P.O.Box 710
San Pedro, Ca. 907330710
Tel. (310) 8330710
Fax (310) 8339658
web  www.intusoft.com
email  info@intusoft.com
Personal Computer
Circuit Design
Tools
Power Specialist’s App Note Book
Acknowledgments
Authors
Christophe BASSO, consultant, Sinard, France
Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft, San Pedro, CA USA, charles@intusoft.com
Lawrence Meares, Intusoft, San Pedro, CA USA
Harry H. Dill, Deep Creek Technologies, Inc. Annapolis, MD USA, Testdesigner@compuserve.com
A. F. Petrie, Independent Consultant, 7 W. Lillian Ave., Arlington Heights, IL USA
Mike Penberth, Technology Sources, NewMarket Suffolk, U.K.
Martin O’Hara, Motorola Automotive and Industrial Electronics Group, Stotfold Hitchin Herts. U.K.
Kyle Bratton, Naval Aviation Depot, Cherry Point NC USA
Chris Sparr, Naval Aviation Depot, Cherry Point NC USA
Lloyd Pitzen, CCI Incorporated Arlington, VA USA
Editors
Charles Hymowitz
Bill Halal
POWER SPECIALIST’S APP NOTE BOOK
Edited by Charles E. Hymowitz
Copyright
intusoft, 1998. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a
retrieval system, or translated into any language, in any form, by any means, without written permission from intusoft.
Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers at the following address:
Intusoft
P.O. Box 710
San Pedro, CA 907330710 USA
While the editor and the publishers believe that the information and the guidance given in this work is correct, all parties must
rely upon their own skill and judgement when making use of it. Neither the editor nor the publishers assume any liability to
anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work, whether such error or omission is the result of
negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is disclaimed.
is a trademark of intusoft
Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Epson is a registered trademark of Epson Inc. HP is a trademark
of the HewlettPackard Corp. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Intusoft, the
Intusoft logo, ICAP, ICAPS, Design Validator, Test Designer, IsSpice4, SpiceNet, PreSpice, IntuScope, and IsEd are
trademarks of Intusoft, Inc. All company/product names are trademarks/registered trademarks of their respective owners.
Printed in the U.S.A.
rev. 98/11
Table Of Contents
Switched Mode Power Supply Design
Average simulations of FLYBACK converters with SPICE3 5
A Tutorial Introduction to Simulating Current Mode Power Stages 17
Write your own generic SPICE Power Supplies controller models 24
Keep your Switch Mode Supply stable with a CriticalMode Controller 33
Exploring SMPS Designs Using IsSpice 40
Average Models For Switching Converter Design 48
Simulating SMPS Designs 51
SSDI Diode Rectifier Models 56
High Efficiency StepDown Converter 57
IsSpice4 Scripting Gives You More Power 58
Magnetics Design and Modeling
Designing a 12.5W 50kHz Flyback Transformer 62
Designing a 50W Forward Converter Transformer With Magnetics Designer 65
Signal Generators
IsSpice4 introduces a deadtime in your bridge simulations 72
Three Phase Generator 74
Simulating Pulse Code Modulation 76
Modeling For Power Electronics
A Spice Model For TRIACs 80
A Spice Model For IGBTs 84
SPICE 3 Models Constant Power Loads 90
Simulating Circuits With SCRs 91
Power Schottky and Soft Recovery Diodes 96
Spark Gap Modeling 103
SPICE Simulates A Fluorescent Lamp 108
Sidactor Modeling 112
Transformer and Saturable Core Modeling 114
Modeling Nonlinear Magnetics 120
Current Limited Power Supply 126
Macro Modeling Low Power DCDC Converters 127
Modeling NonIdeal Inductors in SPICE 131
Motor and Relay Modeling
Modeling A Relay 136
New SPICE Features Aid Motor Simulation 141
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis for SMPS
Automating Analog Test Design 145
Simulation measurements vs. Real world test equipment 150
New Techniques for Fault Diagnosis and Isolation of Switched Mode Power Supplies 152
Application of Analog & Mixed Signal Simulation Techniques to the Synthesis
and Sequencing of Diagnostic Tests 163
4
SMPS Design
Switc he d M od e Powe r
Sup p ly De sig n
Authors
Christophe BASSO, consultant, Sinard, France
Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
Larry Meares, Intusoft
Scott Frankel, Analytical Engineering Services
Steve Sandler, Analytical Engineering Services
5
Power Specialist’ s
Average simulations of FLYBACK converters with SPICE3
Christophe BASSO
May 1996
Within the wide family of Switch Mode Power Sup
plies (SMPS), the Flyback converter represents the preferred
structure for use in small and medium power applications
such as wall adapters, offline battery chargers, fax machines,
etc. The calculations involved in the design of a Flyback
converter, especially one which operates in discontinuous
mode, are not overly complex. However, the analysis of the
impact of the environment upon the system may require a
lengthy period of time: ESR variations due to temperature
cycles, capacitor aging, load conditions, load and line tran
sients, the effects of the filter stage, etc. must be considered.
A SPICE simulator can help the designer to quickly
implement his designs and show how they react to real world
constraints. The simulation market constantly releases SMPS
models, and the designer can rapidly lose himself in the eclec
ticism of the offer. This article will show how you can ben
efit from these new investigation tools.
Simulating SMPS with SPICE is not a new topic
In 1976, R. D. Middlebrook settled the mathemati
cal basis for modeling switching regulators [1]. Middlebrook
showed how any boost, buck, or buckboost converter may
be described by a canonical model whose element values
can be easily derived. In 1978, R. Keller was the first to
apply the Middlebrook theory to a SPICE simulator [2]. At
that time, the models developed by R. Keller required manual
parameter computation in order to provide the simulator with
key information such as the DC operating point. Also, the
simulation was only valid for small signal variations and
continuous conduction mode.
Two years later, Dr. Vincent Bello published a se
ries of papers in which he introduced his SPICE models [3].
These models had the capacity to automatically calculate
DC operating points, and allowed the simulated circuit to
operate in both conduction modes, regardless of the analy
sis type (AC, DC or TRAN). Although these models are 15
years old, other models have been introduced since then,
our example circuits which have been based upon them will
demonstrate how well they still behave.
Switching or average models ?
Switching models will exhibit the behavior of an
electrical circuit exactly as if it were built on a breadboard
with all of its nonlinearities. The semiconductor models, the
transformer and its associated leakage elements, and the
peripheral elements are normally included. In this case, the
time variable t is of utmost importance since it controls the
overall circuit operation and performance, including semi
conductor losses and ringing spikes which are due to para
sitic elements. Because SMPS circuits usually operate at high
frequencies and have response times on the order of milli
seconds, analysis times may be very long. Furthermore, it is
practically impossible to evaluate the AC transfer function
of the simulated circuit due to the switch.
Average models do not contain the switching com
ponents. They contain a unique state equation which de
scribes the average behavior of the system: in a switching
system, a set of equations describe the circuit’s electrical
characteristics for the two stable positions of the switch/ (es),
ON or OFF. The “statespaceaveraging” technique consists
of smoothing the discontinuity associated with the transi
tions of the switch/ (es) between these two states. The result
is a set of continuous nonlinear equations in which the state
equation coefficients now depend upon the duty cycles D
and D′ (1D). A linearization process will finally lead to a
set of continuous linear equations. An indepth description
of these methods is contained in D. M. Mitchell’s book, “DC
DC Switching Regulators Analysis”, distributed by e/j
BLOOM Associates.
The general simulation architecture
The key to understanding the simulation of SMPS
with a SPICE simulator is to first experiment with very simple
structures. Figure 1 shows the basic way to simulate an av
erage voltagemode Flyback converter with its associated
components. As a starting point, simply draw a minimum
part count schematic: simple resistive load, output capaci
tor with its ESR, perfect transformer (XFMR symbol), no
input filter, no error amplifier etc.
In+
In
Out+
Out
Duty Cycle
FLYBACK converter model
Input voltage
Output voltage
Duty cycle
input
Output transformer
RLOAD
COUT
ESR
Figure 1
By clicking on the average Flyback model symbol
or simply filling in the netlist file, the working parameters
will be entered, i.e. the operating switching frequency, the
value of the primary power coil, etc. Some recent models
require the loop propagation delays or overall efficiency.
The parameters for the remaining components are obvious,
except for the duty cycle input source. This source will di
rectly pilot the duty cycle of the selected model. By varying
the source from 0 to 1V, the corresponding duty cycle will
sweep between 0 and 100%. For the first simulation, with
out an error amplifier, you will have to adjust this source
such that the output matches the desired value. This value
6
SMPS Design
corresponds to the DC operating point that SPICE needs for
its calculations. The correct value can be determined incre
mentally or via the features in Intusoft’s (SanPedro, CA)
IsSpice software. The Interactive Command Language (ICL),
is a tremendously powerful language which has been prima
rily derived from the SPICE3 syntax and allows the designer
to dynamically run SPICE commands without going back
and forth from the schematic to the simulator. Below is a
brief example of how the previous iteration process could
be written:
while V(OUT)<=15 ;while the voltage at node OUT is
less than or equal to 15V
tran 1u 100u ;run a TRANSIENT analysis lasting 100us
alter @Vduty[dc]=@Vduty[dc]+1mV ;increment the duty
source by 1mV steps
print mean(V(OUT)) mean(@Vduty[dc]) ;print the output
and the duty source average values end
The SPICE simulator will compute the different
values and refresh the output windows until the specified
conditions are met. At this time, Vduty for the desired out
put value is known and can be reflected back to the sche
matic. In order to reduce execution time, and yield a more
precise result, you could also run a DC sweep, although this
method is less flexible.
Simulation trick: temporarily replace your large output ca
pacitor with a small value in order to shorten the necessary
transient time at every iteration. Small values require fewer
switching cycles in order to reach the output target level.
The Pulse Width Modulator gain
In a voltagecontrolled Flyback SMPS, the conduc
tion time of the primary switch depends upon the DC volt
age that is compared with the oscillator sawtooth, as shown
in Figure 2:
oscillator sawtooth
VH
VL
Error amplifier
output voltage
Duty cycle
Output
Comparator
VC  Vσ
D =
VH  Vσ
VC
Figure 2
This circuit can be seen as a box which converts a
DC voltage (the error amplifier voltage) into a duty cycle
(D). The average models accept a 1 volt maximum duty cycle
control voltage (D=100%). Generally, the IC’s oscillator
sawtooth can swing up to 3 or 4 volts, thus forcing the inter
nal PWM stage to deliver the maximum duty cycle when the
error amplifier reaches this value. To account for the 1 volt
maximum input of our average models, the insertion of an
attenuator with 1/(VHVσ) ratio after the error amplifier
output is mandatory. For example, if the sawtooth ampli
tude of the integrated circuit we use is 2.5Vpp, then the
ratio will be: 1/2.5=0.4. In our simulation schematic, to ac
count for the previous sawtooth peaktopeak value, we
would have to restrict the maximum output value of the er
ror amplifier to 2.5 volts and limit the lower value to greater
than VL. Figure 3 updates the schematic of Figure 1.
G
A
I
N
Attenuation ratio
K = 0.4
to duty cycle
input
Vduty
DC 380mV AC 1
Figure 3
Performing AC simulations
We now have a functional openloop system with
the correct DC output value. The purpose of the next stage
will be to sweep the duty cycle source around its DC steady
state level. This will give us the openloop AC response of
the circuit. The Vduty source keeps its DC statement to pro
vide SPICE with a DC point, but the AC 1 command is added.
Monitoring the AC output voltage yields the graph of Fig
ure 4, which shows the control to output transfer function
for a discontinuous Flyback
converter.
10 100 1K 10K 100K
Frequency in Hz
40.00
20.00
0
20.00
40.00
Open loop gain (dB)
80.00
40.00
0
40.00
80.00
Open loop phase (deg.)
1
2
Figure 4
7
Power Specialist’ s
Adding the error amplifier
The error amplifier can be selected in function of
various criteria: bandwidth, openloop gain, etc. From a
SPICE point of view, the simpler the model, the faster the
simulation runs. The easiest method is to use a perfect am
plifier like the one depicted in Figure 5a. This model is a
simple voltage controlled source which amplifies the input
voltage by the open loop gain. To overcome the problems
associated with perfect sources, i.e. unrestrained output volt
age, the action of a limiting element will confine the output
voltage swing within a convenient range. This model is the
simplest error amplifier model you can create. Figure 5b
represents a transconductance type with its associated clip
ping network.
E1
10E4
RLimit element
Verror out
Output voltage
Vref
Compensation network
Figure 5a
G1
3200UMHO
Comp.
Network
Output
Voltage
Verror out
Vclip low Vclip high
Vref
Figure 5b
To account for the characteristics of the error am
plifier integrated in your real PWM controller, some com
ponents have to be added in order to tailor the response curve.
The previous models do not really lend themselves to the
addition of various internal pole and zero transfer functions.
Figure 5c shows another type of amplifier that will
facilitate this task.
Routput
Output
Vout=V(Cp1) x 1
Rinput
()
(+)
Cp1
VCOMP
Rp1
DCLAMP
G1
Figure 5c
This complete model associates a voltage con
trolled current source and a unity gain buffer. The first pole
is modeled across Rp1 and Cp1, while other passive filter
structures may be added between Cp1 and the unity gain
buffer. The first stage output clipping is made via the diode
DCLAMP and forces the output voltage of G1 to remain
within the desired boundaries. Thus, the negative limit is
the diode threshold voltage and the upper limit corresponds
to the breakdown voltage of the diode. It can be adjusted by
the IsSpice BV parameter in the diode model. In order to
deliver an output voltage which matches the amplifier speci
fications, the VCOMP source will compensate the negative
threshold of the diode, but also has to be reflected back to
its BV value. In our example, the amplifier swings between
200mV and 5V with the following values: .MODEL
DCLAMP D (BV=4.2V IBV=10mA) and VCOMP=680mV,
as Figure 5d shows:
440.000U
220.464M <
x
>
2.19444M
5.05072 <
x
>
1
500.000U 900.000U 1.30000M 1.70000M 2.10000M
Time in Secs
6.00000
4.00000
2.00000
0
2.00000
E
r
r
o
r
v
o
lt
a
g
e
Figure 5d
2
10.0926
86.9432 <
x
>
1
10 100 1K 10K 100K
Frequency (Hertz)
80.0000
40.0000
0
40.0000
80.0000
O
p
e
n
lo
o
p
g
a
in
(
d
B
)
80.0000
40.0000
0
40.0000
80.0000
O
p
e
n
lo
o
p
p
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
s
)
Figure 5e
8
SMPS Design
The open loop gain is given by: AV
OL
= G1∗Rp1.
With G1=100µMHOS and Rp1=316MΩ, we have an open
loop gain of 90dB. The first pole is at 1/2πRp1∗Cp1, which
is 10Hz if Cp1=50.36pF. Figure 5e confirms these results.
Simulation trick: Figure 5f provides an alternative for con
necting the reference voltage. It offers better transient be
havior and simplifies the feedback network as a first ap
proximation. Note that Vref now becomes Vout, with R
ref
=
R
i
.
The R
ref
resistor in series with the VREF source
does not play a role in the loop gain, as long as AOP is
closed by R
f
. This condition maintains a virtual ground at
the negative input of AOP, and R
ref
is in the loop gain calcu
lation. But if you now remove R
f
, or add a capacitor in se
ries, the Vout/Output DC gain is no longer the open loop
gain of AOP alone, but is multiplied by 0.5 (R
ref
= R
i
) be
cause the negative pin is ½ Vout instead of zero.
Output Vout
Vref= Vout
Ri
Rref
Rf
Figure 5f
Some SPICE editors not only propose the switch
ing models of many PWM controllers, but also their
standalone internal error amplifiers that can easily be incor
porated in place of the previous simplified structures.
Opening a closed loop system
When the complete SMPS structure is drawn, it
might be interesting to temporarily open the loop and per
form AC simulations. The error amplifier can thus be iso
lated, and the designer has the ability to adjust the compen
sation network until the specifications are met. The fastest
way to open the loop is to include an LC network as de
picted in Figure 6. The inductive element maintains the DC
error level such that the output stays at the required value,
but stops any AC error signal that would close the loop. The
C element permits an AC signal injection, thus allowing a
normal AC sweep.
From error amp.
To duty cycle input
AC 1V
C_OL
L_OL
For AC sweep: C_OL=1KF L_OL=
For TRAN sweep: C_OL=1P L_OL
Figure 6
This method has the advantage of an automatic DC
duty cycle adjustment, and allows you to quickly modify the
output parameter without having to adjust the duty source.
Average simulation of the Flyback converter in
discontinuous mode
Figure 7a shows a complete average Flyback con
verter made with Dr. Vincent Bello’s models. These models
use SPICE2 syntax and can therefore be run on any SPICE
compatible engine.
In [3], Dr. Bello described the basic structure mod
els (Buck, Boost ...) and showed how to create topologies
such as Flyback and Forward converters. At this time, one
model correspondeds to a particular Conduction Mode:
Continuous (CCM) or Discontinuous (DCM). The Flyback
converter operating in DCM is built with the PWMBCK
(Buck) and the PWMBBSD (Discontinuous boost) as de
picted in Figure 7a. The primary coil is simply shortened
since it does not affect discontinuous operation in the aver
age model. However, Dr. Bello states that despite statespace
average technique results, keeping the inductor at its nomi
nal value produces a second highfrequency pole and a RHP
zero, as Vorperian demonstrated [4].
For AC Sweep: C_OL = 1KF L_OL
For TRAN Sweep: C_OL = 1P L_OL
9
Power Specialist’ s
Figure 7a
In the models we used here, PWMBBSD has to be
modified such that it accounts for operating parameters. In
our application (see parameters below) E2 will take the fol
lowing value:
E2 25 0 1 2 1.25M ; E2 = 1/2∗L∗F
SW
=T
SW
/2∗L
The SMPS drawn represents an offline wall
adapter delivering 15V@1A. Its nominal characteristics and
the corresponding polezero calculation are described be
low:
Operating parameters:
V
out
=15V I
nom
=1A R
load
=15Ω
V
in
=330V L
p
=4mH N
s
/N
p
= 0.05
C
out
=68µF ESR=45mΩ F
sw
=100kHz
V
ramp
=1.7Vpp
The iteration process gave a Vduty source of 581mV, which
corresponds to a duty cycle of 34.2% (0.581/1.7)
G
PWM
= 1/1.7 = 4.6dB
K = 2L
p
F
sw
/ (R
load
∗ (N
s
/N
p
)
2
) = 0.1333
G
1
= (V
in
/ √ K ) ∗ N
s
/N
p
= 45.19 = 33.1dB
G
Vout/Vduty
= G
1
(dB) + G
PWM
(dB) = 28.5dB (26.6)
G
Vout/Vin
= (D / √ K ) ∗ N
s
/N
p
= 0.0468 (26.6dB for the
openloop DC audio susceptibility)
F
P1
= 2 / 2πC
out
R
load
= 312Hz
F
z1
= 1 / 2 πC
out
ESR = 52kHz
To verify the various gains, we open
the loop and insert a DC source of 581mV, as
previously shown in Figure 3. Then we ask
SPICE to perform a .TF (Transfert Function)
analysis:
Once computed, the results are placed
in the output file. In our application, the .TF
statements gave 26.49051 and 0.04544, respec
tively. The openloop characteristics of this
Flyback operating in DCM were already de
picted in Figure 4.
If the amplifier error exhibits a gain
A
ErrAmp
, and in the absence of a divider net
work (Figure 5f), the new closed loop param
eters can be expressed as:
dV
out
/dV
in
= (G
Vout/Vin
) / (1 + A
ErrAmp
G
Vout/Vduty
)
closed loop audio susceptibility
ε = Vref ∗ [1 / (1 + A
ErrAmp
G
Vout/Vduty
) ]
static error
For instance, suppose that an error amplifier with a
gain of 100 and a 15V reference voltage is used to close the
previous SMPS. With the simulated parameters, the static
error is evaluated at: 15∗1 / (1 + 100∗26.49051) = 5.66mV.
The output voltage is then 14.99434V. If we now step the
input voltage by 10V, the corresponding rise in output volt
age will be:
10∗0.04544 / (1 + 100∗26.49051) = 171.5µV, which is
14.99451V. Figure 7b shows how SPICE reacts to this test.
2
17.571428U
14.994340 <
x
>
186.99999U
14.994510 <
x
>
1
19.999991U 59.999988U 99.999985U 139.99998U 179.99998U
Time in Secs
14.994580
14.994180
14.993780
14.993380
14.992980
O
u
t
p
u
t
v
o
lt
a
g
e
(
V
)
365.00000
355.00000
345.00000
335.00000
325.00000
I
n
p
u
t
v
o
lt
a
g
e
(
V
)
Figure 7b
R17
45M
C8
68UF
I(V11)
IFIL
V(5)
VOUT
V(5)
VOUT
X14
PWMBCK
D2
X15
PWMBBSD
V(11)
V_D2
L1
1NH
X16
XFMR
D3
DIODE
V(8)
VC
G
A
I
N
X18
GAIN
R35
50K
R36
10K
V(5)
VOUT
V22
15V
R37
50K
E1
1E4
X19
RLIMIT
R38
121K
V(7)
VERR
C20
4.7P
C21
657P
V23
330V
R39
15
LOL
1GH
COL
1KF
V24
AC
19 5
4
12 6
2
8
13 1
3
11
14
7
20
18
9
15
10
.TF V(5) Vduty ; dV
out
/dV
duty
open loop gain
.TF V(5) Vin ; dV
out
/dV
in
open loop gain,
audio susceptibility
10
SMPS Design
Once all of the modifications are done, the designer
can easily tailor the error amplifier so that the SMPS fulfills
his target criteria. In our example, the compensation net
work gives a 21kHz bandwidth (Figure 7c).
2
21.3K
447N <
x
>
1
10 100 1K 10K 100K
Frequency in Hz
120
60.0
0
60.0
120
E
r
r
o
r
A
m
p
lif
ie
r
g
a
in
(
d
B
)
160
120
80.0
40.0
0
E
r
r
o
r
a
m
p
lif
ie
r
p
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
.
)
Figure 7c
K
VIN VOUT
RTN VC DUTY
FLYBACK
Input voltage
Output voltage
Duty cycle input
V=Vduty*K
Vduty
K = 1, voltage mode control
GAIN
PWM gain
V
K < 1, Current Mode Control, ramp compen
V = 0, Current Mode Control, no compensa
Indirect duty cycle control, RB is set to 1M
Flyback parameters:
L = primary coil, NC = current sense transformer turns ratio
NP = output transformer turns ratio; F = operating frequency,
EFF = efficiency
RB = current sense resistor; TS = current loop propagation delay
Figure 8a
Figure 8b shows the same SMPS as the one we
previously studied. The circuit is built with the Flyback model
in direct duty cycle control, and the simplified error ampli
fier structure is replaced with an amplifier model like that
which is shown in Figure 5c.
New generation models
Intusoft has recently released a SPICE
model library for Power Supply designers that
includes new models that work in both DCM and
CCM and can also be configured in current mode.
The library also includes models for various
PWM and PFC ICs. These SPICE3 compatible
models have been developed by Steven Sandler
of Analytical Engineering (Chandler, AZ) and
are fully described in [5].
The models are represented by a single
box in which the user enters the typical working
parameters: Lp, F
sw
etc. but also new parameters
such as overall efficiency, propagation delay, and
load resistance. By adding an external voltage
source, you can configure the model the way you
want to: voltage mode control, voltage mode
control with feedforward, or current mode con
trol with/without compensation ramp.
The Flyback model is the one of our
main interests, and its symbol appears in Figure
8a with its associated parameters. The various
operating modes are obtained by inserting an
external voltage source in series with the VC in
put with the proper polarity, as shown in Figure
8a.
R42
45M
C22
68UF
I(V24)
ITOTAL
V(9)
VOUT
V(9)
VOUT
VIN VOUT
RTN VC DUTY
FLYBACK
V(3)
DUTY
X24
XFMR
NP=1, outside XFMR sets ratio
R44
50K
R45
10K
DATE: 4896
G
A
I
N
X26
GAIN
B1
V=V(3)*1
K
Discontinuous FLYBACK in voltage mode
V28
330V
V(9)
VOUT
V31
15V
R50
121K
C28
657P
C29
4.7P
V(16)
VERR
R51
3.4K
D5
DIODE
R52
50K
I1
PWL
1 9
2
6
12
13
3
8
4
16
19
10
11
Figure 8b
11
Power Specialist’ s
The output is loaded by a current source whose
purpose is to make the supply react to a sudden load in
crease, as shown in Figure 8c.
2.12500M
15.0020 <
x
>
2.48900M
14.9722 <
x
>
1
2.10000M 2.30000M 2.50000M 2.70000M 2.90000M
Time in Secs
15.1500
15.0500
14.9500
14.8500
14.7500
O
u
t
p
u
t
v
o
lt
a
g
e
(
V
)
Figure 8c
At this stage, you can modify the error amplifier
structure and modify the configuration until the SMPS be
haves as required.
Current Mode Control SMPS
The Flyback model can be easily modified to toggle
from one structure to another. Figure 9a shows the new ar
rangement of the current mode control without implement
ing any ramp compensation.
VIN VOUT
RTN VC DUTY
FLYBACK
V2
330V
RB parameter is set to 1 ohm
COMP
FDBK
REF
VC
OUT
GND
X5
UC1845AS
V4
15
R7
56K
C4
1.42N
C5
10.2P
R8
50K
R9
10K
V(3)
VOUT
To transformer structu
4
11
6
7
2
12 1
9
3
Figure 9a
In our application, the internal RB, the current sense
element, is set to 1Ω. The compensation network has been
slightly modified in order to account for the different gain
values. The G
Vout/Vduty
gain now depends upon the current
control factor (K) which is set by the sense resistor and, if
present, by the internal current gain and the current sense
transformer ratio. The error amplifier is replaced with the
real UC3845 amplifier which is available as a single SPICE
model. Its output is clipped to 1V and the output of the in
ternal error amplifier goes through a diode before it is di
vided by 3, just as it is built in the real part. You may easily
add a compensation ramp, as Figure 8a describes, with a
simple voltagecontrolled source and the appropriate coef
ficient.
One of the features of the Current Control Mode is
its inherent feedforward capability. Figure 9b compares the
response to an input step of the previous direct duty cycle
SMPS and its Current Mode Control version. The .TF state
ment gives a G
Vout/Vin
of 0.0067, which is 17dB better than
the equivalent direct duty cycle version.
2
1
2.10000M 2.30000M 2.50000M 2.70000M 2.90000M
Time
15.0200
15.0100
15.0000
14.9900
14.9800
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
S
M
P
S
o
u
t
p
u
t
[
1
]
15.0200
15.0100
15.0000
14.9900
14.9800
V
o
lt
a
g
e
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
S
M
P
S
o
u
t
p
u
t
[
2
]
Figure 9b
Input impedance of the power supply
The input impedance has a direct impact on
the overall stability when an EMI filter is connected in
front of the supply. SPICE will help the designer to se
lect an EMI structure without degrading the character
istics of the power supply. The DC value of the input
impedance is easily calculated by: Z
in
= V
2
in
η/P
out
. (For
our 85% efficiency, 15W SMPS operating on a 330V
source, the impedance is 6.17kΩ or 75.8dBΩ). Un
fortunately, the input impedance is complex. It varies
with the frequency and exhibits a negative peaking
which is somewhat damped, depending on the SMPS
structure. The EMI filter is primarily an LC network. If
this network is loaded by a negative resistor whose value
perfectly compensates the ohmic losses of the coil, any
excitation of the LC network will make it oscillate.
Because of the closed loop system, the dynamic im
pedance, dV
in
/dI
in
is negative. To avoid the previous
situation, the designer should keep the input impedance,
Z
in
, well above the filter’s output impedance Z
out
. Cur
rent Control Mode Power Supplies are less sensitive to
the input impedance peaking. When used in conjunc
12
SMPS Design
tion with an EMI filter, these SMPS will be less sensitive to
the negative resistance effect than their Voltage Mode coun
terparts. Figure 9c clearly shows the differences in the Z
in
variations depending on the SMPS topology: Voltage Mode
or Current Mode Control.
2
1
10 100 1K 10K
Frequency in Hz
79.0000
78.0000
77.0000
76.0000
75.0000
I
n
p
u
t
im
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
V
M
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
(
d
B
O
h
m
s
)
[
1
]
79.0000
78.0000
77.0000
76.0000
75.0000
I
n
p
u
t
I
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
C
C
m
o
d
e
[
2
]
d
B
o
h
m
s
Figure 9c
The Flyback operating in the continuous voltage
mode is always harder to stabilize because of its second or
der behavior, and also because of the presence of a Right
HalfPlane (RHP) zero. The RHP zero moves with the op
erating parameters and the designer is forced to rolloff the
gain so that the SMPS stays stable within its operating range.
Once again, SPICE will ease the designer’s task by provid
ing all of the necessary investigation tools to cover the nu
merous situations encountered by the design in its future
life.
Figure 11 depicts another Flyback converter struc
ture, using a model introduced by Lloyd Dixon in [7]. The
model was originally written in PSpice syntax (Microsim,
Irvine, CA), but the use of arbitrary SPICE3 B sources can
easily accomplish the same functions, as we’ll describe later.
The model works in both operating modes, CCM and DCM.
In DCM, the model naturally accounts for the highfrequency
Vorperian’s pole and RHP zero. The compensation of the
error amplifier takes into account the presence of the low
frequency pole and zeros, as described below:
Once the EMI filter is selected, an excita
tion stimulus on the input or the load will immedi
ately reveal any parasitic resonance, thus inviting
the designer to modify its calculations.
The Flyback converter in continuous conduc
tion mode
In [6], D. Caldwell showed in practical
terms how to implement the PWM switch theory as
described by V. Vorperian [4], but, unfortunately,
did not give any application examples. The Unicon
model is written in SPICE2 syntax and thus per
mits its use on various compatible platforms. It op
erates in both DCM and CCM. Figure 10 shows a
continuous power supply which uses the Caldwell
model. The SMPS operates in continuous mode and
delivers 12V to a 2.4Ω resistive load. As the author
stated in his article, you need to edit the UNICON
netlist and modify the EDIS generator in order to
account for the operating parameters: for a 66µH
coil associated with a 80kHz operating frequency,
the last EDIS parameter equals 0.0947∗(T/2L).
V1
12V
C1
10MF
V(4)
VOUT
I(V2)
I_OUT
R
C1
L
D
UNICON
X1
UNICON
L1
66UH
X2
XFMR
R1
10M
R2
2.4
Duty cycle input
1
2 4 6
8
7
3
Figure 10
V3
12
C2
10MF
V(5)
VOUT
R6
10M
In+
In
Out+
Out
Duty Cycle
X10
FLYAVG
I(V8)
I_OUT
X13
XFMR
R14
163.6K
V(5)
VOUT
R15
50K
C6
33.8NF
C7
398P
R16
5.8K
C8
10NF
R17
163.6K
V17
12V
V(5)
VOUT
R18
2.4
V(8)
VERR
X16
ERRAMP
G
A
I
N
X17
GAIN
L_OL
1GH
C_OL
1KF
V18
AC
1
12
6
5 3
4
9
15
2 10
11
13
8
14
Figure 11
Operating parameters:
V
out
=12V I
nom
=5A R
load
=2.4Ω
V
in
=12VL
p
=66µH N
s
/N
p
= 1.1
C
out
=10mF ESR=10mΩ F
sw
=80kHz
V
ramp
=2.5V
pp
Reflected output voltage at the primary:
V
r
= V
out
/ (N
s
/N
p
) = 10.91V, neglecting the diode’s
voltage drop
13
Power Specialist’ s
D
nom
= V
r
/ (V
r
+ V
in
) = 0.476
L
e
= L
p
/ (1D
nom
)
2
= 240.4µH
G
PWM
= 1 / 2.5 = 7.96dB
G
1
(dB) = V
in
/ (1D
nom
)
2
= 32.8dB
G
2
(dB) = 20LOG (N
s
/N
p
) = 0.83dB
G
Vout/Vduty
= G
1
(dB) + G
PWM
(dB) + G
2
(dB) = 25.7dB
G
Vout/Vin
= D
nom
/ (1  D
nom
)∗N
s
/N
p
= V
o
/V
in
= 1 = 0dB
F
P1
= 1 / 2πN
s
/N
p
√C
out
L
e
= 93.31Hz
F
z1
= 1 / 2πESR∗C
out
= 1.591kHz
F
z2
= R
load
/ [(N
s
/N
p
)
2
∗D
nom
L
e
2π] = 2.758kHz (Right Half
Plane zero)
You could also use the V. Bello models, as already
described in Figure 7a. To make the converter operate in
continuous conduction mode, simply replace the
PWMBBSD model with the PWMBST model, without
modifying its internal node list. This block is also fully docu
mented in the reference papers [3]. The coil is set to its nomi
nal value (66µH) and you can immediately run an AC analy
sis to obtain the plot of Figure 12. Nevertheless, the error
amplifier compensation network which is shown in Figure
7a is no longer valid to stabilize the continuous SMPS. Fig
ure 11 represents a possible solution.
1
93.71
90.00 <
x
>
2
10 100 1K 10K 100K
Frequency (Hertz)
180.0
90.00
0
90.00
180.0
O
p
e
n
lo
o
p
p
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
s
)
[
2
]
40.00
20.00
0
20.00
40.00
O
p
e
n
lo
o
p
g
a
in
(
d
B
)
[
1
]
Figure 12
The 90° point corresponds to the 3dB cutoff of
the second order system. Note that this value, and also the
openloop gain, are very close to the ones theoretically cal
culated. At F
z1
, the slope becomes 1 with a boost in the
phase plot. F
z2
starts to act and because of its position in the
right half plane, it induces a phase lag. The slope is now 0.
This graphic immediately shows you where the various poles
and zeros are located, and, by varying some key parameters,
you can follow their respective displacements. The compen
sation network which has been calculated using the worst
case conditions then becomes more straightforward.
The closed loop audio susceptibility is easily evalu
ated by decreasing C_OL and L_OL to 1pF and by adding
the AC 1 statement to the input source. Figure 13 shows
how the supply behaves.
1.00000M
99.1879 <
x
>
1
10M 100M 1 10 100 1K 10K
Frequency (Hertz)
20.0000
40.0000
60.0000
80.0000
100.0000
A
u
d
i
o
s
u
s
c
e
p
t
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
(
d
B
)
Figure 13
The open loop gain obtained by the .TF statement,
G
Vin/Vout
and G
Vout/Vduty
, respectively, is 0.9983 and 18.503. The
AOP of Figure 11 exhibits an open loop gain of 10k. But, as
we previously stated, in the absence of a feedback resistor,
the Vout/Verr gain becomes 5k. The DC audio closed loop
susceptibility is then: 20LOG[0.9983 / (1 + 18.503∗5000)]
= 99.3dB
Limitations inherent to the continuous voltage mode
The error amplifier structure depicted in Figure 11
severely impairs the time response of the power supply in
the presence of large output variations. The elements respon
sible for this behavior are the C7 and C8 capacitors which
charge to large transient values when the error amplifier’s
output is pushed to its maximum. This phenomenon is de
scribed in details in [9]. To highlight this problem and even
tually compensate it, simply replace the load by a PWL cur
rent source that simulates a large load step. Figure 14 repre
sents the simulation result of the error amplifier’s output
and indicates the amount of time which is required in order
to properly recover the output transient.
Figure 14
14
SMPS Design
Using the models with different platforms
The use of a model can be extended to various
SPICE compatible platforms as long as its syntax conforms
to the Berkeley definition. For instance, the simple G, E or
complex polynomial sources (POLY) allow the model to be
used with different simulators. But if the designer adopts a
proprietary syntax, he naturally reduces the implementation
of his models among the remaining systems. Lloyd Dixon’s
model in [7] uses PSpice syntax to clamp the output voltage
of some internal sources. This syntax is not SPICE3 com
patible. If you would like to run the model with Intusoft’s
IsSpice or Cadence’s Analog WorkBench (SanJose, CA),
you’ll need to modify the syntax. One easy solution lies in
working with arbitrary sources or B elements, since they
accept inline equations or implement IfThenElse struc
tures. As a first step, let’s look at the following PSpice lines
as they are written in Dixon’s Flyavg model. The first is
intended to limit the output variations of a generator within
usersdefined boundaries, and the second sets the value of
the current generator:
ED2 12 0 TABLE {V(11A)V(11)} 100M,100M 1,1
; PSpice voltage source
G0 4 3 VALUE =
+ {V(9,8)∗1000∗V(12)/(V(11)+V(12))}
; PSpice current source
If you try to run these lines using the previously
referenced simulators, the internal parser will generate an
error. The ED2 generator produces a voltage equal to the
difference between nodes 11A and 11, but its output is
clipped between 100MV and 1V. For IsSpice and AWB,
these lines will look like this:
B_ED2 12 0 V = V(11A,11) < 100MV ? 100M :
+ V(11A,11) > 1 ? 1 : V(11A,11) ; IsSpice
B_ED2 12 0 V = IF ( V(11A,11) < 1, IF (V(11A,11) < 100M,
+ 100M, V(11A,11)),1) ; AWB
The Boolean style helps you to understand these
lines: If the first condition V(11A,11) < 100MV is true, Then
ED2=100MV, If the second condition V(11A,11) > 1V is
