australia where there is high solar insulation (the total energy per unit area received from the sun). As world oil prices vary.000 watts of energy every second and the belief is that it will last for another 5 billion years. Other technologies exist which take advantage of the free energy provided by the sun. such as space heating or cooling.000. domestic water heaters are usually only found amongst wealthier sections of the community in developing countries. The United States reached peak oil production in 1970. Hundreds of thousands of domestic hot water systems are in use throughout the world. It is a technology.000. is the most reliable and abundant source of energy. Most of the energy we use has undergone various transformations before it is finally utilized. Presently. which passively absorb the energy of the sun and have no moving components. There are many applications for the direct use of solar thermal energy. The most common use for solar thermal technology is for domestic water heating. space heating and cooling.1: Direct and diffuse solar radiations 38 . which is well understood and widely used in many countries throughout the world.2 The Sun is Our Source Our sun produces 400. The sun. water heating. whereas other technologies. Figure-4. are referred to as passive solar technologies. crop drying and solar cooking.000.000. but it is also possible to tap this source of solar energy as it arrives on the earth’s surface.4. it is a technology. We will look at these briefly later in this fact sheet.000.000. which is rapidly gaining acceptance as an energy saving measure in both domestic and commercial water heating applications.000. Water heating technologies are usually referred to as active solar technologies. More sophisticated solar technologies exist for providing power for electricity generation. however. Most Solar thermal technologies have been in existence in one form or another for centuries and have a well established manufacturing base in most sun-rich developed countries. and there is no telling when global oil production will peak.
Sun is a sphere of intensely hot gaseous matter with a diameter of 1. Out of these X-rays.39e9 m and 1.Sun is the source of many forms of energy available to us. This energy is typically converted into usual energy form through natural and man-made processes. This radiation when received on the earth has a typical value of 1100 Wm– 2 and is variable. and therefore. If this sounds like a lot. This form of heat transport depends greatly upon the surface temperature of an object for the amount and type of energy. is critically dependent upon this surface temperature. But heat energy and light energy are the main radiations that reach the earth. gamma rays and most of ultraviolet rays do not pass through the earth’s atmosphere. to the Sun’s surface.5 micro meters. coupled with gravitational compression. This energy is emitted as radiations of different forms in the electromagnetic spectrum. Heat from the core is first primarily radiated.e. This means that the amount of energy that is emitted by the Sun. Natural processes include wind and biomass. The wavelength range is 0. 4. as the Sun has enough hydrogen in the core to continue at this rate for another 5 billion years.29 to 2. This hydrogen at high temperature. There is no need to fear. The sun is a continuous fusion reactor in which hydrogen (4 protons) combines to form helium (one He nucleus). it is more than enough to plunge us into brutal ice age or hellish global warming. In the inner 25% of the Sun. While this might not sound like a lot. The energy received from the sun on a unit area perpendicular to the direction of propagation of radiation outside atmosphere is called solar constant. it is because it is: this is equivalent to the amount of mass that can be carried by 10 million railroad cars. that we are going to run out of fuel anytime soon. the primary method of energy transport is electromagnetic radiation. high pressure and high density undergoes nuclear fusion and hence releases an enormous amount of energy. This energy is the basis for the existence of life on earth. hydrogen is fusing into helium at a rate of about 7 x 10 kg of hydrogen every second. Stefan-Boltzmann’s Law tells us that the amount of energy that is radiated per unit area of surface depends upon the temperature of the object to the fourth power. the amount of solar energy that we receive here on Earth. i. This energy production. mass having been lost in the reaction and converted to energy. where it maintains at a temperature of 5800 K 3 . and then primarily convected.5e11 m away from earth. A change of 1% in the temperature of the Sun (58 K) can result in a change of 4% in the amount of energy per unit area that we receive here. energy/area is proportional to T . o 11 From the surface of the Sun. solar energy is actually nuclear energy.3 Solar Energy Basics At its core. and has a value 1353 Wm– 2. It is in a plasma state. though. which is about 29 million F. The most abundant element in sun is hydrogen. Man-made processes include conversion into heat and electricity. 4 39 . The mass of the He nucleus is less than that of the four protons. keeps the Sun’s center near a sweltering 16 million K. Sun has an effective black body temperature of 5762 K and has a temperature of 8e6 K to 40e6 K.
