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Power System Reliability
Solar Energy Technology
Sir. Prof: M. Zahir Khan
1. 2. 3. 4. Engr. Muhammad Zafran Engr. Atiq Ur Rehman Engr. Muhammad Bashir Engr. Naveed Khan
Department of Electrical Engineering University of Engineering & Technology Peshawar, Pakistan
1 The Sun……………………………………………………………….1
History of Sun..............................................................................................1 Development of Scientific understandings………………………………...3 Observation and effects…………………………………………………….5 Characteristics……………………………………………………………...6 Internal structure of the Sun………………………………………………..8 1.5.1 Core………………………………………………………………8 1.5.2 Radiative zone……………………………………………………10 1.5.3 Convective zone………………………………………………….11 1.5.4 Photosphere………………………………………………………11 1.5.5 Atmosphere………………………………………………………12 2 What is Solar Cell?………………………………………………………….15 2.1 History of Solar cells ……………………………………………………...16 2.2 Applications………………………………………………………………..16 2.4 Theory…………………………………………….………………............. 17 2.5 Efficiency…………………………………………………………..............17 2.6 Cost………………………………………………………………………...18 2.7 Materials for Solar cel……………………………………………..............19 2.7.1 Crystalline silicon………………………………………………..19 2.7.2 Thin films………………………………………………………...20 2.7.3 Cadmium telluride solar cells…………………………………...20 2.7.4 Copper indium selenide…………………………………………21 2.7.5 Gallium arsenide multi junction………………………………...21 2.7.6 Light absorbing dyes……………………………………………22 2.8 Manufacturing techniques………………………………………………...22 2.9 Life span…………………………………………………………………..23 2.10 Manufacturers and certification…………………………………………..23 2.10.1 China……………………………………………………………24 2.10.2 United States……………………………………………………24 3 The History of Solar Energy……………………………………………....25 3.1 Timeline from 7th Century B.C.to 1200 A.D.………………………….....25 3.2 Timeline from 1767 to 1891……………………………………………...26 3.3 Timeline of solar technology in 1900s…………………………………...27 3.4 Timeline of solar technology in 2000s…………………………………...33 3.5 Recent developments in Solar technology………………………………..35 3.6 Expected future direction of solar technology……………………………36 4 Solar Energy………………………………………………………………..37 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
4.1 What is Solar Energy?………………………………………………….....37 4.2 The Sun is our source……………………………………………………..38 4.3 Solar energy basics………………………………………………………..39 4.3.1 Latitude and longitude…………………………………………...41 4.4 Solar thermal Vs Photovoltaic…………………………………………....42 4.5 Competing with fossil fuels………………………………………………43 4.6 Solar thermal power plant………………………………………………...44 4.6.1 ‘Solar power tower’ power plant…………………………………45 4.6.2 ‘Distributed collector system’ power plant……………………...46 4.6.3 ‘Solar chimney’ power plant…………………………………….46 4.7 Solar energy storage………………………………………………………47 4.8 Space heating……………………………………………………………...48 4.9 Space cooling……………………………………………………………...49 4.10 Land requirements…………………………………………………………49 5 Solar energy and Pakistan…………………………………………………..50 5.1 The Solar energy future……………………………………………………50 5.1.1 Methodology and assumptions…………………………………...50 5.1.2 Power generation…………………………………………………51 5.1.3 Employment……………………………………………………...52 5.2 Solar energy and Pakistan: An overview…………………………………..52 5.3 Pakistan is most suitable for solar power…………………………………..52 5.4 Pakistan’s indulgence in solar power………………………………………53 5.5 Solar activity in Pakistan…………………………………………………...54 5.6 Activities of PCRET………………………………………………………..55 5.7 Pakistan’s Solar energy development plans………………………………...56 5.8 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..60
......8: Parabolic solar collector………………………………………………..3: Sunlight transmitted through atmosphere Vs wavelength……………..43 Figure-4..13 Figure-2.........3: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells……………………………………….11: eSolar unique approach to minimize land requirements……………….......4: Diagram of the Sun’s path in the sky on different ways……………….16 Figure-2...9: Parabolic trough solar power plant……………………………………......1: Solar energy and Pakistan………………………………………………..LIST OF FIGURES Figure-1..1: Solar cell made from mono crystalline silicon wafer………………….....40 Figure-4.....1: Our galaxy system……………….........1: Direct and diffuse solar radiations…………………………………….4: Basic structure of silicon based solar cell and its working mech……….2 Figure-1..2: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells laminate……………………………....6: Solar atmosphere………………………………………………………....19 Figure-3......…………………….45 Figure-4..38 Figure-4....47 Figure-4..46 Figure-4......7: A central receiver solar power plant…………………………………......3: Sun as it appear from the surface of earth…….7: Nature of plasma………………………………………………………...41 Figure-4.......5 Figure-1...46 Figure-4.……………………………………….42 Figure-4..6: Coal reservoir…………………………………………………………....……….2: An eSolar project in California and spain………………………………....4: Sun’s internal structure.49 Figure-5...8 Figure-1....1: Mesa Verde Cliff dwelling………………………………………………25 Figure-3.5: Parabolic dish…………………………………………………………...…………………...12 Figure-1...2: Cooler stars……………….......1 Figure-1.17 Figure-2...........2: Brightness Vs Wavelength for various temperatures………………….5: Cross section of a solar type star…………………………………………9 Figure-1.15 Figure-2......35 Figure-4..10: Chimney solar power plant……………………………………………...........50 .......44 Figure-4..
1: Our galaxy system Our Sun is one of at least four hundred billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy. Figure-1. The fusion process released tremendous amounts of heat and light which could then combat the compressing force of gravity. fortunately for us.01 THE SUN 1.5 billion miles) from the center of the galaxy. the Sun. a small cloud of gas and dust began to compress under its own weight. in a distant spiral arm of our galaxy. All stars in our galaxy and other galaxies come in different sizes and colors. and our sun is a medium sized star known as a yellow dwarf. called the Milky Way. The balance of fusion reactions versus gravitational collapse which occurred in this little cloud is fondly referred to as a star. and this story is about the birth and life of the closest star to Earth. did not use all of its gas and dust to 1 . The cloud from which it formed. the two forces reached equilibrium.1 History of Sun Less than 5 billion years ago. and it lives 8 kilo parsecs (2. Particles within the cloud's center (core) became so densely packed that they often collided and stuck (fused) together. eventually.
and the core stops fusing. gravity does not work as hard to crush the remaining core. however. that which was left over. formed the 9 planets. bluer stars. Then gravity begins to compress the Sun under its own weight again. Since the bulk of the Sun is envelope material. Thus. The core thus begins to fuse helium into carbon to make enough energy to maintain its balance with the crushing force of gravity. the star stops fusing hydrogen and loses its ability to combat gravity. The making of carbon. A drop in temperature in a star can be seen in the change in the color of a star. when this material floats off. The introduction of more compression causes the new helium particles inside of the core to collide hard enough so that they can stick together and fuse. At this point in its life. but tiny about the size of the Earth.2: Cooler Stars When the envelope expands too far away from the Sun's core. the Sun will be called a red giant. as the particles become so spread out that they no longer are colliding enough to create tremendous heat. Once all of the hydrogen is turned into helium. it will fuse more and more hydrogen in its core. The particles of carbon in the core are still very densely packed. The Sun has been fusing hydrogen into helium and hence providing us with its radiant energy for 4. and so the core is very hot. 2 . the Sun's envelope will expand to engulf all of the inner solar system out to Mars. The temperature will drop in the envelope as well. This leftover hot and tiny core will be called a white dwarf.make the Sun. And then what? As the sun gets older. however. This floated-off envelope material is known as a planetary nebula. at this stage of its life. The energy being pumped out of the core radiates through the outer layers of the sun called the envelope. less than one percent of the original material. cooler stars are redder than hotter. The introduction of too much energy into the envelope heats up the envelope particles so much that the envelope expands (for the same reasons that steam rises). the envelope will begin to float off of the core and into space.5 billion years. gives off more energy than did the making of helium. and it is expected to continue to do so for another 3 to 4 billion years more. Figure-1.
. 1. though he was later released through the intervention of Pericles.C. One of the first people to offer a scientific or philosophical explanation for the Sun was the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras. In the 1st century CE. who reasoned that it was a giant flaming ball of metal even larger than the Peloponnesus rather than the chariot of Helios. In the early 17th century.2 Development of scientific understanding In the early first millennium B. the latter value is correct to within a few percent. and that the Moon reflected the light of the Sun. it is today known that this is due to the Earth moving in an elliptic orbit around the Sun. This largely philosophical view was developed into fully predictive mathematical model of a heliocentric system in the 16th century by Nicolaus Copernicus.210 times the Earth radius. with the Earth moving faster when it is nearer to the Sun at perihelion and moving slower when it is farther away at aphelion.But for now. Arabic astronomical contributions include Albatenius discovering that the direction of the Sun's eccentric is changing. he was imprisoned by the authorities and sentenced to death.000 entries for the Sun's position for many years using a large astrolabe. Galileo made some of the first known telescopic observations of sunspots and posited that they were on the surface of the Sun rather than small objects passing between the Earth and the Sun.000 stadia (148 to 153 million kilometers). the Sun maintains itself as a yellow dwarf star. the invention of the telescope permitted detailed observations of sunspots by Thomas Harriot. Ptolemy estimated the distance as 1. and later adopted by Seleucus of Seleucia. though they were unaware of why this was.E. Babylonian astronomers observed that the Sun's motion along the ecliptic was not uniform. Averroes also provided a description of sunspots in the 12th century.080. The theory that the Sun is the center around which the planets move was first proposed by the ancient Greek Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BCE. The transit of Venus was first observed in 1032 by Avicenna. giving off radiation in all wavelengths of light including light we can and cannot see.000 km) or 804. Galileo Galilei and other astronomers. It is the largest object in the solar system.000. implying either 4. who concluded that Venus is closer to the Earth than the 3 .000 stadia (755. For teaching this heresy. yet is one of hundreds of billions of stars in our enormous galaxy. Eratosthenes estimated the distance between the Earth and the Sun in the 3rd century BCE as "of stadia myriads 400 and 80000". the translation of which is ambiguous. Sunspots were also observed since the Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) by Chinese astronomers who maintained records of these observations for centuries. and Ibn Yunus observing more than 10.
Sun, while one of the first observations of the transit of Mercury was conducted by Ibn Bajjah in the 12th century. In 1672 Giovanni Cassini and Jean Richer determined the distance to Mars and were thereby able to calculate the distance to the Sun. Isaac Newton observed the Sun's light using a prism, and showed that it was made up of light of many colors, while in 1800 William Herschel discovered infrared radiation beyond the red part of the solar spectrum. The 1800s saw spectroscopic studies of the Sun advance, and Joseph von Fraunhofer made the first observations of absorption lines in the spectrum, the strongest of which are still often referred to as Fraunhofer lines. When expanding the spectrum of light from the Sun, a large number of missing colors can be found. In the early years of the modern scientific era, the source of the Sun's energy was a significant puzzle. Lord Kelvin suggested that the Sun was a gradually cooling liquid body that was radiating an internal store of heat. Kelvin and Hermann von Helmholtz then proposed a gravitational contraction mechanism to explain the energy output. Unfortunately the resulting age estimate was only 20 million years, well short of the time span of at least 300 million years suggested by some geological discoveries of that time. In 1890 Joseph Lockyer, who discovered helium in the solar spectrum, proposed a meteoritic hypothesis for the formation and evolution of the Sun. Not until 1904 was a documented solution offered. Ernest Rutherford suggested that the Sun's output could be maintained by an internal source of heat, and suggested radioactive decay as the source. However, it would be Albert Einstein who would provide the essential clue to the source of the Sun's energy output with his mass-energy equivalence relation E = mc2. In 1920, Sir Arthur Eddington proposed that the pressures and temperatures at the core of the Sun could produce a nuclear fusion reaction that merged hydrogen (protons) into helium nuclei, resulting in a production of energy from the net change in mass. The preponderance of hydrogen in the Sun was confirmed in 1925 by Cecilia Payne. The theoretical concept of fusion was developed in the 1930s by the astrophysicists Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Hans Bethe. Hans Bethe calculated the details of the two main energy-producing nuclear reactions that power the Sun. Finally, a seminal paper was published in 1957 by Margaret Burbidge, entitled "Synthesis of the Elements in Stars". The paper demonstrated convincingly that most of the elements in the universe had been synthesized by nuclear reactions inside stars, some like our Sun.
1.3 Observation and effects
Sunlight is very bright, and looking directly at the Sun with the naked eye for brief periods can be painful, but is not particularly hazardous for normal, non-dilated eyes. Looking directly at the Sun causes phosphene visual artifacts and temporary partial blindness. It also delivers about 4 mill watts of sunlight to the retina, slightly heating it and potentially causing damage in eyes that cannot respond properly to the brightness. UV exposure gradually yellows the lens of the eye over a period of years and is thought to contribute to the formation of cataracts, but this depends on general exposure to solar UV, not on whether one looks directly at the Sun. Long-duration viewing of the direct Sun with the naked eye can begin to cause UV-induced, sunburn-like lesions on the retina after about 100 seconds, particularly under conditions where the UV light from the Sun is intense and well focused; conditions are worsened by young eyes or new lens implants (which admit more UV than aging natural eyes), Sun angles near the zenith, and observing locations at high altitude.