true Then ED2 = 1V, Else (if any of the two previous condi
tions is met) ED2 = V(11A,11).
The G0 current generator can also be simply written as:
B_G0 4 3 I = V(9,8)∗1000∗V(12)/(V(11)+V(12))
; IsSpice and AWB
or, for a voltage source:
B_ED 4 3 V= V(9,8)∗500∗V(13)
; IsSpice and AWB
PSpice also has IfThenElse conditions, and thus
allows you to write logical expressions. For instance, sup
pose you want to build a perfect comparator whose output is
the B1 voltage source, then the following lines illustrate how
to make it with through the different syntax:
B1 OUT GND V = V(PLUS) > V(MINUS) ?
+ 5V : 10MV ; IsSpice (C syntax)
B1 OUT GND V= IF ( V(PLUS) > V(MINUS),
+ 5, 10M ) ; AWB
E_B1 OUT GND VALUE = { IF ( V(PLUS)
+ > V(MINUS), 5V, 10MV ) } ; PSpice
Because of their perfect behavior, the B elements
used in comparison functions often require a small RC cir
cuit as an output interface to slow down their transitions.
Fixed resistors between the inputs and ground may also be
necessary in order to provide the simulator with a DC path
in the presence of infinite Pspice input impedances. IsSpice
implements the statement .OPTIONS RSHUNT=100MEG,
which adds a DC path of 100MEGΩ to ground for all the
nodes in the simulated circuit.
Modeling the Flyback converter, other solutions
Professor Sam BenYaakov, from the BenGurion
University of the Negev (Israel), has developed a range of
models for simulating numerous converter structures [10].
The Flyback model he created is of great interest for the
designer since it works for both continuous and discontinu
ous modes. Another nice feature lies in its simplicity, mak
ing the simplifies the conversion from one simulator to an
other. Figure 15 shows its internal connections and associ
ated sources. The full model is described in Listing 1.
GIN ELM
Rs
LM
IN OUT
DOFF
D2
VCLP EDOFFM
D1
EDOFF
R4
GOUT
Rin
DON
vc 6
doff
7
out1 5
GND
GND
GIN = I(LM)*V(DON)/(V(DON)+V(DOFF))
ELM = V(IN)*V(DON)V(OUT)*V(DOFF)/N
GOUT = I(LM)*V(DOFF)/N/(V(DON)+V(DOFF))
EDOFFM = 1V(DON)9M
EDOFF = 2*I(LM)*FSW*LM/V(DON)/V(IN)V(DON)
Figure 15
Listing 1 describes a full functional netlist of the
discontinuous converter of Figure 7a. The model accounts
for the high frequency pole and the RHP zero highlighted
15
Power Specialist’ s
by Dr. Vorperian’s work. These combined actions can be
seen in Figure 16. These points are well above the switching
frequency and, most of the time, they can be neglected by
the designer. You should always keep in mind that any refer
ence to and/or discussion of poles or zeros above 1/2 the
switching frequency is purely fictitious. The poles and ze
ros in question (other than the first pole and ESR zero) will
always shift toward high frequencies at which the average
model does not hold. The Nyquist sampling theorem restricts
our ability to deal with cases in which the modulation signal
is above 1/2 the sampling (switching) frequency. Needless
to say, from the engineering point of view, that the frequency
response above 1/3 of the switching frequency is irrelevant.
Figure 16
If we take the operating parameters of the first dis
continuous Flyback converter example, we can calculate the
values of the VORPERIAN’s pole and zero, as described in
his paper [4]:
Sz
2
= R
f
/M∗(1 + M)∗L
p
Right HalfPlane Zero
Sp
2
= 2F
sw
∗[(1/D) / (1 + 1/M)]
2
Second High
Frequency Pole, D = 0.33
R
f
= R
load
/(N
s
/N
p
)
2
= 6kΩ Reflected load to the
transformer’s primary
M = V
out
/(N
s
/N
p
)/V
in
= 0.909 Transfer Ra
tio
The numerical application leads to: Fz
2
= 137.6kHz and Fp
2
= 66.3kHz.
If you do not want the model to account for the
highfrequency pole and zero, you can, in discontinuous
conduction mode, decrease the LM coil between nodes 5
and 8 to 1nH. You will then obtain a phase curve which is
similar to the one in Figure 4.
Primary regulated Flyback converters
The primary regulation is a feedback method in
which the output level is sensed via an auxiliary winding,
thus avoiding all galvanic isolation related problems. If the
average models cannot highlight the regulation defaults as
sociated with leakage inductances, they may ease your work
when you tackle the stability discussion. That is to say, when
multiple outputs are implemented, all of the output networks
(capacitors, loads etc.) have to be reflected back to the regu
lated winding with the corresponding turns ratios. Figure 17
shows how to modify the previous structures in order to
implement primary regulation and perform fast and efficient
AC analysis.
Outputs of the average model
N1
N1
N1
N2
N3
Naux
To Error Amplifier
Load 1
Load 2
Figure 17
Conclusion
The lack of comprehensive articles upon the sub
ject has made the SPICE approach a difficult stage for SMPS
designers who are not used to the simulation philosophy.
This article presents a stepbystep method to implement
the available models for simulating your own Flyback struc
tures on a SPICE platform. The proprietary libraries and the
public domain models will allow you to easily simulate other
kinds of topologies such as Buck or Forward converters.
Power Factor Correction simulations with Boost structures
may also be accomplished, as demonstrated in [3], [5], and
[7].
References
1. R. D. MIDDLEBROOK and S. CUK, “A general Unified
Approach to Modeling Switching Converter Power Stages”,
IEEE PESC, 1976 Record, pp 1834
2. R. KELLER, “Closed Loop Testing and Computer Analysis
Aid Design Of Control Systems”, Electronic Design, Novem
ber 22, 1978, pp 132138
3. V. BELLO, “Circuit Simulation of Switching Regulators Us
ing HSPICE”, METASOFTWARE
email: DrVGB@AOL.COM
4. V. VORPERIAN, “Simplified Analysis of PWM Converters
Using The Model of The PWM Switch, Parts I (CCM) and II
(DCM)”, Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics Systems,
Vol. 26, N°3, May 1990
5. S. SANDLER, “SMPS Simulations with SPICE3”, McGraw
Hill, email: ssandler@aeng.COM
16
SMPS Design
6. D. CALDWELL, “Techniques Let You Write General Purpose
SPICE Models”, EDN September 6, 1991
7. L. DIXON, “SPICE Simulations of Switching Power Supply
Performances”, UNITRODE Power Supply Design Seminar,
SEM800, email: 71045.1206@COMPUSERVE.COM
8. Power Integration DataBook, AN6 and AN8, “SPICE Mod
eling for VoltageMode Flyback Power Supplies” (DCM and
CCM)
9. L. DIXON, “Closing the Feedback Loop, appendix A, B and
C”, UNITRODE Power Supply Design Seminar, SEM500
10. Sam BENYAAKOV, “Average Simulation of PWM Convert
ers by Direct Implementation of Behavioral Relationships”,
IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC’93), pp
510516, email: SBY@BGUEE.BGU.AC.IL
Acknowledgment
I have greatly appreciated the help of Pr. Sam BenYaakov
and Daniel Adar (BenGurion University, Israel), Dr Vincent
Bello, Lloyd Dixon (Unitrode) and Daniel Mitchell (Collins
Rockwell).
Listing 1: Complete discontinuous Flyback converter with
Sam BenYaakov’s model
****** SAM BENYAAKOV’S FLYBACK MODEL *******
.SUBCKT FLYBACK DON IN OUT GND
.PARAM FS=100K ; Switching frequency
.PARAM L=4M ; Primary coil
.PARAM N=1 ; Internal transformer
BGIN IN GND I = I(VLM)*V(DON)/(V(DON)+V(DOFF))
* GIN IN GND VALUE = { I(VLM)*V(DON)/(V(DON)+V(DOFF)) }
BELM OUT1 GND V = V(IN)*V(DON)V(OUT)*V(DOFF)/{N}
* ELM OUT1 GND VALUE = { V(IN)*V(DON)V(OUT)*V(DOFF)/{N} }
RM OUT1 5 1M
LM 5 8 {L}
VLM 8 GND
BGOUT GND OUT I = I(VLM)*V(DOFF)/{N}/(V(DON)+V(DOFF))
* GOUT GND OUT VALUE = { I(VLM)*V(DOFF)/{N}/(V(DON)+V(DOFF)) }
VCLP VC 0 9M
D2 VC DOFF DBREAK
D1 DOFF 6 DBREAK
R4 DOFF 7 10
BEDOFFM 6 GND V = 1V(DON)9M
* EDOFFM 6 GND VALUE = { 1V(DON)9M }
BEDOFF 7 GND V = 2*I(VLM)*{FS}*{L}/V(DON)/V(IN)V(DON)
* EDOFF 7 GND VALUE = { 2*I(VLM)*{FS}*{L}/V(DON)/V(IN)V(DON) }
.MODEL DBREAK D (TT=1N CJO=10P N=0.01)
.ENDS FLYBACK
***** Perfect Transformer model ******
.SUBCKT TRANSFORMER 1 2 3 4
RP 1 2 1MEG
E 5 4 1 2 0.05
F 1 2 VM 0.05
RS 6 3 1U
VM 5 6
.ENDS TRANSFORMER
***** Error Amp. model ******
.SUBCKT ERRAMP 20 8 3 21
* +  OUT GND
RIN 20 8 8MEG
CP1 11 21 16.8P
E1 5 21 11 21 1
R9 5 2 5
D14 2 13 DMOD
ISINK 13 21 150U
Q1 21 13 16 QPMOD
ISOURCE 7 3 500U
D12 3 7 DMOD
D15 21 11 DCLAMP
G1 21 11 20 8 100U
V1 7 21 2.5
V4 3 16 80M
RP1 11 21 316MEG
.MODEL QPMOD PNP
.MODEL DCLAMP D (RS=10 BV=2.8 IBV=0.01 TT=1N)
.MODEL DMOD D
.ENDS ERRAMP
**** PWM modulator Gain Model ****
.SUBCKT PWMGAIN 1 2
E1 2 0 1 0 0.5882
.ENDS PWMGAIN
**** Sam BENYAAKOV’s model in Discontinuous mode ****
.TRAN 1U 1000US
.AC DEC 10 10HZ 1MEG
.PRINT AC V(6) VP(6) V(13) VP(13)
.PRINT TRAN V(6) V(13)
R1 4 0 45M ; Output Capacitor’s ESR
C1 6 4 68U ; Output Capacitor
X8 11 1 5 0 FLYBACK ; Sam BENYAAKOV’s model
X9 5 0 6 0 TRANSFORMER ; Output transformer
R8 6 8 50K
R9 8 0 10K
X11 2 11 PWMGAIN ; PWM modulator gain
X12 0 8 13 0 ERRAMP ; Error amplifier
V6 9 0 15V ; Output reference voltage
R10 13 10 121K ; Erramp Compensation network
C5 10 8 657P ; Erramp Compensation network
C6 8 13 4.7P ; Erramp Compensation network
R12 9 8 50K
L2 2 13 1GH ; Open loop coil, 1P for .TRAN, 1GH for .AC
C7 2 3 1KF ; Open loop capacitor, 1P for .TRAN 1kF for .AC
V7 3 0 AC 1 ; AC stimulus
* I1 6 0 PWL 0 100M 100U 100M 101U 1A 500U 1A 501U 100M
* ; Output step response for .TRAN run
RL 6 0 15 ; Nominal load for .AC run
V1 1 0 330 ; Input voltage
.END
17
Power Specialist’ s
A Tutorial Introduction to Simulating Current Mode Power Stages
Christophe BASSO, consultant, Sinard, France, email: basso@esrf.fr
February 1997
SPICE simulation of Current Mode Control (CMC)
switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) is certainly not a new
topic. A lot of people have contributed to make this domain
affordable to the design engineer and nowadays EDA pack
ages are shipped with comprehensive dedicated libraries.
However, in lack of a tutorial documentation, the choice and
the implementation of the models is not always obvious to
the novice designer. This article will detail the utilization of
90’s models developed around the PWM switch modeland
more recent ones included in the new INTUSOFT’s IsSpice4
SMPS library package (SanPedro, CA).
What kind of model do I need?
Depending on the analysis to be carried on, sev
eral choices are offered to the designer. The first one is called
a SmallSignal Model (SSM). It assumes that the variations
of concern (e.g. output or input voltages) are small around a
steadystate DC operating point. In this case, secondorder
AC crossproducts can be neglected and the model is linear
around its operating point. The SSM is then usually em
ployed for harmonic simulations where the AC transfer func
tions are of interest. Do not use a SSM to simulate a 100%
transient load span, the result would be wrong since AC
crossproducts could no longer be negligible. Some SSM
models can find their DC point alone, some not and the op
erating point must then be fed by the designer.
Vincent BELLO has been the first in the 80’s to
port MIDDLEBROOK’s nonlinear statespace average
models to the SPICE domain [1]. In BELLO’s models, the
previous AC terms were no longer neglected but rather dy
namically multiplied by some POLY SPICE2 statements.
Largesignal variations could then be simulated and allowed
the user to visualize the effects of a 0 to 100% dutycycle
sweep. These largesignal models (LSM) are best suited for
TRANSIENT runs.
Modeling SMPS, two distinct approaches
There are two ways to model a SMPS system. The
first one is the well known statespace averaging (SSA)
method introduced by R. D. MIDDLEBROOK in 1976 [2].
Without describing the process once more, one can state
that SSA models the converter in its entire electrical form,
as shown in figure 1a for a BUCK. In other words, the SSA
process is carried over all the elements of the converter, in
cluding various in/out passive components. Depending on
the converter structure, the process can be very long and
complicated.
In 1986, Larry MEARES and Vatché
VORPERIAN, from Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPEC),
developed the concept of the PWM switch model [3, 3a].
VORPERIAN wondered why not simply model the power
switch alone, and then insert an equivalent model into the
converter schematic, exactly the same way it is done when
studying the transfer function of a bipolar amplifier (figure
1b). With his method, VORPERIAN demonstrated among
other results, that the flyback converter operating in discon
tinuous conduction mode (DCM) was still a second order
system, affected by a highfrequency RHP zero.
SW
u1
X1
X2
SW On
X1
X2
SW Off
Y2 Y2
Statespace approach
a
p
c
PWM switch approach
Only this part
has to be modeled
Buck Converter
two modeling options:
Figure 1a
Figure 1b
Figure 1
18
SMPS Design
Since its introduction, the PWM Switch has not
been the object of many publications in the specialized press
and some designers might think that its use is only reserved
to modeling experts. Because its implementation is easy and
powerful, we will go through a quick example, but without
entering into the details of its electrical origins.
Calculating a transfer function with the PWM switch
The PWM switch model operating in Continuous
Conduction Mode (CCM) is presented in figure 2a and can
be split into an AC and a DC part. Isolating one part and
applying it to the converter under study, gives the designer
an immediate insight on how the converter performs in the
domain of concern. Reference [3]’s BOOST example ap
pears in figure 2b that shows how to properly include the
PWM model. If we first consider the DC operation, Lf
shorted and Cf open, figure 2c appears (re = R // rCf and
D’=1D).
There are different approaches to solve this kind
of circuit where the transformer is not commonly wired: the
classical brute force, using nodal and loop equations or the
soft approach that will consist to transform the schematics
until a well known structure is found. Generally speaking,
the first method usually leads to correct but abstruse results
in which the action of a component inside the considered
function is not obvious. Inversely, the soft method produces
socalled low entropy expressions [4] and yields insight into
the circuit under study.
D
1
Vg
Req Ro
Vo
I1 I1
I2
I3
V1
Figure 3a
D
1
Vo
rLf DD're
Vg
R . D'² Vg'
Figure 3b
Let us adopt the second method, thus redrawing a
simplified version of figure 2c, as depicted in figure 3a.
We first mark the currents, keeping in mind that a current
entering a winding by a dot leaves the coupled winding by
the other dot, in the same direction.
The Vo/Vg transfer function is easily obtained after a few
lines:
Vg  V1 = Vo
V1 = Vo ∗ D
Vg + Vo ∗ D = Vo
Vg = Vo  Vo ∗ D so Vo/Vg = 1 / (1D) or Vo/Vg = 1/D’ (1)
The input impedance, or the way Ro is reflected
across Vg (Req), is also simple to derive:
N1.I1 = N2.I2. Since I1 = Vg/Req, it is possible to write:
N1 ∗ Vg/Req = N2 . I2.
From KIRCHHOFF’s law, I2 = I1  I3, with I3 = Vo/Ro
By definition, N1=D et N2=1
D ∗ Vg/Req = Vg/Req  Vo/Ro
D ∗ Vg/Req = (Vg ∗ Ro  Req ∗ Vo) / (Req . Ro).
Simplifying by Req:
D ∗ Vg = Vg  (Req ∗ Vo)/Ro
Vg / Vo . (1  D) = Req/Ro. From [1], Vg/Vo = 1D,
so: Req = Ro ∗ D’² (2)
The I3/I1 ratio is important to feed the model with
its DC operating points, as we will see later on. If Pin=Po,
one can write: Vg. I1 = Vo . I3, so I1/I3 = Vo / Vg = 1 / D’.
Back to VORPERIAN’s model of figure 2b,
Ic = I1 =  Io / D’.
With these simple formulas, figure 3b represents
our DC BOOST where Ro has been reflected according to
equation (2). We are in presence of a simple resistive di
vider whose output Vg’ undergoes a 1/D’ multiplier ratio
(1). Thus, the DC Vo/Vg transfer function is really straight
forward. So, after
Vo
Vg
.
1
D'
1
1
rLf
.
D'
2
R
.
re D
.
R D'
M
factoring the R∗D’² term: (3)
Vg
rLf
Lf
C P
A
rCf
Cf
R
Vo
Vap.d/D
Ic.d
1 D
D.D'.re
A C
P
Vg
rLf
D.D'.re
D
1
Vo
R
Figure 2a Figure 2b Figure 2c
19
Power Specialist’ s
Vg
rLf D.D'.re Lf
rCf . D' ²
Cf / D' ²
1
R.D' ²
D Vo
Figure 4a
D
1
Vo
rLf DD're
Vg
Lf
rCf
Cf
R
Figure 4b
The AC openloop line to output transfer function
will use the previous results to transform figure 4a to fig
ure 4b’s drawing, where all the output elements (rCf and
Cf) have been reflected to the other side of the transformer.
Figure 4b unveils a classical LC filter affected by
its parasitic elements, once again followed by a 1/D’ multi
plier. Since we want to obtain the Vo/Vg transfer function
but also the Zin Zout parameters of this circuit, a good
method is to use matrix algebra. Matrix algebra is well suited
for numerical computations on a computer and SPICE makes
an extensive use of it. It is true that the symbolic answer
given by a transfer matrix does not give the designer much
insight of the circuit’s operation. But one remarkable point
is that once you found the matrix coefficients, the resulting
transfer matrix contains, in one shot, all the parameters of
interest (figure 5b). Further, if matrixes require a constant
attention when do you manipulate them by hand, it becomes
a child play when you use some mathematics programs such
as Mathsoft’s MathCAD (Cambridge, MA).
To solve figure 4b’s problem, we draw a simpli
fied schematic of the LC filter (figure 5a) where we put
state and output variables.
u1
R1 L
R2
C
R3
x1
x2
y2
u2
y1
Figure 5a
T( ) s
Y1( ) s
U1( ) s
Y2( ) s
U1( ) s
Y1( ) s
U2( ) s
Y2( ) s
U2( ) s
T
1,1
= Zin T
2,1
= Vo/Vg T
2,2
= Zout
Figure 5b
The generalized transfer function of a n
th
order lin
ear passive system is: M(s) = [M (sIA)
1
B + N], where A
and M are the state coefficient matrixes, B and N the source
coefficient matrixes [5]. The steps will be to write the state
and output equations, ordered as follows:
State equations
x1'
. .
1
L
R1
.
R2 R3
( ) R2 R3
x1
. .
1
L
R2
R2 R3
1 x2
.
1
L
u1
. .
1
L
.
R2 R3
R2 R3
u2
x2'
.
R3
.
( ) R2 R3 C
x1
.
1
.
C ( ) R2 R3
x2
.
R3
.
C ( ) R2 R3
u2
Output equations
Y1 x1
Y2
. .
x1 R3 1
R3
R2 R3
.
R3
R2 R3
x2
. .
u2 R3 1
R3
R2 R3
The final results delivered by MathCAD are in a
clear ordered form. Vo/Vg ratio is extracted from figure 5b’s
matrix transfer, T
21
:
Vo
Vg
. .
1
D'
R3
R1 R3
1
. .
s C R2
. . .
s
2
L C
R3 R2
R1 R3
.
s
L
.
C ( )
.
R2 R3
.
R3 R1
.
R1 R2
R1 R3
1
After replacing by the elements by figure 4b’s val
ues and putting the equation into a second order form, we
extract the first zero s
z1
and the tuning frequency ω
o
:
.
1
.
L C
R1 R3
R2 R3
.
1
.
L C
rLf
. .
re D D'
.
D'
2
R
rCf R
ω
z1
= 1 / R2 ∗ C = 1 / rCf ∗ Cf
s²∗L∗C∗(R2+R3)/R1+R3 = s²/ω
o
² —> ω
o
=
Zin and Zo can be deducted the same way. To ob
tain the Vo/d AC transfer function, you can replace the PWM
switch model by its smallsignal equivalent and rearrange
the schematic until a known structure is found, exactly as
we previously did. Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM)
study would have required the use of the appropriate PWM
switch model, but the principle remains the same.
SPICE simulations with the PWM switch model
Despite the fact that the PWM switch model was
intended to be an alternative tool for teaching SMPS theory,
the equivalent SPICE model lends itself very well to simu
20
SMPS Design
lations. In his original form, the PWM switch model is only
able to simulate an harmonic behavior. That is to say, you
will have to provide the model with its DC operating points.
For a BOOST operating in CCM, the DC parameters are
shown in the box below. The INTUSOFT’s IsSpice4 netlist
of the PWM switch model in CCM is as follow:
BOOST DC PARAMETERS:
D={(VOUTVIN)/VOUT}
VAP={VOUT}
VAC={VIN}
VCP={VOUT+VIN}
IA={((VOUT^2)/RL/VIN)*D}
IP={VOUT/RL}
IC={VOUT/RL/(1D)}
.SUBCKT SWITCH 1 2 3 4 {D=0.45 VAP=11 IC=0.8}
* A P C Control
B1 7 1 V = { V(4)*(VAP/D) }
B2 1 2 I = { V(4)*IC }
B3 7 2 I = { I(Vd)*D }
B4 9 2 V = { V(7,2)*D }
Vd 9 3 0
.ENDS
If we now simulate figure 2b’s schematic, we ob
tain the wellknown second order response of a BOOST con
verter operating in CCM.
10 1K 10
Frequency in Hertz
180.
90.00
0
90.00
180.0
60.00
40.00
20.00
0
20.00
Vo/d openloop gain plot
Vo/d openloop phase plot
Phase Gain
Figure 6
Current mode models
Numerous CMC models have been developed over
the past decade. The first models suffered from their inabil
ity to predict the instabilities inherent to this kind of control.
For instance, they were able to properly model the low fre
quency response of the CMC power stage, but the current
loop instability had to be addressed as a separate issue. In
1990, Raymond RIDLEY of VPEC, showed that a CMC
power stage was best modeled by a third order polynomial
form [6]. In his thesis, RIDLEY identified the current sam
pling action as being culprit of experimentally observed
F
switching
/2 subharmonic oscillations. Actually, a CMC dif
fers from a voltage mode converter in the way the dutycycle
is generated. In figure 7a, the naturally sampled dutycycle
modulator is fed by an error voltage Vc and a reference
sawtooth. This is classical voltage mode. Figure 7b depicts
a current mode modulator where the current sense informa
tion is added, resulting in a different transfer function Fm
for the Pulse Width Modulator section. Since the power stage
was not affected by this change, RIDLEY built his model
using the average PWM switch to which he added an inter
nal current sampling loop. The new model is presented in
figure 7c, for steadystate on/off inductor voltages. He(s) is
the second order polynomial form RIDLEY found to repre
sent the sampling process in the continuous time, Ri scales
the current information (delivered by a simple resistor or
via a transformer) and Fm models the dutycycle genera
tion, as explained in figures 7a (Ri=0) or 7b (Ri≠0).
RIDLEY’s model is universal since reducing Ri to 0 (or a
very low value in IsSpice4) shadows the internal current loop
and turn the model into voltage mode.
Current mode instabilities
A current mode controlled SMPS exhibits one low
frequency pole, ω
p
, and two poles which are located at Fs/2.
These poles move in relation to the duty cycle and the
dutycycle d
Vc, control
Sawtooth
Ts
dutycycle d
Vc, control
Ts
Current Sense
Sn
External ramp
Se
D
1
Ic.d
Vap.d/D
a p
c
L
Fm
He(s) Ri
Vc
PWM Switch model
ic
Voltage mode Current mode
Figure 7a Figure 7b Figure 7c
Fm
d
Vc
1
.
Se Ts
Fm
1
.
( ) Sn Se Ts
1
. .
m
c
Sn Ts
where m
c
1
Se
Sn
21
Power Specialist’ s
external compensation ramp, when present. The two high
frequency poles present a Q that depends on the
compensating ramp and the duty cycle. RIDLEY
demonstrated that the Q becomes infinite at D=0.5 with no
external ramp, confirming the inherent instability of a current
mode SMPS which has a duty cycle greater than 0.5. Q and
ω
p
, which are part of the V
o
/V
c
transfer function, are expressed
as follows:
Q =
( )
1
05 π ⋅ ⋅ − mc D' .
ω
p
=
( )
1
05
CR
Ts
LC
mc D + ⋅ ⋅ − ' .
where m
c
= 1 + S
e
/ S
n
. S
e
is the external ramp
slope, S
n
is the inductor ontime slope. D’ = 1  D
The presence of two highfrequency poles in the
V
o
/V
c
transfer function is due to the sampling process of the
inductance current. Actually, this process creates two RHP
zeroes in the current loop which are responsible for the boost
in gain at Fs/2 but also stress the phase lag at this point. If
the gain margin is too low at this frequency, any perturbation
in the current will make the system unstable since both
voltage and current loops are embedded. You can fight the
problem by providing the converter with an external
compensation ramp. This will oppose the duty cycle action
by lowering the currentloop DC gain and correspondingly
increasing the phase margin at Fs/2, which will damp the
high Q poles in the V
o
/V
c
transfer function. As other benefits
of ramp compensation, RIDLEY showed that an external
ramp whose slope is equal to 50% of the inductor downslope
could nullify the audio susceptibility (mc=1.5). As more
external ramp is added, the low frequency pole ω
p
moves to
higher frequencies while the double poles will be split into
two distinct poles. The first one will move towards lower
frequencies until it joins and combines with the first low
frequency pole at ω
p
. At this point, the converter behaves as
if it is operating in voltage mode (mc=32, figure 8c).
CMC models and IsSpice4
In his thesis report, RIDLEY presented his models
in a simple SPICE2 format, without any parameter passing
capability. The following IsSpice4 netlist provide greater
flexibility by providing full SPICE3 parameter passing for
the CCM model. The DCM listing will not be printed here
but can be obtained via email to the author at basso@esrf.fr.
.SUBCKT PWMCCM 1 2 3 4 5 {RI=0.33 L=37.5U FS=50K RL=1
+ D=0.45 VAP=11 VAC=6 IC=0.8 VP=2}
* A P C C’ Control
.PARAM TS = {1/FS} ; Switching time
.PARAM PI = 3.14159 ; PI constant
.PARAM KF = {(D*TS*RI/L)*(1D/2)}
.PARAM KR = {((1D)^2*TS*RI)/(2*L)}
**** PWM Switch model ****
BE2 7 1 V = V(17)*({VAP/D})
BG1 1 2 I = V(17) * {IC}
BGxf 7 2 I = I(Vxf) * {D}
BExf 9 2 V = V(7,2) * {D}
Vxf 9 3 0
**** He(s) Circuit ****
Hi 10 0 Vxf 1
C1 10 12 {TS/PI}
L1 12 13 {TS/PI}
C2 13 14 {TS/PI}
Re 14 15 1.57
E1 15 0 12 0 1E6
**** Summing gains ****
BEd 16 0 V = { V(1,4)*KF + V(4,2)*KR + V(15)*RI + V(5) }
**** Modulator Gain ****
BEFm 17 0 V = { V(16)*1/(VP+(VAC*TS*RI/L)) }
.ENDS
BUCK DC parameters:
D={(VOUT/VIN)*(RL+RS)/RL} ; DC duty cycle for continuous mode
D={SQRT((M^2*8*L)/(((2M)^2M^2)*RL*(1/FS)))}
; Discontinuous mode
VAP={VIN}
VAC={VINVOUT}
VCP={VOUT}
IC={VOUT/RL}
IA={(VOUT/RL)*M}
IP={ICIA}
As for the PWM switch, you need to provide the
model with DC operating points. BUCK DC parameters
are given above. You will notice the presence of the C’
connection in the model. This connection is intended to
inject current information inside the model, as reference
[6] thoroughly explains.
A simple BUCK converter operating at 50kHz will
be simulated, according to figure 8a.
R1
20M
L1
37.5UH
R2
20M
C1
400UF
R3
1
a
c'
c
p Control
PWMCCM
V1
11
V2
AC
4
5 1
3
7
2
Figure 8a
The simulation results of figures 8c and 8d clearly
demonstrate the action of the compensation ramp upon the
CMC BUCK converter. These curves have been automati
cally generated by IsSpice4 using its powerful Interactive
Command Language in conjunction with the INTUSOFT’s
graphical investigation tool, IntuScope. For large mc (32),
the converter’s transfer function behaves like a classical
voltage mode control system. Inversely, in lack of compen
sation ramp, the high Fs/2 Q will make the SMPS unstable
in response to a transient step. The model would also let you
investigate different transfer functions (audio susceptibil
ity), Zin/Zout parameters and give an immediate insight of
the compensation ramp effects.
22
SMPS Design
100 1K 10K
Frequency in Hertz
10.000
10.000
30.00
50.00
70.00
Gain (dB)
mc=1
mc=1.5
mc=2
mc=4
mc=8
mc=16
mc=32
Figure 8b
10 1K 10K
Frequency in Hertz
0
45.00
90.00
135.0
180.0
Phases (deg)
mc=1
mc=32
mc=16
mc=8
mc=4
mc=2
mc=1.5
Figure 8c
New largesignal models
INTUSOFT has recently released its new SMPS
library that contains numerous IsSpice4 models operating
in switched or averaged mode. Among these novelties, the
FLYAVG and FORWARD average models let you simulate
any voltage/current mode converter and allow the testing to
large steps. Reference [7] details the way the models were
derived. As a simulation example, we will take figure 8a’s
BUCK converter to see how you can take profit of these
new parts. Figure 9a depicts the electrical schematic whose
netlist will be given to IsSpice4.
The FLYAVG model does not take into account the
previous Fs/2 high frequency poles. But it is well suited to
study the impact of the compensation ramp upon the overall
characteristics. For instance, RIDLEY showed an nullified
audio susceptibility for an external ramp whose slope equals
50% of the inductor downslope. To highlight this phenom
enon, let us sweep the K coefficient which sets the amount
of external compensation in figure 9a. IsSpice4’s optimizer
capability will ease the work by providing the adequate au
tomation tool. You simply need to add the following line
and run IsSpice4 to see multiple run results gathered upon a
single graph(figure 9b): *OPT RAMP=0.1 TO 0.15
STEP=5M.
29.81U 89.42U 149.0U 208.7U 268.3U
Time in µs
5.000
4.999
4.998
4.997
4.996
V(5) Output
K=0.14
K=0.12
K=0.13
K=0.145
K=0.135
K=0.125
K=0.115
K=0.11
K=0.105
K=0.1
Figure 9b
V9
PWL
L4
37.5U
C6
400U
R16
20M
I(V10)
I_OUT
V(5)
VOUT
VIN VOUT
RTN VC DUTY
FORWARD
X7
FORWARD
V(24)
VC
V(25)
DUTY
B3
V=V(25)*
K
R18
20M
V(5)
VOUT
R20
20K
C7
6.36N
C8
426P
R21
3.55K
R22
3.55K
V12
2.5
V(4)
VERR
GAIN
X9
GAIN
V(5)
VOUT
L5
1P
C9
1P
V13
AC
V(3)
VIN
R24
1
3 18 9 20
21
5
24 25
6
4 7 2
1
8
10
Figure 9a
For low compensation ramps, the phase
of the linetooutput transfer function is negative.
It is clearly depicted by the lower curves where
the sudden steppedup input voltage engenders a
negative output transient. As more ramp is in
jected, the output step diminishes until null audio
susceptibility is obtained, providing the designer
with the value of the optimum ramp (K=0.135).
23
Power Specialist’ s
Conclusion
Both small and largesignal models should help the
designer to better understand the intricacies of CMC con
verters stability. The new INTUSOFT’s SMPS library in
cludes averaged but also popular switched models (e.g
UC384X family), giving the designer all the tools he needs
to develop rugged designs from the theoretical study (aver
age models) to realistic simulations (switched models).
References
1. V. BELLO, “Circuit Simulation of Switching Regulators Us
ing HSPICE”, METASOFTWARE
(email: DrVGB@AOL.COM)
2. R. D. MIDDLEBROOK and S. CUK, “A general Unified
Approach to Modeling Switching Converter Power Stages”,
IEEE PESC, 1976 Record, pp 1834
3. Vatché VORPERIAN, “Simplified Analysis of PWM Convert
ers Using The Model of The PWM Switch, Parts I (CCM) and
II (DCM)”, Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics Sys
tems, Vol. 26, N°3, May 1990
4. R. D. MIDDLBROOK, “LowEntropy expressions: The key
to DesignOriented Analysis”, IEEE Frontiers in Education,
21st Annual Conference, Purdue University, September 21
24, 1991;399403
5. D. M. MITCHELL, “DCDC Switching Regulators Analysis”,
distributed by e/j BLOOM Associates
(71147.3274@compuserve.com).
6. R. B. RIDLEY, “A new smallsignal model for currentmode
control“, PhD. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University, 1990 (email: RRIDLEY@AOL.COM)
This document can be ordered from Ray RIDLEY’s homepage:
http://members.aol.com/ridleyeng/index.html
7. S. M. SANDLER, “SMPS Simulation With SPICE3”,
McGrawHill, ISBN 0079132278 (email:
SSANDLER@AENG.COM)
24
SMPS Design
Simulating the switching behavior of a Switch
Mode Power Supply (SMPS) is not always an easy task.
This is especially true if the designer wants to use an exact
SPICE model for the Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
controller which will be used in the design. The PWM model
may exist, but its syntax may be incompatible with your
simulator. If the model has not been created, the debate over
whether or not to do the simulation is closed! The solution
that is proposed in this article consists of writing your own
generic model of the PWM controller and then adapting its
intrinsic parameters to comply with the real one you are using.
Fixed frequency Current Control Mode (CCM) and Voltage
Control Mode (VCM) models will be thoroughly covered
in this article, as well as the model translation between
different simulators.
The Berkeley B element, the standard behavior element
An efficient PWM model that is easy to model must
include functions that are generic. For instance, it would not
be clever to model an internal current comparator with the
complete transistor architecture of a LM311 or a LM193.
Fortunately, there is a simple inline equation that can
describe the perfect comparison function. By adding some
passive elements to incorporate various effects (propagation
delay, input offset voltage, etc.) we can achieve the
functionality we need without sacrificing the simulation
speed.
The nonlinear controlled source, or B element, is
part of Berkeley SPICE3, which was released to the public
domain in 1986. Depending on the compatibility of your
SPICE 3 simulator, the corresponding syntax may vary
significantly. B elements can be linear or nonlinear current
or voltage sources. Some vendors have expanded the B
element syntax to include BOOLEAN and IFTHENELSE
functions. For INTUSOFT’s IsSpice4 (San Pedro, CA) and
CADENCE’s Analog WorkBench Spice Plus (SanJose,
CA), the writing of I or V math equations using B elements
is the same because both are SPICE 3 compatible. For
example, current/voltage generators whose current depends
on various nodes can be expressed as:
B1 1 0 I = V(5,8)*100*V(10)/(V(8)+V(12))
; IsSpice or AWB current source
B2 2 0 V= V(9,8)*500*V(12)
; IsSpice or AWB voltage source
MICROSIM’s PSpice (Irvine, CA) has departed
from the Berkeley standard and uses a different syntax.
PSpice modifies the standard calls for dependent voltage
controlled sources (E and G elements). The equivalent
PSpice examples are as follows:
G1 1 0 VALUE = { V(5,8)*100*V(10)/(V(8)+V(12)) }
; PSpice current source
E2 2 0 VALUE = { V(9,8)*500*V(12) }
; PSpice voltage source
Implement your logical operations
As stated in the above “paragraph, BOOLEAN and
IFTHENELSE expressions have become a part of most
vendors’ B elements. Their implementation also depends
on the SPICE simulator. INTUSOFT exploits the concept
of “binary” voltage, that is to say, a node value which is
lower or higher than a userdefined threshold can be
associated with 1 or 0. This threshold is driven by the
keyword LTHRESH, whose value is set via a .OPTIONS
line. Two other options, LONE and LZERO, will define the
HI and LO electrical values which are delivered by a B
element source when it is performing such BOOLEAN
operations. A simple NAND equation between two nodes is
simply expressed as:
BNAND 3 0 V= ~ ( V(1) & V(2) ) ;IsSpice complemented
(~) AND operation between V(1) and V(2)
Because the other SPICE simulators do not directly
support this syntax, it would be much easier to adopt a simpler
expression in order to simplify any further translations. If
we pass the logical thresholds directly into the equation, we
obtain the following IsSpice IFTHENELSE statement:
BNAND 3 0 V= (V(1)>800M) & (V(2)>800M)? 0V: 5V
In other words, IF V(1) is greater than 800mV AND V(2) is
greater than 800mV, THEN V(3,0)=0V; ELSE V(3,0)=5V
Now the translation to AWB and PSpice syntax is
more straightforward:
E_BNAND 3 0 VALUE = { IF ( (V(1)>800M) &
+ (V(2)>800M), 0V, 5V ) } ; PSpice NAND gate
BNAND 3 0 V = IF ( (V(1)>800M) &&
+ (V(2)>800M), 0, 5 ) ; AWB NAND gate
Note that the AWB parser does NOT accept suffixes
for the passed numerical values and the && symbol is
doubled as in the C language to distinguish a logical AND
from a binary AND. The diversity in implementing the B
elements is only bound by the user’s imagination. What we
have shown above is only a small part of the possibilities
offered by Behavioral Modeling via the B element.
If your simulator does not support B element modeling, the
situation becomes complex. Some examples on how to model
the logical functions with SPICE2 syntax are given at the
end of this article.
Write your own generic SPICE Power Supplies controller models
Christophe BASSO, email: basso@esrf.fr
November 1996
25
Power Specialist’ s
Here’s an application example, a simple voltage
limiter which limits the differential voltage of nodes 1 and 2
between 100mV and 1V:
E1 3 0 TABLE {V(1)V(2)} 100M,100M 1,1 ; PSpice
B1 3 0 V = IF ( V(1,2) < 1, IF (V(1,2) < 100M, 100M,
+ V(1,2)),1) ; AWB (No suffixes!)
B1 3 0 V = V(1,2) < 100MV ? 100M : V(1,2) > 1 ?
+ 1 : V(1,2) ; IsSpice
In other words,
IF V(1,2) is less than 100mV, THEN V(3,0)=100mV; ELSE
IF V(1,2) is greater than 1V, THEN V(3,0)=1V, ELSE
V(3,0)=V(1,2)
B elements switch in essentially a zero time span.
This characteristic may create convergence problems on
transitions associated with these perfect sources. We
recommend that you tailor the output switching times in a
more realistic manner. A simple RC network is suitable for
this purpose. A perfect comparator which accounts for these
conditions is given below. We have included it in a
SUBCIRCUIT in order to highlight the philosophy of
constructing your own models:
.SUBCKT COMP 1 2 3
* (+) () OUT
E1 4 0 VALUE = { IF ( V(1) > V(2), 5V, 0 ) } ; PSpice syntax;
IsSpice Syntax: B1 4 0 V=V(1) > V(2) ? 5 : 0
RD 4 3 100 ; RC network
CD 3 0 100P ; to slow down transitions
.ENDS COMP
Now that we have reviewed the basics of generating
inline equations, let’s dip into the nittygritty of a constant
frequency CCM PWM controller.
Current mode controllers, a well known architecture
Figure 1, the internal circuitry of a generic single
output CCM PWM controller.
Set
Reset
Q
+