Wien’s Law states that the wavelength at which the most energy will be radiated depends inversely upon the temperature of an object. the energy density of the radiation is lessened by spreading and absorption. How these objects will appear to the human eye is determined by just how much energy is in each of the visible wavelengths. Between the Sun’s and the Earth’s surfaces. The first object will appear a very dim red. While the total amount of energy of the radiation will remain the same. It radiates 1.2: Brightness vs. the energy density per unit time of the sunlight reaching the upper atmosphere of the Earth is only 1340 W/m . though. which is in the near infrared. Since the Sun is almost 150 million kilometers from the Earth. However. An object that has a temperature of 4000 K has its peak energy being radiated at about 750 nanometers. the amount of energy crossing any square meter of space will be reduced by the square of the distance between the object and the area in question. The Sun is emitting electromagnetic radiation in wide variety of wavelengths. 40 2 7 . its output is fairly close to that described above. this value is vastly reduced. most of the radiation is being sent out in the visible spectrum due to its surface temperature. wavelength for various temperatures While our Sun is not a perfect blackbody radiator. However. while the second (which is close to our Sun’s temperature of 5800 K) will appear a bright white that has a hint of yellow.6 x 10 watts of power per square meter from its surface at all wavelengths. by the time that it has reached the Earth’s surface. Thus. and vice-versa. Figure-4. An object that has a surface temperature of 6000 K. which is in the green region of the visible spectrum.The type of radiation coming from the Sun also depends on temperature. Light travelling from a spherical object such as the Sun must spread to fill all available space. Figure 2 shows a theoretical plot of the energy emitted by three perfect blackbody radiators of different temperature. has its peak energy being radiated at about 500 nanometers. the peak radiation will come from shorter wavelengths. as an object gets hotter.
Chemical species such as ozone.5 with respect to the vertical to the plane of its orbit around the Sun. as does the noonday angle of the Sun. The amount of time that sunlight is shining during the day depends both on the location and the time of year. which means different amounts of daylight.1 Latitude and Longitude These are not the only factors that affect the total amount of energy that a solar system receives.Travelling through the almost perfect vacuum of space. Figure 3 shows a plot of the percentage of the Sun’s energy that gets transmitted through the atmosphere versus wavelength on a cloudless day. Most of the absorption of the Sun’s light occurs after it enters the Earth’s atmosphere. the length of the path that the Sun follows on these four different days varies. outside of the visible and radio parts of the spectrum. Figure-4. Figure 4 shows a diagram of a typical situation found in Pakistan. If sunlight is striking a spot for more time during a day. As you can see. and vice versa.3: Sunlight transmitted through the atmosphere versus wavelength 4. As you can see. there are only a few small sections in the infrared through which the energy gets transmitted. Large portions of the non-visible part of the spectrum do not get through the atmosphere. This is due to the fact that the Earth is a sphere that is spinning with its axis at an angle of 23. These different lengths correspond to different travel times. then more total energy will be delivered. One factor that seriously impacts it is the number of hours of sunlight a location receives in a day. What little doesn’t get through is due to scattering by nitrogen and oxygen (blue appearance of the sky is due to this) and by absorption and reflection from clouds. and carbon dioxide all absorb wavelengths of light in the infrared and ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This means that the path that the Sun will take in the sky on a given day changes. On average.3. there is almost nothing to absorb or reflect any of this energy. o 41 . The vast majority of the visible part of the spectrum gets through the atmosphere with little attenuation. water vapor. only about 50% of the Sun’s energy that makes it to the top of the atmosphere actually gets down to the surface. though.
technology.4. air. salts. 42 . the angle of the Sun’s rays changes throughout the year. 22 ) and 14-16 hours of sunlight on the Summer Solstice (Jun. Photovoltaic It is important to understand that solar thermal technology is not the same as solar panel. If it cannot do this. followed by 6 months of darkness.4: Diagram of the Sun’s path in the sky on different days In Pakistan. which turns a generator to make electricity. etc. st nd 4.4 Solar Thermal vs. depending upon at what degree of latitude you live. At the Poles. Different working fluids include water. there are about 8-10 hours of sunlight on the Winter Solstice (Dec. the situation is even stranger. The working fluid that is heated by the concentrated sunlight can be a liquid or a gas. the length of the path across the sky would not vary. gas turbines. Solar thermal electric energy generation concentrates the light from the sun to create heat. As we see from Figure-4. There. Sites that are further north have shorter days in the winter and longer days in the summer. as well as throughout the day. Different engine types include steam engines. Stirling engines. the Sun is up for 6 months at a time. 21 ). thereby allowing the most energy to strike it. As previously stated. or photovoltaic. A system that can do this can always keep its collecting surface perpendicular to the Sun’s rays. thereby spreading the energy over a greater area and reducing the amount that actually strikes the surface. which results in 12 hours of daylight everyday. etc.Figure-4. these angles will depend upon the location of the system on the Earth’s surface. then sunlight will always strike the system’s collecting surface at some angle. If one were to live at the equator. helium. and that heat is used to run a heat engine. oil. nitrogen. The noonday angle of the Sun in the sky can also have an effect on a solar energy system unless it has a way to track the Sun.