Figure-1.3: The Sun as it appears from the surface of Earth
Viewing the Sun through light-concentrating optics such as binoculars is very hazardous without an appropriate filter that blocks UV and substantially dims the sunlight. An attenuating (ND) filter might not filter UV and so is still dangerous. Attenuating filters to view the Sun should be specifically designed for that use: some improvised filters pass UV or IR rays that can harm the eye at high brightness levels. Unfiltered binoculars can deliver over 500 times as much energy to the retina as using the naked eye, killing retinal cells almost instantly (even though the power per unit area of image on the retina is the same, the heat cannot dissipate fast enough because the image is larger). Even brief glances at the midday Sun through unfiltered binoculars can cause permanent blindness. Partial solar eclipses are hazardous to view because the eye's pupil is not adapted to the unusually high visual contrast: the pupil dilates according to the total amount of light in the field of view, not by the brightest object in the field. During partial eclipses most
sunlight is blocked by the Moon passing in front of the Sun, but the uncovered parts of the photosphere have the same surface brightness as during a normal day. In the overall gloom, the pupil expands from ~2 mm to ~6 mm, and each retinal cell exposed to the solar image receives about ten times more light than it would looking at the non-eclipsed Sun. This can damage or kill those cells, resulting in small permanent blind spots for the viewer. The hazard is insidious for inexperienced observers and for children, because there is no perception of pain: it is not immediately obvious that one's vision is being destroyed. During sunrise and sunset sunlight is attenuated due to Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering from a particularly long passage through Earth's atmosphere, and the Sun is sometimes faint enough to be viewed comfortably with the naked eye or safely with optics (provided there is no risk of bright sunlight suddenly appearing through a break between clouds). Hazy conditions, atmospheric dust, and high humidity contribute to this atmospheric attenuation. A rare optical phenomenon may occur shortly after sunset or before sunrise, known as a green flash. The flash is caused by light from the Sun just below the horizon being bent (usually through a temperature inversion) towards the observer. Light of shorter wavelengths (violet, blue, green) is bent more than that of longer wavelengths (yellow, orange, red) but the violet and blue light is scattered more, leaving light that is perceived as green. Ultraviolet light from the Sun has antiseptic properties and can be used to sanitize tools and water. It also causes sunburn, and has other medical effects such as the production of vitamin D. Ultraviolet light is strongly attenuated by Earth's ozone layer, so that the amount of UV varies greatly with latitude and has been partially responsible for many biological adaptations, including variations in human skin color in different regions of the globe.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It has a diameter of about 1,392,000 km, about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass (about 2×1030 kilograms, 330,000 times that of Earth) accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium. Less than 2% consists of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, iron, and others.
as viewed from the galactic north pole. a stream of charged particles that extends to the heliopause at roughly 100 astronomical units. The Sun is currently traveling through the Local Interstellar Cloud in the Local Bubble zone. The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way at a distance of approximately 24. from the surface of the Earth it may appear yellow because of atmospheric scattering of blue light.74. and the Sun has been regarded by some cultures as a deity. the Sun is the brightest object in the sky with an apparent magnitude of −26.The Sun's stellar classification. and drives Earth's climate and weather. In the spectral class label. there are a number of present-day anomalies in the Sun's behavior that remain unexplained.000–26. The bubble in the interstellar medium formed by the solar wind.2 light years away). The Sun's hot corona continuously expands in space creating the solar wind. the Sun is now thought to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy. is a main sequence star. the heliosphere. in about 225–250 million years. the sun's resultant velocity with respect to the CMB is about 370 km/s in the direction of Crater or Leo. and V indicates that the Sun. like most stars. The energy of this sunlight supports almost all life on Earth by photosynthesis. G2 indicates its surface temperature of approximately 5778 K (5505 °C). At this average distance.83. and thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. most of which are red dwarfs. and as recently as the 19th century prominent scientists had little knowledge of the Sun's physical composition and source of energy. Since our galaxy is moving with respect to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) in the direction of constellation Hydra with a speed of 550 km/s. completing one clockwise orbit. the Sun fuses 620 million metric tons of hydrogen each second. 7 . In its core. because its visible radiation is most intense in the yellowgreen portion of the spectrum and although its color is white. An accurate scientific understanding of the Sun developed slowly. is G2V. Once regarded by astronomers as a small and relatively insignificant star. though the distance varies as the Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July. is the largest continuous structure in the Solar System. based on spectral class. The absolute magnitude of the Sun is +4. The mean distance of the Sun from the Earth is approximately 149. light travels from the Sun to Earth in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds. the Sun ranks 4th in mass. Of the 50 nearest stellar systems within 17 light-years from Earth (the closest being a red dwarf named Proxima Centauri at approximately 4. and is informally designated as a yellow dwarf. within the inner rim of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy.000 light years from the galactic center. This understanding is still developing. however. The enormous effect of the Sun on the Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times.6 million kilometers (1 AU). as the star closest to Earth.
 Computer modeling of the Sun is also used as a theoretical tool to investigate its deeper layers. However. Figure-1. 9. 8.1 Core The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 20–25% of the solar radius. Core Radiative zone Convective zone Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Sunspot Granules Prominence 1. 3. the discipline of helioseismology makes use of pressure waves (infrasound) traversing the Sun's interior to measure and visualize the star's inner structure. 2. 4. and the Sun itself is opaque to electromagnetic radiation.1. It has a density of up to 150 g/cm3 (about 150 times the density of water) and 8 . just as seismology uses waves generated by earthquakes to reveal the interior structure of the Earth.5. 5. 6.5 Internal structure of the Sun The solar interior is not directly observable. 7.4: Sun’s internal structure An illustration of the structure of the Sun: 1.
energy is produced by nuclear fusion through a series of steps called the p–p (proton–proton) chain. The core is the only region in the Sun that produces an appreciable amount of thermal energy through fusion. Through most of the Sun's life. 9 .26 million metric tons per second. inside 24% of the Sun's radius. Less than 2% of the helium generated in the Sun comes from the CNO cycle. or 9. Recent analysis of SOHO mission data favors a faster rotation rate in the core than in the rest of the radiative zone. or about 6.846×1026  10 W).2×1037 times each second in the core of the Sun. The rest of the star is heated by energy that is transferred outward from the core and the layers just outside. fusion has stopped nearly entirely. rather. as described by the concept of mass-energy equivalence.7% of the fused mass as energy. By contrast. the Sun releases energy at the mass-energy conversion rate of 4.7×1038 protons to alpha particles (helium nuclei) every second (out of a total of ~8. Since this reaction uses four free protons (hydrogen nuclei). The energy produced by fusion in the core must then travel through many successive layers to the solar photosphere before it escapes into space as sunlight or kinetic energy of particles.6 yottawatts (3. the Sun's surface temperature is approximately 5. the mass is carried away in the radiated energy. Since fusing hydrogen into helium releases around 0.800 K.a temperature of close to 13.2×1011 kg per second. This mass is not destroyed to create the energy. this process converts hydrogen into helium.9×1056 free protons in the Sun). it converts about 3.5: Cross-section of a solar-type star (NASA) The proton–proton chain occurs around 9.192×10 megatons of TNT per second. 99% of the power has been generated. Figure-1. 384.6 million kelvin (K). and by 30% of the radius.
but instead due to its large size. increasing the fusion rate and again reverting it to its present level. Each gamma ray in the Sun's core is converted into several million photons of visible light before escaping into space.000 and 170. The gamma rays (high-energy photons) released in fusion reactions are absorbed in only a few millimeters of solar plasma and then re-emitted again in random direction and at slightly lower energy.2 g/cm3) from the bottom to the top of the radiative zone. which travel only a brief distance before being reabsorbed by other ions. Energy is transferred by radiation—ions of hydrogen and helium emit photons.7 solar radii.2 Radiative zone From about 0. Therefore it takes a long time for radiation to reach the Sun's surface. The fusion rate in the core is in a self-correcting equilibrium: a slightly higher rate of fusion would cause the core to heat up more and expand slightly against the weight of the outer layers. The density drops a hundredfold (from 20 g/cm3 to only 0. and a slightly lower rate would cause the core to cool and shrink slightly. solar material is hot and dense enough that thermal radiation is sufficient to transfer the intense heat of the core outward.5 watts/m3. The tremendous power output of the Sun is not due to its high power per volume. 10 . reducing the fusion rate and correcting the perturbation. Neutrinos are also released by the fusion reactions in the core. This discrepancy was resolved in 2001 through the discovery of the effects of neutrino oscillation: the Sun emits the number of neutrinos predicted by the theory.The power production by fusion in the core varies with distance from the solar center. 1. After a final trip through the convective outer layer to the transparent surface of the photosphere. This zone is free of thermal convection. a power production density that more nearly approximates reptile metabolism than a thermonuclear bomb. Estimates of the photon travel time range between 10. the photons escape as visible light. so almost all are able to escape the Sun immediately. Peak power production in the Sun has been compared to the volumetric heats generated in an active compost heap. but neutrino detectors were missing 2⁄3 of them because the neutrinos had changed flavor by the time they were detected. while the material gets cooler from 7 to about 2 million kelvin with increasing altitude. At the center of the Sun. For many years measurements of the number of neutrinos produced in the Sun were lower than theories predicted by a factor of 3. this temperature gradient is less than the value of the adiabatic lapse rate and hence cannot drive convection.5.25 to about 0. but unlike photons they rarely interact with matter.000 years. theoretical models estimate it to be approximately 276.
the temperature has dropped to 5. The turbulent convection of this outer part of the solar interior causes a "small-scale" dynamo that produces magnetic north and south poles all over the surface of the Sun. Because the upper part of the photosphere is cooler than the lower part. being slightly less opaque than air on Earth.37% of the particle number per volume of 11 .3 Convective zone In the Sun's outer layer. At the visible surface of the Sun. which absorb visible light easily. thermal convection occurs as thermal columns carry hot material to the surface (photosphere) of the Sun. it is hypothesized (see Solar dynamo). an image of the Sun appears brighter in the center than on the edge or limb of the solar disk. 1. slowly disappear from the top of this layer to its bottom. the tachocline. from its surface down to approximately 200. The fluid motions found in the convection zone above.000 K. The Sun's thermal columns are Benard cells and therefore tend to be hexagonal prisms. 1. Sunlight has approximately a blackbody spectrum that indicates its temperature is about 6. and its energy escapes the Sun entirely. The thermal columns in the convection zone form an imprint on the surface of the Sun as the solar granulation and super granulation. This is a region where the sharp regime change between the uniform rotation of the radiative zone and the differential rotation of the convection zone results in a large shear—a condition where successive horizontal layers slide past one another. the visible light we see is produced as electrons react with hydrogen atoms to produce H− ions.The radiative zone and the convection form a transition layer.700 K and the density to only 0. that a magnetic dynamo within this layer generates the Sun's magnetic field.2 g/m3 (about 1/6. is the layer below which the Sun becomes opaque to visible light. Above the photosphere visible sunlight is free to propagate into space. The change in opacity is due to the decreasing amount of H− ions.000th the density of air at sea level). The photosphere has a particle density of ~1023 m−3 (this is about 0. matching the calm characteristics of the radiative zone on the bottom. The photosphere is tens to hundreds of kilometers thick. in a phenomenon known as limb darkening. As a result. Presently. interspersed with atomic absorption lines from the tenuous layers above the photosphere.000 km (or 70% of the solar radius). in other words it is opaque enough.5. the solar plasma is not dense enough or hot enough to transfer the thermal energy of the interior outward through radiation. Once the material cools off at the surface. the photosphere.4 Photosphere The visible surface of the Sun. it plunges downward to the base of the convection zone. Conversely. to receive more heat from the top of the radiative zone.5.
so the average particle in air is 58 times as heavy). The heliosphere. Norman Lockyer hypothesized that these absorption lines were because of a new element which he dubbed helium. the corona. some absorption lines were found that did not correspond to any chemical elements then known on Earth. It was not until 25 years later that helium was isolated on Earth. during the brief period of totality.5.Earth's atmosphere at sea level. extends outward past the orbit of Pluto to the heliopause. During early studies of the optical spectrum of the photosphere. transition region.100 K. where it forms a sharp shock front boundary with the interstellar medium. the chromosphere. from radio through visible light to gamma rays. The chromosphere. which may be considered the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun. with a temperature of about 4. evidence suggests that Alfven waves may have enough energy to heat the corona.6: Solar atmosphere During a total solar eclipse. the solar corona can be seen with the naked eye. and the heliosphere. and comprise five principal zones: the temperature minimum. photosphere particles are electrons and protons. 1. the transition region. They can be viewed with telescopes operating across the electromagnetic spectrum. The coolest layer of the Sun is a temperature minimum region about 500 km above the photosphere. however. and corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun. Figure-1. The reason has not been conclusively proven. This part of the Sun is cool enough to 12 . In 1868. after the Greek Sun god Helios.5 Atmosphere The parts of the Sun above the photosphere are referred to collectively as the solar atmosphere.