+

Clock
Error Amp.
Current Comp.
SR Latch
OUT
FB
ISENSE
VREF
Max. Duty
limit
Osc.
Osc
Figure 1
The modelling of such a block consists of: a)
defining and testing each subcircuit individually, and
b) assembling all of these dominolike circuits to form the
complete generic model. All individual blocks should be
tested before they are used within larger models. Below are
some recommendations that will ease your task:
• Draw the symbol of your generic model with your favorite
schematic capture tool. Once this is done, you won’t have
to worry about incorrect pin connections (as you would
if you were creating a SPICE netlist with a text editor).
Internal subcircuit testing is simplified since you may
then access the connection pins directly in the schematic
model, and the pin passing process (from schematic to
netlist) is performed automatically.
• Place comments on every pertinent line, either with a
“*” in column one (for a complete line), or a “;”
immediately preceding a comment within a line. Also,
use different commented header names for each section
of code within the listing.
• Use descriptive names for the components you assemble
in the subcircuit netlist, i.e. VCLOCK for a clock source,
RDUM for a dummy load, etc.
• Use subcircuits whenever a function is called more than
once. Even if the function is only called once, you can
create a subcircuit and therefore simplify the netlist. This
will also facilitate the writing of new models because
the .SUBCKT functions are easily pasted into the netlist.
Also, if required, the conversion process to another
platform will be greatly simplified.
• Use realistic parameter values for primitive SPICE
components such as the diode (D). These models may
generate convergence problems since some of the default
parameters are set to zero. For example,
.MODEL DMOD D (TT=1N CJO=10P RS=100M)
• Use a main subcircuit pin number of up to 10 or 20 and
use incremental decimal digit notation as you change the
internal function. This is especially recommended for
complex models in which the parent subcircuit may be
large. Below is an arbitrary example, where nodes 7
through 19 are preserved in order to output test signals
or add additional pins:
.SUBCKT EXAMPLE 1 2 3 4 5 6
**** MAIN CLOCK ****
VCLOCK 20 21 PULSE ; Main clock
ICHARGE 22 24 10MA ; Current charge of capacitor C1
**** TRIGGER ****
RTHRES 30 33 10K ; Threshold high
CDEL 33 38 10NF ; Propagation delay
**** COMPARATOR ****
RINP 40 42 10K ; Input resistor
RFEED 45 49 120K ; Feedback resistor
.ENDS EXAMPLE
Output
Driver
26
SMPS Design
Writing the model step by step
Let’s start with the synchronization signals, Clock,
Osc. and Max. duty cycle. The first one will initiate the on
time of the external switch by triggering the flipflop latch.
Its frequency sets the functioning period of the entire PWM
circuit, and will therefore require user input (PERIOD). Osc.
is provided for ramp compensation purposes. It delivers a
signal which is equivalent to that which was delivered by
the classical linear charge of the external oscillator RC
network. Using the oscillator ramp is a possible option for
ramp compensation, but there are others such as charging a
RC network from the MOSFET driver output. If the capacitor
voltage is kept at around 1 volt, it is possible to obtain a
very low impedance linear ramp, without adversely affecting
the PWM oscillator. Osc. will have the same period as Clock,
but the user will select its peak amplitude (RAMP). Once
the Clock pulse is issued, the Max. duty cycle must reset the
latch after a specific period of time. This time is userdefined
(DUTYMAX) and selects the maximum allowable duty
cycle.
Parameters for IsSpice and PSpice are quite similar
in format: the parameter, or any equations between
parameters, is enclosed by curly braces. Our three generators
are listed below. Arbitrary node numbers are used to simplify
their understanding:
VCLK 1 0 PULSE 0 5 0 1N 1N 10N {PERIOD}
VRAMP 2 0 PULSE 0 {RAMP} 0 {PERIOD2N} 1N 1N
{PERIOD}
VDUTY 3 0 PULSE 0 5 {PERIOD*DUTYMAX} 1N 1N
{(PERIODPERIOD*DUTYMAX)2N} {PERIOD}
A quick simulation of this set of equations appears
in figure 2, where a maximum duty cycle of 0.5 was selected.
The current comparator requires a simple equation
followed by a RC network which slows down its transitions.
The model is the same as the one given in the example above.
The SR latch may be defined in many ways. We do
not recommend the use of a proprietary flipflop model. You
can draw a classical RS flipflop and add a couple of inverters
in order to generate the required signals. Figure 3 shows the
electrical circuit.
Set
Reset
Q
Q\
Figure 3
The subcircuit will appear as shown below, according to
common AWB and IsSpice syntax rules:
.SUBCKT FFLOP 6 8 2 1
* S R Q Q\
BQB 10 0 V=(V(8)<800M) & (V(2)>800M) ? 0 : 5 ; one input
; inverted two input NAND
BQ 20 0 V=(V(6)<800M) & (V(1)>800M) ? 0 : 5
RD1 10 1 100 ; delay elements
CD1 1 0 10p IC=5
RD2 20 2 100
CD2 2 0 10p IC=0
.ENDS FFLOP
The “IC” statements are mandatory in order to avoid
conflicts when SPICE computes the DC operating point. You
will then add the keyword “UIC” (Use Initial Conditions) at
the end of the .TRAN statement.
Figure 2
27
Power Specialist’ s
A simplified error amplifier macromodel
There are an infinite number of ways to realize the
error amplifier model. However, keep in mind that the
simplest model yields the fastest simulation runs. We will
use basic building blocks to create a model with the following
parameters:
• DC openloop gain: 90dB, or 31622 {GAIN}
• First pole: 30Hz {POLE}
• Maximum output voltage: {VHIGH}
• Minimum output voltage: {VLOW}
• Maximum sink current: {ISINK}
• Maximum source current: {ISOURCE}
The last two parameters correspond to the output
current capability of the opamp. Modeling its output current
capability. instead of using a simple resistor R
out
in series
with the final voltage source, yields more accurate results.
This is because once the loop is closed, the dynamic output
impedance of the amplifier is close to zero since the open
loop gain T
OL
is large: R
out
= R
openloop
/ (1+T
OL
). However,
this expression is only valid within the limit of the current
capability of the amplifier. If the amplifier current exceeds
this limit, the component is unable to maintain the proper
voltage level, and the output plummets to zero (or rises, if
the sink current limit is exceeded). A simple resistor cannot
properly model this effect. The electrical schematics is given
below:
.SUBCKT ERRAMP 20 8 3 21
* +  OUT GND
RIN 20 8 8MEG
CP1 11 21 {1/(6.28*(GAIN/100U)*POLE)} ; pole calculation
E1 5 21 11 21 1
R9 5 2 5
D14 2 13 DMOD
IS 13 21 {ISINK/100} ; sink limit, with BF=100
Q1 21 13 16 QPMODI
ISRC 7 3 {ISOURCE} ; source limit
D12 3 7 DMOD
D15 21 11 DCLAMP
G1 21 11 20 8 100U
V1 7 21 {VHIGH0.6V} ; max output clipping
V4 3 16 {VLOW38MV} ; min output clipping
RP1 11 21 {GAIN/100U} ; open loop gain calculation
.MODEL QPMOD PNP
.MODEL DCLAMP D (RS=10 BV=10 IBV=0.01)
.MODEL DMOD D (TT=1N CJO=10P)
.ENDS ERRAMP
The test of the amplifier confirmed the presence of
the pole and the current output limits.
Test of the complete current mode model
Now that all of the individual elements have been
defined and tested, it is time to place them within the final
subcircuit model, PWMCM. The output driver model is
simplified, and converts the latch levels to userdefined
voltages which are associated with a resistor:
E_BOUT 15 0 VALUE = { IF ( V(10) > 3.5, {VOUTHI}, {VOUTLO} ) }
; node 10 is the latch output
ROUT 15 1 {ROUT}
100U
Vclamp=10V
RP1 CP1
VREF
Gain = 1
Sink limit
Source limit
Max output limit Min output lim
Rin
FB
OUTPUT
Voltage and current offset effects are not modeled,
but can be easily added. Offset currents are important,
especially when high value feedback networks are used (in
the presence of high voltage regulated output, for instance).
Output clipping of the voltage controlled sources is always
a problem. It is alleviated by using a voltage controlled
current source whose output is clipped by a diode and then
buffered by a unity gain voltage controlled source. Sink and
source limits are associated with the output transistor; the
sink limit is dependent of its static gain (default BF=100).
The final netlist is as follows:
Figure 4
For editing convenience, the
final PWMCM model will not be printed
in this article, but may be downloaded
from our BBS or our Internet Web site.
The complete example .CIR files are
available there also. They are available
in PSpice, IsSpice and SPICE2 formats.
The test circuit is a buck
converter which delivers 5V at 10A. All
of the elements have been calculated
using the new release of POWER 456
[2], which was developed by RIDLEY Engineering (http://
members.aol.com/ridleyeng/index.html). Figure 5a depicts
this switchmode converter:
The ramp compensation is accomplished by
summing a fraction of the oscillator sawtooth and the current
sense information. It has several beneficial effects that we
will discuss later on. This circuit has been simulated in 25s
upon a P120 machine for a 200µs transient run. With this
simulation speed, output response to load or input step can
be accomplished rather quickly. Figure 5b shows the start
up conditions before the output voltage has reached its final
value. A switching frequency of 200kHz has been selected.
28
SMPS Design
20.00U 60.00U 100.00 140.0 180.0
Time (Secondes)
14.0
10.00
6.000
2.000
2.000
5.200
5.10
5.000
4.900
4.800
Output voltage(50mV/c)
Error voltage (0.5V/c)
Coil current (2A/c)
Figure 5b
Current mode instabilities
The controltooutput transfer function (V
o
/V
c
) of
a continuous current mode control converter is a three pole
system, as Raymond RIDLEY demonstrated in 1990 [1]:
one low frequency pole, ω
p
, and two poles which are located
at Fs/2. These poles move in relation to the duty cycle and
the external ramp. The two high frequency poles present a
Q that depends on the compensating ramp and the duty cycle.
RIDLEY demonstrated that the Q becomes infinite at D=0.5
with no external ramp, which confirms the inherent instability
of a current mode SMPS which has a duty cycle greater than
0.5. Q and ω
p
, which are part of the V
o
/
V
c
transfer function, are expressed as
follows:
Q =
( )
1
05 π ⋅ ⋅ − mc D' .
ω
p
=
( )
1
05
CR
Ts
LC
mc D + ⋅ ⋅ − ' .
where m
c
= 1 + S
e
/ S
n
. S
e
is the
external ramp slope, S
n
is the inductor
ontime slope. D’ = 1  D
The low frequency pole, ω
p,
moves to higher frequencies as additional
compensation ramp is injected. The
addition of the external ramp will also
damp the Q factor of the double Fs/2
poles, which are the result of the current
sampling action, in continuous inductor
L1
9.33U
R1
4.5M
C1
727UF
R2
16M
X1
PSW1
V1
11.5
V(23)
VOUT
B1
V=V(35,1
R6
12.94K
R7
220K
C2
70P
C3
241P
R8
1K
R9
193M
I(V3)
I_SWITCH
V(9)
VIN
V(5)
VGS
I(V4)
I_DIODE
R11
12.94K
V(14)
ERROR
R12
24.17K
C4
10P
V(18)
VSUM
V(12)
SENSE
V(2)
VLC
D1
DN5829
R13
0.5
CMP
FB
OSC
SENS
OUT
GND
X7
PWMCM
2 1 23
4
15
5
9
12
22
3 38
14
18
35
6
7
Figure 5a
current. The addition of more ramp will split the double pole
into two distinct poles. The first one will move towards lower
frequencies until it joins and combines with the first low
frequency pole at ω
p
. At this point, the converter behaves as
if it is operating in voltage mode.
Think of the current loop as an RLC network which
is tuned to Fs/2. If we excite this network with a transient
current step, it will ring like an RLC response [3], whose
damping depends on the duty cycle and on the amount, if
any, of ramp compensation. By increasing the duty cycle,
we will raise the DC gain of the current loop until the phase
margin at Fs/2 vanishes and makes the system unstable. When
the duty cycle is greater than 0.5, the current gain curve
crosses the 0dB point at Fs/2, and because of the abrupt
29
Power Specialist’ s
drop in phase at this point, the converter oscillates.
This sharp drop in phase at Fs/2 is created by the
double RHP zeros which are engendered by the
sampling action in the current information. These
double RHP zeros which appear in the current gain
are transformed into double poles when one
calculates the V
o
/V
c
transfer function. The Q of
these poles is inversely proportional to the phase
margin in the current gain at Fs/2. Compensating
the system with an external ramp will oppose the
duty cycle action by lowering the DC gain and
increasing the phase margin at Fs/2, which will
damp the high Q poles in the V
o
/V
c
transfer function.
To highlight this phenomenon, let’s open
the voltage loop and place a fixed DC source at the
right tail of R11 (node 23) in Figure 5a. R12 is
elevated to 1MEG in order to suppress any ramp
compensation. If we abruptly change the input
voltage from 18V to 12.5V, the Fs/2 component
appears (100kHz) and is damped after several
switching periods, since the duty cycle is less than
0.5. Further stressing of the output would lengthen
20K 50K 100 200K 500K 1MEG
Frequency (Hertz)
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0
Fs/2 oscillation
Switching component
Figure 5d
Figure 5c
the damping time or produce a steadystate oscillation. The
result is depicted in Figure 5c, where a filter has removed
the main switching component from the coil current to allow
the Fs/2 signal to be properly established.
If this network is now closed within a high gain
outer loop, any current perturbation will make the entire
system oscillate at Fs/2, even if the loop gain has a good
phase margin at the 0dB crossover frequency. This socalled
gain peaking is attributed to the action of the highQ poles,
which push the gain above the 0dB line at Fs/2, and produce
an abrupt drop in phase at this point. If the duty cycle is
smaller than 0.5, the oscillations will naturally cease, but if
the duty cycle is greater, the oscillation will remain, as Figure
5d demonstrates with the FFT of the error amplifier voltage
(Vin=11.5V). In conclusion, providing an external ramp is a
wise solution, even if your SMPS duty cycle will be limited
to 0.5: the Fs/2 Q will be reduced, thereby preventing
oscillations.
The audio susceptibility is also affected by slope
compensation. RIDLEY showed in his work that an external
ramp whose slope is equal to 50% of the inductor downslope
could nullify the audio susceptibility. As previously stated,
excessive ramp compensation makes the converter behave
as if it is in voltage mode, which degrades the audio
susceptibility. Also, if minimal compensation or no ramp is
provided, good input voltage rejection is achieved, the phase
of the resulting audio susceptibility is negative; and an
increase in input voltage will cause the output voltage to
decrease. Figure 5d illustrates these behaviors when the
input of the buck converter is stressed by a 6V variation.
The upper curve depicts the output voltage for a critical ramp
compensation. The voltage difference in the output envelope
is only 10mV for a 6V input step, which leads to a
(theoretical) ∆Vout/∆Vin of 55dB. The middle curve shows
how the response starts to degrade as additional ramp is
30
SMPS Design
added. The lower curve represents the error amplifier response when
a slight ramp compensation is added. The decrease in the output
voltage is clearly revealed by the rise in the error voltage.
In this model, the duty cycle is no longer
controlled by the current information (except in
limitation mode). It is controlled by the PWM
modulator, which compares the error voltage with
the reference sawtooth. The error amplifier output
swing will then define the duty cycle limits. Since
this output swing is user dependent, the model will
calculate the peak and valley voltages of the
reference sawtooth such that the chosen duty cycle
boundaries are not violated. Figure 7 depicts the
wellknown naturally sampled PWM modulator.
oscillator sawtooth
VH
VL
Error amplifier
output voltage
Duty cycle
Output
Comparator
VC  VL
D =
VH  VL
VC
Figure 7
Since you will provide the main
subcircuit with the duty cycle limits and the error
301.6U 344.9U 388.2U 431.4U 474.7U
Time (secondes)
2.253
2.205
2.157
2.109
2.061
5.085
5.045
5.005
4.965
4.925
Error voltage, without ramp
Output voltage with strong comp.
Output voltage, critical compensation
A close look at the error voltage response time leads
to the closedloop bandwidth of the SMPS. The measured
rise time, t
r
, is roughly 22µs, which gives a bandwidth of:
BW=1/π∗t
r
= 14.5kHz, which corroborates our initial design
goal value which was passed to POWER 456.
The voltage mode model, PWMVM
The voltage mode generic controller will follow
the description given in Figure 6.
Set
Reset
Q +

