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Power System Reliability
Solar Energy Technology
Sir. Prof: M. Zahir Khan
1. 2. 3. 4. Engr. Muhammad Zafran Engr. Atiq Ur Rehman Engr. Muhammad Bashir Engr. Naveed Khan
Department of Electrical Engineering University of Engineering & Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
1 The Sun……………………………………………………………….1
History of Sun..............................................................................................1 Development of Scientific understandings………………………………...3 Observation and effects…………………………………………………….5 Characteristics……………………………………………………………...6 Internal structure of the Sun………………………………………………..8 1.5.1 Core………………………………………………………………8 1.5.2 Radiative zone……………………………………………………10 1.5.3 Convective zone………………………………………………….11 1.5.4 Photosphere………………………………………………………11 1.5.5 Atmosphere………………………………………………………12 2 What is Solar Cell?………………………………………………………….15 2.1 History of Solar cells ……………………………………………………...16 2.2 Applications………………………………………………………………..16 2.4 Theory…………………………………………….………………............. 17 2.5 Efficiency…………………………………………………………..............17 2.6 Cost………………………………………………………………………...18 2.7 Materials for Solar cel……………………………………………..............19 2.7.1 Crystalline silicon………………………………………………..19 2.7.2 Thin films………………………………………………………...20 2.7.3 Cadmium telluride solar cells…………………………………...20 2.7.4 Copper indium selenide…………………………………………21 2.7.5 Gallium arsenide multi junction………………………………...21 2.7.6 Light absorbing dyes……………………………………………22 2.8 Manufacturing techniques………………………………………………...22 2.9 Life span…………………………………………………………………..23 2.10 Manufacturers and certification…………………………………………..23 2.10.1 China……………………………………………………………24 2.10.2 United States……………………………………………………24 3 The History of Solar Energy……………………………………………....25 3.1 Timeline from 7th Century B.C.to 1200 A.D.………………………….....25 3.2 Timeline from 1767 to 1891……………………………………………...26 3.3 Timeline of solar technology in 1900s…………………………………...27 3.4 Timeline of solar technology in 2000s…………………………………...33 3.5 Recent developments in Solar technology………………………………..35 3.6 Expected future direction of solar technology……………………………36 4 Solar Energy………………………………………………………………..37 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
4.1 What is Solar Energy?………………………………………………….....37 4.2 The Sun is our source……………………………………………………..38 4.3 Solar energy basics………………………………………………………..39 4.3.1 Latitude and longitude…………………………………………...41 4.4 Solar thermal Vs Photovoltaic…………………………………………....42 4.5 Competing with fossil fuels………………………………………………43 4.6 Solar thermal power plant………………………………………………...44 4.6.1 ‘Solar power tower’ power plant…………………………………45 4.6.2 ‘Distributed collector system’ power plant……………………...46 4.6.3 ‘Solar chimney’ power plant…………………………………….46 4.7 Solar energy storage………………………………………………………47 4.8 Space heating……………………………………………………………...48 4.9 Space cooling……………………………………………………………...49 4.10 Land requirements…………………………………………………………49 5 Solar energy and Pakistan…………………………………………………..50 5.1 The Solar energy future……………………………………………………50 5.1.1 Methodology and assumptions…………………………………...50 5.1.2 Power generation…………………………………………………51 5.1.3 Employment……………………………………………………...52 5.2 Solar energy and Pakistan: An overview…………………………………..52 5.3 Pakistan is most suitable for solar power…………………………………..52 5.4 Pakistan’s indulgence in solar power………………………………………53 5.5 Solar activity in Pakistan…………………………………………………...54 5.6 Activities of PCRET………………………………………………………..55 5.7 Pakistan’s Solar energy development plans………………………………...56 5.8 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..60
44 Figure-4....40 Figure-4.45 Figure-4.2: Brightness Vs Wavelength for various temperatures………………….1: Direct and diffuse solar radiations……………………………………........50 .43 Figure-4.....……….3: Sun as it appear from the surface of earth……...........7: A central receiver solar power plant………………………………….....1: Solar cell made from mono crystalline silicon wafer…………………...35 Figure-4...…………………......1 Figure-1.....………………………………………....6: Solar atmosphere……………………………………………………….........4: Basic structure of silicon based solar cell and its working mech……….15 Figure-2...42 Figure-4.........10: Chimney solar power plant…………………………………………….....17 Figure-2..3: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells………………………………………...11: eSolar unique approach to minimize land requirements……………….46 Figure-4..1: Our galaxy system………………..5 Figure-1....5: Cross section of a solar type star…………………………………………9 Figure-1....LIST OF FIGURES Figure-1.......6: Coal reservoir………………………………………………………….....12 Figure-1.19 Figure-3....38 Figure-4..8: Parabolic solar collector……………………………………………….7: Nature of plasma……………………………………………………….46 Figure-4....4: Diagram of the Sun’s path in the sky on different ways……………….2: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells laminate……………………………..41 Figure-4...49 Figure-5...47 Figure-4...8 Figure-1..…………………….16 Figure-2.1: Solar energy and Pakistan………………………………………………..............9: Parabolic trough solar power plant……………………………………........2: Cooler stars………………..3: Sunlight transmitted through atmosphere Vs wavelength……………..2: An eSolar project in California and spain……………………………….....5: Parabolic dish…………………………………………………………......13 Figure-2..1: Mesa Verde Cliff dwelling………………………………………………25 Figure-3....4: Sun’s internal structure.2 Figure-1......
and it lives 8 kilo parsecs (2. eventually. Particles within the cloud's center (core) became so densely packed that they often collided and stuck (fused) together. did not use all of its gas and dust to 1 . a small cloud of gas and dust began to compress under its own weight. the Sun. in a distant spiral arm of our galaxy. and our sun is a medium sized star known as a yellow dwarf.01 THE SUN 1.5 billion miles) from the center of the galaxy. Figure-1. fortunately for us. The fusion process released tremendous amounts of heat and light which could then combat the compressing force of gravity. the two forces reached equilibrium. The cloud from which it formed. called the Milky Way.1: Our galaxy system Our Sun is one of at least four hundred billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy. and this story is about the birth and life of the closest star to Earth. All stars in our galaxy and other galaxies come in different sizes and colors. The balance of fusion reactions versus gravitational collapse which occurred in this little cloud is fondly referred to as a star.1 History of Sun Less than 5 billion years ago.
The energy being pumped out of the core radiates through the outer layers of the sun called the envelope.2: Cooler Stars When the envelope expands too far away from the Sun's core. Then gravity begins to compress the Sun under its own weight again. and the core stops fusing. less than one percent of the original material. the Sun will be called a red giant. Once all of the hydrogen is turned into helium. the Sun's envelope will expand to engulf all of the inner solar system out to Mars. at this stage of its life. however. and it is expected to continue to do so for another 3 to 4 billion years more. cooler stars are redder than hotter. The introduction of more compression causes the new helium particles inside of the core to collide hard enough so that they can stick together and fuse. A drop in temperature in a star can be seen in the change in the color of a star. as the particles become so spread out that they no longer are colliding enough to create tremendous heat. formed the 9 planets. Thus. however. The making of carbon.5 billion years. it will fuse more and more hydrogen in its core. gravity does not work as hard to crush the remaining core. The temperature will drop in the envelope as well. and so the core is very hot. that which was left over. the star stops fusing hydrogen and loses its ability to combat gravity. but tiny about the size of the Earth. The particles of carbon in the core are still very densely packed. bluer stars. The Sun has been fusing hydrogen into helium and hence providing us with its radiant energy for 4. gives off more energy than did the making of helium. Figure-1. 2 . At this point in its life. This leftover hot and tiny core will be called a white dwarf. when this material floats off.make the Sun. And then what? As the sun gets older. The introduction of too much energy into the envelope heats up the envelope particles so much that the envelope expands (for the same reasons that steam rises). the envelope will begin to float off of the core and into space. This floated-off envelope material is known as a planetary nebula. The core thus begins to fuse helium into carbon to make enough energy to maintain its balance with the crushing force of gravity. Since the bulk of the Sun is envelope material.
the Sun maintains itself as a yellow dwarf star. Eratosthenes estimated the distance between the Earth and the Sun in the 3rd century BCE as "of stadia myriads 400 and 80000". though they were unaware of why this was.210 times the Earth radius.080.2 Development of scientific understanding In the early first millennium B. and later adopted by Seleucus of Seleucia. Galileo Galilei and other astronomers.But for now. Ptolemy estimated the distance as 1. Sunspots were also observed since the Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) by Chinese astronomers who maintained records of these observations for centuries. he was imprisoned by the authorities and sentenced to death. In the early 17th century. Galileo made some of the first known telescopic observations of sunspots and posited that they were on the surface of the Sun rather than small objects passing between the Earth and the Sun. and Ibn Yunus observing more than 10.000 stadia (755..000 stadia (148 to 153 million kilometers). The theory that the Sun is the center around which the planets move was first proposed by the ancient Greek Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BCE. Averroes also provided a description of sunspots in the 12th century. the invention of the telescope permitted detailed observations of sunspots by Thomas Harriot. and that the Moon reflected the light of the Sun. yet is one of hundreds of billions of stars in our enormous galaxy. One of the first people to offer a scientific or philosophical explanation for the Sun was the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras. The transit of Venus was first observed in 1032 by Avicenna. though he was later released through the intervention of Pericles. In the 1st century CE.000 km) or 804. Arabic astronomical contributions include Albatenius discovering that the direction of the Sun's eccentric is changing. It is the largest object in the solar system. it is today known that this is due to the Earth moving in an elliptic orbit around the Sun. the latter value is correct to within a few percent. implying either 4. giving off radiation in all wavelengths of light including light we can and cannot see. the translation of which is ambiguous.C. who concluded that Venus is closer to the Earth than the 3 . This largely philosophical view was developed into fully predictive mathematical model of a heliocentric system in the 16th century by Nicolaus Copernicus. with the Earth moving faster when it is nearer to the Sun at perihelion and moving slower when it is farther away at aphelion. Babylonian astronomers observed that the Sun's motion along the ecliptic was not uniform.000. who reasoned that it was a giant flaming ball of metal even larger than the Peloponnesus rather than the chariot of Helios. For teaching this heresy.E. 1.000 entries for the Sun's position for many years using a large astrolabe.
Sun, while one of the first observations of the transit of Mercury was conducted by Ibn Bajjah in the 12th century. In 1672 Giovanni Cassini and Jean Richer determined the distance to Mars and were thereby able to calculate the distance to the Sun. Isaac Newton observed the Sun's light using a prism, and showed that it was made up of light of many colors, while in 1800 William Herschel discovered infrared radiation beyond the red part of the solar spectrum. The 1800s saw spectroscopic studies of the Sun advance, and Joseph von Fraunhofer made the first observations of absorption lines in the spectrum, the strongest of which are still often referred to as Fraunhofer lines. When expanding the spectrum of light from the Sun, a large number of missing colors can be found. In the early years of the modern scientific era, the source of the Sun's energy was a significant puzzle. Lord Kelvin suggested that the Sun was a gradually cooling liquid body that was radiating an internal store of heat. Kelvin and Hermann von Helmholtz then proposed a gravitational contraction mechanism to explain the energy output. Unfortunately the resulting age estimate was only 20 million years, well short of the time span of at least 300 million years suggested by some geological discoveries of that time. In 1890 Joseph Lockyer, who discovered helium in the solar spectrum, proposed a meteoritic hypothesis for the formation and evolution of the Sun. Not until 1904 was a documented solution offered. Ernest Rutherford suggested that the Sun's output could be maintained by an internal source of heat, and suggested radioactive decay as the source. However, it would be Albert Einstein who would provide the essential clue to the source of the Sun's energy output with his mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. In 1920, Sir Arthur Eddington proposed that the pressures and temperatures at the core of the Sun could produce a nuclear fusion reaction that merged hydrogen (protons) into helium nuclei, resulting in a production of energy from the net change in mass. The preponderance of hydrogen in the Sun was confirmed in 1925 by Cecilia Payne. The theoretical concept of fusion was developed in the 1930s by the astrophysicists Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Hans Bethe. Hans Bethe calculated the details of the two main energy-producing nuclear reactions that power the Sun. Finally, a seminal paper was published in 1957 by Margaret Burbidge, entitled "Synthesis of the Elements in Stars". The paper demonstrated convincingly that most of the elements in the universe had been synthesized by nuclear reactions inside stars, some like our Sun.
1.3 Observation and effects
Sunlight is very bright, and looking directly at the Sun with the naked eye for brief periods can be painful, but is not particularly hazardous for normal, non-dilated eyes. Looking directly at the Sun causes phosphene visual artifacts and temporary partial blindness. It also delivers about 4 mill watts of sunlight to the retina, slightly heating it and potentially causing damage in eyes that cannot respond properly to the brightness. UV exposure gradually yellows the lens of the eye over a period of years and is thought to contribute to the formation of cataracts, but this depends on general exposure to solar UV, not on whether one looks directly at the Sun. Long-duration viewing of the direct Sun with the naked eye can begin to cause UV-induced, sunburn-like lesions on the retina after about 100 seconds, particularly under conditions where the UV light from the Sun is intense and well focused; conditions are worsened by young eyes or new lens implants (which admit more UV than aging natural eyes), Sun angles near the zenith, and observing locations at high altitude.