The transition region does not occur at a well-defined altitude. which fills all the Solar System. Figure-1. The temperature in the chromosphere increases gradually with altitude. The corona continuously expands into space forming the solar wind. this image of the Sun reveals the filamentary nature of the plasma connecting regions of different magnetic polarity.000 K near the top. It is called the chromosphere from the Greek root chroma. The transition region is not easily visible from Earth's surface. which is much larger in volume than the Sun itself. and is in constant. The low corona. The temperature increase is facilitated by the full ionization of helium in the transition region. In the upper part of chromosphere helium becomes partially ionized. which significantly reduces radiative cooling of the plasma.support simple molecules such as carbon monoxide and water.7: Nature of Plasma (Taken by Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope. Above the temperature minimum layer is a layer about 2. ranging up to around 20. the temperature rises rapidly from around 20. which is very near the surface of 13 .000 km thick.) Above the chromosphere. chaotic motion. meaning color.000 K. because the chromosphere is visible as a colored flash at the beginning and end of total eclipses of the Sun. it forms a kind of nimbus around chromospheric features such as spicules and filaments. The corona is the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun.000. dominated by a spectrum of emission and absorption lines. Rather.000 K in the upper chromosphere to coronal temperatures closer to 1. in a thin (about 200 km) transition region. which can be detected by their absorption spectra. but is readily observable from space by instruments sensitive to the extreme ultraviolet portion of the spectrum.
000.000 K. The average temperature of the corona and solar wind is about 1. The heliosphere. 14 .000.the Sun. In December 2004. until it impacts the heliopause more than 50 AU from the Sun. which is the cavity around the Sun filled with the solar wind plasma. While no complete theory yet exists to account for the temperature of the corona. Its inner boundary is defined as the layer in which the flow of the solar wind becomes superalfvenic. The solar wind travels outward continuously through the heliosphere. the Voyager 1 probe passed through a shock front that is thought to be part of the heliopause. however. where the flow becomes faster than the speed of Alfven waves.1 AU) to the outer fringes of the Solar System. forming the solar magnetic field into a spiral shape. has a particle density around 1015–1016 m−3.000–2.000 K. extends from approximately 20 solar radii (0. Both of the Voyager probes have recorded higher levels of energetic particles as they approach the boundary.000. in the hottest regions it is 8. Turbulence and dynamic forces outside this boundary cannot affect the shape of the solar corona within. that is. at least some of its heat is known to be from magnetic reconnection.000. because the information can only travel at the speed of Alfven waves.000–20.
These are used for detecting light or other electromagnetic radiation near the visible range. Cells are described as photovoltaic cells when the light source is not necessarily sunlight. Assemblies of cells are used to make solar modules. or measurement of light intensity. though it is often used specifically to refer to the generation of electricity from sunlight. is an example of solar energy. also known as solar panels.02 Solar Cell 2.1 What is Solar Cell? A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell) is a solid state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect.1: A solar cell made from a mono crystalline silicon wafer Photovoltaic is the field of technology and research related to the practical application of photovoltaic cells in producing electricity from light. for example infrared detectors. referred to as solar power. 15 . The energy generated from these solar modules. Figure-2.
after whom a unit of electro-motive force. Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect in 1905 for which he received the Nobel prize in Physics in 1921.2: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells laminated to backing material in a module 16 . E. The device was only around 1% efficient. Photovoltaic modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (sun up) side. allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from abrasion and impact due to wind-driven debris. Solar cells are also usually connected in series in modules. meaning electric. Modules are then interconnected.3 Applications Solar cells are often electrically connected and encapsulated as a module. However. The term "photo-voltaic" has been in use in English since 1849. hail. it was not until 1883 that the first solar cell was built.2. creating an additive voltage. who coated the semiconductor selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to form the junctions. and "voltaic". the volt. or both. from the name of the Italian physicist Volta. remarkable progress has been made. in series or parallel. Connecting cells in parallel will yield a higher current. Becquerel. et cetera. rain. with Megawatt solar power generating plants having now been built. which was discovered while working on the series of advances that would lead to the transistor. Figure-2.2 History of solar cells The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek φῶς (phōs) meaning "light". The photovoltaic effect was first recognized in 1839 by French physicist A. In 1888 Russian physicist Aleksandr Stoletov built the first photoelectric cell (based on the outer photoelectric effect discovered by Heinrich Hertz earlier in 1887). The photovoltaic cell was developed in 1954 at Bell Laboratories. 2. to create an array with the desired peak DC voltage and current. by Charles Fritts. The highly efficient solar cell was first developed by Daryl Chapin. Russell Ohl patented the modern junction semiconductor solar cell in 1946. is named. In the past four decades. Calvin Souther Fuller and Gerald Pearson in 1954 using a diffused silicon p-n junction.
The overall efficiency is the product of each of these individual efficiencies. VOC ratio.5 Efficiency The efficiency of a solar cell may be broken down into reflectance efficiency. but also make up minor portions of the quantum efficiency. the electricity is most often fed into the electricity grid using inverters (grid-connected photovoltaic systems). charge carrier separation efficiency and conductive efficiency. other parameters are measured instead: thermodynamic efficiency. batteries are used to store the energy that is not needed immediately. 2. thermodynamic efficiency. Due to the special composition of solar cells. Recombination losses make up a portion of the quantum efficiency. the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction. allowing them to flow through the material to produce electricity. An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity. 2. in stand-alone systems. such as silicon. Figure-2. Resistive losses are predominantly categorized under fill factor. Reflectance losses are a portion of the quantum efficiency under "external quantum efficiency". Due to the difficulty in measuring these parameters directly. Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials. VOC ratio. and fill factor.3: Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells 2. 3. and fill factor. quantum efficiency.4 Theory The solar cell works in three steps: 1. 17 .To make practical use of the solar-generated energy. Solar panels can be used to power or recharge portable devices. VOC ratio. Electrons (negatively charged) are knocked loose from their atoms.
and the supply of specialist chemicals used to coat the cells. open circuit voltage. that is cheaper than first generation (crystalline silicon cells. Grid parity has been reached in Hawaii and other islands that otherwise use diesel fuel to produce electricity. Manufacturing costs necessarily including the cost of energy required for manufacture. This includes second and third generation photovoltaic cells. Efficiencies of bare cells. Grid parity. Speaking at a conference in 2007. i. It is achieved first in areas with abundant sun and high costs for electricity such as in California and Japan.Crystalline silicon devices are now approaching the theoretical limiting efficiency of 29%. The chart at the right illustrates the best laboratory efficiencies obtained for various materials and technologies. to be useful in evaluating solar power plant economics. 18 .e. even if the cells themselves are more costly. A low-cost photovoltaic cell is a thin-film cell intended to produce electrical energy at a price competitive with traditional (fossil fuels and nuclear power) energy sources. Bush had set 2015 as the date for grid parity in the USA. 2. Other potential bottlenecks which have been suggested are the capacity of ingot shaping and wafer slicing industries. High-efficiency solar cells are of interest to decrease the cost of solar energy. Many of the costs of a solar power plant are proportional to the area of the plant. George W. One research firm predicted that new manufacturing capacity began coming on-line in 2008 (projected to double by 2009) which was expected to lower prices by 70% in 2015. The price of solar panels fell steadily for 40 years. Solar-specific feed in tariffs vary worldwide. also called wafer or bulk cells).6 Cost The cost of a solar cell is given per unit of peak electrical power. must be evaluated under realistic conditions. a higher efficiency cell may reduce area and plant cost. The basic parameters that need to be evaluated are the short circuit current. Other analysts warned that capacity may be slowed by economic issues. can be reached using low cost solar cells. but that demand may fall because of lessening subsidies. until 2004 when high subsidies in Germany drastically increased demand there and greatly increased the price of purified silicon (which is used in computer chips as well as solar panels). the point at which photovoltaic electricity is equal to or cheaper than grid power. General Electric's Chief Engineer predicted grid parity without subsidies in sunny parts of the United States by around 2015. cells. and even state by state within various countries. generally this is done on very small. Commercial efficiencies are significantly lower. one square cm. Such feed-in tariffs can be highly effective in encouraging the development of solar power projects.
some solar cells are optimized for light absorption beyond Earth's atmosphere as well. 2. Other materials are made as thin-films layers. Figure-2.4: Basic structure of a silicon based solar cell and its working mechanism. ribbon. 19 .1 Crystalline silicon By far. However. and organic polymers that are deposited on supporting substrates. Silicon remains the only material that is wellresearched in both bulk and thin-film forms. and copper indium selenide/sulfide.2. cadmium telluride. the most prevalent bulk material for solar cells is crystalline silicon (abbreviated as a group as c-Si). Light absorbing materials can often be used in multiple physical configurations to take advantage of different light absorption and charge separation mechanisms. Materials presently used for photovoltaic solar cells include monocrystalline silicon. or wafer. organic dyes. Many currently available solar cells are made from bulk material that are cut into wafers between 180 to 240 micrometers thick that are then processed like other semiconductors. amorphous silicon. Some cells are designed to efficiently convert wavelengths of solar light that reach the Earth surface. polycrystalline silicon. also known as "solar grade silicon".7 Materials for Solar Cell Different materials display different efficiencies and have different costs. A third group are made from nano crystals and used as quantum dots (electron-confined nano particles). Bulk silicon is separated into multiple categories according to crystallinity and crystal size in the resulting ingot.7. Materials for efficient solar cells must have characteristics matched to the spectrum of available light.
staff scientist at BP Solar. IMEC's roadmap. envisions use of 0. can potentially be one-sixth that of making polysilicon. These cells have lower efficiencies than poly-Si. 2.2 Thin films Thin-film technologies reduce the amount of material required in creating a solar cell. Poly-Si cells are less expensive to produce than single crystal silicon cells. On the other hand. flexibility. and because they are cut from cylindrical ingots.08 mm wafers by 2015. Solarbuzz has reported that the lowest quoted thin-film module price stands at US$1. the cost of producing upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon. do not completely cover a square solar cell module without a substantial waste of refined silicon. reported that his company has qualified modules based on 0. Poly. At 2008 spring's IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists' Conference (PVS'08). a semiconductor layer to absorb and convert sunlight into electricity.3 Cadmium telluride solar cell A cadmium telluride solar cell use a cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film. director of IMEC's organic and solar department. but are less efficient. as this approach does not require sawing from ingots. Though this reduces material cost.1 mm wire. with wafer thicknesses in the neighborhood of 0. 3.180 mm thick wafers and is testing processes for 0. Singlecrystal wafer cells tend to be expensive. Thin-film silicon cells have become popular due to cost.1. 2.16 mm wafers cut with 0. presented at the organization's recent annual research review meeting. Monocrystalline silicon (c-Si): Often made using the Czochralski process. with the lowest crystalline silicon (c-Si) module at $2. US DOE data shows that there were a higher number of multi crystalline sales than mono crystalline silicon sales. 20 . current cells use between eight and nine grams of silicon per watt of power generation.7. lighter weight.48 per watt-peak. and ease of integration. Analysts have predicted that prices of polycrystalline silicon will drop as companies build additional polysilicon capacity quicker than the industry’s projected demand.or multi crystalline silicon (poly-Si or mc-Si): Made from cast square ingots — large blocks of molten silicon carefully cooled and solidified. also known as UMG Si.76 per watt-peak. it may also reduce energy conversion efficiency. Ribbon silicon] is a type of multi crystalline silicon: It is formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon and results in a multi crystalline structure. 2. Manufacturers of wafer-based cells have responded to thin-film lower prices with rapid reductions in silicon consumption. According to Jef Poortmans. compared to wafer silicon cells. Hence most c-Si panels have uncovered gaps at the four corners of the cells.200 mm. John Wohlgemuth. but save on production costs due to a great reduction in silicon waste.7.
but at present. release is impossible during normal operation of the cells and is unlikely during ﬁres in residential roofs. in a more stable and less soluble form. reaching a record high of 40.7. their use in terrestrial concentrators might be the lowest cost alternative in terms of $/kWh and $/W. are seeing demand rapidly rise. gallium arsenide GaAs.7. Each type of semiconductor will have a characteristic band gap energy which. However. Triple-junction GaAs solar cells were also being used as the power source of the Dutch fourtime World Solar Challenge winners Nuna in 2003. Recent developments at IBM and Nanosolar have been targeting to lower the cost by using non-vacuum solution processes. 6N and 7N) and germanium. gallium indium phosphide (GaInP). 6N and 7N Ga).The cadmium present in the cells would be toxic if released. these products are critical to the entire substrate manufacturing industry. 2. loosely speaking. Twente One (2007) and 21Revolution (2009). causes it to absorb light most efficiently at a certain color. and germanium Ge pn junctions. and boron oxide. A square meter of CdTe contains approximately the same amount of Cd as a single C cell Nickel-cadmium battery. the cost of 4N gallium metal has risen from about $350 per kg to $680 per kg. 2. 2005 and 2007. These multijunction cells consist of multiple thin films produced using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. to absorb electromagnetic radiation over a portion of the spectrum. pyrolitic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles for growing crystals. This technology is currently being utilized in the Mars Exploration Rover missions which have run far past their 90 day design life. thus generating electricity from as much of the solar energy as possible. A triple-junction cell. and GaInP2. Ge. 21 . series connected.5 Gallium arsenide multi junction High-efficiency multijunction cells were originally developed for special applications such as satellites and space exploration. Traditional methods of fabrication involve vacuum processes including co-evaporation and sputtering.3% triple junction metamorphic cell. may consist of the semiconductors: GaAs. The semiconductors are carefully chosen to absorb nearly all of the solar spectrum.7% efficiency under "500-sun" solar concentration and laboratory conditions.4 Copper-Indium Selenide Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) is a direct-bandgap material. This was surpassed in October 2010 with a 42. for example. Additionally. Tandem solar cells based on monolithic.12/2007). It has the highest efficiency (~20%) among thin film materials (see CIGS solar cells). germanium metal prices have risen substantially to $1000– $1200 per kg this year. and also by the Dutch solar cars Solutra (2005). arsenic (4N. GaAs based multijunction devices are the most efficient solar cells to date. In just the past 12 months (12/2006 . Those materials include gallium (4N. or more precisely.