which rotates on a single axis throughout the day tracking the sun. Line focus is less expensive. The issue is. also known as a power tower. and it also can beat the cost of electricity from fossil fuels such as natural gas. The first is line focus collection. technically less difficult. Photovoltaic. The basis for this technology is a parabola-shaped mirror. The second is point focus collection. This means that solar panels are only effective during daylight hours because storing electricity is not a particularly efficient process.All of these engines can be quite efficient. 4. have already beaten the price of photovoltaic and natural gas. It currently beats other PV systems. Heat can be stored during the day and then converted into electricity at night. and are capable of producing 10’s to 100’s of megawatts of power. Heat storage is a far easier and efficient method. and they have plans to beat the price of coal in the near future. or PV energy conversion. or Abengoa.5 Competing with Fossil Fuels Solar thermal power currently leads the way as the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale. directly converts the sun’s light into electricity. There are currently two methods for solar thermal collection. Solar thermal plants that have storage capacities can drastically improve both the economics and the dispatchability of solar electricity. but not as efficient as point focus. The mirrors 43 . In terms of low-cost and high negative environmental impact. Figure-4.5: Parabolic dish that collects and concentrates the sun into a heat source to run the engine and produce power. Brightsource. often between 30% and 40%. on the other hand. nothing competes with coal. which is what makes solar thermal so attractive for large-scale energy production. the leaders in solar thermal technology have an ever-growing market. But major solar thermal industry players such as eSolar. With an increasingly industrializing planet. Point focus technique requires a series of mirrors surrounding a central tower. and will always be. how to make solar thermal technology more economical.
There are three main types of concentrating solar power systems: parabolic-trough. uses the sun as a heat source. High efficiency matters because it drives down both the land usage. The mirrors are tilted toward the sun. Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. and power tower. This heats the oil flowing through the pipe. Figure-4. The point of focus in a line focus mirror array can only reach temperatures around 250° C. and the effective cost per kWhr of the plant. Point focus. though initially costlier and technically more nuanced. The steam from the boiling water rotates a large turbine. focusing sunlight on a pipe that runs down the center of the trough. The water in the tubes then boils and become steam. That is a sufficient temperature to run a steam turbine. 44 . Parabolic-trough systems: Concentrate the sun’s energy through long rectangular. dish/engine. with concentrating solar power systems. the extra effort and cost is balanced out by its greater efficiency capability. solar energy is used to generate electricity. The hot oil then is used to boil water in a conventional steam generator to produce electricity. but when compared to the 500° C and higher temperatures that point focus can reach. which then transfers the heat into more usable energy. a new generation of power plants. However. Sunrays are focused using concave reflectors on to copper tubes filled with water and painted black outside.6: Coal Reservoir 4.focus the sun’s rays onto a point on the tower. which in turn causes the generator to work. which activates a generator that produces electricity. curved (Ushaped) mirrors. outshines line focus when results are concerned.6 Solar Thermal Power plant In the solar power plant. This steam is used to drive steam turbine.
This heats molten salt flowing through the receiver. which absorbs the heat and transfers it to fluid within the engine. Steam. air or liquid metal may be used as working fluid. That means electricity can be produced on cloudy days or even several hours after sunset.A dish/engine system: uses a mirrored dish (similar to a very large satellite dish). the salt’s heat is used to generate electricity through a conventional steam generator. Then. where a receiver sits. Steam is raised for the conventional steam power plant. which in turn drives an electricity producing turbine. A power tower system: uses a large field of mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto the top of a tower. There are also called central Receiver Solar Power Plants. Each mirror is tracked on two axis. 45 . Molten salt retains heat efficiently.7: A central receiver solar power plant A heliostat field consists of a large number of flat mirrors of 25 to 150 m2 area which reflects the beam radiations onto a central receiver mounted on a tower. The heat causes the fluid to expand against a piston or turbine to produce mechanical power.7. The mechanical power is then used to run a generator or alternator to produce electricity. The dish shaped surface collects and concentrates the sun's heat onto a receiver. The concentration ratio (total mirror area divided by receiver area) may be 1500.1 ‘Solar Power Tower’ Power Plant The first is the 'Solar Power Tower' design which uses thousands of sun-tracking reflectors or heliostats to direct and concentrate solar radiation onto a boiler located atop a tower. so it can be stored for days before being converted into electricity. It can be divided into solar plant and conventional steam power plant. 4. The temperature in the boiler rises to 500 – 7000°C and the steam raised can be used to drive a turbine. The absorber surface temperature may be 400 to 1000°C. Figure-4. The flow diagram is given in Figure-4.6.