Figure-1.3: The Sun as it appears from the surface of Earth
Viewing the Sun through light-concentrating optics such as binoculars is very hazardous without an appropriate filter that blocks UV and substantially dims the sunlight. An attenuating (ND) filter might not filter UV and so is still dangerous. Attenuating filters to view the Sun should be specifically designed for that use: some improvised filters pass UV or IR rays that can harm the eye at high brightness levels. Unfiltered binoculars can deliver over 500 times as much energy to the retina as using the naked eye, killing retinal cells almost instantly (even though the power per unit area of image on the retina is the same, the heat cannot dissipate fast enough because the image is larger). Even brief glances at the midday Sun through unfiltered binoculars can cause permanent blindness. Partial solar eclipses are hazardous to view because the eye's pupil is not adapted to the unusually high visual contrast: the pupil dilates according to the total amount of light in the field of view, not by the brightest object in the field. During partial eclipses most
sunlight is blocked by the Moon passing in front of the Sun, but the uncovered parts of the photosphere have the same surface brightness as during a normal day. In the overall gloom, the pupil expands from ~2 mm to ~6 mm, and each retinal cell exposed to the solar image receives about ten times more light than it would looking at the non-eclipsed Sun. This can damage or kill those cells, resulting in small permanent blind spots for the viewer. The hazard is insidious for inexperienced observers and for children, because there is no perception of pain: it is not immediately obvious that one's vision is being destroyed. During sunrise and sunset sunlight is attenuated due to Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering from a particularly long passage through Earth's atmosphere, and the Sun is sometimes faint enough to be viewed comfortably with the naked eye or safely with optics (provided there is no risk of bright sunlight suddenly appearing through a break between clouds). Hazy conditions, atmospheric dust, and high humidity contribute to this atmospheric attenuation. A rare optical phenomenon may occur shortly after sunset or before sunrise, known as a green flash. The flash is caused by light from the Sun just below the horizon being bent (usually through a temperature inversion) towards the observer. Light of shorter wavelengths (violet, blue, green) is bent more than that of longer wavelengths (yellow, orange, red) but the violet and blue light is scattered more, leaving light that is perceived as green. Ultraviolet light from the Sun has antiseptic properties and can be used to sanitize tools and water. It also causes sunburn, and has other medical effects such as the production of vitamin D. Ultraviolet light is strongly attenuated by Earth's ozone layer, so that the amount of UV varies greatly with latitude and has been partially responsible for many biological adaptations, including variations in human skin color in different regions of the globe.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It has a diameter of about 1,392,000 km, about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass (about 2×1030 kilograms, 330,000 times that of Earth) accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium. Less than 2% consists of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, iron, and others.
000 light years from the galactic center. At this average distance. is G2V.000–26. from the surface of the Earth it may appear yellow because of atmospheric scattering of blue light. G2 indicates its surface temperature of approximately 5778 K (5505 °C). and V indicates that the Sun. is the largest continuous structure in the Solar System. The Sun is currently traveling through the Local Interstellar Cloud in the Local Bubble zone. based on spectral class. there are a number of present-day anomalies in the Sun's behavior that remain unexplained.6 million kilometers (1 AU).2 light years away). In the spectral class label. though the distance varies as the Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July. the Sun is now thought to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy. as the star closest to Earth. the Sun ranks 4th in mass. completing one clockwise orbit. however. 7 . The bubble in the interstellar medium formed by the solar wind. The enormous effect of the Sun on the Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times. and the Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity. Since our galaxy is moving with respect to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) in the direction of constellation Hydra with a speed of 550 km/s. The mean distance of the Sun from the Earth is approximately 149. like most stars.The Sun's stellar classification.83. The energy of this sunlight supports almost all life on Earth by photosynthesis. because its visible radiation is most intense in the yellowgreen portion of the spectrum and although its color is white. The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way at a distance of approximately 24. An accurate scientific understanding of the Sun developed slowly. the sun's resultant velocity with respect to the CMB is about 370 km/s in the direction of Crater or Leo. most of which are red dwarfs. within the inner rim of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy. is a main sequence star. Once regarded by astronomers as a small and relatively insignificant star.74. In its core. The absolute magnitude of the Sun is +4. and is informally designated as a yellow dwarf. as viewed from the galactic north pole. The Sun's hot corona continuously expands in space creating the solar wind. and drives Earth's climate and weather. the Sun fuses 620 million metric tons of hydrogen each second. a stream of charged particles that extends to the heliopause at roughly 100 astronomical units. and thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. Of the 50 nearest stellar systems within 17 light-years from Earth (the closest being a red dwarf named Proxima Centauri at approximately 4. light travels from the Sun to Earth in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds. in about 225–250 million years. and as recently as the 19th century prominent scientists had little knowledge of the Sun's physical composition and source of energy. This understanding is still developing. the Sun is the brightest object in the sky with an apparent magnitude of −26. the heliosphere.
5 Internal structure of the Sun The solar interior is not directly observable.1. the discipline of helioseismology makes use of pressure waves (infrasound) traversing the Sun's interior to measure and visualize the star's inner structure. 9. 2. 7. and the Sun itself is opaque to electromagnetic radiation.5. 5. 6. Figure-1. It has a density of up to 150 g/cm3 (about 150 times the density of water) and 8 .1 Core The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 20–25% of the solar radius. 8. However. Computer modeling of the Sun is also used as a theoretical tool to investigate its deeper layers.4: Sun’s internal structure An illustration of the structure of the Sun: 1. 3. 4. Core Radiative zone Convective zone Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Sunspot Granules Prominence 1. just as seismology uses waves generated by earthquakes to reveal the interior structure of the Earth.
the Sun's surface temperature is approximately 5. inside 24% of the Sun's radius. 99% of the power has been generated.2×1037 times each second in the core of the Sun. By contrast.9×1056 free protons in the Sun). Less than 2% of the helium generated in the Sun comes from the CNO cycle. energy is produced by nuclear fusion through a series of steps called the p–p (proton–proton) chain.192×10 megatons of TNT per second. The energy produced by fusion in the core must then travel through many successive layers to the solar photosphere before it escapes into space as sunlight or kinetic energy of particles.846×1026  10 W).26 million metric tons per second. 384.6 million kelvin (K). rather. The core is the only region in the Sun that produces an appreciable amount of thermal energy through fusion. it converts about 3.800 K. 9 .a temperature of close to 13.7×1038 protons to alpha particles (helium nuclei) every second (out of a total of ~8. Recent analysis of SOHO mission data favors a faster rotation rate in the core than in the rest of the radiative zone. Through most of the Sun's life. as described by the concept of mass-energy equivalence. and by 30% of the radius.2×1011 kg per second. Since fusing hydrogen into helium releases around 0. or 9. This mass is not destroyed to create the energy.7% of the fused mass as energy. The rest of the star is heated by energy that is transferred outward from the core and the layers just outside. fusion has stopped nearly entirely. or about 6. this process converts hydrogen into helium. the mass is carried away in the radiated energy. Since this reaction uses four free protons (hydrogen nuclei).6 yottawatts (3. Figure-1.5: Cross-section of a solar-type star (NASA) The proton–proton chain occurs around 9. the Sun releases energy at the mass-energy conversion rate of 4.
increasing the fusion rate and again reverting it to its present level. but instead due to its large size.000 and 170. This discrepancy was resolved in 2001 through the discovery of the effects of neutrino oscillation: the Sun emits the number of neutrinos predicted by the theory.25 to about 0. but neutrino detectors were missing 2⁄3 of them because the neutrinos had changed flavor by the time they were detected. Peak power production in the Sun has been compared to the volumetric heats generated in an active compost heap. but unlike photons they rarely interact with matter. Neutrinos are also released by the fusion reactions in the core. Therefore it takes a long time for radiation to reach the Sun's surface. which travel only a brief distance before being reabsorbed by other ions. Energy is transferred by radiation—ions of hydrogen and helium emit photons. Estimates of the photon travel time range between 10. Each gamma ray in the Sun's core is converted into several million photons of visible light before escaping into space. The fusion rate in the core is in a self-correcting equilibrium: a slightly higher rate of fusion would cause the core to heat up more and expand slightly against the weight of the outer layers. For many years measurements of the number of neutrinos produced in the Sun were lower than theories predicted by a factor of 3. and a slightly lower rate would cause the core to cool and shrink slightly. solar material is hot and dense enough that thermal radiation is sufficient to transfer the intense heat of the core outward. At the center of the Sun.The power production by fusion in the core varies with distance from the solar center. theoretical models estimate it to be approximately 276. The tremendous power output of the Sun is not due to its high power per volume. 10 .2 g/cm3) from the bottom to the top of the radiative zone. reducing the fusion rate and correcting the perturbation. the photons escape as visible light.7 solar radii. This zone is free of thermal convection.2 Radiative zone From about 0.5. The gamma rays (high-energy photons) released in fusion reactions are absorbed in only a few millimeters of solar plasma and then re-emitted again in random direction and at slightly lower energy. 1. while the material gets cooler from 7 to about 2 million kelvin with increasing altitude. The density drops a hundredfold (from 20 g/cm3 to only 0. this temperature gradient is less than the value of the adiabatic lapse rate and hence cannot drive convection. After a final trip through the convective outer layer to the transparent surface of the photosphere. a power production density that more nearly approximates reptile metabolism than a thermonuclear bomb.000 years. so almost all are able to escape the Sun immediately.5 watts/m3.
5.000th the density of air at sea level). Above the photosphere visible sunlight is free to propagate into space. the solar plasma is not dense enough or hot enough to transfer the thermal energy of the interior outward through radiation.000 K. 1. 1. Sunlight has approximately a blackbody spectrum that indicates its temperature is about 6. thermal convection occurs as thermal columns carry hot material to the surface (photosphere) of the Sun. it plunges downward to the base of the convection zone. The photosphere has a particle density of ~1023 m−3 (this is about 0. The thermal columns in the convection zone form an imprint on the surface of the Sun as the solar granulation and super granulation.700 K and the density to only 0.The radiative zone and the convection form a transition layer. in other words it is opaque enough. interspersed with atomic absorption lines from the tenuous layers above the photosphere.2 g/m3 (about 1/6.37% of the particle number per volume of 11 . in a phenomenon known as limb darkening. The fluid motions found in the convection zone above. being slightly less opaque than air on Earth. an image of the Sun appears brighter in the center than on the edge or limb of the solar disk. Because the upper part of the photosphere is cooler than the lower part. Presently. and its energy escapes the Sun entirely. The Sun's thermal columns are Benard cells and therefore tend to be hexagonal prisms.3 Convective zone In the Sun's outer layer.5. from its surface down to approximately 200. the visible light we see is produced as electrons react with hydrogen atoms to produce H− ions. Once the material cools off at the surface. it is hypothesized (see Solar dynamo). This is a region where the sharp regime change between the uniform rotation of the radiative zone and the differential rotation of the convection zone results in a large shear—a condition where successive horizontal layers slide past one another. to receive more heat from the top of the radiative zone. As a result. Conversely. The turbulent convection of this outer part of the solar interior causes a "small-scale" dynamo that produces magnetic north and south poles all over the surface of the Sun. the tachocline. slowly disappear from the top of this layer to its bottom. matching the calm characteristics of the radiative zone on the bottom.000 km (or 70% of the solar radius). the photosphere. At the visible surface of the Sun.4 Photosphere The visible surface of the Sun. is the layer below which the Sun becomes opaque to visible light. The photosphere is tens to hundreds of kilometers thick. that a magnetic dynamo within this layer generates the Sun's magnetic field. the temperature has dropped to 5. which absorb visible light easily. The change in opacity is due to the decreasing amount of H− ions.
where it forms a sharp shock front boundary with the interstellar medium. and comprise five principal zones: the temperature minimum. some absorption lines were found that did not correspond to any chemical elements then known on Earth. after the Greek Sun god Helios.6: Solar atmosphere During a total solar eclipse. and the heliosphere. extends outward past the orbit of Pluto to the heliopause. however. from radio through visible light to gamma rays. During early studies of the optical spectrum of the photosphere.5.100 K. The chromosphere. It was not until 25 years later that helium was isolated on Earth.5 Atmosphere The parts of the Sun above the photosphere are referred to collectively as the solar atmosphere. evidence suggests that Alfven waves may have enough energy to heat the corona. Figure-1. In 1868. the chromosphere. and corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun. during the brief period of totality. the corona. The reason has not been conclusively proven. They can be viewed with telescopes operating across the electromagnetic spectrum. photosphere particles are electrons and protons. the solar corona can be seen with the naked eye. which may be considered the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun. This part of the Sun is cool enough to 12 . The heliosphere. so the average particle in air is 58 times as heavy). with a temperature of about 4. 1. the transition region. transition region. Norman Lockyer hypothesized that these absorption lines were because of a new element which he dubbed helium. The coolest layer of the Sun is a temperature minimum region about 500 km above the photosphere.Earth's atmosphere at sea level.