+

Clock
Error Amp.
SR Latch
OUT
FB
ISENSE
VREF
O
Max. Duty
limit
Osc.
+

IMAX
ILIMIT
PWM Out
Figure 6
The architecture allows the inclusion of a current
limitation circuit to reduce the ontime of the external power
switch when its peak current exceeds a userdefined limit.
This option is strongly recommended to make a rugged and
reliable SMPS design that can safely handle input or output
overloads. By simply connecting the ISENSE input to
ground, you disable this option.
Output
Driver
amplifier output swing, it is possible to calculate the
corresponding sawtooth peak values, V
valley
and V
peak
. In
MICROSIM’s Pspice or INTUSOFT’s IsSpice, it is easy to
define some particular variables with a .PARAM statement.
The reading of the remaining lines in the netlist is then
considerably simplified:
.PARAM VP = {(VLOW * DUTYMAX  VHIGH *
+ DUTYMIN + VHIGH  VLOW) / (DUTYMAX 
+ DUTYMIN)}
.PARAM VV = {(VLOW  DUTYMIN * VP) / (1 
+ DUTYMIN)}
The sawtooth source then becomes:
VRAMP 1 0 PULSE {VV} {VP} 0 {PERIOD2N} 1N
+ 1N {PERIOD}
The OR gate which routes the reset signal to the
latch from the PWM or the limitation comparator requires
a simple inline equation, followed by the classical delay
network:
.SUBCKT OR2 1 2 3
E_B1 4 0 VALUE = { IF ( (V(1)>800M)  (V(2)>800M), 5V, 0 ) }
RD 4 3 100
CD 3 0 10P
.ENDS OR2
Since the remaining elements have already been
defined (comparators, error amplifier etc.), we are all set.
As previously stated, the final PWMVM model will not be
printed in this article, but can be downloaded from our BBS
or our Internet Web site. The test circuit of Figure 8a is a
31
Power Specialist’ s
forward converter which delivers 28V@4A from a 160V
input source.
The switching frequency is set at 200kHz, with a
maximum duty cycle of 0.45 because of the forward structure.
Figure 8b depicts the curves which are obtained at startup.
The power switch is modeled with a smooth transition
element, as provided by MICROSIM and INTUSOFT. The
error amplifier is pushed to its upper limit, and needs some
time to recover this transient situation. This behavior is
typical of the adopted compensation scheme for a voltage
mode converter which is operating in continuous mode.
Modelling with SPICE2
If you own a SPICE2 compatible simulator, you
simply cannot use the B element syntax. To overcome this
limitation, some equivalent (but more time consuming)
circuits can be constructed. The first generic function which
is called in our models is the perfect comparator. Figure 9a
shows one solution. The unlabeled resistors provide a DC
path to ground (10MEG).
X2
PSW1
R4
29.386K
R5
135.17K
L2
1MH
R6
134M
V1
160
X3
XFMR
L3
130U
R7
70M
C2
48.8U
R8
245M
R9
14
V(17)
VOUT
R10
20K
C3
5.31N
C4
676P
V(1)
VGS
V(4)
VERR
V(9)
VOUT_SQ
V(8)
VSWITCH
L4
1MH
V(13)
DC
I(V4)
I_RESET
K1
L2
R12
2.824K
C6
578P
R13
1
V(18)
ISENSE
R14
1K
C7
10P
D7
DIODE
D9
DCLAMP
D8
DIODE
CMP
FB
OUT
GND
IMAX
X7
PWMVM
8
19
1
15
17
13
6
5 9 10
3
4 7
14
2
16
18
Figure 8a
Figure 8b
32
SMPS Design
E2
1
G1
100U
300MEG
BV={VOUTHIVOUTLO}
{VOUTLO}
100
10P
OUT
Figure 9a
The logical functions are less obvious, at least if
you want to build something easily. The ideal gates in Figure
9b simulate quickly and converge well. They use the ideal
SPICE2 voltage controlled switch or the PSpice/IsSpice
smooth transition switch.
V1
5V
~(A & B)
A
B
A & B
A
B
A B
A  B
Figure 9b
The FlipFlop is also translated to SPICE2 syntax, as the
following lines explain.
**** FFLOP **** **** 2 INPUT NAND ****
.SUBCKT FFLOP 6 8 2 1 .SUBCKT NAND 1 2 3
* S R Q Q\ RDUM1 1 0 10MEG
RDUM1 6 0 10MEG RDUM1 2 0 10MEG
RDUM2 8 0 10MEG S1 3 5 1 0 SMOD
XINVS 6 6 10 NAND S2 5 0 2 0 SMOD
XINVR 8 8 11 NAND RL 3 4 100
XNAQB 11 2 10 NAND CD 3 0 10P
XNAQ 10 1 20 NAND VCC 4 0 5V
RD1 10 1 100 .MODEL SMOD VSWITCH (RON=1
CD1 1 0 10P IC=5 +ROFF=1Meg VON=3 VOFF=100M)
RD2 20 2 100 .ENDS NAND
CD2 2 0 10P IC=0
.ENDS FFLOP
****
The simulation of the buck converter circuit of
figure 5a using SPICE2 syntax took 71seconds on our P120
machine, giving an increase in simulation time of 184%.
If you are interested in the SPICE2/SPICE3 macro
modeling technique and the SPICE engine in general, consult
“The SPICE Book”, written by Andrei VLADIMIRESCU
[4] or “SMPS Simulation with SPICE3”, written by Steve
SANDLER [5].
Conclusion
This article describes some guidelines
which will help you in the process of writing your
own generic models for the platform of your choice.
The two models, PWMCM and PWMVM, simulate
quickly and converge very well, therefore allowing
the designer to readily implement the average model
results to see if they are verified by the “real world”
switched elements.
References
1. R. B. RIDLEY, “A new smallsignal model for currentmode
control“, PhD. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University, 1990
This document can be ordered from the VPEC Web site: http:/
/www.vpec.vt.edu/cgibin/home.html
2. POWER 456 Technical manual, RIDLEY ENGINEERING
(BattleCreek, MI)
3. B. HOLLAND, “Modelling, Analysis and Compensation of
the Current Mode Converter”, Powercon 11, 1984 Record,
Paper H2
4. A. VLADIMIRESCU, “The SPICE Book”, John Wiley &
Sons, ISBN 0471609269
5. S. SANDLER, “SMPS Simulation With SPICE3”, McGraw
Hill, ISBN 0079132278
33
Power Specialist’ s
Keep your Switch Mode Supply stable with a CriticalMode Controller
MOTOROLA Semiconductors, Christophe BASSO, Toulouse, France, email: basso@esrf.fr
November 1997
Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) can operate
in two different conduction modes, each one depicting the
level of the current circulating in the power choke when the
power switch is turned on. As will be shown, the properties
of two black boxes delivering the same power levels but
working in different conduction modes, will change dramati
cally in DC and AC conditions. The stress upon the power
elements they are made of will also be affected. This article
explains why the vast majority of lowpower FLYBACK
SMPS (offline cellular battery chargers, VCRs etc.) oper
ate in the discontinuous area and present a new integrated
solution especially dedicated to these particular converters.
Defining the mode
Figure 1a and 1b show the general shape of a cur
rent flowing through the converter’s coil during a few cycles.
In the picture, the current ramps up when the switch is closed
(ON time) building magnetic field in the inductor’s core.
When the switch opens (OFF time), the magnetic field col
lapses and, according to LENZ’s law, the voltage across the
inductance reverses. In that case, the current has to find some
way to continue its flow and start its decrease (in the output
network for a FLYBACK, through the freewheel diode in a
BUCK etc.).
ON OFF
0 before
turn ON
Not 0 at
turn ON
1a
1b
Deadtime
L>Lc
L<Lc
L=Lc
0
0
I
L
D/Fs
I
P
I
L(avg)
time
Figure 1
If the switch is switched ON again during the ramp
down cycle, before the current reaches zero (figure 1a), we
talk about Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM). Now, if
the energy storage capability of the coil is such that its cur
rent dries out to zero during OFF time, the supply is said to
operate in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). The
amount of deadtime where the current stays at a null level
defines how strongly the supply operates in DCM. If the
current through the coil reaches zero and the switch turns
ON immediately (no deadtime), the converter operates in
Critical Conduction Mode.
Where is the boundary?
There are three ways you can think of the bound
ary between the modes. One is about the critical value of the
inductance, L
C
, for which the supply will work in either CCM
or DCM given a fixed nominal load. The second deals with
a known inductance L. What level of load, R
C
, will push my
supply into CCM? Or what minimum load my SMPS should
see before entering DCM? The third one uses fixed values
of the above elements but adjusts the operating frequency,
F
C
, to stay in critical conduction. These questions can be
answered after a few lines of algebra corresponding to fig
ure 2’s example, a FLYBACK converter:
5
1 3
2 4
Rload
PWM
Vdd
Lp Ls
N:1
Figure 2a Figure 2b
To help determine some key characteristics of
this converter, we will refer to the following statements:
• The avg. inductor voltage per cycle should be null (1)
• From figure 1b, when L=L
C
, I
L(avg)
= 2xIp (2)
• An 100% efficiency leads to Pin=Pout (3)
The DC voltage transfer ratio in CCM is first de
termined using statement (1), thus equating figure 2b’s ar
eas:
Vdd N D × ×
=Vo D × − ( ) 1 .
After factorization, it comes
Vout
Vin
D
D
N ·
−
×
( ) 1
(4).
As we can see from figure 1b, the flux stored in the coil
during the ON time is down to zero right at the beginning of
the next cycle when the inductance equals its critical value
(L=L
C
). Mathematically this can be expressed by integrat
ing the formula:
Vdd.N
Vo
DT (1D)T
Voltage across the
secondary coil
34
SMPS Design
•
V dt L dI L L × · ×
thus,
V dt L dI
I
L C
D
Fs
L
P
. . ·
∫ ∫
0 0
.
⇒
Vin D
Fs
Lc Ip I L L avg C
×
· × · × × 2 ( ) , from (2).
• From (3), Vin I Io Vin N Vout L avg × · × × + ( ) ( ) ,
or I Io N
Vout
Vin
L avg ( ) ( ) · × + .
• By definition, Io
Vout
R
· and
Vout Vin N
D
D
· × ×
− 1
from (4).
If we introduce these elements in the above equa
tions, we can solve for the critical values of R
C
, L
C
and F
C
:
R
L F N
D
C
C S
·
× × ×
−
2
1
²
( )²
L
R D
F N
C
C
S
·
× −
× ×
( )²
²
1
2
F
R D
L N
C
C
C
·
× −
× ×
( )²
²
1
2
Fillingin the bucket
The FLYBACK converter, as with the BOOST and
BUCKBOOST structures, has an operating mode compa
rable to someone filling a bucket (coil) with water and flush
ing it into a water tank (capacitor). The bucket is first pre
sented to the spring (ON time) until its inner level reaches a
defined limit. Then the bucket is removed from the spring
(OFF time) and flushed into a water tank that supplies a fire
engine (load). The bucket can be totally emptied before re
filling (DCM) or some water can remain before the user pre
sents it back to the spring (CCM). Let’s suppose that the
man is experimented and he ensures that the recurrence pe
riod (ON+OFF time) is constant. The enduser is a fireman
who closes the feedback loop via his voice, shouting for
more or less flow for the tank. Now, if the flames suddenly
get bigger, the fireman will require more power from its en
gine and will ask the bucket man to provide the tank with a
higher flow. In other words, the bucket operator will fill his
container longer (ON time increases). BUT, since by expe
rience he keeps his working period constant, the time he
will spend in flushing into the tank will naturally diminish
(OFF time decreases), so will the amount of water poured.
The fire engine will run out of power, making the fireman
shout louder for more water, extending the filling time etc.
The loop oscillates! This behavior is typical for converters
in which the energy transfer is not direct (unlike the BUCK
derived families) and severely affects the overall dynamic
performances. In time domain, a large step load increase
requires a corresponding percentage rise of the inductor
current. This necessitates a temporary dutycycle augmen
tation which (with only two operational states) causes the
diode conduction time to diminish. Therefore, it implies a
decrease in the average diode current at first, rather than an
increase as desired. When heavily into the continuous mode
and if the inductor current rate is small compared to the cur
rent level, it can take many cycles for the inductor current to
reach the new value. During this time, the output current is
actually reduced because the diode conduction time (TOFF)
has been decreased, even if the peak diode current is rising.
In DCM, by definition, a third state is present whether nei
ther the diode or the switch conduct and the inductor current
is null. This “idle time” allows the switch duty cycle to
lengthen in presence of a step load increase without lower
ing the diode conduction time. In fact, it is possible for the
DCM circuit to adapt perfectly to a step load change of any
magnitude in the very first switching period, with the switch
conduction time, the peak current, and the diode conduction
time all increasing at once to the values that will be main
tained forevermore at the new load current.
The extra delay is mathematically described by a
Right HalfPlane Zero (RHPZ) in the transfer function
( Av
sz
·
− × ( ) ...
...
)
1 1
and forces the designer to rolloff the
loop gain at a point where the phase margin is still secure.
Actually, a classical zero in the Left HalfPlane
( Av
sz
·
+ × ( ) ...
...
)
1 1
provides a boost in gain AND phase
at the point it is inserted. Unfortunately, the RHPZ gives a
boost in gain, but lags the phase. More viciously, its posi
tion moves as a function of the load which makes its com
pensation an almost impossible exercise. Rollingoff the gain
well under the worse RHPZ position is the usual solution.
Let’s also point out that the lowfrequency RHPZ is only
present in FLYBACK type converters (BOOST, BUCK
BOOST) operating in CCM and moves to higherfrequen
cies (then becoming negligible) when the power supply en
ters DCM. The loop compensation becomes easier. For ad
ditional information, reference [1] gives an interesting ex
perimental solution to cure the BOOST from its lowfre
quency RHPZ.
How can I model my converter?
Two main solutions exist to carry AC and DC stud
ies upon a converter. The first one is the well known State
Space Averaging (SSA) method introduced by R. D.
MIDDLEBROOK and S. CÙK in 1976 [2] that leads to av
erage models. In the modeling process, a set of equations
describes the electrical characteristics of a switching sys
tem for the two stable positions of the switches, as figures
3a and b portrait for a BOOST type converter.
35
Power Specialist’ s
2
6
1
3
4
Vin
L
rL
Cesr
Cout
Rload
S2
S1
S1 closed, S2 open
7 8 11
12
L
rL
Cesr
Cout
Rload
Vin
9 10 13
14
L rL
Cesr
Cout
Rload
Vin
S1 open S2 closed
PWM
15 16 19
18
L rL
Cesr
Cout
Rload
Vin
A
P
C
PWM Switch Model Approach
State Space Average Approach
Figure 3a Figure 3b Figure 3c
In 1988, Vatché VORPERIAN, from Virginia Poly
technic Institute (VPEC), developed the concept of the Pulse
Width Modulation (PWM) switch model [4]. VORPERIAN
considered simply modeling the power switch alone, and
then inserting an equivalent model into the converter sche
matic, in exactly the same way as it is done when studying
the transfer function of a bipolar amplifier (figure 3c). With
his method, VORPERIAN demonstrated among other re
sults, that the flyback converter operating in DCM was still
a second order system, affected by highfrequency second
pole and RHPZ. An introduction to simulating with
VORPERIAN’s models is detailed in reference [5].
The Bode plot of the FLYBACK converter
From the previous works, the poles and zeroes of
converters operating in DCM and CCM have been extracted,
giving the designer the necessary insight to make a power
The SSA technique consists in smoothing the dis
continuity associated with the transition between these two
states, then deriving a model where the switching compo
nent has disappeared in favor of a unique state equation de
scribing the average behavior of the converter. The result is
a set of continuous nonlinear equations in which the state
coefficients now depend upon the duty cycles D and D’ (1
D). A linearization process will finally lead to a set of con
tinuous linear equations. The reader interested by an indepth
and pedagogical description of these methods will find all
the necessary information in MITCHELL’s book [3].
As one can see from figure 3, the SSA models the
converter in its entire electrical form. In other words, the
process should be carried over all the elements of the con
verter, including various in/out passive components. Depend
ing on the converter structure, the process can be very long
and complicated.
DCM CCM
1st order pole
2nd order pole
High frequency pole, see
reference [4]
Left HalfPlane Zero
Right HalfPlane Zero
High frequency RHPZ,see
reference [4]
Voutput/Vinput
DC Gain
Voutput/Verror
DC Gain
2
2 × × × π R C load out
( ) 1
2
−
× × ×
D
L C P out π
1
2 × × × π R C ESR out
R D
L D
load
P
× −
× × ×
( )² 1
2 π
1
2 × × × π R C ESR out
N D
R
L F
load
P SW
× ×
× × 2
D
D
N
( ) 1−
×
V
V
R
L F
input
SAW
load
P SW
×
× × 2
( )
V
V
V
V
input
SAW
output
input
× +
2
1
Table 1
36
SMPS Design
supply stable and reliable. The summary in Table 1, gives
their positions in function of the operating mode, and also
specifies the various gain definitions for a FLYBACK con
verter. For Table 1, F
SW
= switching frequency, V
SAW
=
sawtooth amplitude of the oscillator’s ramp, and L
P
= pri
mary inductance
The Bode plots can be generated in a multitude of
manual methods or in a more automated way by using a
powerful dedicated software such as POWER 456 [6]. We
have asked the program to design two 100kHz voltagemode
SMPS with equivalent output power levels, but operating in
different modes. The results are given below (figure 4), in
cluding the highfrequencies pole and RHPZ in DCM, as
described in [4].
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Frequency (Hz)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Frequency (Hz)
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
Continuous Conduction Mode (figure 4a)
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Frequency (Hz)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Frequency (Hz)
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
Discontinuous Conduction Mode (figure 4b)
From the above pictures, it is clear that the DCM
converter will require a simple doublepole single zero com
pensation network (type 2 amplifier), while a twopole two
zero type 3 amplifier appears to be mandatory to stabilize
the CCM converter. Furthermore, the CCM’s second order
pole moves in relationship to the duty cycle while the poles/
zeroes are fixed in DCM.
SPICE simulations of the converter
One can distinguish between two big families of
converter SPICE models, average and switching. The aver
age models implement either the SSA technique or the
VORPERIAN’s solution. Since no switching component is
associated with these models, they require a short computa
tional time and can work in AC or TRANSIENT analysis.
Some support large transient sweeps, while some only ac
cept smallsignal conditions. On the other side, switching
models are the SPICE reproduction of the breadboard world
and simulate the supply using the PWM controller you se
lected or the MOSFET model given by its manufacturer.
Both models have their own advantages: average models
simulate fast, but by definition, they cannot include leakage
energy spikes or parasitic noise effects. Switching models
take longer time to run because the simulator has to perform
a thin analysis (internal step reduction) during each commu
tation cycles but since parasitic elements can be included,
they allow the designer to dive into the nittygritty of the
converter under study. Reference [7] will guide you in case
you would like to write a switching model yourself.
SPICE models are available from several sources,
but INTUSOFT (SanPedro, CA), the IsSpice4 editor, has
recently released his new SMPS library which gathers nu
merous average and switching models. Among these mod
els, we will describe a very simple and accurate model which
has been developed by SamBENYAAKOV from Ben
Gurion university (ISAREL). This model converges well and
finds its DC point alone. Finally, it allows AC simulations
as well as large signal sweeps. The netlist is given below:
**** Sam BENYAAKOV FLYBACK’s Model ****
.SUBCKT FLYBACK DON IN OUT GND {FS=??? L=???
+ N=???}
BGIN IN GND I=I(VLM)*V(DON)/(V(DON)+V(DOFF))
BELM OUT1 GND V=V(IN)*V(DON)V(OUT)*V(DOFF)/{N}
RM OUT1 5 1M
LM 5 8 {L}
VLM 8 GND
BGOUT GND OUT I=I(VLM)*V(DOFF)/{N}/
+ (V(DON)+V(DOFF))
VCLP VC 0 9M
D2 VC DOFF DBREAK
D1 DOFF 6 DBREAK
R4 DOFF 7 10
BDOFFM 6 GND V=1V(DON)9M
BDOFF 7 GND V=2*I(VLM)*{FS}*{L}/V(DON)/
+ V(IN)V(DON)
.MODEL DBREAK D (TT=1N CJO=10P N=0.01)
.ENDS
37
Power Specialist’ s
The implementation of the model is really straight
forward, as demonstrated by figure 5a schematic which
shows the converter we already dimensioned with the help
of POWER 456.
20.0000U 60.0000U 100.0000U 140.000U 180.000U
12.0400
12.0200
12.0000
11.9800
11.9600
Vout
Time
Without FeedForward
With FeedForward
Figure 5b
10 100 1K 10K 100K
50.0000
70.0000
90.0000
110.000
130.000
Without FeedForward
With FeedForward
dB
Hz
Figure 5c
These kind of SPICE circuits let you immediately
check the parameters of interest without sacrificing your time
in watching the machine computing! The audio susceptibil
ity is delivered in a snap shot, as figure 5b portraits. Adding
a bit of feedforward with a simple source in series with X5’s
output (500U*V(1)) gives you, as expected, a better behav
ior . The transient response to an input step does not take
longer, as figure 5c depicts (10V input step) for both of the
previous conditions.
4
3
5 6
2 7
1
8
R1
100M
V7
AC = 1
X9
XFMR
C7
1KF
L2
1kH
V1
330
R13
5
C1
500u
Verror
GAIN
11
X5
GAIN
9
V4
2.5V
R7
4.22k
R8
1.11k
DON GND
OUT IN
X6
FLYBACK
C5
2.7nF
10
C6
4nF
R2
20k
Voutput
Figure 5a
It is interesting to temporarily open the loop and
conduct AC simulations in order to isolate the error ampli
fier in AC and let you adjust the compensation network un
til the specifications are met. The fastest way to open the
loop is to include an LC network as depicted in the above
schematic (L2C7). The inductive element maintains the DC
error level such that the output stays at the required value.
But it stops any AC error signal that would close the loop.
The C element gives an AC signal injection thus allowing a
normal AC sweep. To do so, let L2 1kH and C7 1kF. In the
opposite sense, run a TRANSIENT by decreasing L2 to 1nH
and C7 to 1pF. This method presents the advantage of an
automatic DC duty cycle adjustment and allows you to
quickly modify the output parameter without tweaking the
duty source at every change.
The error amplifier model is directly derived from
the specifications given by the controller’s datasheets you
selected. A simplified macromodel can be built and simu
lated as refererence [7] details. You can also directly in
clude a full detailed component to highlight the impact of
its key parameters upon the supply under study (slewrate
etc.). X5 subcircuit simulates the gain introduced by the
PWM modulator. You can see it as a box converting a DC
voltage (the error amplifier voltage) into a duty cycle D.
The average models accept up to 1 volt as a duty cycle con
trol voltage (D=100%). Generally, the IC’s oscillator
sawtooth can swing up to 3 or 4 volts, thus forcing the inter
nal PWM stage to deliver the maximum duty cycle when the
error amplifier reaches this value. To account for the 1 volt
maximum input of our average models, the insertion of an
attenuator with 1/V
SAW
ratio after the error amplifier output
is mandatory. For example, if the sawtooth amplitude of the
integrated circuit we use is 2.5VPP, then the ratio will be: 1/
2.5=0.4.
38
SMPS Design
A critical mode controller
As we saw, keeping your SMPS in the discontinu
ous mode will let you to design the compensation network
in a more easy way. It will also ensure a stable and reliable
behavior as long as you stay in the discontinuous area. How
can you be sure to stay in DCM, regardless the load span
you apply at the output?? Two solutions: a) you calculate L
P
in order to always stay in DCM, but you assume to know all
load conditions. b) you permanently adjust the switching
frequency to stay DCM, whatever the load is. This last solu
tion has been adopted in the MC33364 from MOTOROLA
(Tempe, AZ). The critical conduction controller ensures a
switch turn on immediately after the primary current has
dropped to zero. In this case, you do no longer worry about
the values your load will take since the controller tunes its
frequency to keep the SMPS in DCM. The stability is then
guaranted over the full load range.
Am I critical?
To answer this question, the controller needs to
know the level of the primary current. The most economical
solution exploits the signal delivered by the auxiliary wind
ing. When this one has fallen to zero, an internal set is deliv
ered to the latch, initiating a new cycle. In case the
synchronisation signal would be lost, or when using the IC
in a standalone application, an internal watchdog timer re
starts the converter if the driver’s output stays off more than
400µs after the inductor current has reached zero.
Output switching frequency clamp
As we already said, the system adjusts its frequency
to maintain the DCM. However, in absence of load, the op
erational frequency can shift to high values, engendering
unacceptable switching losses and making the design of the
EMI filter a difficult task. To circumvent this intrinsic prob
lem, the designers of the IC have added an internal frequency
clamp whose function is to limit the maximum excursion.
The MC33364 is thus declined in two versions including or
not the clamping capability: 33364D and D1 limit to 126kHz
the upper value of the switching frequency, while the
33364D2 does not host this feature.
Good riddance startup resistor!
The majority of offline SMPS are self supplied. A
startup resistor charges a bulk capacitor until the IC’s
undervoltage limit is reached. While the bulk capacitor volt
age begins to decrease, the circuit starts to actuate the switch
ing transistor and the auxiliary supply feeds the controller
back through the rectifier. But once the steadystate level is
reached, the startup resistor is still there and wastes some
substantial energy in heat. In low power SMPS, you hunt
down any source of wasted power to raise the overall effi
ciency at an acceptable value. Figure 6 shows the method
MOTOROLA has implemented in the 33364 to quash the
startup element.
1
DC_rail
4
Auxiliary Winding Bulk capacitor
Current Source
+

5
IC_Vcc
15/7.6
Figure 6
It works as follow: when the mains is first applied to the
converter, the MOSFET charges up the bulk capacitor until
the voltage on its pins reaches the startup threshold of 15V.
At this time, the MOSFET opens and the circuit operates by
itself.
A low partcount converter
The 33364 has been specifically designed to save
a maximum of parts. Figure 7 illustrates this will for an
economical 12W AC/DC wall adapter.
The leakage energy spike is clipped by the R5C5 network
whose second function is to smooth the rising drain voltage,
correspondingly limiting the radiated noise. This last fea
ture is unfortunately no longer valid when you use a clip
ping circuit made of a fast rectifier and a zener diode. The
circuit’s sensitivity to the noise present on the sense resistor
is largely diminished by the implementation of a leading edge
blanking network. This system blanks the starting portion
of the primary rampup current which can be the seat of
spurious spikes: a resonance with the parasitic interwind
ing capacitors and the ON gatesource current.
Since every current mode converter are inherently
unstable over a certain dutycycle value, it can be wise to
add some current ramp compensation even in DCM, as Ray
RIDLEY demonstrated in the 90’s [8]. How can you pro
vide the 33364 sense input with some ramp to since no os
cillator pinout is available? Figure 8 shows a possible solu
tion by integrating the driver’s output. The resulting linear
ramp will add to the sense information, thus stabilizing the
converter. You can also adopt this method in other cases,
even when the oscillator’s ramp is available. The integrator
solution prevents the internal oscillator to be externally
loaded which in certain circumstances can lead to erratic
behaviors.
39
Power Specialist’ s
1
3
6
5
Driver
Sense
R
C
Radd
From coil
Figure 8
References
1. Elimination of the Positive Zero in Fixed Frequency Boost
and Flyback Converters, D. M. SABLE, B. H. CHO, R. B.
RIDLEY, APEC, March 1990
2. R. D. MIDDLEBROOK and S. CUK, “A general Unified
Approach to Modeling Switching Converter Power Stages”,
IEEE PESC, 1976 Record, pp 1834
3. D. M. MITCHELL, “DCDC Switching Regulators Analysis”,
distributed by e/j BLOOM Associates (http://
www.ejbloom.com).
4. Vatché VORPERIAN, “Simplified Analysis of PWM Convert
ers Using The Model of The PWM Switch, Parts I (CCM) and
II (DCM)”, Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics Sys
tems, Vol. 26, N°3, May 1990
5. C.BASSO, “A tutorial introduction to simulating current mode
power stages”, PCIM October 97
6. Ridley Engineering home page: http://members.aol.com/
ridleyeng/index.html
7. C. BASSO, “Write your own generic SPICE Power Supplies
controller models, part I and II”, PCIM April/May 97
8. R. B. RIDLEY, “A new smallsignal model for currentmode
control“, PhD. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University, 1990 (email: RRIDLEY@AOL.COM)
MC33364
1
2
3
4 5
6
7
8
IC1
R1
2.2
R2
10
R3
22k
R4
56
Q1
MTD1N60E
D1
1N4148
+ C1
20µF
C2
100nF
+ C3
10µF/350V
IC2
MOC8102
R5
91k C5
1nF
D3
MURS160T3
D4
MBRS340T3
+
C6
330µF/10V
6
1
8
IC3
TL431C
R6
430
R9
27k
C7
10nF
C8
330pF
6.0V@2A
R10
1.2k
92 to 270 VAC
EMI
Filter
Figure 7
40
SMPS Design
(310) 8330710 Fax (310) 8339658
Copyright © Intusoft, All Rights Reserved
Personal Computer Circuit Design Tools
March 1993 Issue
I n t u s o f t N e w s l e t t e r
Simulating SMPS Designs
he ubiquitous personal computer has made a mess of office
power mains. Its characteristic cosine shaped power pulse
requires 75% more current carrying capacity than is necessary.
Moreover, the turnon surge is so large that it can cause operational
glitches in other equipment. Government regulations will soon force
power supply designers to correct this problem. In this article, we will
explore some of the design concepts for power factor friendly switched
mode power supplies, SMPS. Our motivation here is to show how
IsSPICE can be used as a high level design tool to explore concepts and
develop design requirements before beginning the detailed design
phase.
First, let's look at the problem. To begin with, the power line impedance
must be modeled. With the topology shown in Figure 1, we don't expect
the component values to affect current very much, however, the
voltage distortion is totally dependent on this configuration. The short
circuit impedance was estimated to be equally divided between
resistive and inductive components. The high frequency impedance
T
Exploring SMPS Designs Using IsSpice
Average Models For Switching Converter Design
Larry Meares, Charles Hymowitz
Excerpts from the March 1993 Intusoft Newsletter #29
41
Power Specialist’ s
Exploring SMPS Designs Using ISSPICE
continued
from page 1
Figure 1, Rectifier circuit showing typical SMPS startup transient. Current is 3.7A
RMS, 37A Peak with the peak output ripple at about 5% of the average output voltage.
2
3
1
5.00M 15.0M 25.0M 35.0M 45.0M
TIME in Secs
200
0
200
400
600
V
L
O
A
D
/
V
I
N
(
W
F
M
.
1
/
W
F
M
.
2
)
i
n
V
o
l
t
s
50.0
30.0
10.00
10.00
30.0
I
S
(
W
F
M
.
3
)
i
n
A
m
p
s
was approximated to be that of free space, hence the choice for
the capacitance and the inductor damping. The model could be
made more accurate by using test data for a specific case; but the
current waveform will not change much and hence the power
factor calculation will not be seriously affected by the approxima
tion used here.
The circuit topology of most offline SMPS uses a full wave
capacitorrectifier with some soft start provisions, mainly to pre
vent component damage at startup. The detailed circuit is shown
in Figure 1. The graph illustrates the effect of this circuitry on input
power along with the capacitorrectifier voltage. Power factor is
defined as the product of the RMS current and voltage divided by
the average input power delivered to a circuit. For this circuit; the
following measurements were made using INTUSCOPE, a SPICE
V1
SIN
D3
DN4004
R1 .25
V(3)
VLOAD
I(V1)
IS
C1
300U
R2
97
E1
1
V(4)
VIN
R3
.1
L1 670U
X1
SWITCH
C2
5N
V2
PULSE
R4 300
6
10
2 3 8
4
5
1
9
power line impedance
Circuit Name:
RECT
2
1 3
42
SMPS Design
1
2
10.0M 30.0M 50.0M 70.0M 90.0M
TIME in Secs
10.00
30.0
50.0
70.0
90.0
V
O
U
T
(
W
F
M
.
2
)
i
n
V
o
l
t
s
4.00
0
4.00
8.00
12.0
I
S
(
W
F
M
.
1
)
i
n
A
m
p
s
data post processing program:
Iin=3.68 ARMS Vin=120 VRMS
Pavg=263 Watts Power Factor = .596
The voltage, VLOAD, in Figure 1, is the unregulated input to the
switched mode power regulator. Notice that the peak ripple is
about 5% of the average voltage. The regulator must remove this
ripple along with other line and load variations.
The object of a power factor correction circuit is to force the input
current to be sinusoidally varying and in phase with the input
voltage. The input power will then be pulsating at a frequency of
twice the input voltage ranging from zero to twice the average
input power. The output voltage and current, on the other hand,
must be constant. Therefore, it is necessary to provide reactive
elements to store power which can later be used when the input
power is less than required.
To accomplish this, the circuit shown in Figure 2 uses a buck
boost regulator to control the input current at a desired level. In this
Figure 2, BuckBoost regulator using the
Intusoft PWM switch model developed
independently by Meares [4] and
Vorperian [6]. Graph shows the output
voltage and input current. See page 12
for references.
V1
SIN
D3
DN4004
R1 .25
E1
1E4
X3
MUL
R5 10K
V2
H2
V2
V(7)
VOUT
I(V2)
IIN
R4 100K
V(15)
VIN
C3
300U
R9
30
R10
100
C4
.22U
I(V5)
IL
V(9)
VY
V(8)
VX
X4 RLIMIT
C5 .1P
I(V1)
IS
V(1)
VMOD
L2
2M
10
4
2 15 12
7
3
1
8
13
6
9
14
5
Circuit Name:
PFCOR
PWM Switch
2 1
43
Power Specialist’ s
circuit, the pulse width modulator model from the Intusoft library,
called PWM, is connected in the buckboost configuration. To
learn more about using this model and review the various PWM
topologies, see the article entitled “Average Models For Switching
Converter Design” in this newsletter. Here, we will show why the
buckboost configuration has excellent control characteristics for
input current.
In Figure 2, the input current is compared with a signal propor
tional to the rectified input (V(15)) and the resulting error signal
(VMOD) is used to control the PWM switch. Notice the use of the
limiting resistor (Rlimit) in the error amplifier. This was previously
discussed in depth in the September 1992 newsletter. This type
of limiter converges and performs better than hard limiters created
with Tabletype functions. The resulting waveforms show excel
lent control of the power factor and startup current. The power
factor, as measured using INTUSCOPE, is 1.0. The output voltage
magnitude is lower than that of the capacitorrectifier circuit and
the percent ripple has increased from 5% to 15%.
So far we haven't addressed the output regulator. Ideally, the
output regulator is a constant power device as is our input
regulator. With this configuration we will be using a constant
current source to drive a constant current load; therefore, the
voltage at the output of our first stage will be difficult to control.
Also, the transfer function from input to output will contain those
dreaded right half plane zeros, causing problems in designing a
responsive controller.
If we select a buck regulator for the second stage, then feedback
can be used to control the input current such that the second PWM
controller has a 50% duty cycle. If this control loop is very fast,
then, the ripple will distort the input current. On the other hand, if
it is too slow, the second stage may be presented with too high or
too low an input voltage. To overcome these conflicts, the input
current requirement can be estimated based on the output power
and input voltage. For example, IS ∗ Vs= k ∗ Vset ∗ Ireq; where:
IS = Input current Vs = Input voltage
Vset = Desired output voltage Ireq = Required output current
Vout = Output voltage Iout = Output current
k = Efficiency
then, IS = k ∗ Vset ∗ Ireq/ Vin
however, Ireq = Vset / Rload
and Rload = Vout / Iout
finally giving IS = k ∗ Vset ∗ Vset ∗ Iout / (Vout ∗ Vin )
Several simplifications can be made. First, Vin is assumed to be
a constant since it won't vary by more then 15%. Next, since the
division by VLOAD may be costly, we should investigate the
consequence of making it a constant. The schematic in Figure 3
shows the complete two regulator circuit along with the control
44
SMPS Design
mechanism we just discussed. Figure 4 shows the performance
comparison when the Vout division is removed. The startup is
somewhat slower, however, the slight performance degradation
is not objectionable. Power factor, as measured using INTUSCOPE,
was .991. The duty cycle control provided by amplifier E3 makes
up for variation in efficiency with load and changes in input
voltage. Its authority is limited to 20% of the total control range.
This limit will be adjusted as the design progresses as will the
compensation component values.
Overall, we have produced a solid framework for an initial design.
The next step is to add the input and output noise filters and
finalize the compensation circuitry. Then, the power components
can be sized based on the currents and voltages found in this
V1
DC D3
DN4004
R1 .5
V2
H1
V2
I(V2)
IIN
L1
2M
V3
C1
300U
E1
1E4
R2 100K
V(28)
VMOD
R3 100K
V(13)
VX
C2
1000P
V(25)
VY
V(15)
VOUT
V(3)
VIN
R4
47
C3
.47U
I(V4)
IO I(V9)
IS
A
B
K*A*B
R6
10K
E2
10K V6
50
C4 100P
V(22)
VMOD2
R7
10
R8 10K
V(26)
VLOAD
E3
10K
R9
100K
R10
100K
V7
.5
V(12)
VCNTRL
R11
500K C6 .01U
V8
E4
10K
R12 10K
R13 10K
V(18)
VCNTRLX
B2
V= 90 * (I(V8) + .01) / (1  V(26))
K = 0.002
Limit = + 1 Volt
Limited from 0 to 15 Volts
Limited from .05 to .95 Volts
Limited from 0 to .95 Volts
I1
PULSE
B3
V= 1.8 * (I(V8) + .01)
E5
1
R14 .25
L2
670U
C7
5N
R15 300
V(6)
VS
1
33
2 3 38 4
14
7
8
9
10
15
28 13 25
16
12
19
57
22
11 21
26
18 17
5
23
27
20
24
6
37 29
simulation. It is important to extract the maximum information from
the continuous time model because the actual switched model
simulation will run hundreds of times slower. The complete
expanded two regulator circuit (PCOR5) is contained on the
newsletter floppy disk. Due to space limitations, the final design
is discussed in sections. The results are substantially the same as
those shown in Figure 4. The power factor is still above 99%
although some waveform distortion is beginning to creep in
because capacitors were added at the input for noise filtering.
The compensation scheme is interesting, especially the outer
loop that is used to adjust the output regulator head room. The
loop gain for this section is shown in Figure 5 and the schematic
Figure 3, The
schematic of a
complete two
regulator circuit
using a BuckBoost
input regulator and
Buck output
regulator. The
element B2 (lower
right) can be
swapped with B3
(lower center) at
node 20 in order to
investigate the
effects of division
by VLOAD.
Circuit Name: PCOR3
45
Power Specialist’ s
Figure 4, Comparison between controllers with and without VLOAD division
reveals minimal differences.
of the compensation circuitry for this loop is shown in Figure 6.
Notice the technique for making closed loop frequency response
measurements. A voltage source is inserted at the point we wish
to "cut" the loop, in this case V2. The circuit is excited using only
this voltage source. The gain is the difference in the log of the
magnitudes and the phase is the difference in phase at each side
of the voltage source, VINOL and VOUTOL. The exciting signal
must only come from the source we inserted, otherwise the
voltages on either side will contain an additional component,
making the gain and phase calculations wrong. Capacitor C3 is
used to shape the startup current. If it were to be removed, start
up would be fasted; however, the startup surge current would be
larger. If your final input regulator has current limiting, then this
capacitor would be unnecessary.
The output regulator, shown in Figure 7, uses a "poor mans" form
of current feedback in order to extend loop bandwidth past the L1
Figure 5, Frequency response of the outer loop head room regulator
(VINOL/VOUTOL).
1
2
10 100 1K 10K
FREQUENCY in Hz
40.0
40.0
120
200
280