46 . Thermo-oil is mostly used as heating fluid as it has very high boiling point. The concentration ratio is between 40 and 100. The working fluid is heated in collectors and collected in hot storage tank (2).2 ‘Distributed (Parabolic) Collector System’ Power Plant The second type is the distributed collector system. It is rotated about one axis by a sun tracking mechanism. The hot air flows through an air turbine to generate power. 4. Such power stations can produce many megawatts (mW) of electricity. Fig. The cooled oil is stored in tank (3) and pumped (4) backto collector (1).6. This system uses a series of specially designed ‘Trough’ collectors which have an absorber tube running along their length. These are commercially under operation. Solar thermal power plants with a generating capacity of 80 MW are functioning in the USA.8 and 4. Figure-4.9. The hot thermo-oil is used in boiler (5) to raise steam for the steam power plant. 4. Large arrays of the collectors are coupled to provide high temperature water for driving a steam turbine.9: Parabolic trough solar power plant Water/steam working fluid can also be used. but are confined to areas where there is ample solar insulation. The tubes have evacuated glass enclosure to reduce the losses. 4.9. Every module consists of a collector as shown in Figs. It is also called solar farm power plant as a number of solar modules consisting of parabolic trough solar collectors are interconnected. The boiler also is providedwith a back-up unit (6) fired with natural gas.6. The hot air flow through or chimney which gives the air a certain velocity due to pressure drop caused by the chimney effect.8: Parabolic Solar collector Figure-4.4. Alternately steam at 550°C can be directly generated in the absorber tube. The maximum oil temperature is limited to400°C as oil degrades above this temperature.3 Solar Chimney Power Plant The air stream is heated by solar radiation absorbed by the ground and covered by a transparent cover. shows a flow diagram of parabolic trough solar power plant.
heating this air can use large amounts of energy. 4. We now use several appliances which work using solar energy. To get salt from sea water. A high temperature catalytic conversion process produces chemical energy (H2 fuel) directly. and water heating that are used for residential buildings. There are eight possible pathways for conversion of solar radiation to useful energy. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be impractical for a home. These technologies include ventilation air preheating. Photosynthesis process produces chemical energy directly from radiation.7 Solar Energy Storage It is well known that human beings have been using solar energy for different uses. A few of these methods are dealt in detail further. In cold climates. A solar ventilation system can preheat the air.Figure-4. To dry firewood. day lighting. Many large buildings need ventilated air to maintain indoor air quality. To dry cereals. The above route through a further electrolysis process gives chemical energy (H2 fuel).10: Chimney solar power plant 4. solar process heating and solar cooling. To dry fish. To dry wet clothes. 2. Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies photovoltaic. Solar thermal electric conversion method converts radiation to steam and to kinetic and electrical energy through a turbine and generator to electrical energy. 47 . 3. Find examples of these uses and add to the list given below. Chemical energy (H2 fuel) is directly produced from solar radiation using the electricity produced by the photovoltaic method. Appliances like solar cooker and solar heater absorb solar radiations and convert it into heat. To dry leather. 6. Solar thermal conversion method converts radiation to heat using solar flat collectors. 1. Photovoltaic conversion of solar radiation gives direct electrical energy. 5. passive heating. from ancient days. Then what about a solar cell? Solar energy is converted into electrical energy and it is directly used or stored in a battery. Solar thermo chemical conversion method converts radiation to heat and produce steam then to kinetic energy using a pump or turbine.