In bulk it should be significantly less expensive than older solid-state cell designs. However. Single crystalline wafers which are used in the semiconductor industry can be made into excellent high efficiency solar cells. The circuit is completed by a redox couple in the electrolyte. a surface diffusion of n-type dopants is performed on the front side of the wafer. and the cell casing is difficult to seal due to the solvents used in assembly. and the holes are absorbed by an electrolyte on the other side of the dye. but they are generally considered to be too expensive for large-scale mass production. this is a popular emerging technology with some commercial impact forecast within this decade. so they can be made in a DIY fashion.com). The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200–300 m2/g TiO2. The photogenerated electrons from the light absorbing dye are passed on to the n-type TiO2. 2. they share many of the same processing and manufacturing techniques as other semiconductor devices such as computer and memory chips. The first commercial shipment of DSSC solar modules occurred in July 2009 from G24i Innovations (www. To make a solar cell from the wafer. which can be liquid or solid. This forms a p-n junction a few hundred nanometers below the surface. In spite of the above.The Dutch Radboud University Nijmegen set the record for thin film solar cell efficiency using a single junction GaAs to 25. Poly-crystalline silicon wafers are made by wire-sawing block-cast silicon ingots into very thin (180 to 350 micrometer) slices or wafers. 22 . the dyes in these cells also suffer from degradation under heat and UV light. Typically a ruthenium metalorganic dye (Ru-centered) is used as a monolayer of lightabsorbing material. 2. with the potential for lower processing costs than those used for bulk solar cells. Most large-scale commercial solar cell factories today make screen printed poly-crystalline silicon solar cells. its price/performance ratio should be high enough to allow them to compete with fossil fuel electrical generation. However. Michael Gratzel in 1991 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (CH).8 Manufacturing techniques Because solar cells are semiconductor devices. as compared to approximately 10 m2/g of flat single crystal).g24i. the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells. The DSSC has been developed by Prof. and is typically manufactured by screen printing and/or use of Ultrasonic Nozzles.8% in August 2008 using only 4 µm thick GaAs layer which can be transferred from a wafer base to glass or plastic film.6 Light-absorbing dyes (DSSC) Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are made of low-cost materials and do not need elaborate equipment to manufacture.7. This type of cell allows a more flexible use of materials. The wafers are usually lightly p-type doped. and although its conversion efficiency is less than the best thin film cells. possibly allowing players to produce more of this type of solar cell than others. DSSC's can be engineered into flexible sheets.
are typically next applied. While technologies are constantly evolving toward higher efficiencies.Antireflection coatings. Some companies use an additional electroplating step to increase the cell efficiency. wherein the output shall not fall below a specified percentage (around 80%) of the rated capacity. typically aluminium. Germany. 2. 23 . though in some cell designs it is printed in a grid pattern. Taiwan and United States. Silicon nitride has gradually replaced titanium dioxide as the antireflection coating because of its excellent surface passivation qualities. Usually this contact covers the entire rear side of the cell. It is typically applied in a layer several hundred nanometers thick using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). 2. the most effective cells for low cost electrical production are not necessarily those with the highest efficiency. the solar cells are interconnected in series (and/or parallel) by flat wires or metal ribbons. though numerous other nations have or are acquiring significant solar cell production capacity. The paste is then fired at several hundred degrees Celsius to form metal electrodes in ohmic contact with the silicon. Such surfaces can usually only be formed on single-crystal silicon. though in recent years methods of forming them on multicrystalline silicon have been developed.9 Lifespan Most commercially available solar cells are capable of producing electricity for at least twenty years without a significant decrease in efficiency. but those with a balance between low-cost production and efficiency high enough to minimize area-related balance of systems cost. It prevents carrier recombination at the surface of the solar cell. even with cell efficiencies that are lower than those of single-crystal technologies. Those companies with large scale manufacturing technology for coating inexpensive substrates may. Solar panels have a sheet of tempered glass on the front. Some solar cells have textured front surfaces that. The rear contact is also formed by screen-printing a metal paste. After the metal contacts are made.10 Manufacturers and certification Solar cells are manufactured primarily in Japan. The typical warranty given by panel manufacturers is for a period of 25 – 30 years. serve to increase the amount of light coupled into the cell. ultimately be the lowest cost net electricity producers. and a polymer encapsulation on the back. and assembled into modules or "solar panels". and a grid-like metal contact made up of fine "fingers" and larger "busbars" are screen-printed onto the front surface using a silver paste. to increase the amount of light coupled into the solar cell. in fact. like antireflection coatings. The wafer then has a full area metal contact made on the back surface. Mainland China.
In early October 2008.10. that is expected to produce 500 MW of solar cells per year when it reaches full production in 2011.10. Sanyo Electric Company.2 United States New manufacturing facilities for solar cells and modules in Massachusetts. 2. announced its decision to build a manufacturing plant for solar ingots and wafers in Salem. Inc. In mid-October 2008. The company expects to complete construction early next year and reach full production by mid-2010. Ltd. bringing its total capacity to roughly 192 MW per year. began production at its manufacturing plant in Hopewell Junction.180 MW in 2007 making it the largest producer in the world. Yingli. and Texas promise to add enough capacity to produce thousands of megawatts of solar devices per year within the next few years from 2008. China produced solar cells/modules with an output of 1. 24 . broke ground on an expansion of its Perrysburg. SpectraWatt. JA Solar and ReneSola have already announced projects in cooperation with regional governments with hundreds of megawatts each after the ‘Golden Sun’ incentive program was announced by the government. The plant will begin operating in October 2009 and will reach its full production capacity of 70 megawatts (MW) of solar wafers per year by April 2010. The new development of solar module manufacturers with thin-film technology such as Veeco and Anwell Technologies Limited will further help to boost the domestic solar industry. First Solar. facility that will add enough capacity to produce another 57 MW per year of solar modules at the facility. SolarWorld AG opened a manufacturing plant in Hillsboro.2. Ohio. Chinese companies have already played a more important role in solar panels manufacturing in recent years.1 China Backed by Chinese government's unprecedented plan to offer subsidies for utility-scale solar power projects that is likely to spark a new round of investment from Chinese solar panel makers. which is expected to produce 120 MW of solar cells per year when it reaches full production in 2011. Ohio. Oregon. LDK Solar Co. Michigan. Oregon. Oregon. New York. In March 2010. according to statistics from China Photovoltaic Association. NY. Some Chinese companies such as Suntech Power. In late September 2008. Inc.
C.03 The History of Solar Energy Solar technology isn’t new. We started out concentrating the sun’s heat with glass and mirrors to light fires. 2nd Century B.1: Mesa Verde cliff dwellings 3.D.Greeks and Romans use burning mirrors to light torches for religious purposes.C. Magnifying glass used to concentrate sun’s rays to make fire and to burn ants. Here is about the milestones in the historical development of solar technology.C. Greeks and Romans use burning mirrors to light torches for religious purposes. to 1200 A. Magnifying glass used to concentrate sun’s rays to make fire and to burn ants. to today. and year by year. Today. Its history spans from the 7th Century B. the Greek 25 .1 Timeline from 7th Century B. As early as 212 BC. 7th Century B. 3rd Century B. Figure-3. we have everything from solar-powered buildings to solar powered vehicles.C. century by century.C. Magnifying glass used to concentrate sun’s rays to make fire and to burn ants.
) 20 A. 1873 Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of selenium. Lord Kelvin used one of the working models during some of his university classes. 1816 On September 27. Ancestors of Pueblo people called Anasazi in North America live in south-facing cliff dwellings that capture the winter sun. Chinese document use of burning mirrors to light torches for religious purposes. 6th Century A. 1200s A. 1839 French scientist Edmond Becquerel discovers the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with an electrolytic cell made up of two metal electrodes placed in an electricity-conducting solution.D. 1st to 4th Century A. Abel Pifre. 1816. Robert Stirling was actually a minister in the Church of Scotland and he continued to give services until he was eighty-six years old! But.D. By trade. 1860s French mathematician August Mouchet proposed an idea for solar-powered steam engines. in his spare time. These engines became the predecessors of modern parabolic dish collectors. 1767 Swiss scientist Horace de Saussure was credited with building the world’s firstsolar collector. Sunrooms on houses and public buildings were so common that the Justinian Code initiated “sun rights” to ensure individual access to the sun.D. 1876 26 .D. he built heat engines in his home workshop.D. (Although no proof of such a feat exists.scientist. the Greek navy recreated the experiment in 1973 and successfully set fire to a wooden boat at a distance of 50 meters. later used by Sir John Herschel to cook food during his South Africa expedition in the 1830s. The famous Roman bathhouses in the first to fourth centuries A. Archimedes. he and his assistant.2 Timeline from 1767 to 1891. electricity-generation increased when exposed to light. This engine was later used in the dish/Stirling system. Robert Stirling applied for a patent for his economizer at the Chancery in Edinburgh. 3. a solar thermal electric technology that concentrates the sun’s thermal energy in order to produce power. constructed the first solar powered engines and used them for a variety of applications. Scotland. had large south facing windows to let in the sun’s warmth. used the reflective properties of bronze shields to focus sunlight and to set fire to wooden ships from the Roman Empire which were besieging Syracuse. In the following two decades.
27 . 1880 Samuel P. 1883 Charles Fritts. This increases the electrical resistance of the wire. Langley. It consists of a fine wire connected to an electric circuit. 1914 The existence of a barrier layer in photovoltaic devices was noted. 1908 1908 William J. 1891 Baltimore inventor Clarence Kemp patented the first commercial solar water heater. Bailley of the Carnegie Steel Company invents a solar collector with copper coils and an insulated box—roughly. it’s present design. 1921 Albert Einstein wins the Nobel Prize for his theories (1904 research and technical paper) explaining the photoelectric effect. invents the bolometer. 3. 1905 Albert Einstein published his paper on the photoelectric effect (along with a paper on his theory of relativity). 1887 Heinrich Hertz discovered that ultraviolet light altered the lowest voltage capable of causing a spark to jump between two metal electrodes. Although selenium solar cells failed to convert enough sunlight to power electrical equipment. 1932 Audobert and Stora discover the photovoltaic effect in cadmium sulfide (CdS). When radiation falls on the wire. it becomes very slightly warmer. 1916 Robert Millikan provided experimental proof of the photoelectric effect. described the first solar cells made from selenium wafers.3 Timeline of solar technology in the 1900s. 1904 Wilhelm Hallwachs discovered that a combination of copper and cuprous oxide is photosensitive. 1918 Polish scientist Jan Czochralski developed a way to grow single-crystal silicon. they proved that asolid material could change light into electricity without heat or moving parts. an American inventor.1876 William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day discover that selenium produces electricity when exposed to light. which is used to measure light from the faintest stars and the sun’s heat rays.
2. Vanguard II. This solar system has been continuously operating since that time and the Bridgers-Paxton Building. Dan Trivich. 1954 1954 Photovoltaic technology is born in the United States when Daryl Chapin. 28 . it was used successfully in powering satellites. that Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company published a book entitled Your Solar House. approaches RCA Labs’ Paul Rappaport and Joseph Loferski about developing photovoltaic cells for proposed orbiting Earth satellites. Calvin Fuller. 1957 Hoffman Electronics achieved 8% efficient photovoltaic cells. U. The Vanguard I space satellite used a small (less than one watt) array to power its radios. is now in the National Historic Register as the world’s first solar heated office building. U.II. 1958 1. 1956 William Cherry. as a result of scarce energy during the prolonged W. Wayne State University. which profiled forty-nine of the nation’s greatest solar architects. T. Signal Corps Laboratories. makes the first theoretical calculations of the efficiencies of various materials of different band gap widths based on the spectrum of the sun. 3. more resistant to radiation). Later that year.1947 1947 Passive solar buildings in the United States were in such demand. Mid 1950s Architect Frank Bridgers designed the world’s first commercial office building using solar water heating and passive design. Explorer III.S. Bell Telephone Laboratories produced a silicon solar cell with 4% efficiency and later achieved 11% efficiency. It became the accepted energy source for space applications and remains so today. Mandelkorn. Despite faltering attempts to commercialize the silicon solar cell in the 1950s and 60s. 1953 Dr. Early successful products included PV-powered dollar bill changers and devices that decoded computer punch cards and tape. and Sputnik-3 were launched with PV-powered systems on board. Hoffman Electronics achieves 9% efficient photovoltaic cells. and Gerald Pearson develop the silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell at Bell Labs—the first solar cell capable of converting enough of the sun’s energy into power to run everyday electrical equipment.S.W. Signal Corps Laboratories. fabricates n-on-p silicon photovoltaic cells (critically important for space cells. 1955 Western Electric began to sell commercial licenses for silicon photovoltaic (PV) technologies.