Figure-1. because the chromosphere is visible as a colored flash at the beginning and end of total eclipses of the Sun. The transition region does not occur at a well-defined altitude. which can be detected by their absorption spectra. the temperature rises rapidly from around 20. in a thin (about 200 km) transition region.000 K in the upper chromosphere to coronal temperatures closer to 1.000 K near the top. which is much larger in volume than the Sun itself. The temperature in the chromosphere increases gradually with altitude. Above the temperature minimum layer is a layer about 2. which is very near the surface of 13 . which significantly reduces radiative cooling of the plasma. meaning color. but is readily observable from space by instruments sensitive to the extreme ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. It is called the chromosphere from the Greek root chroma.7: Nature of Plasma (Taken by Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope. The low corona. dominated by a spectrum of emission and absorption lines.support simple molecules such as carbon monoxide and water. The corona continuously expands into space forming the solar wind. this image of the Sun reveals the filamentary nature of the plasma connecting regions of different magnetic polarity. Rather.000 K. In the upper part of chromosphere helium becomes partially ionized. which fills all the Solar System. The transition region is not easily visible from Earth's surface.000.000 km thick. and is in constant.) Above the chromosphere. chaotic motion. The corona is the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun. it forms a kind of nimbus around chromospheric features such as spicules and filaments. The temperature increase is facilitated by the full ionization of helium in the transition region. ranging up to around 20.
the Sun. The average temperature of the corona and solar wind is about 1.000 K. that is. has a particle density around 1015–1016 m−3. the Voyager 1 probe passed through a shock front that is thought to be part of the heliopause.000–2. While no complete theory yet exists to account for the temperature of the corona.000 K. where the flow becomes faster than the speed of Alfven waves.000–20. In December 2004. forming the solar magnetic field into a spiral shape. extends from approximately 20 solar radii (0. at least some of its heat is known to be from magnetic reconnection.000. in the hottest regions it is 8. The solar wind travels outward continuously through the heliosphere. Its inner boundary is defined as the layer in which the flow of the solar wind becomes superalfvenic.000. however.000. which is the cavity around the Sun filled with the solar wind plasma.000. until it impacts the heliopause more than 50 AU from the Sun. Turbulence and dynamic forces outside this boundary cannot affect the shape of the solar corona within. because the information can only travel at the speed of Alfven waves.1 AU) to the outer fringes of the Solar System. The heliosphere. 14 . Both of the Voyager probes have recorded higher levels of energetic particles as they approach the boundary.
These are used for detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range. 15 . Cells are described as photovoltaic cells when the light source is not necessarily sunlight. is an example of solar energy.1 What is Solar Cell? A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell) is a solid state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. for example infrared detectors. The energy generated from these solar modules. referred to as solar power. Assemblies of cells are used to make solar modules.02 Solar Cell 2. Figure-2. though it is often used specifically to refer to the generation of electricity from sunlight. also known as solar panels. or measurement of light intensity.1: A solar cell made from a mono crystalline silicon wafer Photovoltaic is the field of technology and research related to the practical application of photovoltaic cells in producing electricity from light.
it was not until 1883 that the first solar cell was built. rain. after whom a unit of electro-motive force. to create an array with the desired peak DC voltage and current. who coated the semiconductor selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to form the junctions. which was discovered while working on the series of advances that would lead to the transistor. The photovoltaic effect was first recognized in 1839 by French physicist A. allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from abrasion and impact due to wind-driven debris. Photovoltaic modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (sun up) side.3 Applications Solar cells are often electrically connected and encapsulated as a module. Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect in 1905 for which he received the Nobel prize in Physics in 1921. Figure-2. In 1888 Russian physicist Aleksandr Stoletov built the first photoelectric cell (based on the outer photoelectric effect discovered by Heinrich Hertz earlier in 1887). is named. in series or parallel. by Charles Fritts. from the name of the Italian physicist Volta. creating an additive voltage.2: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells laminated to backing material in a module 16 . 2. The highly efficient solar cell was first developed by Daryl Chapin. or both. meaning electric.2. and "voltaic". Solar cells are also usually connected in series in modules. hail. with Megawatt solar power generating plants having now been built. The device was only around 1% efficient. Becquerel. Connecting cells in parallel will yield a higher current. The term "photo-voltaic" has been in use in English since 1849. et cetera. remarkable progress has been made. the volt. In the past four decades. However. Calvin Souther Fuller and Gerald Pearson in 1954 using a diffused silicon p-n junction.2 History of solar cells The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek φῶς (phōs) meaning "light". Modules are then interconnected. The photovoltaic cell was developed in 1954 at Bell Laboratories. Russell Ohl patented the modern junction semiconductor solar cell in 1946. E.
2.To make practical use of the solar-generated energy. Recombination losses make up a portion of the quantum efficiency. but also make up minor portions of the quantum efficiency. charge carrier separation efficiency and conductive efficiency. other parameters are measured instead: thermodynamic efficiency. thermodynamic efficiency. Reflectance losses are a portion of the quantum efficiency under "external quantum efficiency". such as silicon.4 Theory The solar cell works in three steps: 1. 17 . batteries are used to store the energy that is not needed immediately. allowing them to flow through the material to produce electricity. Due to the special composition of solar cells. The overall efficiency is the product of each of these individual efficiencies. VOC ratio. Solar panels can be used to power or recharge portable devices. quantum efficiency. VOC ratio. 3. Resistive losses are predominantly categorized under fill factor. and fill factor. Figure-2. An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity. VOC ratio. 2. Electrons (negatively charged) are knocked loose from their atoms. and fill factor. the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction. Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials. in stand-alone systems. the electricity is most often fed into the electricity grid using inverters (grid-connected photovoltaic systems). Due to the difficulty in measuring these parameters directly.3: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells 2.5 Efficiency The efficiency of a solar cell may be broken down into reflectance efficiency.
18 . Many of the costs of a solar power plant are proportional to the area of the plant. open circuit voltage. but that demand may fall because of lessening subsidies.Crystalline silicon devices are now approaching the theoretical limiting efficiency of 29%. Efficiencies of bare cells. One research firm predicted that new manufacturing capacity began coming on-line in 2008 (projected to double by 2009) which was expected to lower prices by 70% in 2015.e. also called wafer or bulk cells). cells. High-efficiency solar cells are of interest to decrease the cost of solar energy. must be evaluated under realistic conditions. generally this is done on very small. Commercial efficiencies are significantly lower. Grid parity. Manufacturing costs necessarily including the cost of energy required for manufacture. can be reached using low cost solar cells. until 2004 when high subsidies in Germany drastically increased demand there and greatly increased the price of purified silicon (which is used in computer chips as well as solar panels). and the supply of specialist chemicals used to coat the cells. one square cm. i. even if the cells themselves are more costly. to be useful in evaluating solar power plant economics. Other analysts warned that capacity may be slowed by economic issues. that is cheaper than first generation (crystalline silicon cells. Other potential bottlenecks which have been suggested are the capacity of ingot shaping and wafer slicing industries. the point at which photovoltaic electricity is equal to or cheaper than grid power. It is achieved first in areas with abundant sun and high costs for electricity such as in California and Japan.6 Cost The cost of a solar cell is given per unit of peak electrical power. Bush had set 2015 as the date for grid parity in the USA. The basic parameters that need to be evaluated are the short circuit current. a higher efficiency cell may reduce area and plant cost. General Electric's Chief Engineer predicted grid parity without subsidies in sunny parts of the United States by around 2015. This includes second and third generation photovoltaic cells. Speaking at a conference in 2007. Grid parity has been reached in Hawaii and other islands that otherwise use diesel fuel to produce electricity. A low-cost photovoltaic cell is a thin-film cell intended to produce electrical energy at a price competitive with traditional (fossil fuels and nuclear power) energy sources. Such feed-in tariffs can be highly effective in encouraging the development of solar power projects. George W. Solar-specific feed in tariffs vary worldwide. and even state by state within various countries. 2. The chart at the right illustrates the best laboratory efficiencies obtained for various materials and technologies. The price of solar panels fell steadily for 40 years.
2. and copper indium selenide/sulfide. Figure-2. organic dyes. or wafer. Bulk silicon is separated into multiple categories according to crystallinity and crystal size in the resulting ingot. 19 . Light absorbing materials can often be used in multiple physical configurations to take advantage of different light absorption and charge separation mechanisms. some solar cells are optimized for light absorption beyond Earth's atmosphere as well. A third group are made from nano crystals and used as quantum dots (electron-confined nano particles).7. polycrystalline silicon. Many currently available solar cells are made from bulk material that are cut into wafers between 180 to 240 micrometers thick that are then processed like other semiconductors. 2.7 Materials for Solar Cell Different materials display different efficiencies and have different costs. and organic polymers that are deposited on supporting substrates. Some cells are designed to efficiently convert wavelengths of solar light that reach the Earth surface. amorphous silicon. the most prevalent bulk material for solar cells is crystalline silicon (abbreviated as a group as c-Si). Materials for efficient solar cells must have characteristics matched to the spectrum of available light.1 Crystalline silicon By far. also known as "solar grade silicon". ribbon.4: Basic structure of a silicon based solar cell and its working mechanism. Materials presently used for photovoltaic solar cells include monocrystalline silicon. Other materials are made as thin-films layers. cadmium telluride. Silicon remains the only material that is wellresearched in both bulk and thin-film forms. However.
but save on production costs due to a great reduction in silicon waste. These cells have lower efficiencies than poly-Si. 20 .1 mm wire. 2. presented at the organization's recent annual research review meeting.200 mm. At 2008 spring's IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists' Conference (PVS'08).3 Cadmium telluride solar cell A cadmium telluride solar cell use a cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film. 2. Thin-film silicon cells have become popular due to cost. with the lowest crystalline silicon (c-Si) module at $2. Poly-Si cells are less expensive to produce than single crystal silicon cells. Ribbon silicon] is a type of multi crystalline silicon: It is formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon and results in a multi crystalline structure.7. can potentially be one-sixth that of making polysilicon. According to Jef Poortmans.76 per watt-peak. staff scientist at BP Solar. 2.2 Thin films Thin-film technologies reduce the amount of material required in creating a solar cell. IMEC's roadmap. flexibility. and ease of integration. Manufacturers of wafer-based cells have responded to thin-film lower prices with rapid reductions in silicon consumption. with wafer thicknesses in the neighborhood of 0. as this approach does not require sawing from ingots.16 mm wafers cut with 0. John Wohlgemuth. do not completely cover a square solar cell module without a substantial waste of refined silicon. US DOE data shows that there were a higher number of multi crystalline sales than mono crystalline silicon sales.48 per watt-peak. but are less efficient. Hence most c-Si panels have uncovered gaps at the four corners of the cells. current cells use between eight and nine grams of silicon per watt of power generation. Poly. Monocrystalline silicon (c-Si): Often made using the Czochralski process.or multi crystalline silicon (poly-Si or mc-Si): Made from cast square ingots — large blocks of molten silicon carefully cooled and solidified.7.08 mm wafers by 2015. reported that his company has qualified modules based on 0. envisions use of 0. 3. lighter weight. a semiconductor layer to absorb and convert sunlight into electricity. Analysts have predicted that prices of polycrystalline silicon will drop as companies build additional polysilicon capacity quicker than the industry’s projected demand. director of IMEC's organic and solar department. also known as UMG Si. the cost of producing upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon. it may also reduce energy conversion efficiency. compared to wafer silicon cells.1. Though this reduces material cost. Solarbuzz has reported that the lowest quoted thin-film module price stands at US$1. On the other hand. and because they are cut from cylindrical ingots. Singlecrystal wafer cells tend to be expensive.180 mm thick wafers and is testing processes for 0.
The semiconductors are carefully chosen to absorb nearly all of the solar spectrum.7. A square meter of CdTe contains approximately the same amount of Cd as a single C cell Nickel-cadmium battery. In just the past 12 months (12/2006 . reaching a record high of 40. 6N and 7N Ga). but at present. Tandem solar cells based on monolithic. are seeing demand rapidly rise. These multijunction cells consist of multiple thin films produced using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy.4 Copper-Indium Selenide Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) is a direct-bandgap material. loosely speaking. However. series connected. to absorb electromagnetic radiation over a portion of the spectrum. Recent developments at IBM and Nanosolar have been targeting to lower the cost by using non-vacuum solution processes. release is impossible during normal operation of the cells and is unlikely during ﬁres in residential roofs. and germanium Ge pn junctions. 21 . these products are critical to the entire substrate manufacturing industry. thus generating electricity from as much of the solar energy as possible. and also by the Dutch solar cars Solutra (2005). Those materials include gallium (4N. Ge. the cost of 4N gallium metal has risen from about $350 per kg to $680 per kg. Twente One (2007) and 21Revolution (2009). arsenic (4N. gallium indium phosphide (GaInP). 2005 and 2007. 2.7% efficiency under "500-sun" solar concentration and laboratory conditions. for example. 2. in a more stable and less soluble form. A triple-junction cell. 6N and 7N) and germanium. This was surpassed in October 2010 with a 42. their use in terrestrial concentrators might be the lowest cost alternative in terms of $/kWh and $/W.7. Each type of semiconductor will have a characteristic band gap energy which.3% triple junction metamorphic cell.5 Gallium arsenide multi junction High-efficiency multijunction cells were originally developed for special applications such as satellites and space exploration. causes it to absorb light most efficiently at a certain color. and boron oxide. germanium metal prices have risen substantially to $1000– $1200 per kg this year. gallium arsenide GaAs. Triple-junction GaAs solar cells were also being used as the power source of the Dutch fourtime World Solar Challenge winners Nuna in 2003. This technology is currently being utilized in the Mars Exploration Rover missions which have run far past their 90 day design life. Traditional methods of fabrication involve vacuum processes including co-evaporation and sputtering. GaAs based multijunction devices are the most efficient solar cells to date.12/2007). It has the highest efficiency (~20%) among thin film materials (see CIGS solar cells). or more precisely. and GaInP2. pyrolitic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles for growing crystals. Additionally. may consist of the semiconductors: GaAs.The cadmium present in the cells would be toxic if released.