R
e
s
u
l
t
o
f
V
I
N
O
L
(
W
F
M
.
2
)
i
n
d
B
(
V
o
l
t
s
)
60.0
60.0
180
300
420

R
e
s
u
l
t
o
f
V
P
(
3
4
)
(
W
F
M
.
1
)
i
n
D
e
g
3
5
2
4
1
20.0M 60.0M 100M 140M 180M
TIME in Secs
60.0
20.0
20.0
60.0
100.0
V
O
U
T
/
V
L
O
A
D
(
W
F
M
.
1
/
W
F
M
.
2
)
i
n
V
o
l
t
s
2.00
2.00
6.00
10.00
14.0
I
S
(
W
F
M
.
4
)
i
n
A
m
p
s
VCNTRL
VLOAD
w/Vload Div.
w/o Vload Div.
IS
2
1 4
2 1
46
SMPS Design
Figure 6, Head room regulator section showing
the compensation circuitry and technique for calculating a closed loop response.
E1
10K
R3
25K
R4
25K
V1
.5
V(8)
VOUTCNTR
R5
500K
C1
.1U
E2
10K
R6
10K
R7
10K
B1
V=
C2 6000P
V2
AC
V(11)
VINOL
V(4)
VOUTOL
V(13)
VINCNTRL
C3 .15U
X1
PWM
E1
10K
C1 .03U
V(4)
VMOD2
R1
10
V(9)
VLOAD
I1
PULSE
L1 100U
C2
300U
R2
.1
V2
V(3)
VMOD2IN
R3
10K
R4
10K
V3
50
E2
10K
R5
10K
R6
1MEG
R7 10K
E3
1
V4
V(15)
VLOADIN
C3
300P
X3 RLIMIT
V8
Figure 7, The output stage regulator section. The loop is broken at VLOADIN and V4
is inserted as the AC stimulus source.
C2 resonance. Current feedback is established by integrating the
voltage across L1 using amplifier E1. The voltage at test point
VLOAD should also be summed, however, it is approximately a
constant and was omitted to reduce complexity. The VLOAD
VLOADIN loop response is shown in Figure 8. In order to help the
AC analyses converge rapidly, a .NODESET statement was
inserted in order to set the output to 5mV for the DC analysis. The
limiters using RLIMIT elements force reasonable operating ranges
and also act to aid convergence. Rlimit is made with the new “If
ThenElse” behavioral feature in ISSPICE3. Generic parameters
include Vmax, Rval, Vmin, and Rmin.
47
Power Specialist’ s
Figure 8, The VLOADVLOADIN loop response for the buck output regulator section.
The final stabilization and filtering is shown for the input regulator
section in Figure 9, with Figure 10 showing the results. In this loop
(VMODVMODIN), we see the major resonant peaks from the
input regulator at 100 Hz and the input filter at 2KHz.
V1
DC D3
DN4004
R1 .5 V2
H1
V2
I(V2)
IIN
V3
C1
300U
E1
1E4
R2 100K
V(15)
VMOD
R3 100K
V(16)
VX
C2
1000P
V(13)
VY
V(14)
VOUT
V(3)
VIN
R4
.05
C3
2.2U
I(V4) IO
I(V5)
IS
E4
1
R10
.25
L2
670U
C5
5N
R11 300
V(32)
VS
V6
L3
100U
C6
2.2U
R12
5
C8
.22U
V(11)
VMODIN
L1
1
8
2 3 4 5 6
21
10
12
11 9
14
15 16 13
18
19
22
32
33 34
35
While the design is by no means complete, we are confident that
the topologies, filters, and control loops are all realizable. It's clear
that initialization of the regulators, particularly in relation to house
keeping power turn on must be kept in mind as the design
progresses. Selection of the “best” pulse width modulator technol
ogy will further refine the control loops. Schematic and SPICE
netlists for the circuits shown here, and for switching models of
various regulators that can be utilized along with the PWM switch,
are included on the newsletter floppy disk. The designs presented
here are geared to a 50KHz chopper frequency for the input
regulator and 100200 KHz for the output regulator. Changing
these frequencies will affect performance and require revisiting
the control loop design.
2
1
10 100 1K 10K
FREQUENCY in Hz
180
120
60.0
0
60.0
P
h
a
s
e
(
W
F
M
.
1
)
i
n
D
e
g
120
80.0
40.0
0
40.0
G
a
i
n
(
W
F
M
.
2
)
i
n
d
B
(
V
o
l
t
s
)
1 2
Figure 9, The BuckBoost input
regulator section.
1
IS
48
SMPS Design
2
1
10 100 1K 10K
FREQUENCY in Hz
180
120
60.0
0
60.0
P
h
a
s
e
(
W
F
M
.
1
)
i
n
D
e
g
120
80.0
40.0
0
40.0
G
a
i
n
(
W
F
M
.
2
)
i
n
d
B
(
V
o
l
t
s
)
Figure 10, The VLOADVLOADIN loop response for the input regulator section.
The mathematical basis for modeling switching regulators was
established by Middlebrook using statespace average tech
niques [1]. The implementation using SPICE elements was ini
tially done by Keller [2] and Bello [3] with further enhancements by
Meares [4] and Vorperian [6]. The resulting “PWM switch” model
can be used for DC, AC small signal, and large signal time domain
simulations. The basic PWM model is simply an electrically
variable turns ratio DC transformer, hence the pictorial represen
tation. The duty cycle control has two inputs allowing a differential
control voltage. It has been shown to provide excellent experi
mental correlation, even in the neighborhood of the Nyquist
frequency (usually 1/2 the switching frequency). In fact, it is
possible to predict re
sponse past the Nyquist
frequency by adding a zero
order hold element. But we
all know enough to keep
our control system band
widths well below the
Nyquist frequency in order
to avoid modal nonlineari
ties. The BuckBoost and
Cuk topologies offer the ca
pability to convert the input
voltage to an output volt
age ranging from nearly
zero to substantially greater
than the input voltage. Both
topologies, in the trans
formerless configuration,
produce the opposite po
larity output voltage from
Vin
Vout
Vin
Vout
L3
1M
V(1)
VIN
V(4)
VCNT
V(3)
VOUT
Vin
V
Vin
Vout
Buck Boost
1
Vin
Vout
1
6
4
3
Vout
Figure 11, Real, switching,
averaged model configurations for
the Buck and Boost power stages.
Average Models For Switching Converter Design
1 2
Average Models For Switching Converter Design
49
Power Specialist’ s
the input voltage. Since
most converters will incor
porate transformer isolation
within their topology, the
polarity inversion is usually
not significant.
The duty ratio is defined as
the period the PWM switch
is turned on divided by the
switching period. When
forcing switching in both di
rections, the distinction gets
a bit blurred. It is frequently
necessary to replace the
duty ratio, D, with its in
verse, that is Di=1  D (Fig
11 right bottom), which is
the time the opposite switch
is on divided by the switch
ing period. For the AC
analysis, this will shift phase
by 180˚. In the real world, of
course you will have to de
termine the control range
and polarity of your PWM in
order to account for the
scaling and polarity differ
ences between your circuit
and the simulation.
There are 4 basic power supply topologies; Buck, Boost, Buck
Boost and Cuk. The most familiar is the Buck regulator. It takes an
input voltage from a power source and chops it into a series of
pulses. The pulsating voltage is then smoothed using an inductor
to produce an average output voltage which is the product of the
duty ratio and the input voltage. A typical Buck regulator is shown
in Figure 11 using bipolar components. Notice that we always
associate one reactive, averaging element with each topology. In
the first 3 topologies we are concerned with voltage transforma
tion and allow ripple currents; while the dual CUK topology (Figure
12), transforms current and allows ripple voltage. All 4 topologies
require additional filtering at the input and output to make a
practical power supply. The Boost configuration shown in Figure
11 is quite different in appearance when viewed as a set of bipolar
components; however, when replaced with a “forced” PWM
switch representation, it is simply a Buck regulator with the input
and the output reversed. Representing each of these configura
The Basic Power Supply Topologies
Vin
Vout
Vin
Vout
L3
1M
V(2)
VIN
V(4)
VOUT
V(3)
VCNT
BuckBoost Cuk
Iin Iout
Iin Iout
Iin Iout
Vcontrol
I(V4)
IOUT
2 6
5
3
4
C1 1U
VCNTRL
DC
R1
50
L1
2M
L2
2M
R2 .01
V(5) VOUT
I(V1)
IIN
C2 100U R3 30
10 9 4
2
1 5
7
Cuk
Regulator
Figure 12, Real, switching and averaged configura
tions for the BuckBoost and Cuk power stages. Actual
Cuk regulator with external parts shown below right.
50
SMPS Design
tions using "forced" switching is the same as restricting them to
continuous conduction of current in the reactive element. It turns
out that this assumption is valid over most operating points of the
power electronics we design. This is a very important consider
ation for simulation because the computational complexity is
dramatically increased when discontinuous conduction must be
simulated. For the Buck regulator, this occurs at light load; in fact
with no load at all the Buck regulator with free wheeling switch
commutation fails to provide any regulation, making output and
input voltages equal for duty ratios approaching zero. Clearly this
condition must be solved in your circuit design, usually with some
kind of bleed load; even a status light would work. The point is that
the discontinuous conduction region is generally avoided and the
continuous conduction region is frequently extended using non
linear inductors. While Intusoft and the enclosed newsletter floppy
provide models capable of transitioning this region[1], we strongly
recommend using the continuous model, at least for initial design
tradeoff's.
The PWM switch is a versatile element that allows simulation of
the majority of features of switching regulators. Its use is essential
for performing effective simulations. The floppy disk, included for
newsletter subscribers (available to nonsubscribers for $20),
contains all of the schematics and SPICE circuit netlists in this
newsletter, plus models for switching regulators (SG1524, 25, 26,
and UA1846 taken from reference [10]). Models for the basic
PWM topologies, the PWM switch subcircuit, and an assortment
of over 50 models for high power components (Mosfets, BJTs,
diodes, SCRs, and IGBTs) are also included.
[1] R. Middlebrook and S. Cuk, "A General Unified Approach to Modeling Switching
Converter Power Stages", IEEE PESC, 1976, pp. 1834
[2] R. Keller, "Closedloop Testing and Computer Analysis Aid Design of Control
Systems", Electronic Design, Nov. 22 1978, pp. 132138
[3] V. Bello, "Computer Aided Analysis of Switching Regulators Using SPICE2",
IEEE PESC, 1980, pp. 311
[4] L. Meares, "New Simulation Techniques Using SPICE", IEEE APEC April 1986,
pp. 198205
[5] L. Meares, "Modeling Pulse Width Modulators", Intusoft Newsletter, August 1990
[6] V. Vorperian, "Nonlinear Modeling of the PWM Switch", IEEE Transactions on
Power Electronics, Vol. 4, #2, April 1989
[7] V. Vorperian, "Simplify Your PWM Converter Analysis Using The Model of The
PWM Switch", VPEC Current, Fall 1988
[8] V. Vorperian, "Simplify PWM Converter Analysis Using a PWM Switch Model",
PCIM March 1990 pp. 816
[9] L. Dixon, "Spice Simulation of Switching Power Supply Performance", Unitrode
Corp., 1991
[10] V. Bello, "Simulation of Switching Regulators Using SPICE2; A Collection of
Papers and Subcircuit Models", MetaSoftware, 1991
References [9, 10] describe many of the PWM models included on the newsletter
floppy disk and add many excellent regulator design examples.
51
Power Specialist’ s
(310) 8330710 Fax (310) 8339658
Copyright © Intusoft, All Rights Reserved
Personal Computer Circuit Design Tools
I n t u s o f t N e w s l e t t e r
Simulating SMPS Designs Simulating SMPS Designs Simulating SMPS Designs Simulating SMPS Designs Simulating SMPS Designs
#43 August 1995 Issue
Figure 1, Intusoft’s New Power Supply Designer’s Library allows you to simulate
forward converters like this one using the LT1243. See page 2 for more details.
L1
4MH
V3
350V
R2
15
C2
68UF
R3
2
V(16) VOUT
X5
XFMR
R6
45M
I(V6)
ILOAD
D1 DIODE
CP
FB
ISENS
RT/CT
VREF
VCC
OUT
GND
X7 LT1243
R8
2.8
V9
PULSE
R9 1K
C4
1NF
C5
4.7N
R10 3K
V(17)
VSENSE
R12 146K
C6 56P
R13
50K
R14
10K
V(28)
VERR
X9
PSW1
V(16)
VOUT
VERR
Tran
2.96
2.85
600U 550U time
VOUT
Tran
15.0
14.8
600U 550U time
ILOAD
Tran
1.00
985M
600U 550U time
VSENSE
Tran
545M
23.1M
600U 550U time
Simulating SMPS Designs
SSDI Diode Rectifier Models
High Efficiency StepDown Converter
Steve Sandler, Charles Hymowitz
Excerpts from the August 1995 Intusoft Newsletter #43
52
SMPS Design
Simulating SMPS Designs Simulating SMPS Designs Simulating SMPS Designs Simulating SMPS Designs Simulating SMPS Designs
In the June 1995 newsletter we introduced a new SPICE model
library for power supply designers. The library contains a
comprehensive set of nonlinear models for popular Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) ICs. Here we continue our review with a few
examples of what the models allow you to accomplish.
Applications today are much more demanding, requiring
increases in switching frequency, higher efficiency and lower
standby current. State space models simply do not reveal many
important factors which influence these performance
characteristics. As shown in Table 1, the models accurately
account for many characteristics including prop. delay,
switching speed, drive capability, and operating current.
The features included in the models allow you to directly
compare the performance of components from different
vendors. You can also analyze the effects of different
implementations such as peak current mode control, hysteretic
current control, low voltage and low operating current to name
a few. The new library has over 400 models:
The price of the Power Supply Designer’s Library is $395.
The models are compatible with ICAP/4 systems on DOS,
NEC, Windows, Macintosh and the Power Macintosh. ICAP/
4Lite and ICAP/4Lite Xtra systems must have the ISSPICE4
upgrade in order to run the new models.
Figure 2 shows a current mode converter example using the
Cherry CS322. The circuit uses hysteretic control, which is
different from constant frequency or constant off time control. In
constant frequency control, the instant of turnon is always
independent of the closed loop dynamics of the supply thereby
limiting its regulation performance. However, because
hysteretic control can change both edges of the switching
waveform to keep a constant inductor current hysteresis, it has
no mode on instabilities; no slope compensation is required. In
Figure 2, the load resistance was varied from 5Ω to 2.5Ω. The
• Models for various PWM ICs including those from Unitrode, Linear
Technology, Siliconix, and Cherry Semiconductor
• ‘Unified’ state space model for forward, and flyback converters
topologies plus state space models for several specific ICs
• Nonlinear Magnetic Cores and Transformers
• Power Mosfet Drivers
• Motor controller IC (UC1637)
• Power factor correction IC (UC1854)
Hysteretic CMC and Buck Regulators
53
Power Specialist’ s
UC1842/3/4/5 Model Performance Comparison
Parameter Condition Type Spec ISSPICE4
Reference
Output Voltage 1mA 5V 5V
Load Regulation 120mA 6mV 6.2mV
Oscillator Section
Initial Accuracy 52kHz 52.1kHz
Amplitude 1.7Vpp 1.72Vpp
Discharge Current Standard 10mA 9.8mA
Error Amplifier
Input Voltage 2.5V 2.5V
AVOL 90dB 89.1dB
Unity Gain Bandwidth 1mHz 1mHz
Output Sink Current 6mA 6.07mA
Output Source Current 0.8mA 0.8mA
Vout High 6V 5.64V
Vout Low 0.7V 0.72V
Current Sense
Gain 3V/V 3V/V
Maximum Input Signal 1V 1V
Delay To Output 150nS 151nS
Output Section
Output Low Level 20mA 0.1V 0.13V
200mA 1.5V 1.43V
Output High Level 20mA 13.5V 13.56V
200mA 13.5V 13.43V
Rise Time 50nS 35nS
Fall Time 50nS 50nS
Undervoltage Lockout
Start Threshold UC1842/4 16V 16V
UC1843/5 8.4V 8.4V
Min Operating after TurnOn UC1842/4 10V 10V
UC1843/5 7.6V 7.6V
PWM Section
Maximum Duty Cycle UC1842/4 97% 97%
UC1843/5 48% 49%
Minimum Duty Cycle 0% 0%
Total Standby Current
Startup Current UC1842/4 0.5mA 0.45mA
UC1843/5 0.5mA 0.51mA
Operating Current UC1842/4 11mA 11.1mA
UC1843/5 11mA 11.5mA
Table 1, The PWM models use a mixed mode modeling approach. They combine
switches, behavioral models, and logic gates in order to provide a full set of
features, simulation efficiency and excellent accuracy as shown above.
54
SMPS Design
Figure 2, The response to a
step change in the output load
of a 15V to 5V DCDC
converter using the Cherry CS322 Hysteretic Current mode controller. The
switching frequency is 300kHz.
CS322 simulates very quickly; the entire 300µs simulation took
only 181.9s on a Pentium/90 even with TMAX (maximum
timestep) limited to 200ns. Gear integration was used to speed
the simulation while Tmax was set to 200n in order to maintain
accuracy. In Figure 3 we see the result when the load is short
circuited by changing the switch resistance from 5Ω to 1mΩ in
1µs.
Figure 4 shows a 5Vto3V, 300mA, 1MHz buck regulator
example as described in the Siliconix Low Voltage DCtoDC
Converter design guide. The design uses the high speed
Si9145 switchmode controller and low onresistance (P
channel 20mΩ Si4435, Nchannel 100mΩ Si9952) Little Foot
®
power Mosfets. Traditionally, SMPS simulations, especially
with this level of detail, can take a long time to simulate. New
modeling techniques, however, have brought the simulation
1
3
2
180U 190U 200U 210U 220U
TIME in Secs
5.00
3.00
1.00
1.00
3.00
S
w
i
t
c
h
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
i
n
A
m
p
s
9.00
7.00
5.00
3.00
1.00
I
n
d
u
c
t
o
r
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
i
n
A
m
p
s
Figure 3, The
response to a short
circuiting of the load
2 3
VOUT (5V > 0V)
D2
DN5822
COMP
EA
SENSE+
SENSE GND
VO
VCC
DELTA I
X2
CS322
V3
15
V(10)
VCC
L1 30U
R1 .22
C1
390U
R2
.01
R4
10K
R5 150K
C2
470P
R6
10K
V(2)
SW
R7
100
C3
100P
V4
.4
V(9)
VOUT
V5
PULSE
X3
SWITCH
V(1)
Tran
4.01
678M
300U 0 time
I(L1)
Tran
2.23
555M
300U 0 time
VOUT
Tran
5.02
4.83
300U 0 time
2
1
12
13
9
11
10
7
8
15
5
3
1
3
55
Power Specialist’ s
VDD
MODE
DMAX
COMP
FB
NI
REF
GND ROSC
COSC
OTS
ENABLE
UVLO
PGND
OUT
VS
X1
SI9145
C2 .1UF
R4
100
R6 1K
C5
.1UF
R3
3.32K
C3
.01U R5
9.09K
C11
100P
V1
5
R11
10K
R2
10K
L1 4.7UH
R8
6.81K
R7
221
C8
2200P
R9
6.81K
C7
100N
C6
2.2UF
V(14)
VOUT
C10
10PF
V(13) VCHOKE
V(15)
VGATE
C1
2.2UF
V(7)
VOSC
I(L1)
Tran
2.29
1.38
75.0U 0 time
8395
1:37:51
VOUT
Tran
3.37
161M
75.0U 0 time
8395
1:37:25
1
4
5
2
9
6
7
8
10
12
15
3
13
14
16
Thanks to Steve Sandler, Analytical Engineering (602) 8907191 for his
contributions to this article and the Power Supply Library. Steve is a design
consultant specializing in SMPS simulation, modeling, and design.
1 2
3
Figure 5, Close up view of the buck
regulator switching waveforms.
Si4435
Si9145
D4
SSR
8045
Figure 4, Startup transient
of a buck regulator using the
Siliconix Si9145.
time down. This simulation (.tran 50n 75n 0 10n) takes only
450s on a 486/25. Starting the simulation presented some
problems. The .tran UIC keyword is used to initialize the internal
logic in the 9145. Unless the VDD capacitors (C1/C2) are
initialized with ICs (IC=5V) the VDD pin will start low and ramp
to 5V and the switching action will not begin.
New Simulation Tutorial Book for SMPS Designers
For those interested in pursing more indepth SMPS simulation
techniques and modeling, Intusoft will be releasing a book on
the subject entitled “SMPS Simulating with SPICE 3” in the
near future. Stay tuned to the newsletter for more information.
Si9952
56
SMPS Design
T
h
e
I
n
t
u
s
o
f
t
M
o
d
e l i n g Co r n e r
In this edition of the modeling corner we present models from
SSDI and Intusoft Tech support. The Intusoft Newsletter
subscription disk contains new models from Analog Devices,
plus the models applicable to the switching converter example
in Figure 10; a TL431 voltage reference, over 100 TIP Power
BJT models, and a number of schottky diodes. Over 40 Asian
Pacific BJT and FET models are also included.
.MODEL SRM1UF D (IS=4.9E5 RS=.77M N=2.45 TT=65.6N BV=303.5
+IBV=100U M=.252 CJO=669.7P VJ=.75 XTI=4) ; 100V 20A
.MODEL SRM3UF D (IS=9.7E5 RS=.74M N=2.78 TT=65.6N BV=486
+IBV=100U M=.102 CJO=211.1P VJ=.75 XTI=4) ; 300V 20A
.MODEL SRM5 D (IS=.0210 N=7.5 RS=.71M TT=1.344E7 BV=1111
+IBV=100U M=.348 CJO=467.4P VJ=.75 XTI=28) ; 500V 20A
.MODEL SRM6UF D (IS=59.6M RS=.63M N=11.5 TT=129.2N BV=1237
+IBV=100U M=.410 CJO=709.1P VJ=.75 XTI=58) ; 600V 20A
.MODEL SRM5SOFT D (IS=4.95E7 RS=1.1M N=1.96 TT=11.52U BV=1128
+IBV=100U M=.39 CJO=678.3P VJ=.75 XTI=4) ; 500V 20A
.MODEL SSR8045 D (IS=26M RS=3.57M N=2 BV=50 IBV=5M
+CJO=2.86N VJ=.75 M=.333 TT=14.4P ; 45V 40A
.MODEL SDR937 D(IS=8.359E6 N=2.458 RS=1.93M CJO=600P M=0.6 VJ=0.34
+ IBV=100U BV=674 TT=30N EG=1.15) ; 700V 100A
Figure 9,
SSDI has
created
several
new
ISSPICE4
diode
models for
their line of
power
devices.
Solid State Devices Inc. (Irvine, CA, (714) 6707734) has
created models of their SRMx, SDR937, and SSR8045 (0.4V
drop @ 20A) power diodes. SSDI specializes in Power
semiconductors. The SPICE model netlists are shown in Figure
9. The diode models were made using average measurements
from 10 randomly selected parts of each type. More models are
forthcoming and will be available on future Intusoft Newsletter
floppies for subscribers.
How Accurate Are The Models?
The accuracy of the models is controlled by the SPICE
parameters. Forward voltage, including temperature effects, is
characterized by the IS, N, RS, XTI, and EG parameters. The
following table provides the actual measured and simulated
data along with the error. All of the simulations were performed
using the ICAP/4Windows software.
SSDI Provides ISSPICE4 Rectifier Models
IF (A) Simulated VF Measured VF %Error
5 0.739 0.738 0.042
10 0.787 0.786 0.116
20 0.838 0.838 0.044
50 0.92 0.92 0.040
100 1.002 1.002 0.079
SSDI Diode Rectifier Models
57
Power Specialist’ s
The TL431 programmable
precision reference (Figure
10) may be used to imple
ment a low cost stepdown
switching converter. The
TL431 performs the func
ti on of both a vol tage
reference and a voltage
comparator, all contained
within a three pin package.
The programmable output
voltage feature permits a
wide range of output volt
ages by changing one resistor value. The test circuit (Figure 11)
achieved a simulated efficiency of over 70% for a 5 volt output.
Other simulated results are shown in the figure, along with
measured results from the Motorola Linear IC data book. Initial
conditions were set on the output LC filter elements. The circuit
did not require these initial conditions to start the circuit switch
ing, but did require that the maximum transient time step be
specified. The ISSPICE4 simulation revealed that the converter
operation is very sensitive to parasitics which explain some of
the differences between simulated and measured results.
High Efficiency StepDown Converter
.SUBCKT TL431 7 6 11
∗ K A FDBK
.MODEL DCLAMP D (IS=13.5N RS=25M N=1.59
+ CJO=45P VJ=.75 M=.302 TT=50.4N BV=34 IBV=1M)
V1 1 6 2.495
R1 6 2 15.6
C1 2 6 .5U
R2 2 3 100
C2 3 4 .08U
R3 4 6 10
G2 6 8 3 6 1.73
D1 5 8 DCLAMP
D2 7 8 DCLAMP
V4 5 6 2
G1 6 2 1 11 0.11
.ENDS
V1
15
R1
2.2K
C1
.1U
R2 1K
R3 4.7K
R4
10
R5 4.7K
R6
4.7K
D1
DN5822
L1 150U
R7
50.25K
R8
51K
C2
.01U
C3
470U
RL
5
V(9)
VOUT
I(V1) Q3
MPSA20
X2
TIP115
I(RL)
Tran
1.04
998M
5.00M 4.00M time
8295
20:44:1
V(9)
Tran
5.18
4.99
5.00M 4.00M time
8295
20:43:50
15.0
7.83
13.4
8.49
24.4M
2.52
5.00 5.00
Figure 10, The
SPICE 2 model for
the TL431 regulator.
Test Conditions Simulated Measured
Results Results
Line Regulation Vin=1020V Io=1A 200.2mV 53mV
Output Ripple Vin=10VIo=1A 41.83mVpp 50mVpp
Output Ripple Vin=20VIo=1A 125.58mVpp 100mVpp
Efficiency Vin=15V Io=1A 70% 82%
Figure 11, Low cost, high efficiency
stepdown converter using the TL431
voltage regulator.
High Efficiency StepDown Converter
58
SMPS Design
I n t u s o f t N e w s l e t t e r
Copyright © Intusoft, All Rights Reserved
Personal Computer Circuit & System Design Tools
Issue #47 Aug. 1996
Tel. (310) 8330710
Fax (310) 8339658
ISSPICE4 Scripting Gives You More Power
One of the most powerful features of Intusoft’s SPICE is the
Interactive Command Language (ICL). Unfortunately, it is also
one of the most unused features. This article will attempt to
illustrate the potential capabilities of ICL by demonstrating its
ability to make complex simulations easy. ICL is basically a
macro or scripting language. You can use ICL to perform
complex tasks, or test procedures, using a series of commands
rather than by pulling down a menu or by double clicking a part
and changing its value. The ICL contains over 60 commands
that allow you to:
ICL scripts can be run in one of two ways; either batch style or
interactively. If the netlist is placed in the input .CIR file,
IsSpice4 will autorun the entire script when the simulator is
started. If the script is placed in the Simulation Control Window
inside IsSpice4, then the script can be run interactively, line by
line. The latter method is useful for script debugging. In both
cases, the simulation is not limited to only 1 AC, DC, or transient
analysis. Any number of analyses can be run. Two example
scripts are shown below.
By Scott Frankel, Analytical Engineering
• Sweep any circuit variable (resistance, voltage, temperature, model
parameters, etc.)
• Watch for any operating condition or combination of circuit variables and make
decisions on what test path to choose based on the results
• Set Simulation Breakpoints on any circuit condition
• Run any SPICE analysis, in any order, as many times as desired
• Record data from anywhere in the circuit (curve families, power dissip.,
complex measurements, etc.)
Parameter Sweeping  ICL Script Example #1
view tran v(3) Display waveform in real time
foreach param 2 4 6 Parameter values for dummy variable “param”
alter @V7[DC]=$param Change the DC value of V7 to equal param
tran 1n 200n Run a transient analysis
print v(3) Save the data for V(3)
end Do next parameter (if any)
Repeating Loop W/Breakpoints  ICL Script Example #2
save all allcur allpow Save data
view tran v(3) Real time display
function rms(vec) sqrt(mean(vec*vec)) Create a function
dowhile rms(v(3)) > 400m Do script while V(3) > .4
stop when @q5[p]<.25 when V(8)>1.6 Break if OR condition is true
tran 1n 100n Run a transient analysis
alter @q5[temp]=@q5[temp]+10 Increment the temperature
print @q5[temp] rms(v(3)) Save data
end End loop
IsSpice4
Scripting
Gives You
More Power
Scott Frankel
Excerpts from the
August 1996
Intusoft Newsletter
#47
59
Power Specialist’ s
*INCLUDE ICL.TST ; Get script (.Control > *.PRINT lines) out of the ICL.TST file
.CONTROL ; Start of the Included ICL script
SAVE ALL ; Save all node voltages, necessary to print out waveforms later
*The next two lines effectively open the control loop so we can check the loop response
ALTER @LOL[INDUCTANCE]=100 ; Set LOL = 100 Henries
ALTER @COL[CAPACITANCE]=100 ; Set COL = 100 Farads
ALIAS GAIN VDB(9) ; Measure the gain in DB at node 9
ALIAS PHASE VP(9) ; Measure the phase at node 9
AC DEC 20 10 1000K ; Perform an AC analysis
PRINT GAIN PHASE ; Save the Gain and Phase waveforms to the output file
* The next section of code allows the circuit to measure input impedance
ALTER @LOL[INDUCTANCE]=10P ; Set LOL = 10pH in order to close the loop
ALTER @COL[CAPACITANCE]=10P ; Set COL = 10pF in order to close the loop
ALTER @LZIN[INDUCTANCE]=100 ; Set LZIN = 100H in order to inject an AC signal
* into the input in order to measure input impedance
ALTER @IZIN[ACMAG]=1 ; Inject an AC current of 1 (magnitude)
ALTER @Izout[ACMAG]=0 ; Turn off AC current source on the output of the converter
ALIAS ZIN VDB(1) ; Measure the gain in DB at node 1
AC DEC 20 10 100K ; Perform another AC analysis
PRINT ZIN ; Saves the input impedance waveform to the output file
*The next section of code allow the circuit to measure output impedance
ALTER @LZIN=1P ; Set LZIN = 1PH
ALTER @IZIN[ACMAG]=0 ; Change input AC magnitude to zero
ALTER @Izout[ACMAG]=1 ; Change output AC magnitude to 1A
ALIAS ZOUT VDB(26) ; Measure the gain in DB at node 26
AC DEC 20 10 100K ; Perform another AC analysis
PRINT ZOUT ; Save the output impedance waveform to the output file
.ENDC ; End the ICL control block
*.PRINT AC GAIN PHASE ; Optional, Generate IntuScope Waveform List
*.PRINT AC ZOUT
*.PRINT AC ZIN
Figure 11, An ICL script (with explanations) used by ISSPICE4 to run a series of
unattended AC simulations on the forward converter.
L1
530U
C1
.22U
C2
1U
R1
33
D1 DN5811
D3
DN5811
L2 150U
C3
33U
R2
.1
C4
33U
R3
.1
V(17)
+5V
V1 15
R8 20K
R9
20K
V(9)
VOUT
RLOAD
3
R11 47K
V2
28
V(9)
OUTPUT
LZIN 100P
IZIN
1P
LZOUT
100P
IZOUT
1P
LOL 100P
COL
100P COMP
FDBK
REF
VC
OUT
GND
X12
UC1843S
VIN VOUT
RTN VC DUTY
FORWARD
V(13) VGATE
C8 1N
C9 100P
V3
AC
X15
XFMR
R12 .01 R13 .01
1 2
3
8 26
11
9
10
17
7
27 16
15 28
30
29
13
5
19
4 6 12
Figure 10, Schematic of a buck converter. The simulation is driven by the ICL
script in Figure 11.
The circuit in Figure 10 is a forward buck derived converter. You
will notice that there are several inductors, capacitors, and AC
current and voltage sources in the schematic that do not affect
the operation of the circuit. We will use these components to
measure the frequency response, and input and output imped
ance with a single simulation. The ICL script is shown in Figure
60
SMPS Design
2
1
100 1K 10K 100K
80.0
40.0
0
40.0
80.0
G
A
I
N
I
n
d
B
80.0
40.0
0
40.0
80.0
P
H
A
S
E
i
n
D
e
g
2
1
100 1K 10K 100K
FREQUENCY in Hz
80.0
40.0
0
40.0
80.0
O
u
t
p
u
t
I
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
I
n
d
B
80.0
40.0
0
40.0
80.0
I
n
p
u
t
I
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
I
n
d
B
Figure 12, Gain Phase plot (top) and Input/Output Impedance plot (bottom).
11. The script, called by the ∗INCLUDE statement, is appended
to the SPICE netlist and run when IsSpice4 is started. In this
batch style mode, the .Control and .Endc statements are
required. The results of the ICL script are shown in Figure 12.
Remember, without ICL, these results would have taken three
separate SPICE runs with three separate schematics and three
separate netlists. The simple demonstration presented here is
only a hint of the abilities of ICL. This capability could be used
to run a Monte Carlo analysis or an Optimizer routine and return
numerous parameters using only one IsSpice4 simulation file!
Clearly the potential benefits of ICL suggest more investigation
into this powerful tool. Read the chapter on ICL in your IsSpice4
manual and start saving time today.
Scott Frankel graduated from Arizona State University with a
BSEE degree. He currently works at Analytical Engineering
Incorporated (602) 8907197. AEI offers engineering design,
simulation, and circuit modeling services.
1 2
1 2
61
Power Specialist’ s
M a g ne tic s De sig n a nd
M od e ling
Authors
Robert Martinelli, consultant, Analytic Artistry
Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
62
Magnetics Design & Modeling
Designing a 12.5W 50kHz Flyback Transformer
Robert Martinelli, Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft, USA, email: charles@intusoft.com
October 1998
Magnetics Designer is a versatile tool that designs all types
of layer wound transformers and inductors. It is unique in
the marketplace. The frequency range of the magnetics that
can be designed extends from DC to over 5MHz. Unlike
finite element analysis (FEA) programs Magnetics Designer
is a synthesis tool as well as an analysis tool. With FEA
based tools you must enter far more information about the
design than you usually have, especially if you are in the
initial design stages. In addition, the FEA analysis times can
be quite lengthy, even hours. This negates the interactive
nature of the design process. Magnetics Designer, on the
other hand, operates virtually instantly allowing far more
optimizations and “whatif” scenarios to be explored.
With Magnetics Designer all you need to design a transformer
is the operating frequency, temperature rise, core type, and
the desired voltage and current for each winding. Magnetics
Designer does the rest through it sophisticated synthesis
algorithms. The result is a fully designed and characterized
magnetic meeting all of your specifications.
Here we will take a look at how Magnetics Designer can be
used to design a flyback transformer. Although it's called a
transformer, the principal magnetic component in a flyback
regulator is actually an inductor. It is best described as an
inductor because energy is intentionally stored in the core
or core gap. Therefore, we will use the inductor design
features of Magnetics Designer to create a flyback
transformer.
The first step is to determine the specifications. A flyback
regulator is designed to operate in the discontinuous mode.
That is, the flux in the flyback transformer (inductor) returns
to 0 on every cycle, as evidenced by the fact that the current
on both the primary and secondary are equal to zero during
a part of the switching cycle. During the “on” time of the
transistor, energy is stored in the inductor. During the “off”
time of the transistor, energy is released to the output.
The required parameters for the (inductor) flyback design
are: core type and material, operating frequency, Edt (volt
seconds), primary and secondary (AC and DC) currents,
required inductance, and the peak primary current.
The type of core we will use is the EI Ferrite from TDK.
Magnetics Designer includes a database of over 7000 cores
and dozens of materials including newly developed exotic
materials.
The Edt across the primary winding is found from the
equation:
( )( )
Edt
DVpk
fsw kHz
x V · · · −
−
. .
. sec
5 29 7
50
2 97 10
4
Although, the primary winding peak current (see Figure 1)
is 1.5 Apk, the switching regulator usually has a current limit
which is 10 to 20% greater than the maximum load condition.
Therefore, we choose Ipk = 1.8 Apk. Since the turns ratio is
1/5, the peak current reflected to the secondary is 9 Apk.
The average (DC component of current) on the primary is:
( )
( ) ( )
Idc pri
D Ipk Imin
Adc ·
+
·
+
·
2
5 5 15
2
5
. . .
.
On the secondary, the average current is
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Idc
D Ipk Imin
Adc sec
. . .
. ·
− +
·
+
·
1
2
5 7 5 2 5
2
2 5
It can be shown that the RMS value of a trapezoidal
waveform is found from the following equation:
( ) ( ) Irms D Ipk Imin Ipk Imin · ⋅ + −
]
]
]
1
3
2
Likewise, using principles derived from Fourier analysis,
I rms I dc I ac
2 2 2
· +
Vpri
Ipri
Isec
1.5A
.5A
29.7V
29.7V
2.5A
0A
Vout = 5V
Freq. = 50kHz
Kt = 1/5
Vfwd = .9
Vsat = .3
Duty Cycle = .5
Tamb = 50 deg C
Figure 1, The basic voltage and current waveforms and
structure of a flyback regulator.
5
V1
30Vdc
1
Q1
3
4
2
C1
I1
2.5A Isec
Vsat
Kt
Ipri
Vout
Lp=.297mH
63
Power Specialist’ s
where Iac is the RMS value of the AC component of
current (i.e. the RMS value of I(t)Idc).
Using the Irms equations above, the RMS current for the
primary and secondary windings is calculated to be .746
and 3.68 Arms respectively. Solving for Iac, the AC
currents were calculated to be .54 and 2.7 Arms
respectively.
The inductance on the primary was originally specified
as .297 mH. Also the turns ratio was defined to be 1/5.
Therefore, the inductance on the secondary is 11.9 uH.
The requirements were entered on the Inductor screen
(Figure 2). The ambient temperature was set to 50C in
the Options tab. The maximum allowed temperature rise
is set 30 degrees C. Litz wire was chosen due to the high
operating frequency.
After the Apply button is clicked the program performs
thousands of calculations. It tries different stranding
arrangements, different wire sizes, and so forth, in an effort
to generate a design with the minimum power losses in
the smallest core possible, that still meets the fill and
temperature rise specifications. Magnetic Designer
provides a list of the cores it tried along with their
respective fills and temperature rises. The last geometry
is the one the program finally settled on. The total time to
calculate the full design specifications on a Pentium 133
is under 1 second! The initial design, shown in Figure 3,
generally met the design requirements with the exception
that the turns ratio was not exactly 1/5.
The window fill algorithm calculates the build assuming
that two windings will not share space on a single layer.
That is, if a winding has 1.1 layers, the build algorithm
calculates the height of that winding as if it consumed
two full layers. Since the primary winding occupies 2.765
layers and the secondary occupies 1.818 layers the
window is not utilized to its fullest efficiency.
Turns are always rounded to the nearest integer by the
program. Therefore, some slight adjustments are required
to achieve exact turns ratios. For example, if the program
calculates that 46.5 turns are required on the primary and
9.6 turns are required on the secondary, the primary will
have 47 turns and the secondary will have 10 turns. The
designer would then have to adjust the turns on the
primary to achieve and exact turns ratio of 5/1.
Several design changes were tried to improve the inductor
design. It was originally assumed that Litz wire was
necessary to avoid excessive losses due to potential high
frequency AC resistance problems (skin and proximity
effects). To test this assumption, heavy formvar (HF) wire
was substituted for the Litz wire. This resulted in a
significant temperature rise increase. After closely
reviewing the results, it was determined that this problem
was primarily due to increased AC resistance on the
secondary side. Therefore, foil windings were substituted
for the magnet wire on the secondary. Foil windings
typically have very low AC resistance since the thickness
required to achieve the desired crosssectional area is
usually much thinner than the skin depth of corresponding
wire. Since a foil winding was used, the program adds
layer insulation, wrappers, and end margins to prevent
shorts between turns and other windings.
Figure 2, The inductor screen with frequency, Edt, maximum allowable
temperature rise, current peak, AC/DC current, and minimum inductance
entered. The Apply button generates the rest of the flyback design.
Figure 3, The initial design using Litz wire. The information for each
winding is shown in the center of the screen under “Windings 1 and 2”.
The performance of the whole design is shown on the right side.
64
Magnetics Design & Modeling
Next, the number of turns on the primary was set to 45
so that the turns ratio from primary to secondary would
be exactly 5/1. To maintain the inductance at
approximately .3 mh, the Gap was increased to .044 cm.
The result of these changes are shown in Figure 4.
The final design meeting all specification is shown in
Figures 4 and 5. It has a slightly lower peak flux, lower
temperature rise, lower AC and DC resistance, and uses
a smaller geometry than the initial design.
At this point you explore the design further by splitting
windings or trying different materials. A winding sheet
and design summary report can be printed out or copied
to Microsoft Excel. As shown in Figure 6, Magnetics
Figure 4, The flyback design using heavy formvar and Foil windings.
Here, the Windings window show the required turns, wire size, strands,
layers, and AC/DC resistance. The User Data fields show the temperature
rise, fill, weight, losses, and flux density.
Figure 6, A SPICE model (SPICE 2G syntax) can be produced along
with a reconfigurable schematic symbol.
Figure 5, Both the Winding and User Data fields scroll revealing
more information like leakage inductance, winding capacitance,
weight per winding, magnetizing inductance and more.
Designer can also produce a SPICE model and
schematic symbol for the magnetic. This allows you to
simulate the device while it is being built. The SPICE
model can be used with ANY SPICE program.
Magnetics Designer provides a simple and fast way to
design custom transformers and inductors, a key part of
virtually all electronic systems and many EMI filtering
applications. The software even designs planar
magnetics, an important part of many new high
frequency applications. Magnetic design is an art that is
slowly being lost as experienced designers retire.
Products like Magnetics Designer help fill the void by
providing intelligence and design expertise in a
software tool.
65
Power Specialist’ s
Designing a 50W Forward Converter Transformer With Magnetics Designer
Robert Martinelli, Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft, USA, email: charles@intusoft.com
October 1998
In order to introduce you to the power of Magnetics
Designer, we will synthesize a transformer for a forward
converter which is similar to that shown in Figure 1.
Figure 2, Key waveforms for the forward converter.
The following equations describe the converter behavior:
Output voltage:
Vo Dk Vin
t
· η
where Vo is the output voltage, D is the duty cycle of the
switch, η is the efficiency of the converter, Vin is the input
voltage, and Kt is the turns ratio transformer.
PP Inductor Current: ( ) ∆I
D T
L
Vo Vfwd
l
sw
·
−
+
( ) 1
where I
L
is the peaktopeak inductor current, Vfwd is the
rectifier forward voltage, Tsw is the switching time and L is
the inductance.
Ave. Inductor Current:
I I
V
R
l
ave
o
o
o
( ) · ·
where Io is the output current, and Ro is the load resistance.
Generally, a converter must operate over a wide dy
namic range of input voltage and load current. However,
Magnetics Designer only needs to consider the case which
results in the maximum transformer ratings. For the forward
converter, this is low line where the RMS current in the wind
Figure 1, Magnetics Designer can synthesize transformers for
designs like this forward converter.
When the transistor turns on, the voltages on the starts
(dotted ends) of the transformer are driven positive, forward
biasing D1. While the voltage is positive, the inductor cur
rent increases towards its maximum value while magnetiz
ing current builds up in the transformer. When the transistor
turns off, transformer magnetizing must continue to flow.
Therefore, the only path for magnetizing current to flow is
through D2, thus reversing the polarity across the transformer
and providing a voltage to reset the flux. However, when
the current in the transformer winding reaches zero, the volt
age across the winding reduces to zero, indicating that the
transformer flux has returned to the residual flux of the core
material.
Throughout the offtime of the transistor, inductor cur
rent decays. However, if the inductance is large enough, the
inductor current will not return to zero and the converter is
described as operating in the continuous conduction mode.
If the inductance is small, the inductor current returns to
zero during the off time. The second case is described as
operating in the discontinuous mode. In this example, we
will assume that the converter is operating in the continuous
mode. The forward converter waveforms are shown in Fig
ure 2.
Vpri
Ipri
Vsec
Isec
Ton
Tsw
Np
8
9
Ns
6
4
Nm
2
7
5
1 3
10
D3
C3
R1
.01
R2
M1
L1
L2
L3
D1
C1
400U
D2
SSR8045
66
Magnetics Design & Modeling
ings is maximum and duty cycle is .5 (50%). Since the aver
age output voltage from the regulator is maintained at a con
stant, the core losses, on a first order basis, are unaffected
by line and load changes.
The maximum required steady state output for our de
sign is +5Vdc at 10Adc with a minimum input voltage of
40V. The transformer output voltage must, on the average,
be equal to the output voltage plus the rectifier drop. As
suming that the 5 volt output uses conventional rectifiers,
the transformer output voltages should be somewhat greater
than 5.7V. Using the previous equations, with a frequency
of 100kHz, and an 8µH inductor, the peaktopeak inductor
current is 3.56A. Ipk (Ip) is therefore 11.78A (Ip=Idc + Ip
p/2, Im=Idc  Ipp/2). The average voltage across the sec
ondary is (Vo+Vfwd)/D = 5V+.7V/.5 = 11.4V.
For a unipolar trapezoidal waveform, the DC current is:
I
dc
D Ip
·
+ ( Im)
2
= .5(11.78 + 8.22)/2 = 5A
The RMS current in the winding is given by:
I D I I I I rms
p m p m
· × + −