Many technologies exist to assist with diurnal heating needs but seasonal storage is more difficult and costly. A vacuum between the two walls insulates the inner tube. The use of building materials with a high thermal mass (which stores heat). electricity. Heat stored during the wall during the day is radiated into the 48 . black metal panel mounted on a south-facing wall to absorb the sun’s heat.saving both energy and money. and/or one or more large storage tanks. A typical system includes solar collectors that work along with a pump. good insulation and large glazed areas can increase a buildings capacity to capture and store heat from the sun. Features should be included to regulate heat intake to prevent the building from overheating. a heat exchanger. 4. holding in the heat. If buildings are carefully designed to take full advantage of the solar insulation which they receive then much of the heating requirement can be met by solar gain alone. A building should be of sufficient mass to allow heat storage for the required period. Contain features which promote the even distribution of heat throughout the building. double-walled tubes and reflectors to heat the fluid inside the tubes. It may seem impossible to use heat to cool a building. using another chemistry trick called desiccant cooling. to create cool air from solar energy. Parabolic troughs are long. but it makes more sense if you just think of the solar heat as an energy source. This type of system typically uses a transpired collector. One example of a simple passive space heating technology is the Trombe wall. Solar energy can also be used with evaporative coolers (also called “swamp coolers”) to extend their usefulness to more humid climates. For passive solar design to be effective certain guidelines should be followed: 1.8 Space Heating In colder areas of the world (including high altitude areas within the tropics) space heating is often required during the winter months. Your familiar home air conditioner uses an energy source. curved (U-shaped) mirrors tilted to focus sunlight on a tube. An evacuated-tube collector is a shallow box full of many glass. The wall is vented to allow the warm air to enter the room at high level and cool air to enter the cavity between the wall and the glazing. The heated air is then sucked out from the top of the space into the ventilation system. Vast quantities of energy can be used to achieve this. This heats the fluid within the tube. The two main types of solar collectors used an evacuated tube collector and a parabolic trough collector can operate at high temperatures with high efficiency. Air passes through the many small holes in the panel. The bulk of these technologies are architecture based and passive in nature. A building should have large areas of glazing facing the sun to maximize solar gain. The heat from a solar collector can also be used to cool a building. By incorporating certain simple design principles a new dwelling can be made to be fuel efficient and comfortable for habitation. which consists of a thin. rectangular. which runs down the center of the trough. 4. A massive black painted wall has a double glazed skin to prevent captured heat from escaping. A space behind the perforated wall allows the air streams from the holes to mix together. combined with some very complex chemistry tricks. to create cool air. Solar absorption coolers use a similar approach. 2. 3. Solar process heating systems are designed to provide large quantities of hot water or space heating for nonresidential buildings.
With solar thermal technologies being developed and advanced by companies such as eSolar. Not only space. Buildings can be designed for a given climate domed roofs and thermally massive structures in hot arid climates. often using effects promoted by passive solar phenomenon. using vegetation or landscaping to direct wind into the building. In some countries dwellings are constructed underground and take advantage of the relatively low and stable temperature of the surrounding ground. a nation’s pollution will not be windswept into another nation’s territories. There is a demand. By not burning fossil fuels. Ausra and Schott Solar. but more improvements are needed to beat the cost of the lowest-cost fossil fuels in a legislative climate without subsidies or carbon taxes. There are as many options as there are people. Abengoa. These include sitting a building in shade or near water. begs to be used for solar thermal energy production. There are many methods for minimizing heat gain. One silver lining of global climate change and human impact on the land is that more and more farmland is becoming unsuitable for agricultural production. and many new planned plants are in the works. but space that gets a consistent amount of direct sunlight. however. The benefits of eliminating coal from our energy diet are many. the world has a new alternative. humid areas. lie within the tropics and have little need of space heating. Figure-4. Solar thermal is the current solar electricity cost champion. countries can be truly energy independent.room during the night. further cementing the concept of independence.10 Land Requirements Another challenge for solar thermal is the amount of space required for efficient production of energy. Solar thermal power plants typically require 1/4 to 1 square mile or more of land. 4. for space cooling. presumably originally chosen for its sun exposure. good town planning to optimise the prevailing wind and available shade. simple. Solar thermal plants are being built around the world. however. elegant techniques for cooling their dwellings. open structure bamboo housing in warm. Also. carbon emissions. 4. Acciona. The majority of the worlds warm-climate cultures have again developed traditional. shuttered and shaded windows to prevent heat gain. This land. Utilization of desertification can prove to be a boon for solar thermal real estate procurement and growth.9 Space Cooling The majority of the worlds developing countries. and hopefully eliminating. Brightsource. This type of technology is useful in areas where the nights are cold but the days are warm and sunny.11: eSolar’s unique approach to minimize land requirements 49 . by limiting.
As well as projections for installed capacity and energy output we also make assessments of the 50 .1 The solar energy future 5.1.over the first two decades of the twenty-first century.05 Solar Energy and Pakistan Figure-5. In this section we look forward to what solar power could achieve .1: Solar energy and Pakistan 5.given the right market conditions and an anticipated fall in costs .1 Methodology and assumptions If PV is to have a promising future as a major energy source it must build on the experiences of those countries that have already led the way in stimulating the solar energy market.