However. This type of cell allows a more flexible use of materials. This forms a p-n junction a few hundred nanometers below the surface. 2. which can be liquid or solid. In spite of the above. but they are generally considered to be too expensive for large-scale mass production. possibly allowing players to produce more of this type of solar cell than others. and although its conversion efficiency is less than the best thin film cells.8 Manufacturing techniques Because solar cells are semiconductor devices. The circuit is completed by a redox couple in the electrolyte. the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells. the dyes in these cells also suffer from degradation under heat and UV light. Typically a ruthenium metalorganic dye (Ru-centered) is used as a monolayer of lightabsorbing material. this is a popular emerging technology with some commercial impact forecast within this decade. they share many of the same processing and manufacturing techniques as other semiconductor devices such as computer and memory chips.The Dutch Radboud University Nijmegen set the record for thin film solar cell efficiency using a single junction GaAs to 25.8% in August 2008 using only 4 µm thick GaAs layer which can be transferred from a wafer base to glass or plastic film. Michael Gratzel in 1991 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (CH). and is typically manufactured by screen printing and/or use of Ultrasonic Nozzles. a surface diffusion of n-type dopants is performed on the front side of the wafer. To make a solar cell from the wafer. 2.7. Most large-scale commercial solar cell factories today make screen printed poly-crystalline silicon solar cells. DSSC's can be engineered into flexible sheets. 22 . The wafers are usually lightly p-type doped.6 Light-absorbing dyes (DSSC) Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are made of low-cost materials and do not need elaborate equipment to manufacture. The first commercial shipment of DSSC solar modules occurred in July 2009 from G24i Innovations (www. and the cell casing is difficult to seal due to the solvents used in assembly. Single crystalline wafers which are used in the semiconductor industry can be made into excellent high efficiency solar cells.g24i. its price/performance ratio should be high enough to allow them to compete with fossil fuel electrical generation. Poly-crystalline silicon wafers are made by wire-sawing block-cast silicon ingots into very thin (180 to 350 micrometer) slices or wafers. In bulk it should be significantly less expensive than older solid-state cell designs. and the holes are absorbed by an electrolyte on the other side of the dye.com). The photogenerated electrons from the light absorbing dye are passed on to the n-type TiO2. The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200–300 m2/g TiO2. as compared to approximately 10 m2/g of flat single crystal). with the potential for lower processing costs than those used for bulk solar cells. so they can be made in a DIY fashion. The DSSC has been developed by Prof. However.
Germany. The wafer then has a full area metal contact made on the back surface. though in some cell designs it is printed in a grid pattern. While technologies are constantly evolving toward higher efficiencies. and assembled into modules or "solar panels". wherein the output shall not fall below a specified percentage (around 80%) of the rated capacity. and a polymer encapsulation on the back. are typically next applied. Those companies with large scale manufacturing technology for coating inexpensive substrates may. to increase the amount of light coupled into the solar cell. but those with a balance between low-cost production and efficiency high enough to minimize area-related balance of systems cost. Usually this contact covers the entire rear side of the cell. and a grid-like metal contact made up of fine "fingers" and larger "busbars" are screen-printed onto the front surface using a silver paste. It prevents carrier recombination at the surface of the solar cell. Mainland China. Such surfaces can usually only be formed on single-crystal silicon. serve to increase the amount of light coupled into the cell. Solar panels have a sheet of tempered glass on the front. 2. Taiwan and United States.9 Lifespan Most commercially available solar cells are capable of producing electricity for at least twenty years without a significant decrease in efficiency. 2. The rear contact is also formed by screen-printing a metal paste. Some companies use an additional electroplating step to increase the cell efficiency. though numerous other nations have or are acquiring significant solar cell production capacity. Silicon nitride has gradually replaced titanium dioxide as the antireflection coating because of its excellent surface passivation qualities. It is typically applied in a layer several hundred nanometers thick using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). After the metal contacts are made. even with cell efficiencies that are lower than those of single-crystal technologies. in fact.Antireflection coatings. The typical warranty given by panel manufacturers is for a period of 25 – 30 years. the solar cells are interconnected in series (and/or parallel) by flat wires or metal ribbons. typically aluminium. the most effective cells for low cost electrical production are not necessarily those with the highest efficiency. like antireflection coatings. 23 . The paste is then fired at several hundred degrees Celsius to form metal electrodes in ohmic contact with the silicon. though in recent years methods of forming them on multicrystalline silicon have been developed.10 Manufacturers and certification Solar cells are manufactured primarily in Japan. Some solar cells have textured front surfaces that. ultimately be the lowest cost net electricity producers.
Sanyo Electric Company. The new development of solar module manufacturers with thin-film technology such as Veeco and Anwell Technologies Limited will further help to boost the domestic solar industry. First Solar.2 United States New manufacturing facilities for solar cells and modules in Massachusetts.180 MW in 2007 making it the largest producer in the world. Ltd. NY. according to statistics from China Photovoltaic Association. Ohio. broke ground on an expansion of its Perrysburg.1 China Backed by Chinese government's unprecedented plan to offer subsidies for utility-scale solar power projects that is likely to spark a new round of investment from Chinese solar panel makers. New York.10. Some Chinese companies such as Suntech Power.2. Michigan. Oregon.10. The plant will begin operating in October 2009 and will reach its full production capacity of 70 megawatts (MW) of solar wafers per year by April 2010. In early October 2008. Oregon. and Texas promise to add enough capacity to produce thousands of megawatts of solar devices per year within the next few years from 2008. announced its decision to build a manufacturing plant for solar ingots and wafers in Salem. JA Solar and ReneSola have already announced projects in cooperation with regional governments with hundreds of megawatts each after the ‘Golden Sun’ incentive program was announced by the government. 24 . China produced solar cells/modules with an output of 1. In late September 2008. Yingli. Oregon. facility that will add enough capacity to produce another 57 MW per year of solar modules at the facility. Inc. that is expected to produce 500 MW of solar cells per year when it reaches full production in 2011. began production at its manufacturing plant in Hopewell Junction. The company expects to complete construction early next year and reach full production by mid-2010. which is expected to produce 120 MW of solar cells per year when it reaches full production in 2011. In mid-October 2008. Chinese companies have already played a more important role in solar panels manufacturing in recent years. SpectraWatt. 2. Ohio. LDK Solar Co. In March 2010. bringing its total capacity to roughly 192 MW per year. SolarWorld AG opened a manufacturing plant in Hillsboro. Inc.
Greeks and Romans use burning mirrors to light torches for religious purposes.C.C. we have everything from solar-powered buildings to solar powered vehicles. As early as 212 BC.C. Greeks and Romans use burning mirrors to light torches for religious purposes. the Greek 25 . 2nd Century B. Magnifying glass used to concentrate sun’s rays to make fire and to burn ants. Magnifying glass used to concentrate sun’s rays to make fire and to burn ants. 7th Century B. Today.C. We started out concentrating the sun’s heat with glass and mirrors to light fires. and year by year.03 The History of Solar Energy Solar technology isn’t new. Magnifying glass used to concentrate sun’s rays to make fire and to burn ants. Its history spans from the 7th Century B.1 Timeline from 7th Century B.D. century by century. Figure-3. to 1200 A. 3rd Century B. Here is about the milestones in the historical development of solar technology. to today.C.1: Mesa Verde cliff dwellings 3.
used the reflective properties of bronze shields to focus sunlight and to set fire to wooden ships from the Roman Empire which were besieging Syracuse. 1200s A. By trade. 1860s French mathematician August Mouchet proposed an idea for solar-powered steam engines.) 20 A. Scotland. constructed the first solar powered engines and used them for a variety of applications. Ancestors of Pueblo people called Anasazi in North America live in south-facing cliff dwellings that capture the winter sun. 1816 On September 27.D. Robert Stirling was actually a minister in the Church of Scotland and he continued to give services until he was eighty-six years old! But. Robert Stirling applied for a patent for his economizer at the Chancery in Edinburgh. 1816. Archimedes. had large south facing windows to let in the sun’s warmth.scientist. electricity-generation increased when exposed to light. In the following two decades. These engines became the predecessors of modern parabolic dish collectors.2 Timeline from 1767 to 1891.D. 1876 26 . the Greek navy recreated the experiment in 1973 and successfully set fire to a wooden boat at a distance of 50 meters. later used by Sir John Herschel to cook food during his South Africa expedition in the 1830s. 1st to 4th Century A. a solar thermal electric technology that concentrates the sun’s thermal energy in order to produce power. The famous Roman bathhouses in the first to fourth centuries A. in his spare time. 1873 Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of selenium. he built heat engines in his home workshop. This engine was later used in the dish/Stirling system. Chinese document use of burning mirrors to light torches for religious purposes. 1767 Swiss scientist Horace de Saussure was credited with building the world’s firstsolar collector. Sunrooms on houses and public buildings were so common that the Justinian Code initiated “sun rights” to ensure individual access to the sun. 1839 French scientist Edmond Becquerel discovers the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with an electrolytic cell made up of two metal electrodes placed in an electricity-conducting solution. (Although no proof of such a feat exists.D. Abel Pifre. 6th Century A.D. he and his assistant.D. Lord Kelvin used one of the working models during some of his university classes. 3.
1918 Polish scientist Jan Czochralski developed a way to grow single-crystal silicon. Langley. 1904 Wilhelm Hallwachs discovered that a combination of copper and cuprous oxide is photosensitive. 1916 Robert Millikan provided experimental proof of the photoelectric effect.3 Timeline of solar technology in the 1900s. It consists of a fine wire connected to an electric circuit. 1887 Heinrich Hertz discovered that ultraviolet light altered the lowest voltage capable of causing a spark to jump between two metal electrodes. 3. 1880 Samuel P. Although selenium solar cells failed to convert enough sunlight to power electrical equipment. described the first solar cells made from selenium wafers.1876 William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day discover that selenium produces electricity when exposed to light. 1891 Baltimore inventor Clarence Kemp patented the first commercial solar water heater. it becomes very slightly warmer. they proved that asolid material could change light into electricity without heat or moving parts. 1932 Audobert and Stora discover the photovoltaic effect in cadmium sulfide (CdS). 1908 1908 William J. 1914 The existence of a barrier layer in photovoltaic devices was noted. which is used to measure light from the faintest stars and the sun’s heat rays. an American inventor. Bailley of the Carnegie Steel Company invents a solar collector with copper coils and an insulated box—roughly. 1883 Charles Fritts. This increases the electrical resistance of the wire. invents the bolometer. it’s present design. 27 . When radiation falls on the wire. 1921 Albert Einstein wins the Nobel Prize for his theories (1904 research and technical paper) explaining the photoelectric effect. 1905 Albert Einstein published his paper on the photoelectric effect (along with a paper on his theory of relativity).
it was used successfully in powering satellites.W.S. makes the first theoretical calculations of the efficiencies of various materials of different band gap widths based on the spectrum of the sun. 1954 1954 Photovoltaic technology is born in the United States when Daryl Chapin. Mandelkorn. more resistant to radiation). that Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company published a book entitled Your Solar House. Hoffman Electronics achieves 9% efficient photovoltaic cells. as a result of scarce energy during the prolonged W.S. Early successful products included PV-powered dollar bill changers and devices that decoded computer punch cards and tape. 3. and Sputnik-3 were launched with PV-powered systems on board. U. Wayne State University. Despite faltering attempts to commercialize the silicon solar cell in the 1950s and 60s. 1958 1. 1955 Western Electric began to sell commercial licenses for silicon photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Signal Corps Laboratories. Signal Corps Laboratories. Mid 1950s Architect Frank Bridgers designed the world’s first commercial office building using solar water heating and passive design. This solar system has been continuously operating since that time and the Bridgers-Paxton Building. Dan Trivich. Explorer III. Vanguard II. 1956 William Cherry.1947 1947 Passive solar buildings in the United States were in such demand. Bell Telephone Laboratories produced a silicon solar cell with 4% efficiency and later achieved 11% efficiency. which profiled forty-nine of the nation’s greatest solar architects. is now in the National Historic Register as the world’s first solar heated office building. fabricates n-on-p silicon photovoltaic cells (critically important for space cells. Later that year. approaches RCA Labs’ Paul Rappaport and Joseph Loferski about developing photovoltaic cells for proposed orbiting Earth satellites. Calvin Fuller. U. 1953 Dr. and Gerald Pearson develop the silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell at Bell Labs—the first solar cell capable of converting enough of the sun’s energy into power to run everyday electrical equipment. 1957 Hoffman Electronics achieved 8% efficient photovoltaic cells.II. The Vanguard I space satellite used a small (less than one watt) array to power its radios. 2. T. It became the accepted energy source for space applications and remains so today. 28 .
designs a significantly less costly solar cell. 2. Wisconsin. It starts producing selenium and silicon photovoltaic cells. Hoffman Electronics achieves 14% efficient photovoltaic cells. the Explorer VI satellite is launched with a photovoltaic array of 9600 cells (1 cm x 2 cm each).1959 1. Sharp Corporation succeeds in producing practical silicon photovoltaic modules. on October 13. the Explorer VII satellite is launched. to provide astronomical data in the ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths filtered out by the earth’s atmosphere. Then. Inc. is founded. The French install a cadmium sulfide (CdS) photovoltaic system to operate an educational television at a village school in Niger. France was constructed.. the world’s largest array at that time. Silicon Sensors. reducing the series resistance significantly. of Dodgeville. 1962 Bell Telephone Laboratories launches the first telecommunications satellite. 29 . Elliot Berman. photovoltaic array on a lighthouse. Hoffman also learns to use a grid contact. railroad crossings and domestic solar applications began to be viewed as sensible applications in remote locations where grid connected utilities could not exist affordably. with help from Exxon Corporation. On August 7. commercially available photovoltaic cells. 2. 1966 NASA launches the first Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. powered by a 1-kilowatt photovoltaic array. Solar cells begin to power navigation warning lights and horns on many offshore gas and oil rigs. Japan installs a 242-watt. 2. 1965 Peter Glaser conceives the idea of the satellite solar power station. lighthouses. bringing price down from $100 a watt to $20 a watt. story parabolic mirror. 1972 1. This featured an 8- 1970s Dr. located in Odeillo. the Telstar (initial power 14 watts). 1964 NASA launches the first Nimbus spacecraft—a satellite powered by a 470-watt photovoltaic array. 1960 1. Hoffman Electronics achieves 10% efficient. 1969 The Odeillo solar furnace. 1963 1.