.
`
,
1
3
2
( )
= 7.11A
Knowing the DC and RMS currents, the AC current is:
I
ac
I I
rms
dc · −
2 2
= 5.05A
The required turns ratio is then Vpkpri/Vpksec =
3.508. (The average voltage on the primary, which is the
same as the peak voltage for a square wave, is 40 V while
Vpksec is 11.4 V). The DC (Idcpri) current on the primary
is 1.43 Adc (=5/3.508) and the AC component of current is
1.44 Arms (=5.05/3.508).
A forward converter has a flux swing which begins at
Br and achieves a maximum value, Bmax. Therefore, the
flux type is half wave. The output power is 57 watts (5.7
Vdc x 10 Adc). We also assume that the converter operates
at 100 kHz, that the ambient air temperature is 25 degrees
C, and that the maximum desired surface temperature is 75
degrees C (50 degree rise).
Finally, it is assumed that the inductor ripple current
and transformer magnetizing current are small relative to
the various winding currents and that they do not apprecia
bly affect the RMS current in any of the transformer wind
ings. Without this assumption, the waveforms for each wind
ing would be more complicated, and additional effort would
be required in order to calculate the transformer require
ments.
The transformer’s design assumptions are summarized be
low:
Core Type = Pot Core, Ferrite, Magnetics
Material type = F (High Frequency, 100 deg. C data)
Max Temp. Rise = 50 deg C
Max. Amb. Temp. = 25 deg C
Max. Window File = 90%
Flux Type = Half Wave
Output power = 57 Watts
Frequency = 100 kHz
Waveform Type = Square Wave
Vpri = 40 V ave
Idcpri = 1.43 Adc
Iacpri = 1.44 Aac (rms)
Vsec(5v) = 11.4 V average
Idc(5v) = 5 Adc
Iac(5v) = 5.06 Aac (rms)
Vflyback = 40.0 V average
Iac(40v) = 200m Aac (rms)
Initial Computer Generated Design
The core material and family are first selected in the
Core Selection screen (Figure 3). After entering the power
and frequency, the Core Browser is used to make an initial
core selection. The Core Browser will select the smallest
core that can handle the frequency and power specified.
Figure 3, The Core selection screen, after using the Core Browser
to make an initial core selection.
The electrical requirements for the three windings are
then entered on the Transformer design screen (Figure 4).
The pencil icons indicate fields where data can be entered.
The eye glasses indicate calculated “per winding” results
that can be viewed. The User Data section on the right con
tains input and output parameters associated with the entire
design. Design constraints (temperature rise, window fill,
etc.) are entered at the top.
67
Power Specialist’ s
Figure 4, The Transformer design screen after entering the basic
electrical requirements.
To start the initial calculation and optimization of the
transformer design, we first check the New box (bottom right,
Figure 4) and then select the Apply button. The History of
Core Trials dialog, in Figure 5, displays the results of the
optimization process. This includes the window fill and tem
perature rise for each core that has been tried in the selected
family.
Figure 5, The History of Core Trials screen shows which cores
were tried by Magnetics Designer.
The resulting transformer performance for the selected
core (23mm x 17mm) is then displayed in the Transformer
screen.
While the initial design is satisfactory, it could be im
proved. The History of Core Trials dialog provides some
recommendations on possibly improving the design. These
may include changes to the wire type, number of parallel
windings, and hints on smaller cores that may, with some
adjustment, be able to handle the design parameters. For
instance, Figure 5 shows that the smaller 22mm x 13mm
core almost made the temperature rise. It may be a good
candidate for further optimization.
Magnetics Designer may select a different core geom
etry, depending on the data changed in the Transformer
screen. This geometry change may dramatically affect the
overall transformer performance, and make it difficult to op
timize a particular design. Therefore, it is best to “lock down”
the core geometry (Figure 7).
Figure 7, You can lock a particular core geometry in order to
experiment with a different design improvements.
As shown in Figure 7, the 22mm x 13mm core is se
lected and the “Lock Geometry” option is checked. Since
we have changed the core geometry, we must first check
Figure 6, The Transformer screen and resulting design values af
ter Magnetics Designer’s optimization.
When the New option is selected, Magnetics De
signer will iterate the design for successively larger cores
until the temperature rise constraint is met or a new core
can’t be selected. For each core, Magnetics Designer will
try to find the wire size, turns, and number of strands
required to achieve the specified voltages, low AC/DC
resistance, and optimal layer utilization, all while fulfill
ing the stated constraints of window fill and temperature
rise.
As we have demonstrated in this case, the powerful
algorithms in Magnetics Designer will normally produce
a design that meets all stated requirements without any
further user input required! Figure 6 shows that the
layers are utilized quite well, and the Trise and Window
fill values are approximately 42.38 degrees C and 67%,
respectively.
68
Magnetics Design & Modeling
New and then select Apply so that Magnetics Designer can
update the windings characteristics for the newly selected
core. We find that the temperature rise is now 56.41 de
grees, which is above our set constraint.
Let’s try one of the previous suggestions and split wind
ing 1 and 2 (once each) and then perform the New and Ap
ply operations. Splitting the highest power winding can pro
vide several benefits (i.e. better temperature rise for the same
core area). The resulting transformer screen then looks like
Figure 8.
Changes that affect the transformer geometrically should
be accompanied by a recycling of the design using the New
option. The Apply button alone (without New checked) is
primarily used for minor design changes. With the New and
Lock Geometry options checked, Magnetics Designer will
“stir up” the windings using the selected geometry in order
to arrive at the best set of characteristics.
Figure 9, The transformer design after setting the maximum num
ber of strands per winding to 4.
Figure 9 shows the resulting transformer screen which
now meets all of the design goals again. The split winding
information can be shown by scrolling the spreadsheet win
dow. The ID numbers account for the paralleling of the vari
ous windings. By scrolling down the main spreadsheet win
dow and the User Data button column on the right, we are
able to see other calculated design data such as the efficiency,
leakage inductance and parasitic capacitance (Figure 10).
Figure 10, Magnetics Designer displays a wealth of calculated
data in the spreadsheet (left) and User Data (right) areas.
Magnetics Designer Has Unique Features
Magnetics Designer has two very unique features. The
first is the ability to produce a SPICE Model of your trans
former or inductor design. Figure 11 shows the SPICE screen
Figure 8, The transformer design after splitting the highest power
winding.
Magnetics Designer knows that we are splitting a wind
ing, rather than adding a new winding, and automatically
splits the current between the two windings. It should be
noted that the AC resistance calculation includes both
skin and proximity effects. You can move the windings
around and change the layer configuration by using the <<
and >> buttons at the bottom of transformer dialog. Mag
netics Designer will recalculate the AC resistance based on
the new configuration.
The simple operation of splitting the windings achieves
the design goals for this smaller core. However, four of the
windings now require 8 strands, which could be costly to
manufacture.
We can set the maximum number of strands per wind
ing via the Max Strands field. Located in the User data sec
tion of the Transformer screen, this series of buttons and
fields provides access to both input variables and output
results. Later in this article, we will explore how you can
derive your own customized output results. In this case, we
will change Max Strands from 8 to a more manageable 4.
Magnetics Designer also allows you to change the type of
wire for each windings. You have the choice of heavy
formvar, small formvar, foil, square, double square, litz, or
pcb traces (for planar magnetics).
69
Power Specialist’ s
which allows you to configure a schematic symbol and save
the resulting SPICE 2 compatible subcircuit netlist. The
model includes all the core and copper losses, AC/DC resis
tance, leakage and magnetizing inductance and winding ca
pacitances. The leakage inductance is calculated based on a
reluctance model while the capacitance values are based on
a charge conserving representation.
SpiceNet, OrCAD, and Protel compatible schematic
symbols are produced. This allows you to immediately use
your new design in a schematic capture program and perform
circuit simulations of your entire power system.
Figure 11, Magnetics Designer produces a SPICE model of your
transformer or inductor design.
As an example of this capability, Figure 12 shows a
SpiceNet schematic and IsSpice4 simulation results of a 50W
forward converter using our transformer design.
IsSpice4 includes models for many PWM ICs, power
semiconductors, and power electronics devices. When
coupled with Magnetics Designer, the two make a complete
circuit design and analysis system that no other software
vendor can match.
The second unique feature is the exposure of virtually
all of the design variables used in the program. Magnetics
Designer allows the user to freely create new output
measurements and even affect the optimization criteria of
the program. Parameters such as core area and flux density,
thermal conductivity, power losses, leakage inductance and
capacitive parasitics, resistance values, and mechanical
specifications are all available.
Figure 13 shows an example of a new temperature
variable which was created using the copper loss, core loss,
core area, and ambient temperature parameters. Both user
input and calculated output parameters are available, and
additional equations may be added.
Figure 12, IsSpice4 simulation results of a 50W forward converter. The transformer design and its SPICE model were
generated by Magnetics Designer. In this particular simulation, the transformer turns ratio has been changed from .285 to
.5, thus changing the duty cycle to approximately 25%.
16
40 17
3
6
13
12
19
10
30
41
15
COMP
FDBK
I S
RT/ CT GND
OUT
VC
REF
14
21
26
7
4
18
11 2
16
12
15
15 26
12
26
V4
D3 DN4150
C2
400U
C3
4700P
R1
.01
Q1
QN2222A
X10
MP58121
C4
680P
R2
.5
X9 LT1243
R3
10
X12
PSW1
R4 1K
C7 4700P
R5 100
C8
.01U
C9 .047U
R8
4.7
R9 2.5K
L4
10M
R10
2.5K
R11
10K
V1
R12x
47K
D1 SSR8045
R13 1K
D2
SSR8045
VComp
VIND
VREF
VOUT
IVcc
ISense
RTCT
Pulse 0 15
8
D4 DN4150
1
R12 4.7
L3
1U
9
Vsec
1 4
1
2
4
3
4
1 4
5
6
X4
50WMAG
L1
18.8u
VOUT
Tran
5.26
251M
1.50M 0 time
VIND
Tran
9.08U
6.35U
1.50M 0 time
VCOMP
Tran
3.59
3.57
1.31M 1.30M time
VSEC
Tran
19.5
26.2
1.31M 1.30M time
@L3[I]
Tran
7.80
372M
1.31M 1.30M time
ISENSE
Tran
756M
34.6M
1.31M 1.30M time
@V1[I]
Tran
5.13
8.03
1.31M 1.30M time
VOUT
Tran
5.01
4.99
1.31M 1.30M time
70
Magnetics Design & Modeling
Figure 13, An example of a user generated equation that was added
to the User Data area of the Transformer screen. The result of the
equation will be shown in the User Data field next to the button.
This feature gives Magnetics Designer extreme flex
ibility and opens up many design boundaries for explora
tion.
Magnetics Designer Reports
Magnetics Designer produces a complete report of the
characteristics of your design in the form of an electrical
performance summary and a winding sheet. Output from a
typical report will appear as follows:
Figure 14, The Winding Sheet contains the manufacturing infor
mation for your transformer.
Figure 15, A summary of the electrical performance of your mag
netic design includes all the information found in the core screen,
transformer or inductor screens, and User Data fields.
71
Power Specialist’ s
Sig na l G e ne ra tors
Authors
Christophe BASSO, consultant, Sinard, France
Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
Larry Meares, Intusoft
Steve Sandler, Analytical Engineering Services
72
Signal Generators
Bridge or halfbridge designs using MOSFETs or
IGBTs need some deadtime between the commutations to
avoid any crossconduction current spikes. This statement
is also valid in Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) imple
menting synchronous rectification. In a simulation environ
ment, it is not always an easy task to write the stimuli so as
to define a deadtime between commutations. Classical
PULSE or PWL commands are impractical, especially when
either frequency or pulse width are changed during the simu
lation run.
1
5
A1
XOR
C1
100pF
7
A3
XOR
6
8
A4
XOR
3
4
A5
XOR
C2
100pF
A6
Clock
R3
1k
R4
1k
C4
10pF
C5
10pF
R1 1k
R2 1k
Q
Q\
Figure 1
The discrete solution to implement a deadtime generator
Figure 1 shows the solution built around a few logi
cal XOR gates. The principle uses the truth table of an XOR
or XNOR gate which states that its output is at a high or low
level when both inputs are at different logical states.
This difference between the levels is made through
the RC networks R1C1 and R4C5. The output of the A1
A5 gates is then a short pulse whose width is dependent
upon the RC constant of its input network. This pulse will
blank the signal delivered to the output and thus generates
the required deadtime.
These logical functions can easily be implemented
using INTUSOFT’s IsSpice4 (SanPedro, CA) Analog Be
havioral Modeling features as demonstrated by the netlist
given below:
.SUBCKT DEADTIME 1 50 51 {DT=500N VHIGH=10V
+ VLOW=100M RS=10}
* Clock_In Q Qbar
* Developed by Christophe BASSO (FRANCE)
RIN 1 0 1MEG
B6 17 0 V=V(1)>2V ? 10 : 0
R3 17 18 1k
C3 18 0 {DT/(1000*4.14)}
B4 21 0 V=V(25,19)<100MV ? {VLOW} : {VHIGH}
RCQ 21 60 100
CCQ 60 0 10P
BQ 61 0 V=V(60)
RSQ 61 50 {RS}
R4 22 23 1k
C4 23 0 {DT/(1000*4.14)}
B5 24 0 V=V(26,20)<100MV ? {VLOW} : {VHIGH}
RCQB 24 70 100
CCQB 70 0 10P
BQB 71 0 V=V(70)
RSQB 71 51 {RS}
R5 17 25 1k
C5 25 0 {DT/(1000*41.4)}
R6 22 26 1k
C6 26 0 {DT/(1000*41.4)}
D3 23 22 DISCH
D4 18 17 DISCH
B1 22 0 V=V(1)>2V ? 0 : 10
B2 19 0 V=V(17,18)<100MV ? 0 : 10
B3 20 0 V=V(22,23)<100MV ? 0 : 10
.MODEL DISCH D BV=100V CJO=4PF IS=7E09 M=.45 N=2
+ RS=.8 TT=6E09 VJ=.6V
.ENDS
The subcircuit needs to be fed with the deadtime
value as well as the output high and low levels. The input
clock is TTLCMOS compatible. By changing B5 line to
V=V(26,20)<100MV ? {VHIGH} : {VLOW}, the genera
tor becomes suitable to drive a synchronous rectifier, as dem
onstrated by figure 2.
IsSpice4 introduces a deadtime in your bridge simulations
Christophe BASSO, MOTOROLA Semiconductor, Toulouse, France
February 1998
A B S
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
73
Power Specialist’ s
SAW
X2
SAWTOOTH
Clock
+