1969 The Odeillo solar furnace. 2. 1972 1. Japan installs a 242-watt. powered by a 1-kilowatt photovoltaic array. Solar cells begin to power navigation warning lights and horns on many offshore gas and oil rigs. Wisconsin. 1965 Peter Glaser conceives the idea of the satellite solar power station. 1962 Bell Telephone Laboratories launches the first telecommunications satellite. 1963 1. 2. The French install a cadmium sulfide (CdS) photovoltaic system to operate an educational television at a village school in Niger. of Dodgeville. story parabolic mirror. the Explorer VII satellite is launched. to provide astronomical data in the ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths filtered out by the earth’s atmosphere. Inc. the Explorer VI satellite is launched with a photovoltaic array of 9600 cells (1 cm x 2 cm each). France was constructed. lighthouses. bringing price down from $100 a watt to $20 a watt. reducing the series resistance significantly. 1960 1. 1966 NASA launches the first Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. the Telstar (initial power 14 watts). railroad crossings and domestic solar applications began to be viewed as sensible applications in remote locations where grid connected utilities could not exist affordably. the world’s largest array at that time. Hoffman Electronics achieves 14% efficient photovoltaic cells. Hoffman Electronics achieves 10% efficient. Hoffman also learns to use a grid contact.1959 1. Silicon Sensors. photovoltaic array on a lighthouse. with help from Exxon Corporation. 29 . Elliot Berman. designs a significantly less costly solar cell. Then. It starts producing selenium and silicon photovoltaic cells. commercially available photovoltaic cells. 1964 NASA launches the first Nimbus spacecraft—a satellite powered by a 470-watt photovoltaic array. on October 13. This featured an 8- 1970s Dr. located in Odeillo. is founded. Sharp Corporation succeeds in producing practical silicon photovoltaic modules. On August 7.. 2.
2. The Smithsonian Institute National Air and Space Museum has a photo of the http://www. The U. At the University of Delaware.S. grain milling. becoming the world’s first laboratory dedicated to PV research and development. the arrays acted as flat-plate thermal collectors. fabricate first amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells. In addition to electricity.2. and classroom television. room lighting. The system is a PV/thermal hybrid.000 solar cells mounted on its wings. 1982 30 . The Center completed the project in 1995. 2.5-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) system it installed on the Papago Indian Reservation located in southern Arizona—the world’s first village PV system.htm “Solar Challenger” in flight. Department of Energy launches the Solar Energy Research Institute http://www. 1978 1978 NASA’s Lewis Research Center dedicates a 3. 2. 1981 Paul MacCready builds the first solar-powered aircraft—the Solar Challenger—and flies it from France to England across the English Channel. the first thin-film solar cell exceeds 10% efficiency using copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide. ARCO Solar becomes the first company to produce more than 1 megawatt of photovoltaic modules in one year. with fans blowing the warm air from over the array to phase-change heat-storage bins. water pumping. which produced 3. Total photovoltaic manufacturing production exceeds 500 kilowatts. The NASA Lewis Research Center starts installing 83 photovoltaic power systems on every continent except Australia.gov/ “National Renewable Energy Laboratory”. RCA Laboratories. a federal facility dedicated to harnessing power from the sun. 1976 1. when grid power reached the village. The aircraft had over 16. working on it from 1976-1985 and then again from 1992-1995. The roof-integrated arrays fed surplus power through a special meter to the utility during the day and purchased power from the utility at night. The system is used to provide for water pumping and residential electricity in 15 homes until 1983.” one of the world’s first photovoltaic (PV) powered residences.000 watts of power.nasm. David Carlson and Christopher Wronski. The PV system was then dedicated to pumping water from a community well. 1973 The University of Delaware builds “Solar One. telecommunications. These systems provide such diverse applications as vaccine refrigeration. medical clinic lighting.edu/nasm/aero/aircraft/maccread. 1977 1. The Institute of Energy Conversion is established at the University of Delaware to perform research and development on thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal systems. 1980 1.nrel.
edu/About/quals/index. 1986 The world’s largest solar thermal facility.3 megawatts. unmanned facility supplies the Pacific Gas & Electric Company’s utility grid with enough power for 2.solar “World Solar Challenge” in Australia. Australian Hans Tholstrup drives the first solar-powered car—the Quiet Achiever— almost 2. generating 160 watts for the ignition system. The Florida Solar Energy Center’s http://www. California. 1985 The University of South Wales breaks the 20% efficiency barrier for silicon solar cells under 1-sun conditions. with sales of more than $250 million. It has a 1-megawatt capacity system. ARCO Solar releases the G-4000—the world’s first commercial thin-film power module.ucf. 1983 1. 3. In 1988. 3. begins operating Solar One. The first. with modules on 108 dual-axis trackers.fsec. 2.org.500 homes. along with an industry consortium. considered the world championship of solar car racing. a solar-thermal electric or concentrating solar power technology. photovoltaic megawatt-scale power station goes on-line in Hisperia. developed by ARCO Solar. 31 . The project established the feasibility of power-tower systems. ARCO Solar dedicates a 6-megawatt photovoltaic substation in central California. 1986 1. a 10-megawatt central-receiver demonstration project.au/2003/home. 4. The U.800 miles between Sydney and Perth in 20 days—10 days faster than the first gasoline-powered car to do so. 4-kilowatt powered home in the Hudson River Valley. Tholstrup is the founder of the http://www. Department of Energy. the final year of operation.000-2.S. California. The 120-acre. Volkswagen of Germany begins testing photovoltaic arrays mounted on the roofs of Dasher station wagons.3 megawatts. Department ofEnergy’s photovoltaics program in the application of systems engineering. Solar Design Associates completes a stand-alone. which powered a conventional turbine to generate electricity. 2.wsc. Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 9. located in Kramer Junction. Worldwide photovoltaic production exceeds 21.1. The heat transfer fluid was used to produce steam. The solar field contained rows of mirrors that concentrated the sun’s energy onto a system of pipes circulating a heat transfer fluid. the system could be dispatched 96% of the time. 5. 6. was commissioned. 1984 The Sacramento Municipal Utility District commissions its first 1-megawatt photovoltaic electricity generating facility.S.htm#recentcon “Southeast Residential Experiment Station” begins supporting the U. 2.
California. The remote-controlled. solar-powered aircraft. Lepcon consists of glass panels covered with a vast array of millions of aluminum or copper strips. A 7. As sunlight hits the metal strips. breaking the 15% barrier for the first time for this technology.5-kilowatt prototype dish system using an advanced stretched-membrane concentrator becomes operational. which escape at one end in the form of electricity. along with an industry consortium. 1999 Construction was completed on 4 Times Square. Lumeloid uses a similar approach but substitutes cheaper. the tallest skyscraper built in the 1990s in New York City.000 feet. 80. with a total area of 21 m2. It incorporates more energy-efficient building techniques than any other commercial skyscraper and also includes building-integrated photovoltaic 32 . led the invention of flexible solar shingles. The 500-kilowatt system was the first “distributed power” effort. a noted scientist for his pioneering work in amorphous silicon. the Icare. It also fostered commercial interest in power towers. 1996 1.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory develops a solar cell—made from gallium indium phosphide and gallium arsenide—that becomes the first one to exceed 30% conversion efficiency. 1998 1. on its 39th consecutive flight on August 6. California. 2. each less than a micron or thousandth of a millimeter wide.9% efficient thin-film photovoltaic cell made of cadmium telluride. Department of Energy. long chains of molecular plastic units. Solar Two demonstrated how solar energy can be stored efficiently and economically so that power can be produced even when the sun isn’t shining. the energy in the light is transferred to electrons in the metal. begins operating Solar Two—an upgrade of its Solar One concentrating solar powertower project. 1992 1. First solar dish generator using a free-piston Stirling engine is tied to a utility grid. The wings and tail surfaces of the Icare are covered by 3. 2. film-like sheets of plastic for the glass panels and covers the plastic with conductive polymers. The U. 2. 2.1988 Dr. a roofing material and state-of-the-art technology for converting sunlight to electricity. 1999 1. flew over Germany. in Monrovia. This altitude is higher than any prop-driven aircraft thus far. “Pathfinder” sets an altitude record. 1994 1. The world’s most advanced solar-powered airplane. Alvin Marks receives patents for two solar power technologies he developed: Lepcon and Lumeloid. 1993 1993 Pacific Gas & Electric completes installation of the first grid-supported photovoltaic system in Kerman. Subhendu Guha. Operated until 1999.000 super-efficient solar cells. 1992 University of South Florida develops a 15.
At the International Space Station.8 percent efficiency for the prototype solar cell topped the previous record by more than 1 percent. installs a 12-kilowatt solar electric system on its home— the largest residential installation in the United States to be registered with the U. 3. Ohio.S.000. 3. 33 . The high conversion efficiency was achieved by combining three layers of photovoltaic materials into a single solar cell. Inverters convert the direct current (DC) electrical output from solar systems into alternating current (AC). 2000 1.8 % conversion efficiency—the highest in the world for thin-film modules of its kind. The cell performed most efficiently when it received sunlight concentrated to 50 times normal. developed by BP Solarex.square-foot home and family of eight.3 percent of the sunlight that hits it into electricity. California. which is the standard current for household wiring and for the power lines that supply electricity to homes. and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory develop a photovoltaic solar cell that converts 32. 5. Inc. Cumulative worldwide installed photovoltaic capacity reaches 1000 megawatts. 2. break previous performance records. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory of US achieves a new efficiency record for thin-film photovoltaic solar cells.com/ “Million Solar Roofs” program. Spectrolab. Home Depot begins selling residential solar power systems in three of its stores in San Diego. And its 0. at the world’s largest photovoltaic manufacturing plant with an estimated capacity of producing enough solar panels each year to generate 100 megawatts of power. 2. Two new thin-film solar modules. 4. The company’s 0. Sandia National Laboratories develops a new inverter for solar electric systems that will increase the safety of the systems during a power outage. To use such cells in practical applications. astronauts begin installing solar panels on what will be the largest solar power array deployed in space. Colorado. First Solar begins production in Perrysburg. The system provides most of the electricity for the 6. 3.millionsolarroofs.9-squaremeter module achieved 10.4 Timeline solar technology in the 2000s. 4.(BIPV) panels on the 37th through 43rd floors on the southand west-facing facades that produce a portion of the buildings power.5 watts — the highest power output for any thin-film module in the world.6% conversion efficiency and a power output of 91.800 solar cells. A family in Morrison. the cell is mounted in a device that uses lenses or mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto the cell. Such “concentrator” systems are mounted on tracking systems that keep them pointed toward the sun. Department of Energy’s http://www. A year later it expands sales to include 61 stores nationwide. 2001 1. The measurement of 18.5-square-meter module achieves 10. Each “wing” of the array consists of 32.
2002 1. allowing light not needed for power production to pass through the transparent modules. 6. TerraSun LLC develops a unique method of using holographic films to concentrate sunlight onto a solar cell. The National Space Development Agency of Japan. which would then transmit the power to Earth. in September. The largest solar power facility in the Northwest—the 38. or NASDA.S. The Indianapolis station is the first U. Washington. California. Nebraska. Such hybrid power systems combine the strengths of both energy systems to maximize the available power. Then. 4. 3. TI dropped the initiative. at its North Platt. Union Pacific Railroad installs 350 blue-signal rail yard lanterns. rail yard—the largest rail yard in the United States. a test demonstrated its use as an aerial imaging system for coffee growers. called Spheral Solar technology. ATS Automation Tooling Systems Inc. The gridconnected system is unusual in that its solar energy capacity—175 kilowatts— is actually larger than its wind energy capacity of 50 kilowatts. 2003 Powerlight Corporation installs the largest rooftop solar power system in the United States—a 1. It was championed by Texas Instruments (TI) in the early 1990s.S. remote-controlled aircraft called Pathfinder Plus. more than 18 miles high. which incorporate energy saving light-emitting diode (LED) technology with solar cells. announces plans to develop a satellite-based solar power system that would beam energy back to Earth. PowerLight Corporation places online in Hawaii the world’s largest hybrid system that combines the power from both wind and solar energy. The technology—based on tiny silicon beads bonded between two sheets of aluminum foil—promises lower costs due to its greatly reduced use of silicon relative to conventional multicrystalline silicon solar cells. “BP Connect” store. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. 34 . researchers demonstrated the aircraft’s use as a high-altitude platform for telecommunications technologies.7-kilowatt White Bluffs Solar Station—goes online in Richland. NASA successfully conducts two tests of a solar-powered. The technology is not new. 5. A satellite carrying large solar panels would use a laser to transmit the power to an airship at an altitude of about 12 miles.863 feet. 2. This capability allows the modules to be integrated into buildings as skylights. But despite U.2. In the first test in July. a model that BP intends to use for all new or significantly revamped BP service stations. TerraSun claims that the use of holographic optics allows more selective use of the sunlight. British Petroleum (BP) and BP Solar announce the opening of a service station in Indianapolis that features a solar-electric canopy. Concentrating solar cells typically use Fresnel lenses or mirrors to concentrate sunlight. 4. NASA’s solar-powered aircraft—Helios sets a new world record for non-rocketpowered aircraft: 96.18 megawatt system—at the Santa Rita Jail in Dublin. in Canada starts to commercialize an innovative method of producing solar cells. The canopy is built using translucent photovoltaic modules made of thin films of silicon deposited onto glass. 3.