1981 Paul MacCready builds the first solar-powered aircraft—the Solar Challenger—and flies it from France to England across the English Channel. In addition to electricity. At the University of Delaware. These systems provide such diverse applications as vaccine refrigeration. room lighting. fabricate first amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells. which produced 3. becoming the world’s first laboratory dedicated to PV research and development. The U. The Institute of Energy Conversion is established at the University of Delaware to perform research and development on thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal systems. 2. Total photovoltaic manufacturing production exceeds 500 kilowatts. when grid power reached the village. 2. 1977 1. The system is used to provide for water pumping and residential electricity in 15 homes until 1983. the arrays acted as flat-plate thermal collectors. working on it from 1976-1985 and then again from 1992-1995.htm “Solar Challenger” in flight. 1978 1978 NASA’s Lewis Research Center dedicates a 3.gov/ “National Renewable Energy Laboratory”. 1982 30 .” one of the world’s first photovoltaic (PV) powered residences.000 solar cells mounted on its wings. grain milling. telecommunications. 1980 1. RCA Laboratories. David Carlson and Christopher Wronski. the first thin-film solar cell exceeds 10% efficiency using copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide. Department of Energy launches the Solar Energy Research Institute http://www.edu/nasm/aero/aircraft/maccread.nrel. The aircraft had over 16. The NASA Lewis Research Center starts installing 83 photovoltaic power systems on every continent except Australia.2. 1973 The University of Delaware builds “Solar One. ARCO Solar becomes the first company to produce more than 1 megawatt of photovoltaic modules in one year. medical clinic lighting. The system is a PV/thermal hybrid.5-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) system it installed on the Papago Indian Reservation located in southern Arizona—the world’s first village PV system. with fans blowing the warm air from over the array to phase-change heat-storage bins. The PV system was then dedicated to pumping water from a community well. 2.S. The Center completed the project in 1995. 1976 1. The Smithsonian Institute National Air and Space Museum has a photo of the http://www. a federal facility dedicated to harnessing power from the sun.000 watts of power.nasm. and classroom television. water pumping. The roof-integrated arrays fed surplus power through a special meter to the utility during the day and purchased power from the utility at night.
ARCO Solar dedicates a 6-megawatt photovoltaic substation in central California.3 megawatts. photovoltaic megawatt-scale power station goes on-line in Hisperia. 1984 The Sacramento Municipal Utility District commissions its first 1-megawatt photovoltaic electricity generating facility. Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 9. The 120-acre.org. 3. along with an industry consortium.htm#recentcon “Southeast Residential Experiment Station” begins supporting the U.S.000-2.solar “World Solar Challenge” in Australia. 5. 1985 The University of South Wales breaks the 20% efficiency barrier for silicon solar cells under 1-sun conditions. with sales of more than $250 million. California. begins operating Solar One. Department ofEnergy’s photovoltaics program in the application of systems engineering. The heat transfer fluid was used to produce steam. The project established the feasibility of power-tower systems. Solar Design Associates completes a stand-alone. The Florida Solar Energy Center’s http://www. 4. 3.S. the final year of operation. Australian Hans Tholstrup drives the first solar-powered car—the Quiet Achiever— almost 2. Department of Energy. the system could be dispatched 96% of the time. The U. It has a 1-megawatt capacity system. 31 . 1986 1. In 1988. 4-kilowatt powered home in the Hudson River Valley. a solar-thermal electric or concentrating solar power technology. unmanned facility supplies the Pacific Gas & Electric Company’s utility grid with enough power for 2. which powered a conventional turbine to generate electricity. considered the world championship of solar car racing. 2. Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 21.au/2003/home. developed by ARCO Solar.edu/About/quals/index. California. located in Kramer Junction.3 megawatts.fsec. was commissioned. generating 160 watts for the ignition system.500 homes. 2. The solar field contained rows of mirrors that concentrated the sun’s energy onto a system of pipes circulating a heat transfer fluid.800 miles between Sydney and Perth in 20 days—10 days faster than the first gasoline-powered car to do so. 1986 The world’s largest solar thermal facility.ucf. Tholstrup is the founder of the http://www. 2. 6. 1983 1. with modules on 108 dual-axis trackers. ARCO Solar releases the G-4000—the world’s first commercial thin-film power module.wsc. The first. Volkswagen of Germany begins testing photovoltaic arrays mounted on the roofs of Dasher station wagons. a 10-megawatt central-receiver demonstration project.1.
9% efficient thin-film photovoltaic cell made of cadmium telluride. 1992 1. 1999 1. 1996 1. California.000 feet. on its 39th consecutive flight on August 6. It also fostered commercial interest in power towers. Operated until 1999. As sunlight hits the metal strips. 2. The remote-controlled. 1999 Construction was completed on 4 Times Square. the tallest skyscraper built in the 1990s in New York City. First solar dish generator using a free-piston Stirling engine is tied to a utility grid. 1992 University of South Florida develops a 15. Solar Two demonstrated how solar energy can be stored efficiently and economically so that power can be produced even when the sun isn’t shining. each less than a micron or thousandth of a millimeter wide.S. led the invention of flexible solar shingles. a roofing material and state-of-the-art technology for converting sunlight to electricity. with a total area of 21 m2. Subhendu Guha. long chains of molecular plastic units. the Icare. The U. in Monrovia. 1994 1. film-like sheets of plastic for the glass panels and covers the plastic with conductive polymers.1988 Dr.000 super-efficient solar cells. begins operating Solar Two—an upgrade of its Solar One concentrating solar powertower project. 2.5-kilowatt prototype dish system using an advanced stretched-membrane concentrator becomes operational. It incorporates more energy-efficient building techniques than any other commercial skyscraper and also includes building-integrated photovoltaic 32 . This altitude is higher than any prop-driven aircraft thus far. a noted scientist for his pioneering work in amorphous silicon. solar-powered aircraft. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory develops a solar cell—made from gallium indium phosphide and gallium arsenide—that becomes the first one to exceed 30% conversion efficiency. the energy in the light is transferred to electrons in the metal. 2. Lepcon consists of glass panels covered with a vast array of millions of aluminum or copper strips. along with an industry consortium. The wings and tail surfaces of the Icare are covered by 3. breaking the 15% barrier for the first time for this technology. “Pathfinder” sets an altitude record. 80. A 7. Alvin Marks receives patents for two solar power technologies he developed: Lepcon and Lumeloid. The world’s most advanced solar-powered airplane. California. 1993 1993 Pacific Gas & Electric completes installation of the first grid-supported photovoltaic system in Kerman. 1998 1. which escape at one end in the form of electricity. The 500-kilowatt system was the first “distributed power” effort. flew over Germany. Lumeloid uses a similar approach but substitutes cheaper. 2. Department of Energy.
square-foot home and family of eight. developed by BP Solarex. 2000 1. installs a 12-kilowatt solar electric system on its home— the largest residential installation in the United States to be registered with the U. 3. And its 0. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory of US achieves a new efficiency record for thin-film photovoltaic solar cells.800 solar cells. 2. Such “concentrator” systems are mounted on tracking systems that keep them pointed toward the sun. 4. First Solar begins production in Perrysburg. The company’s 0.9-squaremeter module achieved 10. At the International Space Station.millionsolarroofs. astronauts begin installing solar panels on what will be the largest solar power array deployed in space.5 watts — the highest power output for any thin-film module in the world. Inc. A family in Morrison. 5. 33 . 3. The high conversion efficiency was achieved by combining three layers of photovoltaic materials into a single solar cell.S. 3.com/ “Million Solar Roofs” program. Spectrolab. the cell is mounted in a device that uses lenses or mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto the cell.5-square-meter module achieves 10. break previous performance records. The measurement of 18. Colorado. Each “wing” of the array consists of 32. Ohio. 2. 4. and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory develop a photovoltaic solar cell that converts 32.3 percent of the sunlight that hits it into electricity. 2001 1. Sandia National Laboratories develops a new inverter for solar electric systems that will increase the safety of the systems during a power outage.4 Timeline solar technology in the 2000s. Cumulative worldwide installed photovoltaic capacity reaches 1000 megawatts. The system provides most of the electricity for the 6.6% conversion efficiency and a power output of 91.8 % conversion efficiency—the highest in the world for thin-film modules of its kind. To use such cells in practical applications. which is the standard current for household wiring and for the power lines that supply electricity to homes. Department of Energy’s http://www.000. A year later it expands sales to include 61 stores nationwide. The cell performed most efficiently when it received sunlight concentrated to 50 times normal.(BIPV) panels on the 37th through 43rd floors on the southand west-facing facades that produce a portion of the buildings power. Home Depot begins selling residential solar power systems in three of its stores in San Diego. at the world’s largest photovoltaic manufacturing plant with an estimated capacity of producing enough solar panels each year to generate 100 megawatts of power.8 percent efficiency for the prototype solar cell topped the previous record by more than 1 percent. California. Two new thin-film solar modules. Inverters convert the direct current (DC) electrical output from solar systems into alternating current (AC).
2. 4. 6. in Canada starts to commercialize an innovative method of producing solar cells. TerraSun claims that the use of holographic optics allows more selective use of the sunlight. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. allowing light not needed for power production to pass through the transparent modules. Washington.7-kilowatt White Bluffs Solar Station—goes online in Richland. which would then transmit the power to Earth.863 feet. 3. 34 . NASA’s solar-powered aircraft—Helios sets a new world record for non-rocketpowered aircraft: 96. or NASDA. The Indianapolis station is the first U. more than 18 miles high. But despite U. 2003 Powerlight Corporation installs the largest rooftop solar power system in the United States—a 1. This capability allows the modules to be integrated into buildings as skylights. remote-controlled aircraft called Pathfinder Plus. The canopy is built using translucent photovoltaic modules made of thin films of silicon deposited onto glass. The technology—based on tiny silicon beads bonded between two sheets of aluminum foil—promises lower costs due to its greatly reduced use of silicon relative to conventional multicrystalline silicon solar cells. A satellite carrying large solar panels would use a laser to transmit the power to an airship at an altitude of about 12 miles. PowerLight Corporation places online in Hawaii the world’s largest hybrid system that combines the power from both wind and solar energy. 2002 1. which incorporate energy saving light-emitting diode (LED) technology with solar cells. The largest solar power facility in the Northwest—the 38. researchers demonstrated the aircraft’s use as a high-altitude platform for telecommunications technologies. The technology is not new. In the first test in July. announces plans to develop a satellite-based solar power system that would beam energy back to Earth.S. “BP Connect” store. 2. Concentrating solar cells typically use Fresnel lenses or mirrors to concentrate sunlight. Union Pacific Railroad installs 350 blue-signal rail yard lanterns. rail yard—the largest rail yard in the United States. The National Space Development Agency of Japan. Nebraska. 5. 3.18 megawatt system—at the Santa Rita Jail in Dublin. a test demonstrated its use as an aerial imaging system for coffee growers. Then. ATS Automation Tooling Systems Inc. California. a model that BP intends to use for all new or significantly revamped BP service stations. Such hybrid power systems combine the strengths of both energy systems to maximize the available power. The gridconnected system is unusual in that its solar energy capacity—175 kilowatts— is actually larger than its wind energy capacity of 50 kilowatts. in September. British Petroleum (BP) and BP Solar announce the opening of a service station in Indianapolis that features a solar-electric canopy. 4. at its North Platt. called Spheral Solar technology. TI dropped the initiative.S. TerraSun LLC develops a unique method of using holographic films to concentrate sunlight onto a solar cell. It was championed by Texas Instruments (TI) in the early 1990s. NASA successfully conducts two tests of a solar-powered.