2
3
X1
COMPAR
V1
500m
pwm
QP
QN
13
Vsupply
QP
QN
7
X4
MGSF3442
X5
MGSF3441
R1
10k
QP
R2
10k
QN
Isupply
D1
MBR120P
Bridge
9
R4
10m
11
L1
32.4u
R6
2
Vout
*
PowerIN
* PowerOut
Clk
Vcc
Vcc
14
8
IgQN
IgQP
15
Idrivers
Dead Time
For synchro
Rectification
QN
QP
Vcc
X3
DEADDRV
10
C3
47uF
R3
100m
Figure 2
Application schematic in synchronous rectification
Figure 3 details the output signals delivered by the
generator that clearly save the MOSFETs from any conduct
ing overlap.
Time
P channel
N channel
PWM pattern
Figure 3
This picture clearly shows the absence of overlap between
commutations
74
Signal Generators
SPICE sine wave sources can be delayed in order to
get different phase relationships. The delayed sources, how
ever, remain at the initial starting value until the simulation
reaches the specified delay. The following circuit can be
used to get a source that starts three separate phases imme
diately at the beginning of the simulation. In this circuit, a
sinusoidal source starting with zero delay is integrated us
ing a capacitor fed from a current source. This 90 degree
lagging signal is then summed with various weighting con
stants to give the desired waveforms.
Several things must be done to make this a useful ele
ment. First, the capacitor initial condition must be computed
automatically and second, the generator needs to be con
trolled as though it were a piece of laboratory test equip
ment.
Controlling the phase and magnitude error signals
makes it possible to evaluate circuit performance param
eters that may not be seen in the laboratory. Test equipment
that performs these operations is not commonly available.
In instances like this, the power of the SPICE simulator can
be applied to help make correct design decisions early. De
cisions that may otherwise have been made without adequate
technical information.
Algebraic expressions using the selected design pa
rameters must be set up to define the various subcircuit ele
ment values. VGEN controls the amplitude of the sine wave
generator, Vs = VGEN∗SIN(wt). FREQ is used directly in
the sine wave generator and algebraically to define the phase
shifting capacitor value. The phase shifting capacitor is used
to form a generator, Vc = VGEN∗COS(wt). With both sine
and cosine components, the following equations are used to
combine the 2 signals for each of the 3 phases.
V(φ · 0 Deg.) = Vs
V(φ = 120 Deg) = COS(φ)Vs + SIN(φ)Vc · −.866Vs − .5Vc
V(φ · −120 Deg) = −.866Vs + .5Vc
When a small phase error is introduced, then φ is re
placed by φ + δ, and the small angle trigonometric series
approximation for δ is substituted as follows:
SIN(φ+δ) = SIN(φ)COS(δ) + COS(φ)SIN(δ)
= SIN(φ)(1 − δ
2
/2) + COS(φ)(δ − δ
3
/6)
Three Phase Generator Source
G1
C1 R1
E1
SUM2
K1
K2
SUM2
K1
K2
E2
E3
VP240
VP120
VP0
NEUTRAL
The sign of the cosine term must be adjusted to ac
count for the lag in the generator. Notice that the cosine gen
erator must start initially at VGEN. The pulse generator, I1,
initializes the capacitor at time t = 0 and turns off at t = 0+.
Constants are used in the algebraic expressions for conver
sion from degrees to radians, percent to fractions and for the
series expansion coefficients.
IsSpice Subcircuit Netlist:
.SUBCKT GEN3 3 7 1 20
C1 2 20 {1/(6.28319K*FREQ)} IC={VGEN}
R1 2 20 1E6
I1 20 2 PULSE {VGEN*1U} 0
* MAKES UIC UNNECESSARY
E1 5 20 20 2 1
V1 3 20 SIN 0 {VGEN} {FREQ}
E2 7 20 POLY(2) 5 20 3 20 0 866.00M 500.00M
E3 1 20 POLY(2) 5 20 3 20 0
+ {(1 + .01 * MAGERR) * (.866 *(1.5 * (.0174533
+ * PHASE)^2).5 * .0174533 * PHASE *
+ (1 + .166667 * (.0174533 * PHASE)^2))}
+ {(1+.01*MAGERR)*(.5*(1.5 * (.0174533 *
+ PHASE)^2).866 * .0174533 * PHASE *
+ (1 + .166667 * (.0174533 * PHASE)^2))}
G1 20 2 20 3 1M
R2 7 0 100MEG
R3 1 0 100MEG
R4 3 0 100MEG
R5 5 0 100MEG
.ENDS
Three Phase Generator
Larry Meares, Intusoft, USA
January 1988
75
Power Specialist’ s
The three phase generator source was tested in an ap
plication that used auxiliary transformers to make a 12 phase
rectifier. This type of rectifier has advantages in improved
power factor and reduced output ripple. The simulation can
be used to evaluate the effectiveness of these improvements
under the conditions of unbalanced input power. The IsSpice
simulation results, shown next, illustrates a significant sec
ond harmonic ripple in the output.
R1
100
P H A S E 12 0
P H A S E 0
P H A S E  1 20
NE U T RA L
TOP: BALANCED, BOTTOM: 5%, 2DEG UNBALANCE
5V/DIV 2MS/DIV
5A/DIV 2MS/DIV
6 1
8 2
7 3
4
11
12
13
14
5
23
9
25
10
76
Signal Generators
Simulating Pulse Code Modulation
There are applications, such as uninterruptible power supplies
(UPS) that convert a DC input voltage to a sinusoidal AC output
voltage. The basis of the conversion is very similar to the
conversion of a DC input to a DC output voltage. One of the
more difficult aspects of DC to sinewave conversion is obtaining
a regulated, low distortion sinewave reference. The goal is to
provide a variable frequency and amplitude with low harmonics
and a zero DC term.
While pulse width modulation is a possibility, another method is
to utilize a string of ones and zeros. When repeated this string
will possess a Fourier series consisting of a fundamental and
some harmonics. By picking all of your ones and zeros cor
rectly, you can force most of the lower harmonics to zero and
still provide a variable amplitude output that is both
microcontroller friendly and free of a high frequency carrier.
The following demonstrates an unusual task for ISSPICE4. The
circuit in Figure 6 simulates a single bit pulse code representa
tion of a sinewave. The same circuit is easily extended to any
number of phases. The fundamental problem was generating
a bit pattern for the sinewave reference. The pulse generator,
V1, is used as the clock. Since we will generate 256 bit values
this clock is 256 times greater than the output frequency. Flip
flop X1 latches the data between clock pulses. V2 is a sinewave
used for a reference. R1, R5, C1 and C2 filter the pulse coded
waveform and reconstruct the sinewave. B1 is a behavioral If
ThenElse comparator that sets the output bit high if the output
is lower than the sinewave reference value, or sets the output
bit low if the output is higher than the sinewave reference value.
B2 level shifts the bit values to a zeroone format.
Looking at the crossprobed waveforms, you can see the bit
patterns and the sinewave output at each filter stage. Note that
more sophisticated filters could produce lower distortion, as
could more values in the data table. The output listing from
Bits_Out, node V(9) in the ISSPICE4 output file, is a series of ones
and zeros and is the bit pattern representing the sine wave.
Using A State Machine To Generate A Sine ROM
We could use the circuitry in Figure 6 to generate the pulse
codes for other parts of a simulation, however, it is much more
efficient to code the digital output into a ROM. Fortunately,
ISSPICE4 includes a state machine model that can store and play
back the pulse code data. Table 2 shows a partial listing of the
state machine input file. The data in the Output column is from
Simulating Pulse Code Modulation
Steve Sandler, Excerpts from the August 1995 Intusoft Newsletter #43
77
Power Specialist’ s
Table 2, The input to the state machine
generated by Figure 6 and used in
Figure 7. The Output is the state
machine output at the particular state.
The Transition determines which state
the machine will move to depending on
the input. In this case, the input is held
at 0 and the machine simply
progresses state by state until state
255 where it then repeats.
State Output Transition
0 0s 0 > 1
1 1s 0 > 2
2 1s 0 > 3
3 0s 0 > 4
4 1s 0 > 5
5 1s 0 > 6
... ... ... ... ...
253 0s 0 > 254
254 1s 0 > 255
255 1s 0 > 0
OUT
Tran
1.21
1.14
4.99M 0 time
FLTR1
Tran
1.68
1.66
4.99M 0 time
Figure 6 node 9. Figure 7 uses the state machine to create a
model for an 8 bit counter with the 256 bit ROM. The clock
frequency must be 256 times the desired sinewave frequency.
The Tstep value of 9.766u in the simulation’s .Tran statement
(.Tran 9.766u 4.99M) is important since this is the period of the
sample. Selecting a different number requires a Tmax value
which slows down the simulation. Note that by changing the
clock frequency we can change the sine wave frequency.
The runtime performance of the state machine is far superior to
the Figure 6 method (Figure 6: 79.15 seconds, State Machine
circuit: 14.50 seconds, Pentium/75) and its improved perfor
mance will become significant over the course of many runs. In
addition, the ISSPICE4 state machine is a C code model that is
separate from the simulator. The model’s source code is
available to those who might wish to expand its functionality and
input formats. For example, it could be possible for the state
machine to accept ABEL or JEDEC descriptions.
Three Phase Sine Reference
As an extension to the single phase case, Figure 8 demon
strates a three phase sine wave reference circuit. A 6 stage shift
CLK Q
Q

S R
D
X1 FFLOP
R1 4.7K
C1
47N
V1
PULSE
V2
SIN
V(1)
VOUT
R5 47K
C2
8.2N
B1
V= V(9) BITS_OUT
V(7)
FLTR1
VOUT
Tran
1.18
1.01
2.00M 1.00M time
8795
10:8:17
FLTR1
Tran
1.01
1.63
2.00M 1.00M time
8795
10:8:28
V(3) > 1 ? 1 : 0
(V(5)V(7)) > 0 ? 2.5 : 2.5
B2
V=
V(9)
Tran
1.05
50.0M
2.00M 1.00M time
8795
10:8:1
4
6 2
3 7
5
1
9
Figure 6, Circuit used to generate a sine wave and the 1 bit code representing
the sine wave. A portion of the sine wave and bit stream has been crossprobed.
78
Signal Generators
CLK Q
Q