Nellis Air Force Base is receiving photoelectric power for about 2.73 GW in 2008.5 Recent developments in Solar technology (2001-2010) Between 1970 and 1983 photovoltaic installations grew rapidly. is Europe's first commercial CSP system. 50% of commercial systems were installed in this manner in 2007 and it is expected that 90% will by 2009. completed in late 2005. roof-top systems (≤10 kW). In March.2 ¢/kWh and grid power for 9 ¢/kWh.3. introduced in 2006. but falling oil prices in the early 1980s moderated the growth of PV from 1984 to 1996.6 GW at the end of 2007. 2009 the proposed FIT was increased to 80¢/kWh for small. global warming concerns. with governments offering incentive programs to make "green" energy a more economically viable option. 80 MW). while drawing power from the grid at an average rate of 6¢/kWh. the government) at 42¢/kWh. Solar installations in recent years have also largely begun to expand into residential areas. and a total capacity of 300 MW is expected to be installed in the same area by 2013. Spain. Figure-3. The 11 MW PS10 power tower in Spain. Photovoltaic production growth has averaged 40% per year since 2000 and installed capacity reached 10.e. allows residential homeowners in Ontario with solar panel installations to sell the energy they produce back to the grid (i. Since 1997. and the improving economic position of PV relative to other energy technologies. As of November 2010. and updated in 2009 with the passage of the Green Energy Act.7 MW).Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park (Spain. 54 MW). 35 . 60 MW). Commercial concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) plants were first developed in the 1980s. 50 MW). 80. The program is designed to help promote the government's green agenda and lower the strain often placed on the energy grid at peak hours.. and 14. Since 2006 it has been economical for investors to install photovoltaics for free in return for a long term power purchase agreement. CSP plants such as SEGS project in the United States have a balanced energy cost (LEC) of 12–14 ¢/kWh. and the Puertollano Photovoltaic Park (Spain. In Canada the RESOP (Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program). 53 MW). PV development has accelerated due to supply issues with oil and natural gas. Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant (Canada.2: An eSolar project in California and Abengoa’s PS10 project in Seville. the Strasskirchen Solar Park (Germany. the Lieberose Photovoltaic Park (Germany. the largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are the Finsterwalde Solar Park (Germany.
and novel approaches to solar material and product development. producing hydrogen for fuel cells for transportation and buildings. the building will conserve enough and produce its own energy supply to create a new generation of cost-effective buildings that have zero net annual need for non-renewable energy. while the electricity needs of the entire United States could theoretically be met by a photovoltaic array within an area 100 miles on a side. cell designs. It is a future where the clothes you wear and your mode of transportation can produce power that is clean and safe.3. Concentrating solar power. The potential of solar power in the Southwest United States is comparable in scale to the hydropower resource of the Northwest. Photovoltaic’s research and development will continue intense interest in new materials. A desert area 10 miles by 15 miles could provide 20.6 Expected future direction of solar technology All buildings will be built to combine energy-efficient design and construction practices and renewable energy technologies for a net-zero energy building. and environmentally friendly electricity. 36 . The price of photovoltaic power will be competitive with traditional sources of electricity within 10 years. Solar electricity will be used to electrolyze water. or solar thermal electricity. In effect.000 megawatts of power. could harness the sun’s heat energy to provide large-scale. Technology roadmaps for the future outline the research and development path to full competitiveness of concentrating solar power (CSP) with conventional power generation technologies within a decade. domestically secure.
Another 30 percent is used to evaporate water. Every day enough energy strikes the United States to supply the nation’s energy needs for one and a half years! Where does all this energy go? About 15 percent of the sun’s energy that hits the earth is reflected back into space. and the oceans. The solar energy travels to the earth at a speed of 186. 37 . The sun radiates more energy in one second than people have used since the beginning of time! Where does the energy come from that constantly radiates from the sun? It comes from within the sun itself. But the helium atom contains less mass than the four hydrogen atoms that fused. one part in two billion. produces rainfall.000 miles per second. the sun’s extremely high pressure and temperature cause hydrogen atoms to come apart and their nuclei (the central cores of the atoms) to fuse or combine. the speed of light. an enormous amount of energy. Solar energy also is absorbed by plants.04 Solar Energy 4. the sun is a big ball of gases—mostly hydrogen and helium atoms. or sends out. The rest could be used to supply our energy needs. The hydrogen atoms in the sun’s core combine to form helium and generate energy in a process called nuclear fusion. the land.1 What Is Solar Energy? Solar energy is radiant energy that is produced by the sun. lifted into the atmosphere. and then just a little over eight minutes to travel the 93 million miles to earth. Like other stars. Every day the sun radiates. Only a small portion of the energy radiated by the sun into space strikes the earth. which. The lost matter is emitted into space as radiant energy It takes millions of years for the energy in the sun’s core to make its way to the solar surface. During nuclear fusion. Four hydrogen nuclei fuse to become one helium atom. Some matter is lost during nuclear fusion. Yet this amount of energy is enormous.
domestic water heaters are usually only found amongst wealthier sections of the community in developing countries. whereas other technologies. which passively absorb the energy of the sun and have no moving components. Figure-4. it is a technology. especially in areas such as the Mediterranean and Australia where there is high solar insulation (the total energy per unit area received from the sun). It is a technology. The most common use for solar thermal technology is for domestic water heating. As world oil prices vary. however.000. water heating. The sun. More sophisticated solar technologies exist for providing power for electricity generation. and there is no telling when global oil production will peak. but it is also possible to tap this source of solar energy as it arrives on the earth’s surface.000. Water heating technologies are usually referred to as active solar technologies.1: Direct and diffuse solar radiations 38 . which is rapidly gaining acceptance as an energy saving measure in both domestic and commercial water heating applications.000.000 watts of energy every second and the belief is that it will last for another 5 billion years. We will look at these briefly later in this fact sheet. There are many applications for the direct use of solar thermal energy. Most Solar thermal technologies have been in existence in one form or another for centuries and have a well established manufacturing base in most sun-rich developed countries.2 The Sun is Our Source Our sun produces 400. Presently. Most of the energy we use has undergone various transformations before it is finally utilized. Hundreds of thousands of domestic hot water systems are in use throughout the world. such as space heating or cooling.4.000. crop drying and solar cooking. but it is accepted that when it is gone the party is over. Other technologies exist which take advantage of the free energy provided by the sun.000. The United States reached peak oil production in 1970. space heating and cooling.000. are referred to as passive solar technologies. is the most reliable and abundant source of energy.000. which is well understood and widely used in many countries throughout the world.
4 39 . high pressure and high density undergoes nuclear fusion and hence releases an enormous amount of energy. Man-made processes include conversion into heat and electricity.5 micro meters. o 11 From the surface of the Sun. 4. In the inner 25% of the Sun. coupled with gravitational compression.Sun is the source of many forms of energy available to us. The energy received from the sun on a unit area perpendicular to the direction of propagation of radiation outside atmosphere is called solar constant. is critically dependent upon this surface temperature. This means that the amount of energy that is emitted by the Sun. This energy is emitted as radiations of different forms in the electromagnetic spectrum. Out of these X-rays. This form of heat transport depends greatly upon the surface temperature of an object for the amount and type of energy. The mass of the He nucleus is less than that of the four protons. If this sounds like a lot. the primary method of energy transport is electromagnetic radiation. though. The wavelength range is 0. solar energy is actually nuclear energy. Heat from the core is first primarily radiated.39e9 m and 1. This energy is the basis for the existence of life on earth.29 to 2. which is about 29 million F. Sun has an effective black body temperature of 5762 K and has a temperature of 8e6 K to 40e6 K. i. There is no need to fear. Sun is a sphere of intensely hot gaseous matter with a diameter of 1. it is more than enough to plunge us into brutal ice age or hellish global warming. and therefore. where it maintains at a temperature of 5800 K 3 . This energy is typically converted into usual energy form through natural and man-made processes. A change of 1% in the temperature of the Sun (58 K) can result in a change of 4% in the amount of energy per unit area that we receive here. It is in a plasma state. to the Sun’s surface. it is because it is: this is equivalent to the amount of mass that can be carried by 10 million railroad cars. the amount of solar energy that we receive here on Earth.3 Solar Energy Basics At its core. Natural processes include wind and biomass. that we are going to run out of fuel anytime soon.5e11 m away from earth. hydrogen is fusing into helium at a rate of about 7 x 10 kg of hydrogen every second. While this might not sound like a lot. and has a value 1353 Wm– 2. energy/area is proportional to T . mass having been lost in the reaction and converted to energy. This energy production. But heat energy and light energy are the main radiations that reach the earth. gamma rays and most of ultraviolet rays do not pass through the earth’s atmosphere. as the Sun has enough hydrogen in the core to continue at this rate for another 5 billion years. This hydrogen at high temperature. The most abundant element in sun is hydrogen. and then primarily convected.e. Stefan-Boltzmann’s Law tells us that the amount of energy that is radiated per unit area of surface depends upon the temperature of the object to the fourth power. keeps the Sun’s center near a sweltering 16 million K. The sun is a continuous fusion reactor in which hydrogen (4 protons) combines to form helium (one He nucleus). This radiation when received on the earth has a typical value of 1100 Wm– 2 and is variable.
Between the Sun’s and the Earth’s surfaces. While the total amount of energy of the radiation will remain the same. An object that has a surface temperature of 6000 K. Light travelling from a spherical object such as the Sun must spread to fill all available space. However. Since the Sun is almost 150 million kilometers from the Earth. as an object gets hotter. It radiates 1. the energy density per unit time of the sunlight reaching the upper atmosphere of the Earth is only 1340 W/m . However. which is in the green region of the visible spectrum. wavelength for various temperatures While our Sun is not a perfect blackbody radiator. its output is fairly close to that described above.6 x 10 watts of power per square meter from its surface at all wavelengths. the amount of energy crossing any square meter of space will be reduced by the square of the distance between the object and the area in question. most of the radiation is being sent out in the visible spectrum due to its surface temperature. Wien’s Law states that the wavelength at which the most energy will be radiated depends inversely upon the temperature of an object. An object that has a temperature of 4000 K has its peak energy being radiated at about 750 nanometers. which is in the near infrared. this value is vastly reduced. by the time that it has reached the Earth’s surface.The type of radiation coming from the Sun also depends on temperature. Figure 2 shows a theoretical plot of the energy emitted by three perfect blackbody radiators of different temperature. How these objects will appear to the human eye is determined by just how much energy is in each of the visible wavelengths. and vice-versa. The Sun is emitting electromagnetic radiation in wide variety of wavelengths. Thus. The first object will appear a very dim red. has its peak energy being radiated at about 500 nanometers. the energy density of the radiation is lessened by spreading and absorption. while the second (which is close to our Sun’s temperature of 5800 K) will appear a bright white that has a hint of yellow. though. the peak radiation will come from shorter wavelengths. Figure-4. 40 2 7 .2: Brightness vs.
If sunlight is striking a spot for more time during a day. and carbon dioxide all absorb wavelengths of light in the infrared and ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. Figure 4 shows a diagram of a typical situation found in Pakistan. o 41 . As you can see. As you can see. This is due to the fact that the Earth is a sphere that is spinning with its axis at an angle of 23. Figure-4. Most of the absorption of the Sun’s light occurs after it enters the Earth’s atmosphere.1 Latitude and Longitude These are not the only factors that affect the total amount of energy that a solar system receives. and vice versa. The amount of time that sunlight is shining during the day depends both on the location and the time of year. The vast majority of the visible part of the spectrum gets through the atmosphere with little attenuation. there is almost nothing to absorb or reflect any of this energy. the length of the path that the Sun follows on these four different days varies. water vapor. These different lengths correspond to different travel times. On average. This means that the path that the Sun will take in the sky on a given day changes. which means different amounts of daylight.5 with respect to the vertical to the plane of its orbit around the Sun. though.Travelling through the almost perfect vacuum of space. Large portions of the non-visible part of the spectrum do not get through the atmosphere. Figure 3 shows a plot of the percentage of the Sun’s energy that gets transmitted through the atmosphere versus wavelength on a cloudless day. there are only a few small sections in the infrared through which the energy gets transmitted. What little doesn’t get through is due to scattering by nitrogen and oxygen (blue appearance of the sky is due to this) and by absorption and reflection from clouds.3: Sunlight transmitted through the atmosphere versus wavelength 4. One factor that seriously impacts it is the number of hours of sunlight a location receives in a day. as does the noonday angle of the Sun.3. then more total energy will be delivered. only about 50% of the Sun’s energy that makes it to the top of the atmosphere actually gets down to the surface. Chemical species such as ozone. outside of the visible and radio parts of the spectrum.
or photovoltaic. A system that can do this can always keep its collecting surface perpendicular to the Sun’s rays. The noonday angle of the Sun in the sky can also have an effect on a solar energy system unless it has a way to track the Sun. st nd 4. then sunlight will always strike the system’s collecting surface at some angle. As we see from Figure-4. etc. which turns a generator to make electricity. Different engine types include steam engines. thereby allowing the most energy to strike it. 22 ) and 14-16 hours of sunlight on the Summer Solstice (Jun. followed by 6 months of darkness.4. thereby spreading the energy over a greater area and reducing the amount that actually strikes the surface. the length of the path across the sky would not vary. these angles will depend upon the location of the system on the Earth’s surface. If it cannot do this. helium. depending upon at what degree of latitude you live. Different working fluids include water. air. There. Photovoltaic It is important to understand that solar thermal technology is not the same as solar panel. gas turbines. At the Poles. technology. oil.Figure-4.4: Diagram of the Sun’s path in the sky on different days In Pakistan. the angle of the Sun’s rays changes throughout the year. as well as throughout the day. salts. As previously stated. The working fluid that is heated by the concentrated sunlight can be a liquid or a gas. Solar thermal electric energy generation concentrates the light from the sun to create heat. Sites that are further north have shorter days in the winter and longer days in the summer. 21 ). nitrogen. etc. the Sun is up for 6 months at a time. 42 .4 Solar Thermal vs. the situation is even stranger. which results in 12 hours of daylight everyday. there are about 8-10 hours of sunlight on the Winter Solstice (Dec. If one were to live at the equator. and that heat is used to run a heat engine. Stirling engines.