Photovoltaic production growth has averaged 40% per year since 2000 and installed capacity reached 10. completed in late 2005. Solar installations in recent years have also largely begun to expand into residential areas. CSP plants such as SEGS project in the United States have a balanced energy cost (LEC) of 12–14 ¢/kWh. while drawing power from the grid at an average rate of 6¢/kWh.2: An eSolar project in California and Abengoa’s PS10 project in Seville. As of November 2010. 35 . is Europe's first commercial CSP system. and updated in 2009 with the passage of the Green Energy Act. and a total capacity of 300 MW is expected to be installed in the same area by 2013. Nellis Air Force Base is receiving photoelectric power for about 2. Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant (Canada. In Canada the RESOP (Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program).5 Recent developments in Solar technology (2001-2010) Between 1970 and 1983 photovoltaic installations grew rapidly. Since 1997. Commercial concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) plants were first developed in the 1980s. Since 2006 it has been economical for investors to install photovoltaics for free in return for a long term power purchase agreement. the Lieberose Photovoltaic Park (Germany. but falling oil prices in the early 1980s moderated the growth of PV from 1984 to 1996. 60 MW). 80 MW). 53 MW).2 ¢/kWh and grid power for 9 ¢/kWh.3.73 GW in 2008.7 MW). introduced in 2006. and the Puertollano Photovoltaic Park (Spain. 54 MW). The 11 MW PS10 power tower in Spain.e. and 14. 50% of commercial systems were installed in this manner in 2007 and it is expected that 90% will by 2009. Figure-3. 50 MW). roof-top systems (≤10 kW). allows residential homeowners in Ontario with solar panel installations to sell the energy they produce back to the grid (i. PV development has accelerated due to supply issues with oil and natural gas. the largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are the Finsterwalde Solar Park (Germany. Spain. and the improving economic position of PV relative to other energy technologies.. 2009 the proposed FIT was increased to 80¢/kWh for small. the government) at 42¢/kWh.6 GW at the end of 2007. In March. 80. global warming concerns. with governments offering incentive programs to make "green" energy a more economically viable option. the Strasskirchen Solar Park (Germany.Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park (Spain. The program is designed to help promote the government's green agenda and lower the strain often placed on the energy grid at peak hours.
000 megawatts of power. Solar electricity will be used to electrolyze water. 36 . It is a future where the clothes you wear and your mode of transportation can produce power that is clean and safe. and environmentally friendly electricity. cell designs. and novel approaches to solar material and product development. could harness the sun’s heat energy to provide large-scale. The potential of solar power in the Southwest United States is comparable in scale to the hydropower resource of the Northwest. Photovoltaic’s research and development will continue intense interest in new materials. domestically secure. producing hydrogen for fuel cells for transportation and buildings.3. Concentrating solar power. while the electricity needs of the entire United States could theoretically be met by a photovoltaic array within an area 100 miles on a side.6 Expected future direction of solar technology All buildings will be built to combine energy-efficient design and construction practices and renewable energy technologies for a net-zero energy building. Technology roadmaps for the future outline the research and development path to full competitiveness of concentrating solar power (CSP) with conventional power generation technologies within a decade. The price of photovoltaic power will be competitive with traditional sources of electricity within 10 years. A desert area 10 miles by 15 miles could provide 20. or solar thermal electricity. the building will conserve enough and produce its own energy supply to create a new generation of cost-effective buildings that have zero net annual need for non-renewable energy. In effect.
The hydrogen atoms in the sun’s core combine to form helium and generate energy in a process called nuclear fusion. which. The sun radiates more energy in one second than people have used since the beginning of time! Where does the energy come from that constantly radiates from the sun? It comes from within the sun itself. During nuclear fusion. Every day enough energy strikes the United States to supply the nation’s energy needs for one and a half years! Where does all this energy go? About 15 percent of the sun’s energy that hits the earth is reflected back into space. But the helium atom contains less mass than the four hydrogen atoms that fused. Another 30 percent is used to evaporate water. an enormous amount of energy. 37 . the sun is a big ball of gases—mostly hydrogen and helium atoms. the land. or sends out. Only a small portion of the energy radiated by the sun into space strikes the earth. one part in two billion. Yet this amount of energy is enormous. Solar energy also is absorbed by plants. the sun’s extremely high pressure and temperature cause hydrogen atoms to come apart and their nuclei (the central cores of the atoms) to fuse or combine.1 What Is Solar Energy? Solar energy is radiant energy that is produced by the sun. Like other stars. The lost matter is emitted into space as radiant energy It takes millions of years for the energy in the sun’s core to make its way to the solar surface.04 Solar Energy 4. Four hydrogen nuclei fuse to become one helium atom. The rest could be used to supply our energy needs. lifted into the atmosphere. Every day the sun radiates. the speed of light. Some matter is lost during nuclear fusion. and the oceans. and then just a little over eight minutes to travel the 93 million miles to earth. The solar energy travels to the earth at a speed of 186. produces rainfall.000 miles per second.
4. however.000. are referred to as passive solar technologies. but it is also possible to tap this source of solar energy as it arrives on the earth’s surface.000. The sun.000.000. which is rapidly gaining acceptance as an energy saving measure in both domestic and commercial water heating applications. is the most reliable and abundant source of energy. There are many applications for the direct use of solar thermal energy.2 The Sun is Our Source Our sun produces 400. We will look at these briefly later in this fact sheet. Water heating technologies are usually referred to as active solar technologies.1: Direct and diffuse solar radiations 38 . Other technologies exist which take advantage of the free energy provided by the sun.000 watts of energy every second and the belief is that it will last for another 5 billion years.000. such as space heating or cooling. Most of the energy we use has undergone various transformations before it is finally utilized.000. Hundreds of thousands of domestic hot water systems are in use throughout the world. which is well understood and widely used in many countries throughout the world. Figure-4. As world oil prices vary. domestic water heaters are usually only found amongst wealthier sections of the community in developing countries. it is a technology. which passively absorb the energy of the sun and have no moving components. water heating. Presently. crop drying and solar cooking. Most Solar thermal technologies have been in existence in one form or another for centuries and have a well established manufacturing base in most sun-rich developed countries. It is a technology. whereas other technologies. The most common use for solar thermal technology is for domestic water heating. especially in areas such as the Mediterranean and Australia where there is high solar insulation (the total energy per unit area received from the sun). and there is no telling when global oil production will peak. The United States reached peak oil production in 1970. but it is accepted that when it is gone the party is over. space heating and cooling.000. More sophisticated solar technologies exist for providing power for electricity generation.
i. Sun is a sphere of intensely hot gaseous matter with a diameter of 1. where it maintains at a temperature of 5800 K 3 . This energy is emitted as radiations of different forms in the electromagnetic spectrum. Out of these X-rays. high pressure and high density undergoes nuclear fusion and hence releases an enormous amount of energy. to the Sun’s surface.e. This means that the amount of energy that is emitted by the Sun. mass having been lost in the reaction and converted to energy. The most abundant element in sun is hydrogen. It is in a plasma state. is critically dependent upon this surface temperature. The energy received from the sun on a unit area perpendicular to the direction of propagation of radiation outside atmosphere is called solar constant. Natural processes include wind and biomass. it is more than enough to plunge us into brutal ice age or hellish global warming. it is because it is: this is equivalent to the amount of mass that can be carried by 10 million railroad cars. 4 39 . and has a value 1353 Wm– 2. This energy production. Heat from the core is first primarily radiated. But heat energy and light energy are the main radiations that reach the earth. Man-made processes include conversion into heat and electricity. hydrogen is fusing into helium at a rate of about 7 x 10 kg of hydrogen every second. the amount of solar energy that we receive here on Earth. The wavelength range is 0. keeps the Sun’s center near a sweltering 16 million K.3 Solar Energy Basics At its core. A change of 1% in the temperature of the Sun (58 K) can result in a change of 4% in the amount of energy per unit area that we receive here. coupled with gravitational compression. Sun has an effective black body temperature of 5762 K and has a temperature of 8e6 K to 40e6 K. The mass of the He nucleus is less than that of the four protons. Stefan-Boltzmann’s Law tells us that the amount of energy that is radiated per unit area of surface depends upon the temperature of the object to the fourth power.29 to 2. This energy is the basis for the existence of life on earth. In the inner 25% of the Sun. If this sounds like a lot. The sun is a continuous fusion reactor in which hydrogen (4 protons) combines to form helium (one He nucleus). and then primarily convected.5e11 m away from earth. which is about 29 million F. though. as the Sun has enough hydrogen in the core to continue at this rate for another 5 billion years. and therefore. energy/area is proportional to T . This radiation when received on the earth has a typical value of 1100 Wm– 2 and is variable.Sun is the source of many forms of energy available to us. the primary method of energy transport is electromagnetic radiation. This form of heat transport depends greatly upon the surface temperature of an object for the amount and type of energy. This energy is typically converted into usual energy form through natural and man-made processes.39e9 m and 1. that we are going to run out of fuel anytime soon. o 11 From the surface of the Sun. gamma rays and most of ultraviolet rays do not pass through the earth’s atmosphere. While this might not sound like a lot. solar energy is actually nuclear energy.5 micro meters. 4. There is no need to fear. This hydrogen at high temperature.
The type of radiation coming from the Sun also depends on temperature. However. most of the radiation is being sent out in the visible spectrum due to its surface temperature. Light travelling from a spherical object such as the Sun must spread to fill all available space. which is in the green region of the visible spectrum. How these objects will appear to the human eye is determined by just how much energy is in each of the visible wavelengths. wavelength for various temperatures While our Sun is not a perfect blackbody radiator. the peak radiation will come from shorter wavelengths. Thus. It radiates 1. Figure-4. this value is vastly reduced. The Sun is emitting electromagnetic radiation in wide variety of wavelengths. the amount of energy crossing any square meter of space will be reduced by the square of the distance between the object and the area in question. by the time that it has reached the Earth’s surface. the energy density per unit time of the sunlight reaching the upper atmosphere of the Earth is only 1340 W/m . and vice-versa. its output is fairly close to that described above. though. Since the Sun is almost 150 million kilometers from the Earth. Figure 2 shows a theoretical plot of the energy emitted by three perfect blackbody radiators of different temperature. as an object gets hotter. the energy density of the radiation is lessened by spreading and absorption.2: Brightness vs. The first object will appear a very dim red. 40 2 7 . However. Wien’s Law states that the wavelength at which the most energy will be radiated depends inversely upon the temperature of an object. An object that has a temperature of 4000 K has its peak energy being radiated at about 750 nanometers. Between the Sun’s and the Earth’s surfaces. while the second (which is close to our Sun’s temperature of 5800 K) will appear a bright white that has a hint of yellow. has its peak energy being radiated at about 500 nanometers. An object that has a surface temperature of 6000 K. which is in the near infrared.6 x 10 watts of power per square meter from its surface at all wavelengths. While the total amount of energy of the radiation will remain the same.
Large portions of the non-visible part of the spectrum do not get through the atmosphere.3: Sunlight transmitted through the atmosphere versus wavelength 4. As you can see. As you can see. only about 50% of the Sun’s energy that makes it to the top of the atmosphere actually gets down to the surface.1 Latitude and Longitude These are not the only factors that affect the total amount of energy that a solar system receives. If sunlight is striking a spot for more time during a day.3. This is due to the fact that the Earth is a sphere that is spinning with its axis at an angle of 23. outside of the visible and radio parts of the spectrum. water vapor. though. Figure 4 shows a diagram of a typical situation found in Pakistan. and vice versa. there are only a few small sections in the infrared through which the energy gets transmitted. These different lengths correspond to different travel times. o 41 . One factor that seriously impacts it is the number of hours of sunlight a location receives in a day. The vast majority of the visible part of the spectrum gets through the atmosphere with little attenuation. Most of the absorption of the Sun’s light occurs after it enters the Earth’s atmosphere. then more total energy will be delivered.5 with respect to the vertical to the plane of its orbit around the Sun. Figure-4. as does the noonday angle of the Sun. What little doesn’t get through is due to scattering by nitrogen and oxygen (blue appearance of the sky is due to this) and by absorption and reflection from clouds. there is almost nothing to absorb or reflect any of this energy. This means that the path that the Sun will take in the sky on a given day changes. and carbon dioxide all absorb wavelengths of light in the infrared and ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. Figure 3 shows a plot of the percentage of the Sun’s energy that gets transmitted through the atmosphere versus wavelength on a cloudless day. Chemical species such as ozone. the length of the path that the Sun follows on these four different days varies. On average. which means different amounts of daylight. The amount of time that sunlight is shining during the day depends both on the location and the time of year.Travelling through the almost perfect vacuum of space.
etc. the situation is even stranger.Figure-4. There. helium. Different working fluids include water. which results in 12 hours of daylight everyday. technology. gas turbines. then sunlight will always strike the system’s collecting surface at some angle. If it cannot do this.4 Solar Thermal vs. salts. 22 ) and 14-16 hours of sunlight on the Summer Solstice (Jun. The noonday angle of the Sun in the sky can also have an effect on a solar energy system unless it has a way to track the Sun. If one were to live at the equator. the angle of the Sun’s rays changes throughout the year. the Sun is up for 6 months at a time. As we see from Figure-4. or photovoltaic. followed by 6 months of darkness. Different engine types include steam engines. the length of the path across the sky would not vary. thereby allowing the most energy to strike it. which turns a generator to make electricity. nitrogen. there are about 8-10 hours of sunlight on the Winter Solstice (Dec. depending upon at what degree of latitude you live.4. A system that can do this can always keep its collecting surface perpendicular to the Sun’s rays. st nd 4. Sites that are further north have shorter days in the winter and longer days in the summer.4: Diagram of the Sun’s path in the sky on different days In Pakistan. Solar thermal electric energy generation concentrates the light from the sun to create heat. Photovoltaic It is important to understand that solar thermal technology is not the same as solar panel. as well as throughout the day. thereby spreading the energy over a greater area and reducing the amount that actually strikes the surface. etc. and that heat is used to run a heat engine. oil. these angles will depend upon the location of the system on the Earth’s surface. 21 ). Stirling engines. As previously stated. 42 . At the Poles. air. The working fluid that is heated by the concentrated sunlight can be a liquid or a gas.