together with an extended projection forwards to 2040. In Europe alone there would be roughly 41 million people receiving their supply from grid-connected solar electricity. the total number of people by then generating their own electricity from a grid-connected solar system would reach 290 million. 4.2 Power generation The global installed capacity of solar power systems would reach 433 GWp by 2025.level of investment required. more than 1. this means that up to 950 million people in the developing countries would by then be using solar electricity. is based on the following core inputs. the number of jobs that would be created and the crucial effect that an increased input from solar electricity will have on greenhouse gas emissions. 2.6 billion people could get electricity from off grid photovoltaic systems. and their average size is 3 kWp. The potential for PV in terms of solar irradiation. 1. This scenario for 2025. the availability of suitable roof space and the demand for electricity in areas not connected to the grid. PV market development over recent years both globally and in specific regions.1. In the non-industrialized world approximately 40 GWp of solar capacity is expected to have been installed by 2020 in the rural electrification sector. 5. This would represent a major breakthrough for the technology from its present emerging status 51 . mainly in industrialized countries. About two thirds of this would be in the grid-connected market. National and regional market support programmers. Assuming that 80% of these systems are installed on residential buildings. Since system sizes are much smaller and the population density greater. each serving the needs of three people. National targets for PV installations and manufacturing capacity. 3. By 2025. Here the assumption is that on average a 100 Wp stand-alone system will cover the basic electricity needs of 3-4 persons per dwelling.
52 . an estimated 3. Not only how much space is available. Based on information provided by the industry. This could mean that either your house is not positioned favorably in relation to a tree or other house. which is the entire point of going solar in the first place. 5.5. retailing and providing other local services up to 2010. Over half of those would be in the installation and marketing of systems. we need the proper amount of roof space to support the panels your house may require. As far as maintenance is concerned it is assumed that with the more efficient business structures and larger systems in the industrialized world.2 million full-time jobs would have been created by the development of solar power around the world. About 30 jobs per MW will be created during the process of installation. and possibly start saving money on your investment. the good news is that. The result is that by 2025. we will eventually make back what you originally spent. If solarpower is looked at through a long-term lens. but also the location of your home is also relevant to whether or not you can maintain solar energy.3 Employment More jobs are created in the installation and servicing of PV systems than in their manufacture. decreasing to 10 jobs per MW between 2010 and 2020. about one job will be created per installed MW. it has been assumed that. 20 jobs will be created per MW of capacity during manufacture. however. Since developing world markets will play a more significant role beyond 2010. but if those two items do not pose issues for us. 5. The initial cost of installing solar panels or other sources of solar energy is high. the cons of implementing solar power in our home are primarily cost and location related. To achieve the highest level of efficiency. the proportion of maintenance work is assumed to steadily increase up to two jobs per MW by 2020. reducing to 27 jobs per MW between 2010 and 2020.1. up to 2010. it is cost prohibitive. and that is not easy for most people to get around. No matter how much some people would like to get involved in the movement to independent energy.3 Pakistan is most suitable for solar power As we can see. Some houses simply do not receive enough sunlight to produce substantial energy.2 Solar Energy and Pakistan: An Over View As solar power does not make sense for all locations in the world.
is also being more widely produced. April 29-2010 .Let’s not forget that solar energy increases the value of our home too. solar water heaters and solar water pumping etc. the Government of Pakistan has determined to establish 100 MW Solar Power Farm by June 2011. nitrogen oxide. on the other. 53 . It is a free and unlimited source of power. Solar power can also be used in remote locations. “The energy crisis has forced upon a vigorous search for out of box. The Board has recently issued LOIs to 30 national and international companies for generation of 1500 MW power through solar energy. on one hand and to meet the energy requirements of the country. This is great because you can supply your home with electricity during a power outage. renewable and sustainable. Solar power is not subject supply and demand fluctuations in the way that gas is. or semi-independent. involves financing through private sector.” the President said during a briefing given to him on alternate Pakistan on industrial grid linked electricity production program. but certainly not least. places where conventional power can’t be reached. geothermal heat pumps. On a larger scale.4 Pakistan’s indulgence in solar energy ISLAMABAD. land from Government of Sindh and power purchase by NTDC for HESCO. mercury or any other pollutants. therefore. Solar power is independent. This program initiated by the Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB).President Asif Ali Zardari has asked for an early adoption and utilization of modern solar and geothermal technologies including solar cookers. The Government of Pakistan guarantees are backed through NEPRA. unlike expensive and damaging fossil fuels. 5. It does not fill our atmosphere with carbon dioxide. And last. it’s good for our planet! Solar energy is clean. less and less expensive with each passing year. solar power also reduces our need to rely on foreign sources for power. the primary component of solar panels. imaginative and bold solutions. to take full advantage of the available natural energy resources. Silicon.