4. Figure-4. directly converts the sun’s light into electricity. There are currently two methods for solar thermal collection. Brightsource. Heat can be stored during the day and then converted into electricity at night. or Abengoa.5: Parabolic dish that collects and concentrates the sun into a heat source to run the engine and produce power. Photovoltaic. which rotates on a single axis throughout the day tracking the sun. The issue is. In terms of low-cost and high negative environmental impact. and will always be. and are capable of producing 10’s to 100’s of megawatts of power.5 Competing with Fossil Fuels Solar thermal power currently leads the way as the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale. which is what makes solar thermal so attractive for large-scale energy production. Point focus technique requires a series of mirrors surrounding a central tower. The mirrors 43 . how to make solar thermal technology more economical. Heat storage is a far easier and efficient method. The first is line focus collection. on the other hand.All of these engines can be quite efficient. But major solar thermal industry players such as eSolar. also known as a power tower. It currently beats other PV systems. The second is point focus collection. the leaders in solar thermal technology have an ever-growing market. have already beaten the price of photovoltaic and natural gas. technically less difficult. often between 30% and 40%. Line focus is less expensive. and it also can beat the cost of electricity from fossil fuels such as natural gas. With an increasingly industrializing planet. The basis for this technology is a parabola-shaped mirror. This means that solar panels are only effective during daylight hours because storing electricity is not a particularly efficient process. or PV energy conversion. nothing competes with coal. but not as efficient as point focus. Solar thermal plants that have storage capacities can drastically improve both the economics and the dispatchability of solar electricity. and they have plans to beat the price of coal in the near future.
which then transfers the heat into more usable energy. That is a sufficient temperature to run a steam turbine. Sunrays are focused using concave reflectors on to copper tubes filled with water and painted black outside. 44 . However. which in turn causes the generator to work. but when compared to the 500° C and higher temperatures that point focus can reach. High efficiency matters because it drives down both the land usage. and the effective cost per kWhr of the plant. Point focus. The steam from the boiling water rotates a large turbine. This heats the oil flowing through the pipe.6: Coal Reservoir 4. the extra effort and cost is balanced out by its greater efficiency capability. outshines line focus when results are concerned. curved (Ushaped) mirrors. The hot oil then is used to boil water in a conventional steam generator to produce electricity. with concentrating solar power systems.6 Solar Thermal Power plant In the solar power plant. Figure-4. and power tower. uses the sun as a heat source. The water in the tubes then boils and become steam. The point of focus in a line focus mirror array can only reach temperatures around 250° C. a new generation of power plants. solar energy is used to generate electricity. which activates a generator that produces electricity. though initially costlier and technically more nuanced. The mirrors are tilted toward the sun. This steam is used to drive steam turbine. Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water.focus the sun’s rays onto a point on the tower. dish/engine. Parabolic-trough systems: Concentrate the sun’s energy through long rectangular. focusing sunlight on a pipe that runs down the center of the trough. There are three main types of concentrating solar power systems: parabolic-trough.
A power tower system: uses a large field of mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto the top of a tower. 45 . which in turn drives an electricity producing turbine.A dish/engine system: uses a mirrored dish (similar to a very large satellite dish). The temperature in the boiler rises to 500 – 7000°C and the steam raised can be used to drive a turbine.7. air or liquid metal may be used as working fluid.7: A central receiver solar power plant A heliostat field consists of a large number of flat mirrors of 25 to 150 m2 area which reflects the beam radiations onto a central receiver mounted on a tower. The concentration ratio (total mirror area divided by receiver area) may be 1500. where a receiver sits. The dish shaped surface collects and concentrates the sun's heat onto a receiver. Then. The absorber surface temperature may be 400 to 1000°C. This heats molten salt flowing through the receiver. the salt’s heat is used to generate electricity through a conventional steam generator. so it can be stored for days before being converted into electricity. Steam is raised for the conventional steam power plant. The mechanical power is then used to run a generator or alternator to produce electricity. Molten salt retains heat efficiently.1 ‘Solar Power Tower’ Power Plant The first is the 'Solar Power Tower' design which uses thousands of sun-tracking reflectors or heliostats to direct and concentrate solar radiation onto a boiler located atop a tower. Figure-4.6. 4. There are also called central Receiver Solar Power Plants. Steam. It can be divided into solar plant and conventional steam power plant. Each mirror is tracked on two axis. The heat causes the fluid to expand against a piston or turbine to produce mechanical power. The flow diagram is given in Figure-4. That means electricity can be produced on cloudy days or even several hours after sunset. which absorbs the heat and transfers it to fluid within the engine.
The working fluid is heated in collectors and collected in hot storage tank (2). The maximum oil temperature is limited to400°C as oil degrades above this temperature.9: Parabolic trough solar power plant Water/steam working fluid can also be used. These are commercially under operation.9. It is rotated about one axis by a sun tracking mechanism. The hot air flow through or chimney which gives the air a certain velocity due to pressure drop caused by the chimney effect. Alternately steam at 550°C can be directly generated in the absorber tube. Every module consists of a collector as shown in Figs. 4. 4. Figure-4.4. The hot air flows through an air turbine to generate power.8: Parabolic Solar collector Figure-4. Thermo-oil is mostly used as heating fluid as it has very high boiling point.6. The tubes have evacuated glass enclosure to reduce the losses. but are confined to areas where there is ample solar insulation.6.2 ‘Distributed (Parabolic) Collector System’ Power Plant The second type is the distributed collector system. 4.8 and 4. The hot thermo-oil is used in boiler (5) to raise steam for the steam power plant. 46 . Large arrays of the collectors are coupled to provide high temperature water for driving a steam turbine. Fig.9. Such power stations can produce many megawatts (mW) of electricity. Solar thermal power plants with a generating capacity of 80 MW are functioning in the USA. The concentration ratio is between 40 and 100. The boiler also is providedwith a back-up unit (6) fired with natural gas. This system uses a series of specially designed ‘Trough’ collectors which have an absorber tube running along their length.3 Solar Chimney Power Plant The air stream is heated by solar radiation absorbed by the ground and covered by a transparent cover. shows a flow diagram of parabolic trough solar power plant. The cooled oil is stored in tank (3) and pumped (4) backto collector (1). It is also called solar farm power plant as a number of solar modules consisting of parabolic trough solar collectors are interconnected.
and water heating that are used for residential buildings. Solar thermal electric conversion method converts radiation to steam and to kinetic and electrical energy through a turbine and generator to electrical energy. 6. There are eight possible pathways for conversion of solar radiation to useful energy. In cold climates. A solar ventilation system can preheat the air. To get salt from sea water. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be impractical for a home. Find examples of these uses and add to the list given below. passive heating. day lighting. 1. 47 . heating this air can use large amounts of energy. 2. Solar thermo chemical conversion method converts radiation to heat and produce steam then to kinetic energy using a pump or turbine. Then what about a solar cell? Solar energy is converted into electrical energy and it is directly used or stored in a battery. Appliances like solar cooker and solar heater absorb solar radiations and convert it into heat. To dry cereals. These technologies include ventilation air preheating. A high temperature catalytic conversion process produces chemical energy (H2 fuel) directly. 5. The above route through a further electrolysis process gives chemical energy (H2 fuel). To dry wet clothes. Photovoltaic conversion of solar radiation gives direct electrical energy. from ancient days. solar process heating and solar cooling. Many large buildings need ventilated air to maintain indoor air quality. We now use several appliances which work using solar energy. A few of these methods are dealt in detail further. Photosynthesis process produces chemical energy directly from radiation. Solar thermal conversion method converts radiation to heat using solar flat collectors. 4. Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies photovoltaic. To dry fish.7 Solar Energy Storage It is well known that human beings have been using solar energy for different uses. To dry leather.10: Chimney solar power plant 4. Chemical energy (H2 fuel) is directly produced from solar radiation using the electricity produced by the photovoltaic method.Figure-4. 3. To dry firewood.
If buildings are carefully designed to take full advantage of the solar insulation which they receive then much of the heating requirement can be met by solar gain alone. The two main types of solar collectors used an evacuated tube collector and a parabolic trough collector can operate at high temperatures with high efficiency. A space behind the perforated wall allows the air streams from the holes to mix together. to create cool air from solar energy. This heats the fluid within the tube. A building should be of sufficient mass to allow heat storage for the required period. Contain features which promote the even distribution of heat throughout the building. a heat exchanger. rectangular. A typical system includes solar collectors that work along with a pump. One example of a simple passive space heating technology is the Trombe wall. By incorporating certain simple design principles a new dwelling can be made to be fuel efficient and comfortable for habitation. A massive black painted wall has a double glazed skin to prevent captured heat from escaping. Features should be included to regulate heat intake to prevent the building from overheating. 2. good insulation and large glazed areas can increase a buildings capacity to capture and store heat from the sun. which consists of a thin. A vacuum between the two walls insulates the inner tube. This type of system typically uses a transpired collector. holding in the heat. A building should have large areas of glazing facing the sun to maximize solar gain. combined with some very complex chemistry tricks. The use of building materials with a high thermal mass (which stores heat). Solar energy can also be used with evaporative coolers (also called “swamp coolers”) to extend their usefulness to more humid climates. Air passes through the many small holes in the panel. Vast quantities of energy can be used to achieve this. Solar absorption coolers use a similar approach. but it makes more sense if you just think of the solar heat as an energy source. using another chemistry trick called desiccant cooling. curved (U-shaped) mirrors tilted to focus sunlight on a tube. The heated air is then sucked out from the top of the space into the ventilation system. The bulk of these technologies are architecture based and passive in nature. It may seem impossible to use heat to cool a building. 4. The wall is vented to allow the warm air to enter the room at high level and cool air to enter the cavity between the wall and the glazing. For passive solar design to be effective certain guidelines should be followed: 1.saving both energy and money. to create cool air. 4. 3. An evacuated-tube collector is a shallow box full of many glass. electricity. and/or one or more large storage tanks. black metal panel mounted on a south-facing wall to absorb the sun’s heat. The heat from a solar collector can also be used to cool a building.8 Space Heating In colder areas of the world (including high altitude areas within the tropics) space heating is often required during the winter months. Parabolic troughs are long. Many technologies exist to assist with diurnal heating needs but seasonal storage is more difficult and costly. double-walled tubes and reflectors to heat the fluid inside the tubes. Heat stored during the wall during the day is radiated into the 48 . which runs down the center of the trough. Solar process heating systems are designed to provide large quantities of hot water or space heating for nonresidential buildings. Your familiar home air conditioner uses an energy source.
elegant techniques for cooling their dwellings. humid areas. lie within the tropics and have little need of space heating. Also. however. Solar thermal is the current solar electricity cost champion. open structure bamboo housing in warm.9 Space Cooling The majority of the worlds developing countries.10 Land Requirements Another challenge for solar thermal is the amount of space required for efficient production of energy. Utilization of desertification can prove to be a boon for solar thermal real estate procurement and growth. good town planning to optimise the prevailing wind and available shade. Buildings can be designed for a given climate domed roofs and thermally massive structures in hot arid climates. The benefits of eliminating coal from our energy diet are many. a nation’s pollution will not be windswept into another nation’s territories. Abengoa. begs to be used for solar thermal energy production. 4. Solar thermal plants are being built around the world. but space that gets a consistent amount of direct sunlight. the world has a new alternative. further cementing the concept of independence. Acciona. often using effects promoted by passive solar phenomenon. These include sitting a building in shade or near water. This land. using vegetation or landscaping to direct wind into the building. carbon emissions. 4. presumably originally chosen for its sun exposure. by limiting. With solar thermal technologies being developed and advanced by companies such as eSolar.11: eSolar’s unique approach to minimize land requirements 49 . Solar thermal power plants typically require 1/4 to 1 square mile or more of land. There are many methods for minimizing heat gain.room during the night. shuttered and shaded windows to prevent heat gain. and many new planned plants are in the works. for space cooling. The majority of the worlds warm-climate cultures have again developed traditional. and hopefully eliminating. however. There are as many options as there are people. Figure-4. but more improvements are needed to beat the cost of the lowest-cost fossil fuels in a legislative climate without subsidies or carbon taxes. countries can be truly energy independent. By not burning fossil fuels. One silver lining of global climate change and human impact on the land is that more and more farmland is becoming unsuitable for agricultural production. Brightsource. There is a demand. In some countries dwellings are constructed underground and take advantage of the relatively low and stable temperature of the surrounding ground. simple. Ausra and Schott Solar. This type of technology is useful in areas where the nights are cold but the days are warm and sunny. Not only space.
As well as projections for installed capacity and energy output we also make assessments of the 50 .1 The solar energy future 5.over the first two decades of the twenty-first century.given the right market conditions and an anticipated fall in costs . In this section we look forward to what solar power could achieve .05 Solar Energy and Pakistan Figure-5.1 Methodology and assumptions If PV is to have a promising future as a major energy source it must build on the experiences of those countries that have already led the way in stimulating the solar energy market.1: Solar energy and Pakistan 5.1.