The mirrors 43 . technically less difficult. and it also can beat the cost of electricity from fossil fuels such as natural gas.5 Competing with Fossil Fuels Solar thermal power currently leads the way as the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale. on the other hand. nothing competes with coal. and will always be. Photovoltaic. directly converts the sun’s light into electricity. or Abengoa. In terms of low-cost and high negative environmental impact.5: Parabolic dish that collects and concentrates the sun into a heat source to run the engine and produce power. 4. have already beaten the price of photovoltaic and natural gas. This means that solar panels are only effective during daylight hours because storing electricity is not a particularly efficient process. The first is line focus collection. and are capable of producing 10’s to 100’s of megawatts of power. and they have plans to beat the price of coal in the near future. Line focus is less expensive. There are currently two methods for solar thermal collection. or PV energy conversion. Heat can be stored during the day and then converted into electricity at night. Solar thermal plants that have storage capacities can drastically improve both the economics and the dispatchability of solar electricity. how to make solar thermal technology more economical. Figure-4. With an increasingly industrializing planet. It currently beats other PV systems.All of these engines can be quite efficient. but not as efficient as point focus. Heat storage is a far easier and efficient method. The issue is. Point focus technique requires a series of mirrors surrounding a central tower. also known as a power tower. The basis for this technology is a parabola-shaped mirror. The second is point focus collection. which rotates on a single axis throughout the day tracking the sun. often between 30% and 40%. the leaders in solar thermal technology have an ever-growing market. But major solar thermal industry players such as eSolar. Brightsource. which is what makes solar thermal so attractive for large-scale energy production.
dish/engine. The mirrors are tilted toward the sun. focusing sunlight on a pipe that runs down the center of the trough. The hot oil then is used to boil water in a conventional steam generator to produce electricity. which in turn causes the generator to work. There are three main types of concentrating solar power systems: parabolic-trough. This steam is used to drive steam turbine. and power tower. The steam from the boiling water rotates a large turbine. and the effective cost per kWhr of the plant. Figure-4.6 Solar Thermal Power plant In the solar power plant. but when compared to the 500° C and higher temperatures that point focus can reach. Point focus. High efficiency matters because it drives down both the land usage. which activates a generator that produces electricity. curved (Ushaped) mirrors. with concentrating solar power systems. 44 . That is a sufficient temperature to run a steam turbine. which then transfers the heat into more usable energy. though initially costlier and technically more nuanced. Parabolic-trough systems: Concentrate the sun’s energy through long rectangular. Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. the extra effort and cost is balanced out by its greater efficiency capability. outshines line focus when results are concerned. The water in the tubes then boils and become steam. a new generation of power plants. uses the sun as a heat source. This heats the oil flowing through the pipe. However. solar energy is used to generate electricity. Sunrays are focused using concave reflectors on to copper tubes filled with water and painted black outside.focus the sun’s rays onto a point on the tower. The point of focus in a line focus mirror array can only reach temperatures around 250° C.6: Coal Reservoir 4.
A power tower system: uses a large field of mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto the top of a tower. which in turn drives an electricity producing turbine. Steam. Steam is raised for the conventional steam power plant. The dish shaped surface collects and concentrates the sun's heat onto a receiver.6. Each mirror is tracked on two axis. where a receiver sits. air or liquid metal may be used as working fluid.7: A central receiver solar power plant A heliostat field consists of a large number of flat mirrors of 25 to 150 m2 area which reflects the beam radiations onto a central receiver mounted on a tower. the salt’s heat is used to generate electricity through a conventional steam generator. The mechanical power is then used to run a generator or alternator to produce electricity. 4. Molten salt retains heat efficiently. Then.7. This heats molten salt flowing through the receiver. That means electricity can be produced on cloudy days or even several hours after sunset. It can be divided into solar plant and conventional steam power plant. so it can be stored for days before being converted into electricity. The flow diagram is given in Figure-4. The absorber surface temperature may be 400 to 1000°C.A dish/engine system: uses a mirrored dish (similar to a very large satellite dish). The concentration ratio (total mirror area divided by receiver area) may be 1500.1 ‘Solar Power Tower’ Power Plant The first is the 'Solar Power Tower' design which uses thousands of sun-tracking reflectors or heliostats to direct and concentrate solar radiation onto a boiler located atop a tower. which absorbs the heat and transfers it to fluid within the engine. There are also called central Receiver Solar Power Plants. The heat causes the fluid to expand against a piston or turbine to produce mechanical power. 45 . The temperature in the boiler rises to 500 – 7000°C and the steam raised can be used to drive a turbine. Figure-4.
4.6. The hot air flows through an air turbine to generate power. Fig. Such power stations can produce many megawatts (mW) of electricity. The hot thermo-oil is used in boiler (5) to raise steam for the steam power plant.2 ‘Distributed (Parabolic) Collector System’ Power Plant The second type is the distributed collector system. The maximum oil temperature is limited to400°C as oil degrades above this temperature. shows a flow diagram of parabolic trough solar power plant. Thermo-oil is mostly used as heating fluid as it has very high boiling point. The concentration ratio is between 40 and 100. Solar thermal power plants with a generating capacity of 80 MW are functioning in the USA.9. The hot air flow through or chimney which gives the air a certain velocity due to pressure drop caused by the chimney effect. 4.8 and 4.9: Parabolic trough solar power plant Water/steam working fluid can also be used. Large arrays of the collectors are coupled to provide high temperature water for driving a steam turbine. 4.9.6. Figure-4. The boiler also is providedwith a back-up unit (6) fired with natural gas. The cooled oil is stored in tank (3) and pumped (4) backto collector (1). It is also called solar farm power plant as a number of solar modules consisting of parabolic trough solar collectors are interconnected. 46 . The working fluid is heated in collectors and collected in hot storage tank (2). This system uses a series of specially designed ‘Trough’ collectors which have an absorber tube running along their length.4. It is rotated about one axis by a sun tracking mechanism. The tubes have evacuated glass enclosure to reduce the losses. These are commercially under operation. but are confined to areas where there is ample solar insulation. Alternately steam at 550°C can be directly generated in the absorber tube.8: Parabolic Solar collector Figure-4.3 Solar Chimney Power Plant The air stream is heated by solar radiation absorbed by the ground and covered by a transparent cover. Every module consists of a collector as shown in Figs.
Photovoltaic conversion of solar radiation gives direct electrical energy. 6. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be impractical for a home. To dry cereals. Solar thermo chemical conversion method converts radiation to heat and produce steam then to kinetic energy using a pump or turbine. 4. Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies photovoltaic. To dry wet clothes. To dry fish. day lighting. 1. Photosynthesis process produces chemical energy directly from radiation. Then what about a solar cell? Solar energy is converted into electrical energy and it is directly used or stored in a battery. A high temperature catalytic conversion process produces chemical energy (H2 fuel) directly. passive heating. We now use several appliances which work using solar energy. A solar ventilation system can preheat the air. 47 . To dry firewood. Solar thermal electric conversion method converts radiation to steam and to kinetic and electrical energy through a turbine and generator to electrical energy. heating this air can use large amounts of energy. To get salt from sea water.7 Solar Energy Storage It is well known that human beings have been using solar energy for different uses. Appliances like solar cooker and solar heater absorb solar radiations and convert it into heat. Chemical energy (H2 fuel) is directly produced from solar radiation using the electricity produced by the photovoltaic method. solar process heating and solar cooling. 3.Figure-4. Find examples of these uses and add to the list given below.10: Chimney solar power plant 4. Solar thermal conversion method converts radiation to heat using solar flat collectors. There are eight possible pathways for conversion of solar radiation to useful energy. These technologies include ventilation air preheating. A few of these methods are dealt in detail further. 2. and water heating that are used for residential buildings. The above route through a further electrolysis process gives chemical energy (H2 fuel). from ancient days. Many large buildings need ventilated air to maintain indoor air quality. In cold climates. 5. To dry leather.
The heated air is then sucked out from the top of the space into the ventilation system. double-walled tubes and reflectors to heat the fluid inside the tubes. Solar process heating systems are designed to provide large quantities of hot water or space heating for nonresidential buildings.saving both energy and money. curved (U-shaped) mirrors tilted to focus sunlight on a tube. combined with some very complex chemistry tricks. Contain features which promote the even distribution of heat throughout the building. but it makes more sense if you just think of the solar heat as an energy source. Solar energy can also be used with evaporative coolers (also called “swamp coolers”) to extend their usefulness to more humid climates. using another chemistry trick called desiccant cooling. Parabolic troughs are long. A vacuum between the two walls insulates the inner tube. Heat stored during the wall during the day is radiated into the 48 . to create cool air. Solar absorption coolers use a similar approach. The heat from a solar collector can also be used to cool a building. A space behind the perforated wall allows the air streams from the holes to mix together. 3. By incorporating certain simple design principles a new dwelling can be made to be fuel efficient and comfortable for habitation. A building should be of sufficient mass to allow heat storage for the required period. which consists of a thin. Air passes through the many small holes in the panel. A massive black painted wall has a double glazed skin to prevent captured heat from escaping. A building should have large areas of glazing facing the sun to maximize solar gain. 4. Vast quantities of energy can be used to achieve this. This heats the fluid within the tube. 4. Your familiar home air conditioner uses an energy source. 2.8 Space Heating In colder areas of the world (including high altitude areas within the tropics) space heating is often required during the winter months. electricity. The two main types of solar collectors used an evacuated tube collector and a parabolic trough collector can operate at high temperatures with high efficiency. The bulk of these technologies are architecture based and passive in nature. It may seem impossible to use heat to cool a building. and/or one or more large storage tanks. Features should be included to regulate heat intake to prevent the building from overheating. For passive solar design to be effective certain guidelines should be followed: 1. Many technologies exist to assist with diurnal heating needs but seasonal storage is more difficult and costly. A typical system includes solar collectors that work along with a pump. to create cool air from solar energy. The wall is vented to allow the warm air to enter the room at high level and cool air to enter the cavity between the wall and the glazing. black metal panel mounted on a south-facing wall to absorb the sun’s heat. a heat exchanger. This type of system typically uses a transpired collector. The use of building materials with a high thermal mass (which stores heat). which runs down the center of the trough. If buildings are carefully designed to take full advantage of the solar insulation which they receive then much of the heating requirement can be met by solar gain alone. good insulation and large glazed areas can increase a buildings capacity to capture and store heat from the sun. holding in the heat. An evacuated-tube collector is a shallow box full of many glass. rectangular. One example of a simple passive space heating technology is the Trombe wall.
lie within the tropics and have little need of space heating. Solar thermal is the current solar electricity cost champion. 4. a nation’s pollution will not be windswept into another nation’s territories. but space that gets a consistent amount of direct sunlight.9 Space Cooling The majority of the worlds developing countries. good town planning to optimise the prevailing wind and available shade. and many new planned plants are in the works. With solar thermal technologies being developed and advanced by companies such as eSolar. This type of technology is useful in areas where the nights are cold but the days are warm and sunny. Buildings can be designed for a given climate domed roofs and thermally massive structures in hot arid climates. often using effects promoted by passive solar phenomenon. open structure bamboo housing in warm. There are as many options as there are people. By not burning fossil fuels. In some countries dwellings are constructed underground and take advantage of the relatively low and stable temperature of the surrounding ground. however. Not only space. Utilization of desertification can prove to be a boon for solar thermal real estate procurement and growth. presumably originally chosen for its sun exposure. This land. There is a demand. Solar thermal power plants typically require 1/4 to 1 square mile or more of land.11: eSolar’s unique approach to minimize land requirements 49 . and hopefully eliminating. by limiting. humid areas. Abengoa. These include sitting a building in shade or near water. Brightsource. carbon emissions. elegant techniques for cooling their dwellings.10 Land Requirements Another challenge for solar thermal is the amount of space required for efficient production of energy. but more improvements are needed to beat the cost of the lowest-cost fossil fuels in a legislative climate without subsidies or carbon taxes. countries can be truly energy independent. simple. The benefits of eliminating coal from our energy diet are many. begs to be used for solar thermal energy production. Acciona. There are many methods for minimizing heat gain. however. Ausra and Schott Solar. shuttered and shaded windows to prevent heat gain. further cementing the concept of independence. Also. Figure-4. Solar thermal plants are being built around the world. the world has a new alternative. One silver lining of global climate change and human impact on the land is that more and more farmland is becoming unsuitable for agricultural production. for space cooling. using vegetation or landscaping to direct wind into the building. The majority of the worlds warm-climate cultures have again developed traditional.room during the night. 4.