3. which has been air-conditioned using Solar Energy as well. In addition. as per Government of Pakistan’s Policy for Power Generation 2002. Three companies have submitted applications to NEPRA for obtaining Generation License.5 Solar activity in Pakistan (2x50) MW Solar Power Generation Project at Gharo.. In addition.5. 8 companies with financial and technical viability have been short-listed. Once the initial target of generating 100 MW through Solar Energy is achieved. OEMs/Suppliers like GE. Two Solar Powered Computers have been provided to the village Mosque/Community Center. Islamabad The project was successfully executed and implemented by AEDB. Tariff would be determined by NEPRA in consultation with the IPP and the Power Purchaser i. Distrcit D. Balochistan. AEDB has allocated 1000 acres of land each to five (5) investors. Lakhi Bher. District Kohat. a Solar Geyser and a Solar Cooker have also been provided to each household. A Children’s Playground with Solar Powered Lights has also been developed at the Village. VESTAS and GAMESA have been short-listed for the project.000 MW. District Thar. Sindh Government has leased out approximately 5000 Acres of land for the project. The pre-feasibility study of the site has been done by AEDB. a Solar Water Desalination Plant has also been installed and commissioned at the village ensuring the availability of clean drinking water to the villagers. Sindh: A solar corridor at Gharo-Keti Bandar. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. NTDC has submitted the request for Power Acquisition Permission to NEPRA for procuring power from the proposed solar plants. a 12 Volt DC fan and a TV socket. AEDB drafted the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) and the Implementation Agreement. 100 Solar Homes Program Narian Khorian. 4.e. 4 LED lights. The batteries of this vehicle are charged with Solar Energy. M/s Win Power Ltd. 54 . Private investors have entered the PPA negotiations with NTDC/WAPDA. namely M/s New Park Energy Ltd. 100 Solar Homes Program per Province: The project was executed and implemented in the following villages: 1. Punjab. Allah Baksh Bazar Dandar. and M/s Tenaga. Janak.. an electric vehicle has also been developed which will act as the first ever Electric Rickshaw in Pakistan.. M/s Green Power. NTDC. 2. M/s Zephyr Ltd. District Kech. Bharo Mal. As part of the community welfare. Each of the 100 households has been provided with 88-Watt Solar Panels.G. Khan. Sindh has been identified with an actual potential of 50. HESCO has agreed to purchase the initial 100 MW Solar Power generated through this project. it will be upgraded to 700 MW by the year 2010 and 9700 MW by the year 2030. The Honorable Prime Minister of Pakistan inaugurated it on 19th June 2005. Sindh.
solar distillation stills for producing clean water. Another 40 kW Kaplan type micro hydel turbine has been indigenously manufactured and installed at the Khanpur Dam Canal near the village of Mohra Morado. 600 houses have been electrified in the remote coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan through installation of small solar panel (stand alone) systems. a 12 Volt DC fan and a TV socket. 2. 3000 Laser Detectors were designed and fabricated for incorporating in the laser land leveling system of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). In addition. Hand Generators and Solar Mobile Phone Chargers have been indigenously developed by the private sector with AEDB’s facilitation. 5.Each of the 100 households in each village has been provided with 88-Watt Solar Panels. 3. solar room heating systems and solar cookers have been developed and disseminated for domestic and commercial applications. Electrification through Micro Solar Panel: 1. These products have also been provided to the rural areas that have been electrified with Solar Energy. Solar Lanterns. Innovative Lighting Systems: LED Lights. a Solar Disinfecting Unit and a Solar Cooker have also been provided to each household. Pedal Generators. An R&D lab is being setup for this purpose. Two other villages in Balochistan were electrified using PV system. Taxila. 55 .6 Activities of Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) Photovoltaic (PV) Technology 1. for providing electricity to the rural households. solar fruit and vegetable dryers. Pilot Project for Development and Installation of 02 Micro Hydro Kaplan Pannel: A 40 kW Kaplan type micro hydel Turbine has been imported from China to reverse engineer the technology. 4000 Solar Cells and 300 Solar Modules of different sizes were fabricated indigenously. New Zealand. 4. 4 LED lights. This turbine is being used to provide electricity to the village Pilot Project for Installation of Indigenously Developed Micro Solar Panel: A total of 140 Micro Solar Pannel have been installed at various sites within Sindh and Balochistan. Solar Thermal Appliances A number of appliances including solar water heaters. Solar-Solar-Diesel High hybrid system installed to provide electricity to two villages in Balochistan through M/s Empower International.
7 Pakistan’s Solar Energy Development Plans MEDIUM TERM SOLAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2011-2020 Year Capacity Installed (MW) 700 Cumulative MW of Solar Energy Installed by Year End Short Term Plan (2005-2010) 700 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 100 100 150 200 250 250 300 300 350 300 800 900 1.2. Government of Pakistan 56 . 5.000 Source: Board of Investment. 4. Karachi for desalination of brackish water.700 3.050 2.050 1. 4 Coast Guard Check Posts at Lasbela have been electrified.500 1. 500-Watts Solar Turbine has been manufactured locally. 3. 5.750 2. 5 villages have been provided with battery charging facilities through a solar-powered battery-charging center. Kemari Town.350 2. A reverse osmosis unit is being installed near village Mubarak.250 1. The second (improved) model is under field test.