In the non-industrialized world approximately 40 GWp of solar capacity is expected to have been installed by 2020 in the rural electrification sector. the number of jobs that would be created and the crucial effect that an increased input from solar electricity will have on greenhouse gas emissions. By 2025. Since system sizes are much smaller and the population density greater. and their average size is 3 kWp. In Europe alone there would be roughly 41 million people receiving their supply from grid-connected solar electricity. 2. each serving the needs of three people. the total number of people by then generating their own electricity from a grid-connected solar system would reach 290 million. 1. 5. The potential for PV in terms of solar irradiation. mainly in industrialized countries. National targets for PV installations and manufacturing capacity. 3.level of investment required. the availability of suitable roof space and the demand for electricity in areas not connected to the grid. Here the assumption is that on average a 100 Wp stand-alone system will cover the basic electricity needs of 3-4 persons per dwelling. Assuming that 80% of these systems are installed on residential buildings. more than 1. this means that up to 950 million people in the developing countries would by then be using solar electricity. This scenario for 2025.6 billion people could get electricity from off grid photovoltaic systems.2 Power generation The global installed capacity of solar power systems would reach 433 GWp by 2025.1. PV market development over recent years both globally and in specific regions. 4. National and regional market support programmers. About two thirds of this would be in the grid-connected market. is based on the following core inputs. together with an extended projection forwards to 2040. This would represent a major breakthrough for the technology from its present emerging status 51 .
however. reducing to 27 jobs per MW between 2010 and 2020. we will eventually make back what you originally spent. 20 jobs will be created per MW of capacity during manufacture. decreasing to 10 jobs per MW between 2010 and 2020. and that is not easy for most people to get around. 5. which is the entire point of going solar in the first place. the good news is that. up to 2010. but if those two items do not pose issues for us. No matter how much some people would like to get involved in the movement to independent energy.5. Based on information provided by the industry.3 Pakistan is most suitable for solar power As we can see. This could mean that either your house is not positioned favorably in relation to a tree or other house. The result is that by 2025.2 million full-time jobs would have been created by the development of solar power around the world. To achieve the highest level of efficiency.2 Solar Energy and Pakistan: An Over View As solar power does not make sense for all locations in the world. an estimated 3. the proportion of maintenance work is assumed to steadily increase up to two jobs per MW by 2020.3 Employment More jobs are created in the installation and servicing of PV systems than in their manufacture. and possibly start saving money on your investment. About 30 jobs per MW will be created during the process of installation. 5. it has been assumed that. it is cost prohibitive. 52 .1. we need the proper amount of roof space to support the panels your house may require. Over half of those would be in the installation and marketing of systems. The initial cost of installing solar panels or other sources of solar energy is high. Some houses simply do not receive enough sunlight to produce substantial energy. retailing and providing other local services up to 2010. but also the location of your home is also relevant to whether or not you can maintain solar energy. Not only how much space is available. Since developing world markets will play a more significant role beyond 2010. If solarpower is looked at through a long-term lens. As far as maintenance is concerned it is assumed that with the more efficient business structures and larger systems in the industrialized world. the cons of implementing solar power in our home are primarily cost and location related. about one job will be created per installed MW.
or semi-independent. renewable and sustainable. “The energy crisis has forced upon a vigorous search for out of box.President Asif Ali Zardari has asked for an early adoption and utilization of modern solar and geothermal technologies including solar cookers. solar water heaters and solar water pumping etc. but certainly not least. And last. 53 . solar power also reduces our need to rely on foreign sources for power. therefore. geothermal heat pumps. to take full advantage of the available natural energy resources. it’s good for our planet! Solar energy is clean. the Government of Pakistan has determined to establish 100 MW Solar Power Farm by June 2011. the primary component of solar panels. The Board has recently issued LOIs to 30 national and international companies for generation of 1500 MW power through solar energy. imaginative and bold solutions.Let’s not forget that solar energy increases the value of our home too.” the President said during a briefing given to him on alternate Pakistan on industrial grid linked electricity production program. April 29-2010 . unlike expensive and damaging fossil fuels. Silicon. It does not fill our atmosphere with carbon dioxide. on the other. It is a free and unlimited source of power. The Government of Pakistan guarantees are backed through NEPRA. Solar power is not subject supply and demand fluctuations in the way that gas is. is also being more widely produced. On a larger scale. land from Government of Sindh and power purchase by NTDC for HESCO. This is great because you can supply your home with electricity during a power outage. on one hand and to meet the energy requirements of the country. Solar power is independent. Solar power can also be used in remote locations. mercury or any other pollutants. places where conventional power can’t be reached. 5.4 Pakistan’s indulgence in solar energy ISLAMABAD. less and less expensive with each passing year. This program initiated by the Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB). involves financing through private sector. nitrogen oxide.
Sindh: A solar corridor at Gharo-Keti Bandar.. Khan. Sindh. which has been air-conditioned using Solar Energy as well. As part of the community welfare. Islamabad The project was successfully executed and implemented by AEDB. NTDC has submitted the request for Power Acquisition Permission to NEPRA for procuring power from the proposed solar plants. it will be upgraded to 700 MW by the year 2010 and 9700 MW by the year 2030.. In addition. AEDB drafted the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) and the Implementation Agreement. A Children’s Playground with Solar Powered Lights has also been developed at the Village. HESCO has agreed to purchase the initial 100 MW Solar Power generated through this project. 4.5 Solar activity in Pakistan (2x50) MW Solar Power Generation Project at Gharo. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Balochistan. 8 companies with financial and technical viability have been short-listed. Bharo Mal. M/s Green Power. 100 Solar Homes Program Narian Khorian. a Solar Water Desalination Plant has also been installed and commissioned at the village ensuring the availability of clean drinking water to the villagers. The Honorable Prime Minister of Pakistan inaugurated it on 19th June 2005. The batteries of this vehicle are charged with Solar Energy. M/s Win Power Ltd. VESTAS and GAMESA have been short-listed for the project. 3. Two Solar Powered Computers have been provided to the village Mosque/Community Center. 54 . OEMs/Suppliers like GE. In addition. as per Government of Pakistan’s Policy for Power Generation 2002. Three companies have submitted applications to NEPRA for obtaining Generation License.5. District Kech. Lakhi Bher. M/s Zephyr Ltd. NTDC. Once the initial target of generating 100 MW through Solar Energy is achieved.. 100 Solar Homes Program per Province: The project was executed and implemented in the following villages: 1. Distrcit D. AEDB has allocated 1000 acres of land each to five (5) investors.G. 4 LED lights. District Kohat. namely M/s New Park Energy Ltd. and M/s Tenaga.e. Each of the 100 households has been provided with 88-Watt Solar Panels. an electric vehicle has also been developed which will act as the first ever Electric Rickshaw in Pakistan. Punjab. Allah Baksh Bazar Dandar. Private investors have entered the PPA negotiations with NTDC/WAPDA. The pre-feasibility study of the site has been done by AEDB. District Thar. Janak. Tariff would be determined by NEPRA in consultation with the IPP and the Power Purchaser i. 2. a Solar Geyser and a Solar Cooker have also been provided to each household.000 MW. a 12 Volt DC fan and a TV socket. Sindh Government has leased out approximately 5000 Acres of land for the project. Sindh has been identified with an actual potential of 50.
Solar-Solar-Diesel High hybrid system installed to provide electricity to two villages in Balochistan through M/s Empower International. New Zealand. a Solar Disinfecting Unit and a Solar Cooker have also been provided to each household.Each of the 100 households in each village has been provided with 88-Watt Solar Panels. Pilot Project for Development and Installation of 02 Micro Hydro Kaplan Pannel: A 40 kW Kaplan type micro hydel Turbine has been imported from China to reverse engineer the technology.6 Activities of Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) Photovoltaic (PV) Technology 1. Pedal Generators. These products have also been provided to the rural areas that have been electrified with Solar Energy. 2. 3000 Laser Detectors were designed and fabricated for incorporating in the laser land leveling system of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). solar room heating systems and solar cookers have been developed and disseminated for domestic and commercial applications. 3. a 12 Volt DC fan and a TV socket. Solar Lanterns. In addition. Two other villages in Balochistan were electrified using PV system. solar fruit and vegetable dryers. 5. 600 houses have been electrified in the remote coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan through installation of small solar panel (stand alone) systems. Innovative Lighting Systems: LED Lights. Solar Thermal Appliances A number of appliances including solar water heaters. 4000 Solar Cells and 300 Solar Modules of different sizes were fabricated indigenously. Electrification through Micro Solar Panel: 1. 4. This turbine is being used to provide electricity to the village Pilot Project for Installation of Indigenously Developed Micro Solar Panel: A total of 140 Micro Solar Pannel have been installed at various sites within Sindh and Balochistan. Another 40 kW Kaplan type micro hydel turbine has been indigenously manufactured and installed at the Khanpur Dam Canal near the village of Mohra Morado. 55 . Taxila. Hand Generators and Solar Mobile Phone Chargers have been indigenously developed by the private sector with AEDB’s facilitation. An R&D lab is being setup for this purpose. 4 LED lights. solar distillation stills for producing clean water. for providing electricity to the rural households.
050 2. 5. 5 villages have been provided with battery charging facilities through a solar-powered battery-charging center. 5.050 1. The second (improved) model is under field test.700 3.500 1. A reverse osmosis unit is being installed near village Mubarak. 500-Watts Solar Turbine has been manufactured locally. 3.000 Source: Board of Investment.7 Pakistan’s Solar Energy Development Plans MEDIUM TERM SOLAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2011-2020 Year Capacity Installed (MW) 700 Cumulative MW of Solar Energy Installed by Year End Short Term Plan (2005-2010) 700 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 100 100 150 200 250 250 300 300 350 300 800 900 1. 4 Coast Guard Check Posts at Lasbela have been electrified. 4. Kemari Town.750 2.250 1. Government of Pakistan 56 . Karachi for desalination of brackish water.2.350 2.
Mirpur Sakro Goth Ismail Khaskheli 1 – Thakani Goth Ismail Khaskheli 2 – Thakani Goth Mohd Hasan Khaskheli – Thakani.DETAILS OF MICRO SOLAR PANNEL INSTALLED IN SINDH & BALOCHISTAN SINDH .No Name of Village Homes Electrified Khaskheli – 16 04 Pannel Installed 1 Goth Gul Muhammad Thakani. Udaasi Total 23 06 3 4 5 15 05 18 04 01 05 6 07 02 7 11 03 8 06 02 9 10 11 12 40 250 16 14 356 10 40 04 03 85 13 Daandaari – Ghorabari. Mirpur Sakro 2 Goth Haji Jumo Khaskheli – Thakani. U. U. Government of Pakistan 57 . Mirpur Sakro Goth Sher Muhammad Hamaiti – Gujjo Goth Daandaari – Ghorabari. U. U.C.District Thatta S. Mirpur Sakro Goth Haji Abdullah Channo – Thakani.C. Mirpur Sakro Goth Baboo Pahwar – Thakani.C. Udaasi Goth Lukman – Ghorabari. Mirpur Sakro Goth Jamot Hussain Khaskheli – Thakani.C. Udaasi Goth Sammo – Ghorabari. Udaasi 01 (10 kilo Watts) – Water Pumping Source: Board of Investment.
Government of Pakistan VILLAGES ELECTRIFIED THROUGH SOLAR PHTOVOLTAIC DURING 2004-05 Village Name Narian Khorian Allah Baksh Bazar Dandar Lakhi Bhair Bharomal Jhanak District Rawalpindi Rawalpindi Turbat D.Quetta N S.G. District Lasbela S. Government of Pakistan 58 .No Name of Village Homes Electrified 03 15 35 Pannel Installed 01 02 05 1 2 3 Goth Meer Isa – Kund Malir.C.BALOCHISTAN . of Houses 53 57 121 135 115 120 601 Punjab Punjab Balochistan Punjab Sindh K. Lasbela Goth Ramzan – Kund Malir. Lasbela Goth Mir Abdullah – Kund Malir.P. Warehouse Quetta Panel 39 Current Status To be installed as per the direction and advice of the Irrigation & Power Department Balochistan Source: Board of Investment. Lasbela Goth Haji Washi / Daghari – Kund Malir. Lasbela Goth Yaaqoob – Kund Malir. Khan Chachro Kohat Province No.Kund Malir. Lasbela Goth Haji Sher Muhammad – Kund Malir. Lasbela Totals 4 5 18 08 02 01 6 32 04 111 15 Source: Board of Investment. Government of Pakistan BALOCHISTAN .K Total Source: Board of Investment.No 7 Name of Recipient Governor Balochistan on behalf of the Government of Balochistan Location F.
G. 10. 59 . 1.VILLAGES TO BE ELECTRIFIED THROUGH SOLAR PHTOVOLTAIC DURING 2005-06 Village name Khirzaan Basti Bugha Pinpario Shnow Garri District Khuzdar D. Khan Chachro Kohat Province Balochistan Punjab Sindh K. of Houses 100 100 100 100 400 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FOR 2005-06 No. Hand Generators and LED Lanterns Pilot Project of Production Plant of Bio-Diesel Research on Development of 1 kW Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle in Pakistan using Existing Fuel Cell Solar Water Pumping & Desalination Solar Thermal Power Plant Technologies (Demonstration Units) Electrification of Villages through Micro Solar Pannel Pilot project for Development and Installation of 02 Micro Hydro Kaplan Pannel Pilot project for Emerging Demonstration in Pakistan Alternative Energy Technologies 2. 7.P. 9. 4. 3.K Total No. 6. Project Title Roshan Pakistan: National Rural Electrification Programe through Alternative / Renewable Energy Technologies Solar Homes Project in Each Province Development of Supply Chain Mechanism for Pedal Generators. 5. 8.
investors and other interested parties to support solar power. Solar energy is very useful. energy officials. global citizens. By taking the crucial steps to help ensure that more than a billion people obtain electricity from the sun in the future we can harness the full potential of solar power for our common good. We encourage politicians and policymakers. but it is people’s behavior that really changes things. particularly in a time when we are concerned about greenhouse gas emissions from other energy sources.5. companies.8 Conclusion Reports are a helpful channel. 60 .
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