05 Solar Energy and Pakistan Figure-5.1 Methodology and assumptions If PV is to have a promising future as a major energy source it must build on the experiences of those countries that have already led the way in stimulating the solar energy market.1.1: Solar energy and Pakistan 5.over the first two decades of the twenty-first century. In this section we look forward to what solar power could achieve .1 The solar energy future 5. As well as projections for installed capacity and energy output we also make assessments of the 50 .given the right market conditions and an anticipated fall in costs .
the number of jobs that would be created and the crucial effect that an increased input from solar electricity will have on greenhouse gas emissions. and their average size is 3 kWp. Since system sizes are much smaller and the population density greater. together with an extended projection forwards to 2040. is based on the following core inputs. more than 1. About two thirds of this would be in the grid-connected market. The potential for PV in terms of solar irradiation. 1. Here the assumption is that on average a 100 Wp stand-alone system will cover the basic electricity needs of 3-4 persons per dwelling. each serving the needs of three people. the availability of suitable roof space and the demand for electricity in areas not connected to the grid. this means that up to 950 million people in the developing countries would by then be using solar electricity. PV market development over recent years both globally and in specific regions. National targets for PV installations and manufacturing capacity. mainly in industrialized countries.level of investment required.6 billion people could get electricity from off grid photovoltaic systems.1. In the non-industrialized world approximately 40 GWp of solar capacity is expected to have been installed by 2020 in the rural electrification sector. 4. 5. Assuming that 80% of these systems are installed on residential buildings.2 Power generation The global installed capacity of solar power systems would reach 433 GWp by 2025. National and regional market support programmers. By 2025. 2. This scenario for 2025. In Europe alone there would be roughly 41 million people receiving their supply from grid-connected solar electricity. the total number of people by then generating their own electricity from a grid-connected solar system would reach 290 million. This would represent a major breakthrough for the technology from its present emerging status 51 . 3.
which is the entire point of going solar in the first place. Since developing world markets will play a more significant role beyond 2010. retailing and providing other local services up to 2010. but also the location of your home is also relevant to whether or not you can maintain solar energy.1. the cons of implementing solar power in our home are primarily cost and location related. To achieve the highest level of efficiency. the proportion of maintenance work is assumed to steadily increase up to two jobs per MW by 2020. 5. Some houses simply do not receive enough sunlight to produce substantial energy. it has been assumed that. decreasing to 10 jobs per MW between 2010 and 2020. about one job will be created per installed MW. This could mean that either your house is not positioned favorably in relation to a tree or other house. reducing to 27 jobs per MW between 2010 and 2020. No matter how much some people would like to get involved in the movement to independent energy. 52 .2 Solar Energy and Pakistan: An Over View As solar power does not make sense for all locations in the world. About 30 jobs per MW will be created during the process of installation. and that is not easy for most people to get around. we need the proper amount of roof space to support the panels your house may require. Based on information provided by the industry. the good news is that. The initial cost of installing solar panels or other sources of solar energy is high. however.2 million full-time jobs would have been created by the development of solar power around the world.3 Pakistan is most suitable for solar power As we can see. but if those two items do not pose issues for us. 20 jobs will be created per MW of capacity during manufacture. an estimated 3. 5. Over half of those would be in the installation and marketing of systems. If solarpower is looked at through a long-term lens. As far as maintenance is concerned it is assumed that with the more efficient business structures and larger systems in the industrialized world. The result is that by 2025. we will eventually make back what you originally spent. up to 2010. and possibly start saving money on your investment. it is cost prohibitive.5.3 Employment More jobs are created in the installation and servicing of PV systems than in their manufacture. Not only how much space is available.
geothermal heat pumps. It does not fill our atmosphere with carbon dioxide. less and less expensive with each passing year. On a larger scale. the primary component of solar panels. The Government of Pakistan guarantees are backed through NEPRA. or semi-independent. places where conventional power can’t be reached. “The energy crisis has forced upon a vigorous search for out of box. 53 . Solar power can also be used in remote locations. The Board has recently issued LOIs to 30 national and international companies for generation of 1500 MW power through solar energy. on the other. 5. solar water heaters and solar water pumping etc. solar power also reduces our need to rely on foreign sources for power. the Government of Pakistan has determined to establish 100 MW Solar Power Farm by June 2011.4 Pakistan’s indulgence in solar energy ISLAMABAD. land from Government of Sindh and power purchase by NTDC for HESCO. And last. on one hand and to meet the energy requirements of the country. Solar power is independent.” the President said during a briefing given to him on alternate Pakistan on industrial grid linked electricity production program. unlike expensive and damaging fossil fuels. It is a free and unlimited source of power. April 29-2010 . imaginative and bold solutions. Solar power is not subject supply and demand fluctuations in the way that gas is. it’s good for our planet! Solar energy is clean.President Asif Ali Zardari has asked for an early adoption and utilization of modern solar and geothermal technologies including solar cookers. Silicon. nitrogen oxide. This program initiated by the Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB). mercury or any other pollutants. This is great because you can supply your home with electricity during a power outage.Let’s not forget that solar energy increases the value of our home too. is also being more widely produced. but certainly not least. renewable and sustainable. to take full advantage of the available natural energy resources. involves financing through private sector. therefore.
a Solar Water Desalination Plant has also been installed and commissioned at the village ensuring the availability of clean drinking water to the villagers. The batteries of this vehicle are charged with Solar Energy.5 Solar activity in Pakistan (2x50) MW Solar Power Generation Project at Gharo. and M/s Tenaga. which has been air-conditioned using Solar Energy as well. Balochistan. VESTAS and GAMESA have been short-listed for the project. Islamabad The project was successfully executed and implemented by AEDB. Allah Baksh Bazar Dandar. Janak. OEMs/Suppliers like GE. Sindh. Khan. Private investors have entered the PPA negotiations with NTDC/WAPDA. M/s Win Power Ltd. Distrcit D. 54 . A Children’s Playground with Solar Powered Lights has also been developed at the Village. Once the initial target of generating 100 MW through Solar Energy is achieved. 100 Solar Homes Program Narian Khorian. 8 companies with financial and technical viability have been short-listed.G.000 MW. The Honorable Prime Minister of Pakistan inaugurated it on 19th June 2005. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. it will be upgraded to 700 MW by the year 2010 and 9700 MW by the year 2030. NTDC. 2. M/s Zephyr Ltd. Sindh: A solar corridor at Gharo-Keti Bandar. Sindh has been identified with an actual potential of 50.. AEDB has allocated 1000 acres of land each to five (5) investors. Lakhi Bher. District Kech.5. a 12 Volt DC fan and a TV socket. District Thar. 4 LED lights. The pre-feasibility study of the site has been done by AEDB. HESCO has agreed to purchase the initial 100 MW Solar Power generated through this project. Three companies have submitted applications to NEPRA for obtaining Generation License. M/s Green Power. as per Government of Pakistan’s Policy for Power Generation 2002. namely M/s New Park Energy Ltd. 4. an electric vehicle has also been developed which will act as the first ever Electric Rickshaw in Pakistan. District Kohat. a Solar Geyser and a Solar Cooker have also been provided to each household. AEDB drafted the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) and the Implementation Agreement. 100 Solar Homes Program per Province: The project was executed and implemented in the following villages: 1. NTDC has submitted the request for Power Acquisition Permission to NEPRA for procuring power from the proposed solar plants.e.. Punjab. Each of the 100 households has been provided with 88-Watt Solar Panels. In addition. Tariff would be determined by NEPRA in consultation with the IPP and the Power Purchaser i. Sindh Government has leased out approximately 5000 Acres of land for the project. In addition. As part of the community welfare. Two Solar Powered Computers have been provided to the village Mosque/Community Center.. Bharo Mal. 3.
a 12 Volt DC fan and a TV socket. 55 . Another 40 kW Kaplan type micro hydel turbine has been indigenously manufactured and installed at the Khanpur Dam Canal near the village of Mohra Morado. 2. 5. a Solar Disinfecting Unit and a Solar Cooker have also been provided to each household. 600 houses have been electrified in the remote coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan through installation of small solar panel (stand alone) systems. for providing electricity to the rural households. Solar-Solar-Diesel High hybrid system installed to provide electricity to two villages in Balochistan through M/s Empower International. 4. solar room heating systems and solar cookers have been developed and disseminated for domestic and commercial applications. Solar Thermal Appliances A number of appliances including solar water heaters. 3. Pilot Project for Development and Installation of 02 Micro Hydro Kaplan Pannel: A 40 kW Kaplan type micro hydel Turbine has been imported from China to reverse engineer the technology. In addition.Each of the 100 households in each village has been provided with 88-Watt Solar Panels. Taxila.6 Activities of Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) Photovoltaic (PV) Technology 1. 3000 Laser Detectors were designed and fabricated for incorporating in the laser land leveling system of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). This turbine is being used to provide electricity to the village Pilot Project for Installation of Indigenously Developed Micro Solar Panel: A total of 140 Micro Solar Pannel have been installed at various sites within Sindh and Balochistan. solar distillation stills for producing clean water. 4 LED lights. New Zealand. 4000 Solar Cells and 300 Solar Modules of different sizes were fabricated indigenously. Hand Generators and Solar Mobile Phone Chargers have been indigenously developed by the private sector with AEDB’s facilitation. Two other villages in Balochistan were electrified using PV system. These products have also been provided to the rural areas that have been electrified with Solar Energy. An R&D lab is being setup for this purpose. Innovative Lighting Systems: LED Lights. Solar Lanterns. Electrification through Micro Solar Panel: 1. Pedal Generators. solar fruit and vegetable dryers.
5.7 Pakistan’s Solar Energy Development Plans MEDIUM TERM SOLAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2011-2020 Year Capacity Installed (MW) 700 Cumulative MW of Solar Energy Installed by Year End Short Term Plan (2005-2010) 700 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 100 100 150 200 250 250 300 300 350 300 800 900 1.000 Source: Board of Investment.750 2. The second (improved) model is under field test.050 2.050 1. 5. Karachi for desalination of brackish water.350 2.250 1. 500-Watts Solar Turbine has been manufactured locally. 4.2. 5 villages have been provided with battery charging facilities through a solar-powered battery-charging center.500 1. Kemari Town. 4 Coast Guard Check Posts at Lasbela have been electrified. A reverse osmosis unit is being installed near village Mubarak. 3.700 3. Government of Pakistan 56 .
U. Mirpur Sakro Goth Ismail Khaskheli 1 – Thakani Goth Ismail Khaskheli 2 – Thakani Goth Mohd Hasan Khaskheli – Thakani. Udaasi 01 (10 kilo Watts) – Water Pumping Source: Board of Investment.C. Udaasi Total 23 06 3 4 5 15 05 18 04 01 05 6 07 02 7 11 03 8 06 02 9 10 11 12 40 250 16 14 356 10 40 04 03 85 13 Daandaari – Ghorabari. Mirpur Sakro 2 Goth Haji Jumo Khaskheli – Thakani. Mirpur Sakro Goth Jamot Hussain Khaskheli – Thakani. Mirpur Sakro Goth Baboo Pahwar – Thakani. Mirpur Sakro Goth Sher Muhammad Hamaiti – Gujjo Goth Daandaari – Ghorabari. Udaasi Goth Lukman – Ghorabari. U.No Name of Village Homes Electrified Khaskheli – 16 04 Pannel Installed 1 Goth Gul Muhammad Thakani.C. Government of Pakistan 57 . Mirpur Sakro Goth Haji Abdullah Channo – Thakani.DETAILS OF MICRO SOLAR PANNEL INSTALLED IN SINDH & BALOCHISTAN SINDH . U. Udaasi Goth Sammo – Ghorabari.District Thatta S.C. U.C.
Lasbela Goth Yaaqoob – Kund Malir.No 7 Name of Recipient Governor Balochistan on behalf of the Government of Balochistan Location F.BALOCHISTAN . District Lasbela S.No Name of Village Homes Electrified 03 15 35 Pannel Installed 01 02 05 1 2 3 Goth Meer Isa – Kund Malir. of Houses 53 57 121 135 115 120 601 Punjab Punjab Balochistan Punjab Sindh K. Government of Pakistan BALOCHISTAN . Warehouse Quetta Panel 39 Current Status To be installed as per the direction and advice of the Irrigation & Power Department Balochistan Source: Board of Investment.Kund Malir. Lasbela Goth Ramzan – Kund Malir. Lasbela Goth Mir Abdullah – Kund Malir.C. Khan Chachro Kohat Province No.Quetta N S. Government of Pakistan 58 . Lasbela Goth Haji Washi / Daghari – Kund Malir.K Total Source: Board of Investment. Lasbela Goth Haji Sher Muhammad – Kund Malir. Government of Pakistan VILLAGES ELECTRIFIED THROUGH SOLAR PHTOVOLTAIC DURING 2004-05 Village Name Narian Khorian Allah Baksh Bazar Dandar Lakhi Bhair Bharomal Jhanak District Rawalpindi Rawalpindi Turbat D.P. Lasbela Totals 4 5 18 08 02 01 6 32 04 111 15 Source: Board of Investment.G.
7. Khan Chachro Kohat Province Balochistan Punjab Sindh K. 3.G. 9. 5. 1. of Houses 100 100 100 100 400 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FOR 2005-06 No. 8.VILLAGES TO BE ELECTRIFIED THROUGH SOLAR PHTOVOLTAIC DURING 2005-06 Village name Khirzaan Basti Bugha Pinpario Shnow Garri District Khuzdar D. 6.P. Project Title Roshan Pakistan: National Rural Electrification Programe through Alternative / Renewable Energy Technologies Solar Homes Project in Each Province Development of Supply Chain Mechanism for Pedal Generators. 10.K Total No. 4. Hand Generators and LED Lanterns Pilot Project of Production Plant of Bio-Diesel Research on Development of 1 kW Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle in Pakistan using Existing Fuel Cell Solar Water Pumping & Desalination Solar Thermal Power Plant Technologies (Demonstration Units) Electrification of Villages through Micro Solar Pannel Pilot project for Development and Installation of 02 Micro Hydro Kaplan Pannel Pilot project for Emerging Demonstration in Pakistan Alternative Energy Technologies 2. 59 .
8 Conclusion Reports are a helpful channel. By taking the crucial steps to help ensure that more than a billion people obtain electricity from the sun in the future we can harness the full potential of solar power for our common good. investors and other interested parties to support solar power. 60 . particularly in a time when we are concerned about greenhouse gas emissions from other energy sources. global citizens. but it is people’s behavior that really changes things.5. Solar energy is very useful. We encourage politicians and policymakers. companies. energy officials.
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