Udaasi Goth Lukman – Ghorabari.No Name of Village Homes Electrified Khaskheli – 16 04 Pannel Installed 1 Goth Gul Muhammad Thakani. Mirpur Sakro Goth Baboo Pahwar – Thakani. Udaasi 01 (10 kilo Watts) – Water Pumping Source: Board of Investment.C. Udaasi Total 23 06 3 4 5 15 05 18 04 01 05 6 07 02 7 11 03 8 06 02 9 10 11 12 40 250 16 14 356 10 40 04 03 85 13 Daandaari – Ghorabari. Udaasi Goth Sammo – Ghorabari. U. U.C. U. Mirpur Sakro Goth Jamot Hussain Khaskheli – Thakani. Mirpur Sakro 2 Goth Haji Jumo Khaskheli – Thakani.DETAILS OF MICRO SOLAR PANNEL INSTALLED IN SINDH & BALOCHISTAN SINDH .C. Mirpur Sakro Goth Ismail Khaskheli 1 – Thakani Goth Ismail Khaskheli 2 – Thakani Goth Mohd Hasan Khaskheli – Thakani. Mirpur Sakro Goth Sher Muhammad Hamaiti – Gujjo Goth Daandaari – Ghorabari. U. Mirpur Sakro Goth Haji Abdullah Channo – Thakani.District Thatta S. Government of Pakistan 57 .C.
Lasbela Goth Yaaqoob – Kund Malir. Lasbela Totals 4 5 18 08 02 01 6 32 04 111 15 Source: Board of Investment. Government of Pakistan BALOCHISTAN . Government of Pakistan 58 . Khan Chachro Kohat Province No. Lasbela Goth Mir Abdullah – Kund Malir. Lasbela Goth Ramzan – Kund Malir.P.BALOCHISTAN . Lasbela Goth Haji Washi / Daghari – Kund Malir.G. Government of Pakistan VILLAGES ELECTRIFIED THROUGH SOLAR PHTOVOLTAIC DURING 2004-05 Village Name Narian Khorian Allah Baksh Bazar Dandar Lakhi Bhair Bharomal Jhanak District Rawalpindi Rawalpindi Turbat D. of Houses 53 57 121 135 115 120 601 Punjab Punjab Balochistan Punjab Sindh K. Lasbela Goth Haji Sher Muhammad – Kund Malir. District Lasbela S.No Name of Village Homes Electrified 03 15 35 Pannel Installed 01 02 05 1 2 3 Goth Meer Isa – Kund Malir.Kund Malir.C. Warehouse Quetta Panel 39 Current Status To be installed as per the direction and advice of the Irrigation & Power Department Balochistan Source: Board of Investment.Quetta N S.No 7 Name of Recipient Governor Balochistan on behalf of the Government of Balochistan Location F.K Total Source: Board of Investment.
Project Title Roshan Pakistan: National Rural Electrification Programe through Alternative / Renewable Energy Technologies Solar Homes Project in Each Province Development of Supply Chain Mechanism for Pedal Generators. 9. 59 . Khan Chachro Kohat Province Balochistan Punjab Sindh K.G. 3. Hand Generators and LED Lanterns Pilot Project of Production Plant of Bio-Diesel Research on Development of 1 kW Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle in Pakistan using Existing Fuel Cell Solar Water Pumping & Desalination Solar Thermal Power Plant Technologies (Demonstration Units) Electrification of Villages through Micro Solar Pannel Pilot project for Development and Installation of 02 Micro Hydro Kaplan Pannel Pilot project for Emerging Demonstration in Pakistan Alternative Energy Technologies 2.VILLAGES TO BE ELECTRIFIED THROUGH SOLAR PHTOVOLTAIC DURING 2005-06 Village name Khirzaan Basti Bugha Pinpario Shnow Garri District Khuzdar D. of Houses 100 100 100 100 400 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FOR 2005-06 No. 7. 1.P. 10. 4.K Total No. 8. 5. 6.
8 Conclusion Reports are a helpful channel. 60 . investors and other interested parties to support solar power. global citizens. By taking the crucial steps to help ensure that more than a billion people obtain electricity from the sun in the future we can harness the full potential of solar power for our common good.5. We encourage politicians and policymakers. but it is people’s behavior that really changes things. Solar energy is very useful. companies. energy officials. particularly in a time when we are concerned about greenhouse gas emissions from other energy sources.