S
R
D
X1 FFLOP
CLK Q
Q

S
R
D
X2 FFLOP
CLK Q
Q

S
R
D
X3 FFLOP
V2
PULSE
V(2)
CLK
CLK Q
Q

S
R
D
X4 FFLOP
CLK Q
Q

S
R
D
X5 FFLOP
CLK Q
Q

S
R
D
X6 FFLOP
V(3)
Q1
V(1)
Q2
V(7)
Q4
V(9)
Q5
V(3)
Q1
R1 380K
R2 380K V(1)
Q2
VCC
VEE
X7
UA741
R4 190K
C3
1200P
C4
2200P
R5
190K
C5
1500P
V(32)
A
V(13)
Q6
V(3)
Tran
5.25
250M
7.00M 2.00M time
V(1)
Tran
5.25
250M
7.00M 2.00M time
0
Tran
3.92
837M
7.00M 2.00M time
CLK
Tran
5.25
250M
7.00M 2.00M time
2
8 5
3
6
1 33
10
7
11
9
12
13
14
18
16
15
23
32
References
[1] “The Quest for magic Sine Waves”, Don Lancaster, Circuit Cellar Ink, #59, 6/95
[2] “SMPS Simulation With SPICE 3”, Steve Sandler, forthcoming from Intusoft
Clock
Zero
A
D
V2
0
A D
V(8)
VI0
A
D
V(2)
VCLK
In0
Clk
Reset
Out0
V(5)
VOUT
C2
47N
R2
47K
C3
8.2N
R3
4.7K
6
3
4 9
8 1
2
5 10
Figure 7, This circuit generates the same sine waves shown in Figure 6,
however, here a ROM (state machine) is used to driver the filter.
register is used to generate 3 quasisquare waves which are
exactly 120 degrees apart. Each waveform has a conduction
angle of 120 degrees. The 120 degree quasisquare waveform
has the advantage of having no third harmonic content; the first
significant harmonic is the fifth. Each quasisquare wave is
filtered by a second order active low pass filter. The quasi
square waves are created by averaging 2 square waves which
are phase shifted by 60 degrees. The sinewave output distor
tion could be further reduced by using a higher order active
filter, reducing the corner frequency of the existing filters, or
replacing the quasisquare waveform with a more sophisticated
waveform to eliminate several more harmonics. Care must be
taken in the placement of the filters, since component toler
ances could easily alter the phase angles between phases;
something that could be investigated with the ISSPICE4 Monte
Carlo analysis. As in the previous case, a state machine model
could be created to hold the waveform’s pulse codes.
Figure 8, Portion of the circuit used to generate a 3 phase sine wave. The taps at
the flipflops are used to drive the active filters. Only one of the 3 phases is shown.
The A/D and D/A translational
bridges are shown for clarity
79
Power Specialist’ s
M od e ling For Powe r
Ele c tronic s
Authors
Christophe BASSO, consultant, Sinard, France
Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
Larry Meares, Intusoft
Slim Petrie, consultant, Arlington Heights, IL
Steve Sandler, Analytical Engineering Services
80
Modeling For Power Electronics
A Spice Model For TRIACs
A. F. Petrie, Independent Consultant, 7 W. Lillian Ave., Arlington Heights, IL 60004
Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
SPICE is the most popular program for simulating the behavior of electronic circuits. The biggest
stumbling block that engineers run into is turning vendor data sheet specifications into SPICE models
that emulate real devices and run without convergence problems. This is especially true for power
devices, like Triacs, where the cost of testing and possibly destroying devices is prohibitive. The follow
ing paper describes the FIRST known SPICE subcircuit macro model for a Triac[1].
Introduction
Berkeley SPICE is the most popular program for simulating
the behavior of electronic circuits. The biggest stumbling
block most engineers run into is turning company
specifications or vendor data sheets into SPICE device
models that emulate real devices and run without problems.
Here is an approach which works well for an TRIAC and
derives directly from data book parameters.
A triac is a bilateral switch that can be triggered into
conduction regardless of its polarity. It is modeled by using
two NPN/PNP transistor pairs connected backtoback as
shown on the left of Figure 4. The base of each transistor is
connected to the collector of the other. This produces positive
feedback, resulting in the required switching action. At MT2,
the emitter metallization overlaps the base of the NPN
transistor. This forms a lateral resistor in the base (P) region
and is shown as RH in the model. RH determines the holding
current of the triac. A similar resistor exists at MT1. These
resistors hold the triac off unless triggered by the gate or the
holding current from a previous “on” condition.
Although this configuration has the basic triggering function
of the triac, it must be enhanced to emulate other important
parameters such as off state leakage, breakover voltage and
current, and voltage and current characteristics in all four
modes of operation. Figure 4 shows the full triac subcircuit.
Resistors and zener diodes are used to simulate the
breakdown voltages and leakage currents. Dependent sources
are used to emulate the various triggering modes and to allow
a wider range of trigger data to be entered.
If adjusting the model parameters for the triac subcircuit
seems a little daunting, you can use SpiceMod. SpiceMod is
a software program that quickly converts data book
parameters into SPICE model parameters. Entering only the
device type and maximum voltage and current ratings will
produce a realistic model as all other parameters are scaled
from them. Naturally, the more data you enter, the more exact
the model will be. Figure 5 shows the triac entry screen from
SpiceMod.
This model and method are used for the TRIAC in the
SpiceMod program. This program allows direct conversion
of data book information to SPICE models for diodes, zeners,
bipolar transistors, JFETs, MOSFETs, SCRs and now Triacs.
Models can be generated as fast as data can be entered. This
Figure 2, Basic Triac subcircuit
MT1
Gate
MT2
RH
RH
QN1
NOUT
QP2
POUT
QN2
NOUT
QP1
POUT
Figure 1, Basic Triac structure
81
Power Specialist’ s
makes it easy to generate models for custom or “house”
devices. Limit devices can be modeled by entering limit
device data. Because these models use standard SPICE
syntax, they can be used with any program that adheres to
SPICE rules.
Data books may show the same values for all four gate trigger
current and voltage modes. However, the values are different
in all four modes. In a real triac, when the gate is driven with
the opposite polarity from the MT2 terminal, the gate must
supply enough current to drive the shunting resistance to
twice the gate voltage, thus the trigger current cannot be the
same for both polarities, regardless of what the data book
limits say. G+ with MT2 always requires more gate drive
than other modes. In this case, it is only necessary to enter
the first mode gate voltage and current and let the program
estimate the others for the most realistic model. SpiceMod
guards against entering grossly unrealistic data and will
attempt to produce the closest realistic model in these
situations.
The SPICE 2G compatible netlist for the triac is shown in
Table 1 (next page). Along with the “Affects” column in
Figure 5, you can get an idea of the relationship between
which data sheet parameters correspond to which SPICE
model parameters.
Figure 4 shows the SPICE subcircuit that was developed to
solve these problems. Replacing the trigger transistors with
diodes and voltage controlled current sources reduces the
number of SPICE parameters needed and provides some
isolation between the four modes of operation. The gate
connections still emulate the feedback to the gate.
Table 1 lists the .SUBCKT for this same model. QN1, an
NPN transistor, has a forward beta of 20 and is connected to
the gate at its base. QP2, a PNP transistor, is connected to
MT2 and QN1 in a positive feedback mode. Due to the fact
.SUBCKT 2N5568 1 2 3
* TERMINALS: MT2 G MT1 Mot. 400V 10A
QN1 5 4 3 NOUT ; Output Transistors
QN2 11 6 7 NOUT ; “OFF” keyword for Q devices
QP1 6 11 3 POUT
QP2 4 5 7 POUT
DF 4 5 DZ ; Forward breakdown diode
DR 6 11 DZ ; Reverse breakdown diode
RF 4 6 40MEG ; Forward leakage current (controls IDRM).
RT2 1 7 52.8M ; Controls “on” resistance
RH 7 6 75 ; Controls reverse holding current
RGP 8 3 54.5 ; Controls fwd holding current and trigger current
RG 2 8 26.4 ; with RGP controls VGT
RS 8 4 52.6 ; with RGP controls forward holding current
DN 9 2 DIN ; Diode to isolate G triggering modes
RN 9 3 27.8 ; Controls current in G trigger modes
GNN 6 7 9 3 38.8M ; Controls G, MT2 trigger voltages
GNP 4 5 9 3 51.2M ; Controls G, MT2+ trigger voltages
DP 2 10 DIP ; Diode to isolate G+, MT2 trigger mode
RP 10 3 16.2 ; Controls current in G+, MT2 trigger mode
GP 7 6 10 3 26.1M ; Controls G+, MT2 trigger voltage
.MODEL DIN D (IS=53.5F) ; Conducts in G modes
.MODEL DIP D (IS=53.5F N=1.19) ; Higher drop diode conducts only in
; G+, MT2 mode
.MODEL DZ D (IS=53.5F N=1.5 IBV=10U BV=400)
.MODEL POUT PNP (IS=53.5F BF=5 CJE=235P TF=25.5U)
.MODEL NOUT NPN (IS=53.5F BF=20 CJE=235P CJC=46.9P TF=1.7U)
.ENDS
Table 1, SPICE 2G Triac model generated by the SpiceMod
modeling program from manufacturer’s data sheet parameters.
Figure 4, SPICE 2G.6 compatible Triac subcircuit.
MT1
RH
75
RF
40MEG
RT2 52.8M
QN1
NOUT
QP2
POUT
RS 52.6
RGP
54.5
RG
26.4
RN 27.8
DN
DIN
DP
DIP
RP
16.2
GNP
51.2M
GNN
38.8M
GP
26.1M
V(1)
MT2
V(3)
MT1
QN2
NOUT
QP1
POUT
V(2)
GATE
DF
DZ
DR
DZ
6
7
4
1
5
3
8 2
9
10
11
2N5568 values
are shown
that there are two stable states (on and off) for the TRIAC, it
is necessary to add the “OFF” statement after the transistors
in the .SUBCKT model or SPICE may never evaluate the
off condition or may hang due to the uncertainty. The OFF
command causes SPICE to start the calculations assuming
the off condition. If the device is really “on”, there is no
stable “off” state, so the OFF command has no effect on the
82
Modeling For Power Electronics
accuracy of the result. (Hint: any time SPICE is used to
evaluate a bistable device, the OFF or ON command must
be used to obtain the correct state.)
Triacs have two stable states. Therefore, it may be necessary
to tell SPICE which state to use, especially when you want
to start a simulation with the triac in the off state. To do this
you can issue the “OFF” keyword on the subcircuit transistor
lines.
Figure 6 shows the low current region of a Motorola 2N5568
triac with no input applied to the gate. This curve was
generated by holding the current to the gate at zero and
sweeping the MT2 current from 50mA to +50mA. The slope
of the curve at the zero axis is determined by the IDRM
specification. The maximum voltage swings in the off state
are determined by the VDRM specification. The trigger
points (+6 and 10mA) are determined by the holding
current.
Simplified behavioral triac models are included with
IsSpice4. Their superior simulation speed and idealized
response can make them useful for investigating triac control
circuitry. However, with power devices such as the triac,
you will normally need models that exhibit 2nd order effects
as well. Without them you can’t run realistic simulations.
Most other SPICE vendors do not offer such sophisticated
power semiconductor models. Fortunately, Intusoft does.
There are four gate trigger modes that must be modeled.
The first mode is similar to an SCR with MT2 positive and
the gate also positive. For convenience, this is combined
with the fourth mode where the gate is also positive and
MT2 is negative. Figure 7 is a plot of MT2 voltage verses
gate current using a 12 volt supply and a 100 ohm load
resistor. Note that the device turns on at the specified 11 mA
when MT2 is positive and at 31 mA of gate current when
MT2 is negative. The first mode gate current and voltage
are controlled by RG and RGP. The fourth mode gate current
Figure 5, Data sheet parameters (above left) used to create the SPICE Triac subcircuit (Table 1). To make a new
model, data sheet values are entered into the SpiceMod entry screen. As they are entered the subcircuit values are
calculated. The more data that is entered, the more accurate the final model will be. The subcircuit parameters
affected by each entered parameter are shown to right.
2
1
15.0M 5.00M 5.00M 15.0M 25.0M
IT2 in Amps
400
0
400
800
1.20K
800M
600M
400M
200M
0
1 2
IG
0
IT2
X4
2N5568
V(6)
ANODEV
V(1)
GATEV
1
2 6
Figure 6, DC analysis of the Motorola 2N5568 triac. Several FREE models are
posted on the Intusoft Web Site.
and voltage are controlled by resistor RE and
the forward beta (BF) of QPG. Table 2 lists
the SPICE file used to generate this curve.
The gate negative mode makes use of diode
DN, resistor RN, and transconductance
generator GN in the subcircuit to turn on
transistors QP1 or QP2. GN is used to adjust
the gate sensitivity when MT2 is negative
and BF of QP2 is used to adjust the gate
sensitivity when MT2 is positive. This
method allows adjustment of gate sensitivity
with minimum interaction. Note that an NPN
transistor could have been used in place of
DN, RN and GN in the model, but a transistor
model is more complex and the control
parameters more difficult to calculate.
1
83
Power Specialist’ s
SPICE Problems:
When running a SPICE analysis using a bistable device like
a TRIAC, the device usually switches on or off, causing a
discontinuity in the output. Since SPICE makes new
calculations starting with the previous values, it doesn’t like
discontinuities. To help SPICE converge, the following
OPTIONS statement is recommended:
.OPTIONS RELTOL=.01 ITL1=500 ITL2=200
The increased iterations only occur when needed and the
reduced accuracy is adequate for a switching circuit. This is
far more desirable than receiving a “no convergence”
message.
I made mention earlier of the unrealistic data found in
manufacturer’s data books. In a real Triac, when the gate is
driven with the opposite polarity from the MT2 terminal,
the gate must supply enough current to drive the shunting
resistance to twice the gate voltage, thus the trigger current
cannot be the same for both polarities, regardless of what
the data book limits say. The values are just made high
enough to cover all devices and polarities. For this reason,
the SpiceMod program will not allow grossly unrealistic
values to be entered.
References:
1. R. L. Avant, F. C. Lee, and D. Y. Chen, A Practical SCR
Model for Computer Aided Analysis of AC Resonant
Charging Circuits, IEEE, July, 1981.
2. Paolo Antognetti and Giuseppe Massobrio, Semiconductor
Device Modeling with SPICE, McGrawHill, 1988.
3. “Thyristor Device Data,” Motorola Inc., DL131, REV3,
1991.
TRIACGT.CIR  TRIAC GATE TRIGGER CURVES
.OPTIONS RELTOL=.01 ITL1=500 ITL2=1500
*.DC IG 0 .05 .0005 VCC 12 12 24
* ^ Gate Trigger Curve
* Note: for some triac models the DC analysis will
* not converge. The Transient analysis may be substituted
.TRAN 1u 1m UIC
.PRINT DC V(1) V(2)
.PRINT TRAN V(1) V(2)
*ALIAS V(1)=MT2 VOLTAGE
*ALIAS V(2)=GATE VOLTAGE
*ALIAS IT2=MT2 CURRENT
*ALIAS IG=GATE CURRENT
*INCLUDE TRIAC.LIB
* ^ Use your library path and name.
VCC 3 0 12V ; or 12V
* ^Set for the proper biasing if using transient
RL 3 1 100
* ^Adjust for device.
IG 0 2 0 pulse 0 .05 0 1M
X1 1 2 0 T435800 ; 2N5568
* ^ Change to desired device.
.END
Table 2, The switching circuit TRIACGT.CIR used to test the DC
and transient Triac performance.
1
2
100.0U 300U 500U 700U 900U
WFM.2 GATE vs. TIME in Secs
1.00
0
1.00
2.00
3.00
2.00
2.00
6.00
10.00
14.0
Figure 7, a plot
of MT2 voltage
versus gate
current using a
12 volt supply
and a 100 ohm
load resistor.
SpiceMod models diodes, Bjts, Jfets, Mosfets, SCRs, IGBTs,
Power Mos, Power BJTs, Sidac, Sidactors, and Darlington
BJTs and now models zeners and triacs. SpiceMod is
compatible with all SPICE simulators and is available from
Intusoft
A. F. “Slim” Petrie is retired from Motorola Inc., where he
was a Principal Staff Engineer and Dan Noble Fellow. He
develops both hardware and software and holds 24 U S
Patents. His “Circuit Analysis” program was sold through
Apple Computer in the early 1980s. With a keen appreciation
for the problems of the working engineer, he continues to
develop tools to make that job easier. He can be reached at
7 W. Lillian Ave., Arlington Heights, IL 60004, where he
welcomes your comments.
2
84
Modeling For Power Electronics
Q1
QOUT
M1
MFIN
DSD
DO
RC
.025
DBE
DE
RG 10 CGE
325P
FFB
VFB
EGD
1
VFB
0
CGD
1N
R1
1
D1
DLIM
D2
DLIM
DHV
DR
R2
1
ESD
POLY(1)
MLV
SW
DLV
DR
RLV 1
RE
2.1M
V(72)
GATE
V(71)
COLLECTR
V(73)
EMITTER
CGC
1P
83
81
85
82
71
72
73
91
93 92
94
96
95
A Spice Model For IGBTs
A. F. Petrie, Independent Consultant, 7 W. Lillian Ave., Arlington Heights, IL 60004
Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
SPICE is the most popular program for simulating the behavior of electronic circuits. The biggest
stumbling block that engineers run into is turning vendor data sheet specifications into SPICE models
that emulate real devices and run without convergence problems. This is especially true for power
devices, like IGBTs, where the cost of testing and possibly destroying devices is prohibitive. The follow
ing paper describes the FIRST known SPICE subcircuit macro model for IGBTs[1].
Introduction
You’ve finally tested a version of your design that
seems to work well, but you would feel a lot better if you
KNEW the circuit would work well with all the devices that
the vendor will supply in production. You found a model in
a library, but you are not sure what specifications from the
data book apply to that model. The following paragraphs
will try to clarify the relationship between data book speci
fications and a new Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
subcircuit SPICE model.
Modeling An IGBT
An IGBT is really just a power MOSFET with an
added junction in series with the drain. This creates a para
sitic transistor driven by the MOSFET and permits increased
current flow in the same die area. The sacrifice is an addi
tional diode drop due to the extra junction and turnoff de
lays while carriers are swept out of this junction.
Figure 1 shows a simplified schematic of an IGBT.
Note that what is called the “collector” is really the emitter
of the parasitic PNP. What we have is a MOSFET driving
an emitter follower. Although this model is capable of pro
ducing the basic function of an IGBT, refinements are re
quired for more accurate modeling and to emulate the non
linear capacitance and breakdown effects.
Expanded IGBT Model
Figure 2 shows the complete subcircuit. Table 1 shows
the corresponding SPICE 2G.6 compatible subcircuit netlist
for an International Rectifier IRGBC40U device [2]. The
subcircuit is generic in nature, meaning, that component
values in the subcircuit can be easily recalculated to emu
late different IGBT devices. The model accurately simu
lates, switching loses, nonlinear capacitance effects, onvolt
age, forward/reverse breakdown, turnon/turnoff delay, rise
time and fall tail, active output impedance, collector curves
including mobility modulation.
Let’s discuss the subcircuit one component at a time:
Q1 is a PNP transistor which functions as an emitter
follower to increase the current handling ability of the IGBT.
BF (Forward Beta) is determined by the step in the turnoff
tail which indicates the portion of the current handled by the
PNP. TF (Forward Transit Time) controls the turnoff tail
time. The OFF control parameter can be added to aid DC
convergence by starting DC calculations with Q1 turned off.
MOSFET M1 emulates the input MOSFET [3, 4]. The
Berkeley SPICE Level=3 model is used in the .MODEL
MFIN statement in order to better model modern device char
acteristics. VMAX (Maximum Drift Velocity) controls the
collector (drain) curves in the saturation region, and hence
the VCE(on) voltage. THETA (Mobility Modulation Pa
rameter) is used to reduce the gain at high gate voltages which
is normally exponential. ETA (Static Feedback) is similar
to the “Early effect” in bipolar transistors and is used to
Figure 2, SPICE 2G.6 compatible IGBT subcircuit
Figure 1, Basic IGBT subcircuit
M1
MFIN
Q1
QOUT
V(72)
GATE
V(71)
COLLECTR
V(73)
EMITTER
73
1
72
71
85
Power Specialist’ s
control the slope of the collector curves in the active region
and hence the output impedance. VTO (Threshold Voltage)
is directly proportional to Gate Threshold Voltage VGE(th).
KP (Intrinsic Transconductance) is related to the test pa
rameter gfe (Forward Transconductance) but must be ad
justed for VTO, VMAX, THETA, and ETA.
DSD emulates the sourcedrain (substrate) diode, its
capacitance, and forward breakdown voltage. VJ and M
have been adjusted to better emulate the (Coes) capacitance
curve. This diode includes breakdown voltage and capaci
tor CBD as CJO. DBE, the BE diode of the output transis
tor, emulates the reverse breakdown of the PNP baseemit
ter junction (and of the IGBT). IS is made small and N
large to avoid shunting the junction in the forward direc
tion.
RC, the collector resistance, represents the resistive
part of VCE(on). With the BE diode, RC controls the
VCE(on) voltage. RE, the emitter ohmic resistance, pro
vides the feedback between emitter current and gate volt
age. RG, the gate resistance, combines with the gate ca
pacities in the subcircuit to help emulate the turnon and
turnoff delays, and the rise and fall times.
CGE, the GatetoEmitter capacitor, equals Cies mi
nus Cres. CGC, the GatetoCollector capacitor, is a fixed
capacitor representing package capacitances which are im
portant at high voltages where Cres is small.
There are nine parts that replace the CGDO capaci
tor to more accurately model the change in capacitance
with gate and drain voltage [5]. EGD is a voltage genera
tor equal to M1’s gatetodrain voltage which is used to
supply voltage to the feedback capacitance emulating sub
circuit. VFB is a voltage generator used to monitor the
current in the feedback capacitance emulation subcircuit
for FFB. FFB is a current controlled current source used
to inject the feedback current back into M1. EGD, VFB,
and FFB provide the necessary power to drive the feed
back components in parallel without loading M1. They
also permit ground connections in the subcircuit, improv
ing convergence and accuracy. CGD is the fixed part of
the gatetodrain capacitor. R1 and D1 limit its operation
to the region where the gate voltage exceeds the drain
voltage. DHV is a diode which emulates the gatetodrain
capacitor at high voltages. R2 and D2 limit its operation
to the region where the drain voltage exceeds the gate
voltage. DLV is a diode which emulates the gatetodrain
capacitance variation with drain voltages (variable part
of Cres) below the transition voltage. The multiplier (=C1/
C2  1) used is determined by the size of the capacitance
step needed. RLV shunts its current to ground at higher
voltages. ESD is a voltage controlled voltage source that
senses sourcetodrain voltage and drives MLV. The
POLY form is used so that the proper offset voltage can
be inserted without an additional element. MLV is used
as a switch to disconnect DLV from the feedback at higher
Table 1, IRGBC40U IGBT Subcircuit
.SUBCKT IRGBC40U 71 72 74
* TERMINALS: C G E
* 600 Volt 40 Amp 6.04NS NChannel IGBT
Q1 83 81 85 QOUT
M1 81 82 83 83 MFIN L=1U W=1U
DSD 83 81 DO
DBE 85 81 DE
RC 85 71 21.1M
RE 83 73 2.11M
RG 72 82 25.6
CGE 82 83 1.42N
CGC 82 71 1P
EGD 91 0 82 81 1
VFB 93 0 0
FFB 82 81 VFB 1
CGD 92 93 1.41N
R1 92 0 1
D1 91 92 DLIM
DHV 94 93 DR
R2 91 94 1
D2 94 0 DLIM
DLV 94 95 DR 13
RLV 95 0 1
ESD 96 93 POLY(1) 83 81 19 1
MLV 95 96 93 93 SW
LE 73 74 7.5N
.MODEL SW NMOS (LEVEL=3 VTO=0 KP=5)
.MODEL QOUT PNP (IS=377F NF=1.2 BF=5.1 CJE=3.48N
+ TF=24.3N XTB=1.3)
.MODEL MFIN NMOS (LEVEL=3 VMAX=400K THETA=36.1M ETA=2M
+ VTO=5.2 KP=2.12)
.MODEL DR D (IS=37.7F CJO=100P VJ=1 M=.82)
.MODEL DO D (IS=37.7F BV=600 CJO=2.07N VJ=1 M=.7)
.MODEL DE D (IS=37.7F BV=14.3 N=2)
.MODEL DLIM D (IS=100N)
.ENDS
voltages, emulating the drastic reduction in feedback capaci
tance with voltage found in most modern IGBTs.
LE emulates the emitter lead inductance. 7.5 nano
henries represents the lead inductance of a TO220 plastic
package. The total lead inductance Le is an important high
speed limit parameter and should include all external lead
inductance through which output current flows before it
reaches the common ground with the drive circuit. The in
ductance of the drain and gate leads have little effect on
simulations but could be easily added to the subcircuit. You
may, however, want to add in 7 nH per cm. or 18 nH per
inch for any PCB traces or wires. Typical internal induc
tances are: TO220 (plastic): 7.5 nH , TO218 (plastic): 8
nH (1 bond wire), 4 nH (2 wires), TO204 (TO3) (metal):
12.5 nH [6].
Software Solution To Modeling Headaches
If entering and adjusting all of these parameters seems
a little too complex and timeconsuming, you can take the
easy way out and generate your IGBT subcircuit using
SpiceMod, a general purpose SPICE modeling program that
supports IGBT model development. SpiceMod derives
SPICE parameters from generally available data book in
formation. The most unique feature of SpiceMod is its esti
mation capability. If some of the data sheet parameters are
not available, SpiceMod will provide estimates for data not
entered based on the data that is entered. Thus, SpiceMod
will never leave a key SPICE parameter at its default value.
86
Modeling For Power Electronics
This is the downfall of many modeling programs and can
cause the resulting SPICE model to be invalid. Figure 3
shows the input parameters from the data book and the SPICE
parameters that are primarily affected by each input for the
device in Table 1.
SpiceMod is so intelligent that a reasonable first or
der device model can be obtained by simply entering the
voltage and current ratings of the device. Of course, the
more data entered, the more accurate the final model. In
addition to IGBTs, SpiceMod also produces models for di
odes, zeners, BJTs, JFETs and MOSFETs, and subcircuit
macromodels for power transistors, Darlington transistors,
power MOSFETs, and SCRs [7]. All of the models are Ber
keley SPICE 2G compatible and can be used with any SPICE
program on any computer platform. Detailed next are the
DC and Transient performance characteristics of the out
lined IGBT model.
IGBT Testing
Figure 4 shows the output characteristics of the
Note that all capacitance tests are made with the IGBT
in a nonconducting mode. In normal operation the capaci
tive feedback current is multiplied by (BF+1) at the output,
so BF is an important parameter.
The circuit in Figure 7 (TSWITCH.CIR) is used to
simulate various switching effects. The current generator
available in IsSpice4 replaces the inductor and two other
switching devices normally used for this test. Note the two
input voltage controlled current source that is added to mul
tiply the IGBT voltage and current to compute power (mea
sured across the oneohm resistor). This power (current) is
then integrated by the capacitor CE to get energy (as volt
age). The multiplication and integration could have just as
easily been done in a SPICE postprocessing program.
However, when the waveforms are calculated by IsSpice4
the simulated waveforms can be crossprobed directly on
the schematic as shown in Figure 7. It should be noted that
the data sheet values for switching characteristics can be
greatly affected by the test circuit and test load used. Care
should be given to properly constructing the test circuit based
Figure 4, Data sheet (waveform 2, dots) and simulated (waveform 1,
solid) output characteristics for the IRGBC40U.
2
1
1.00 3.00 5.00 7.00 9.00
VCE (27 Degrees) in Volts
300
200
100.0
0
100.0
I
C
(
S
i
m
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)
i
n
A
m
p
s
300
200
100.0
0
100.0
I
C
(
D
a
t
a
s
h
e
e
t
)
i
n
A
m
p
s
Figure 3, Data sheet parameters (above left) used to create the SPICE IGBT subcircuit (Table 1). To
make a new model, data sheet values are entered into the SpiceMod entry screen. As they are entered the
subcircuit values are calculated. The more data that is entered, the more accurate the final model will be.
The subcircuit parameters affected by each entered parameter.
used in switching power
supplies, this is not an
unusual occurrence. Ex
cess energy in reverse
breakdown was a fre
quent killer of early
IGBTs.
Figure 5 shows the
capacitance variations
verses gate and collector
voltages for the model.
The Xaxis is collector
togate voltage, so the
left part with negative
voltages actually repre
sents positive gate volt
age while the right part
represents positive col
lector voltages.
IRGBC40U as simulated by IsSpice4, a native mixed mode
SPICE 3F based simulator. Note the offset from zero
caused by the baseemitter diode of the PNP. The slight
slope of the curves, controlled by ETA, represents the
output impedance. The values are well within the data
sheet tolerances without any need for optimization. This
is not surprising given the possible variation in the device’s
gfe. However, it is easy to see that with the simple circuits
provided here, it is quite easy to tweak the model perfor
mance for a given situation.
The model exhibits forward and reverse breakdown
effects. Although not normally operated in these modes,
inductive flyback effects can easily drive an IGBT into
one or both of these regions. Because IGBTs are frequently
1
87
Power Specialist’ s
VIN
PULSE
RIN
10
X1
DUT
IL
20
RL
.01
A*B
GPWR
0
V(1)
VIN
RPWR
1
CEN
1
V(6)
ESW
V(30)
VOUT
D2
DZEN
REN
1E6
VC
V(3)
Tran
504
25.0
1.00U 0 time
121594
13:54:14
ESW
Tran
1.55M
72.5U
1.00U 0 time
121594
13:54:12
I(VC)
Tran
21.0
1.15
1.00U 0 time
121594
13:54:15
1 2
30 4
5 3 6
on the data sheet information, otherwise the simulation re
sults may not be comparable with the actual performance.
Switching losses are calculated by multiplying the
IGBT current and voltage waveforms during the switching
period (figure 8). Note that the voltage does not begin to
fall until the current reaches maximum and that the current
does not begin to fall until the voltage reaches maximum.
Note the long tail on the current waveform due to the PNP
(controlled by TF).
Figure 9 shows the instantaneous power and cumula
tive energy curves which match the curves in Figure 8. Note
that the scale is millijoules, so the final value is 1.5
millijoules.
Temperature Effects
Diode voltage shifts due to temperature are properly
modeled by SPICE, but others are not well emulated. Re
sistive shifts with temperature can be approximated by add
ing a temperature coefficient to RC (RC 85 71 21.1M RC 85 71 21.1M RC 85 71 21.1M RC 85 71 21.1M RC 85 71 21.1M
TC=.01 TC=.01 TC=.01 TC=.01 TC=.01 for SPICE 2, or RC 85 71 21.1M RMOD RC 85 71 21.1M RMOD RC 85 71 21.1M RMOD RC 85 71 21.1M RMOD RC 85 71 21.1M RMOD &
.MODEL RMOD R TC1=.01 .MODEL RMOD R TC1=.01 .MODEL RMOD R TC1=.01 .MODEL RMOD R TC1=.01 .MODEL RMOD R TC1=.01 for SPICE 3). This was not
included in the subcircuit because it can cause error mes
sages due to differences in SPICE implementations from
some vendors. Temperature effects can best be handled by
entering data book parameters at temperature into the sub
circuit for an accurate high temperature model.
Example Usage: 3 Phase IGBT Inverter
As a practical example, a 3 phase inverter with sim
plified motor load was simulated (Figure 10). The IGBT
model allows examination of both circuit and IGBT related
design issues. For the inverter circuit, Figure 10 shows the
lineline and lineneutral quantities, as well as the IGBT
switching waveforms. In Figure 11, the effect of varying
the load inductances (LA, LB, and LC) is displayed. The
control circuitry has been simplified so as not to unneces
TSWITCH.CIR  Device Switching Characteristics
.PRINT TRAN V(3) V(4,3) V(5,6) V(6) I(VC)
.IC V(6)=0
.TRAN 2N 1000N
*ALIAS V(6)=ESW
*ALIAS V(3)=VOUT
RIN 1 2 10 ;SET TEST R(GEN)
X1 30 2 0 IRGBC40U ;REPLACE WITH YOUR DEVICE NAME
VC 3 30
IL 0 4 20 ;SET TEST CURRENT
RL 3 4 .01
GPWR 0 5 POLY(2) 3 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 100
* MULTIPLIES VOLTAGE AND CURRENT TO YIELD POWER AS V(5,6)
RPWR 5 6 1
CEN 6 0 1 ;INTEGRATES POWER TO GIVE ENERGY/PULSE AS V(6)
D2 0 4 DZEN
.MODEL DZEN D(BV=480 IBV=.001)
* ^ SET TEST VOLTAGE
REN 6 0 1E6 ;PROVIDES DC PATH TO GROUND
VIN 1 0 PULSE 0 15 0 1N 1N 200N 1000N
.END
Figure 6, The switching circuit TSWITCH.CIR (below) used to test
the transient IGBT performance.
Figure 5, Simulated capacitance characteristics for the IRGBC40U.
All waveforms are scaled the same.
Figure 7, Test circuit (Tswitch.Cir) used to
simulate switching losses. ESW represents
the switching energy. The crossprobed
waveforms V(3) and I(VC) represent the
IGBT votlage and current, respectively.
88
Modeling For Power Electronics
2
1
100.0N 300N 500N 700N 900N
WFM.1 VOUT vs. TIME in Secs
400
200
0
200
400
V
O
U
T
i
n
V
o
l
t
s
45.0
35.0
25.0
15.0
5.00
C
o
l
l
e
c
t
o
r
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
i
n
A
m
p
s
2
1
100.0N 300N 500N 700N 900N
TIME in Secs
8.00K
4.00K
0
4.00K
8.00K
I
G
B
T
P
o
w
e
r
i
n
W
a
t
t
s
4.00M
3.00M
2.00M
1.00M
0
S
w
i
t
c
h
i
n
g
E
n
e
r
g
y
i
n
J
o
u
l
e
s
V10
48
V(20)
VA
V(18)
VB
V(15)
VC
RA 10
RC 10
RB 10
V11
48
I(V12)
IIGBT1
V(11)
VNEUTRAL
LA .01H
LB .01H
LC .01H
I(V13)
IIGBT4
I(LA)
Tran
6.72
6.73
50.0M 0 time
10394
10:21:17
VNEUTRAL
Tran
51.3
19.5
50.0M 0 time
10394
10:21:24
VAN
Tran
69.6
69.6
50.0M
0
time
10394
10:21:35
VAB
Tran
105
105
50.0M
0
time
10394
10:21:49
VGE
Tran
16.0
6.01
50.0M
0
time
10394
10:21:54
VCE
Tran
102
5.66
50.0M
0
time
10394
10:21:59
IIGBT1
Tran
6.57
3.53
50.0M 0 time
10394
10:21:5
15 18
14
2
16
19
20
25 11
27
9
1 5 7
3 6 8
sarily complicate the simulation. An antiparallel diode has
been included in the IGBT subcircuit used in this simula
tion by adding a diode from nodes 74 to 71. For those of
you who think that such simulation are beyond the capabil
ity of PC, on a 90MHz Pentium the 166 element inverter
circuit runs in 28.05 seconds. On a 275MHz Digital Alpha
Figure 8, Switching losses are calculated by multiplying the current
and voltage waveforms during the switching period.
1 2
Figure 9, The instantaneous power (waveform 1) and cumulative
energy (waveform 2) curves which match the curves in figure 8.
1 2
A SPICE IGBT subcircuit has been developed that
relates well to data book information. It models the DC
collector family and on voltages, nonlinear capacitance
effects, and switching characteristics. Forward and reverse
breakdown characteristics are also included.
The model finally gives power engineers the ability to
simulate all types of IGBT based circuits [9]. An intelligent
modeling program has been introduced that quickly gener
ates custom SPICE subcircuits from data supplied by the
user and estimates reasonable values for any missing data
by scaling from the supplied data.
References
[1] Charles E. Hymowitz, Intusoft Newsletter, “Intusoft
Modeling Corner”, Intusoft, June 1992, San Pedro, CA
90731
[2] “Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Designer’s Manual”,
International Rectifier, El Segundo, CA 90245
[3] Andrei Vladimirescu and Sally Liu, “The Simulation
of MOS Integrated Circuits Using SPICE”, UCB/ERL
M80/7, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720
[4] Paolo Antognetti and Giuseppe Massobrio, “Semicon
ductor Device Modelling with SPICE”, McGrawHill,
1988
[5] CharlesEdouard Cordonnier, Application Note AN
1043, “Spice Model for TMOS Power MOSFETs”,
Motorola Inc. 1989
[6] Lawrence G. Meares and Charles E. Hymowitz, “Simu
lating with SPICE”, Intusoft, San Pedro, CA 90731
Figure 10, A 3 phase inverter circuit. Crossprobed waveforms show the line
line and linephase voltages, the phase A current, and the IGBT switching
waveforms.
Diode is included
in the subcircuit
AXP PC) it runs in under 6 seconds!!
Issues such as parallel IGBT operation,
overcurrent/short circuit protection circuitry,
and various snubber configurations can also be
explored with the model.
Conclusions and Future Work
There are a number of ways to better
model the nonlinear gatedrain capacitance. An
enhanced method using the SPICE 3 B element
is described in [8]. It uses half the number of
elements and allows alternate capacitance re
sponses, such as a sigmoidal response, to be
constructed. More importantly, [9] describes
a new AHDL (Analog Hardware Description
Language) based on ‘C’ that will allow much
more accurate and efficient IGBT models to
be developed.
89
Power Specialist’ s
Figure 11, The waveforms show the phase A current for three different simulations
where the load inductances LA, LB, and LC were varied (.1µH, .01µH, and .001µH).
2
3
1
5.00M 15.0M 25.0M 35.0M 45.0M
TIME in Secs
18.0
12.0
6.00
0
6.00
P
h
a
s
e
A
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
L
=
.
0
0
1
H
)
i
n
A
m
p
s
3.00
3.00
9.00
15.0
21.0
P
h
a
s
e
A
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
L
=
.
1
H
)
i
n
A
m
p
s
1 3
All Waveforms
Yscale  3A/Div
L=.1µH
L=.001µH
L=.01µH
[7] SpiceMod User’s Guide, Intusoft, June 1990, San Pedro,
CA 90731
[8] Charles E. Hymowitz, Intusoft Newsletter, “New Tech
nique Improves Power Models”, Intusoft, June 1992,
San Pedro, CA 90731
[9] Charles E. Hymowitz, Intusoft Newsletter, “3 Phase
IGBT Inverter” & “New AHDL Based On 'C'”, Octo
ber 1994, San Pedro, CA 90731
Sample models for several IGBT devices are avail
able free of charge on the Compuserve CADD/CAM/CAE
Vendor forum, Library 21 (Go CADDVEN at any ! prompt)
for Compuserve users and an ftp site (ftp.iee.ufrgs.br.) for
Internet users. The SpiceMod program is available from
Intusoft.
1
90
Modeling For Power Electronics
In power supply design and testing a load that draws constant
power is often needed. For example, for batteryenergy
measurements using a simple resistor as a load is
unacceptable for applications that require you to accurately
monitor generated or consumed power.
Battery energy density (watts/hour) is normally found by
measuring the total output power (W=V×I) over time. This
task is relatively simple if you use an automated system to
take frequent and periodic measurements of the discharge
current and battery voltage while keeping track of time.
Monitoring discharge time using a simple resistor or a
constantcurrent sink as a load yields an inaccurate result,
particularly when you want to compare the performance of
different battery chemistries. The various battery types have
many dischargevoltage characteristics, and power output
varies as the output voltage changes. To maintain constant
power, you must adjust the discharge current to compensate
for batteryvoltage variation during discharge. As the battery
voltage drops, load current must increase to maintain a
constant V×I.
Constantpower loads can exhibit a negative incremental
input resistance within the regulation bandwidth of the power
converter. Distributed power systems that include a large
percentage of constantpower loads and contain energy
storage devices may be susceptible to potentially
destabilizing interactions of these elements.
To model such a load for simulation purposes, we can use
the Berkeley SPICE arbitrary dependent source B element.
For example:
B1 N1 N2 I={Power_Load}/V(N1,N2)
For this expression, the power is equal to V*I which is equal
to
V(N1,N2)*(Power_Load/V(N1,N2))
= Power_Load as desired.
The problem with this approximation is that it undefined
near V(N1,N2) = 0. When calculating the small signal bias
point or initial transient solution for a circuit, IsSpice4 scales
back the GMIN and independent source values. IsSpice4
relies on the assumption that, when the power supplies are
close to 0, all devices in the circuit are turned off. The B1
statement violates this assumption. In any case, it is also not
a good model of a real constant power load for low voltages.
A realistic constant power load can only consume power
over a limited range of applied voltage. When the voltage
drops below this range, the load’s impedance stops falling.
For certain types of loads, a series connection of two
resistances can be used with one fixed and one variable.
This can be written as:
R
total
= Rmin + Rvar = Rmin + V
2
/P >
I = V/R
total
= V/(Rmin+V
2
/P) = 1/(Rmin/V+V/P).
For low voltages, I=V/Rmin, for high voltages, I=P/V.
The crossover occurs at:
Rmin/V = V/P > V
2
= RminP > V
2
/Rmin = P
when the power dissipated in Rmin equals the desired power,
P. This is the point of maximum power dissipation into Rmin.
For higher voltages the current falls and most of the power
is dissipated by Rvar.
The corresponding IsSpice4 statement is:
B1 N1 N2 I=1 / (RMIN/V(N1,V2) +
+ V(N1,N2)/PLOAD)
where RMIN and PLOAD must be defined before simulation.
The RMIN and PLOAD values can be passed to B1 by using
the following syntax:
.PARAM RMIN=val1 PLOAD=val2
B1 N1 N2 I=1 / ({RMIN}/V(N1,V2) +
+ V(N1,N2)/{PLOAD})
where val1 and val2 are numbers or expressions.
References
[1] “Load simulator maintains constant power”, Khy Vijeh,
Analog Devices, Santa Clara, CA, EDN Design Idea
April 11, 1996
[2] Microsim, The Design Center, Application Notes, 1996
SPICE 3 Models Constant Power Loads
Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft, USA, email: charles@intusoft.com
October 1996
91
Power Specialist’ s
Simulating Circuits With SCRs
When modeling devices for simulation, the best model is one that
accurately emulates the real part, simulates efficiently, converges
well, and is easy to create. A new SCR model, implemented in the
forth coming version of the SPICEMOD, SPICE modeling spread
sheet program, is just such a model. This article explains the
model, which is based on the two transistor [1,2] and four
transistor Intusoft model [3], and provides an example of its use.
Figure 1 shows the design of a typical planar “shorted emitter”
SCR and the classical two transistor combination used to model
the positive feedback effects of the four semiconductor layers.
The NPN transistor models the three layers at the cathode end
and the PNP transistor models the three layers at the anode end.
The two center layers are common to both transistors.
The cathode (emitter) metallization overlaps the gate (base) of the
NPN transistor, forming a leakage path to carry leakage currents
around the gate until the gate is triggered from an external source.
This is shown as RGK in the model.
The base of each transistor is connected to the opposite collector
forming positive feedback as soon as both baseemitter junctions
become forward biased. Although this model has the triggering
function of an SCR, it must be enhanced to emulate other
parameters such as off state leakage, breakover voltage and
current, reverse breakdown characteristics and dv/dt turnon.
Figure 2 shows the additions to the basic model. Table 1 lists a
sample .SUBCKT netlist from the PRESPICE libraries. For Intusoft
Newsletter subscribers, several additional new SCR models have
been included on the enclosed floppy disk. The availability of the
new SPICEMOD program, containing new SCR, IGBT, and Zener
models will be announced in the next newsletter.
The Basic SCR Model
SPICEMOD Improves The SCR Model
Figure 1, Cross
section of a pla
nar shorted emit
ter SCR and its
basic equivalent
representati on
using NPN and
PNP transistors.
P+
P+
N
N+ P+
A G K
4
5
1
3
QN
NOUT
QP
POUT
RGK
GATE
ANODE
CATHODE
N
P
N
P
Cathode
Anode
Gate
Simulating Circuits With SCRs
Slim Petrie, Charles Hymowitz, Excerpts from the February 1992 Intusoft Newsletter #24
92
Modeling For Power Electronics
The following parameters are used to calculate various forward
and reverse characteristics. Only parameters that are generally
available in data sheets are used because this is normally the only
data that engineers have access to.
Parameters For Forward BreakOver and Reverse Characteristics
VDRM = Max. Forward Voltage VRRM = Max. Reverse Voltage
IDRM = Leakage Current @ VDRM IRRM = Leakage Current at VRRM
VRGM = Max. Reverse Gate Voltage IT = RMS Forward Current
VGT = Gate Trigger Voltage IGT = Gate Trigger Current
IH = Holding Current
QN, the NPN transistor, has a forward beta of 100 and contains
the gate at its base. QP, the PNP transistor, has a forward beta of
one to emulate the (lower gain) high voltage junction near the
anode. The resistor RF emulates the forward leakage current
when the SCR is “off” (QN is off, but QP is on). Zener diode DF sets
the breakdown voltage in the forward direction. Internal series
resistance, RS, is added to this diode to produce a rounded peak.
RF = (BFp + 1) ∗ VDRM / IDRM (1)
where BFp = BF of QP (set at 1)
for DF:
BV = VDRM (2)
IBV = IDRM / 10 (3)
RS = RF / 10 (4)
Resistor RR emulates the leakage when the SCR is reverse
biased. The baseemitter junction of QP sees most of the voltage
in this mode. The zener diode, DR, sets the reverse breakdown
point. Diode DGK serves a similar function for QN, but its
breakdown voltage is set between five to seven volts (VGR).
Figure 2, SPICEMOD takes the data sheet parameters shown above and generates an
ISSPICE .SUBCKT model (schematic on left) for the SCR. Parameters not available will
be estimated by SPICEMOD based on the data that is entered insuring a realistic model.
Forward Breakover/Reverse Characteristics
4
6
5
1
2
3
QN
NOUT
QP
POUT
RR
DGK
DF
DR
RGK
RG
RF
RK
GATE
ANODE
CATHODE
93
Power Specialist’ s
RR = VRRM / IRRM (5)
for DR:
IS = .001 ∗ ISp (6)
BV = VRRM (7)
IBV = IRRM / 10 (8)
for DGK:
IS = .001 ∗ ISn (9)
BV = VRGM (10)
IBV = IDRM / 10 (11)
Because these diodes shunt the baseemitter junctions, their IS
(leakage current) is made 1000 times smaller than the IS of the
transistors to minimize their effect on these junctions. It is also
important not to use any base or emitter resistance (RB, RE) in
these transistors as they would cause voltage drops that would
forward bias the diodes, robbing current from the transistors.
Parameters Used For Gate Characteristics
IGM = Peak Gate Current VGM = Peak Gate Voltage
VTM = Forward (on) Voltage ITM = Forward (on) Current
It is necessary to add a cathode resistance to emulate the
increase in gate voltage with cathode current. RK serves this
function. The rest of the “on” voltage is simulated with model
parameter RC in QN, eliminating the need for an additional
external part. A gate resistor, RG, has been added to properly
simulate the resistance found when overdriving the gate.
R(sat) = (VTM  VD) / ITM (12)
RK = .2 ∗ R(sat) (13)
RC = .8 ∗ R(sat) (14)
RG = ( (VGM  VD) / IGM)  RK (15)
where VD = BE diode drop (approx. VGT)
Because this model has separate resistors shunting each junc
tion, convergence is improved over other models.
Switching time limits are modeled using NPN/PNP charge stor
age model parameters. Note that TF is the forward transit time, not
the fall time, and TR is the reverse transit time, not the rise time.
TF = .179 ∗ t(on) (16)
TR = 1.7 ∗ t(off) (17)
Gate Characteristics
Dynamic Characteristics
Forward /Reverse Characteristics con't
94
Modeling For Power Electronics
Table 1, ISSPICE subcircuit listing for the Powerex C180 phase control SCR with
VDRM=100V and IT(avg)=150A.
DR 1 4 ZR
DG 6 3 ZG
.MODEL ZF D (IS=94F IBV=2M BV=100 RS=1.5K)
.MODEL ZR D (IS=94F IBV=2M BV=133)
.MODEL ZG D (IS=94F IBV=2M BV=5)
.MODEL POUT PNP (IS=94P BF=1 CJE=37.8N TF=337N TR=170U)
.MODEL NOUT NPN (IS=94P BF=100 RE=233U RC=233U
+ CJE=37.8N CJC=7.56N TF=337N TR=170U)
.ENDS
.SUBCKT C180 1 2 3
* TERMINALS: A G K
* Powerex 100 Volt 150 Amp SCR
QP 6 4 1 POUT OFF
QN 4 6 3 NOUT OFF
RF 6 4 10K
RR 1 4 6.66K
RG 6 3 10
RGS 2 6 4.66M
DF 6 4 ZF
Parameters Used For Dynamic Characteristics
t(on), td+tr = turnon Time t(off), tq = turnoff Time
dv/dt = Forward Voltage Application Rate
The dv/dt limit is reached in an SCR when a change in the anode
voltage flowing through the output capacitance (COE) causes
sufficient current to flow in the gate circuit to turn the SCR on. The
effective collector capacitance (CJC) can be calculated using the
dv/dt specifications:
COE = IH /dv/dt (18)
CJC = COE (adjusted for test voltages) (19)
= COE ∗ (1+VD/VJE)^MJE (20)
where VJE=.75 and MJE=.33 (ISSPICE default). The input capaci
tance, which is seldom given in data books, is estimated at five
times the collector capacitance:
CJE = 5 ∗ CJC (21)
Using a model for an SCR, (Philips BTW38) a simple resonant
buck regulator (Figure 3) was constructed. The L1/C2 combina
tion has a resonant frequency of 4kHz. The SCR is controlled by
the pulsed current source, I2. Of note is the fact that the damping
network across diode D1 is needed to reduce ringing at the
cathode which might turn the SCR on. Without the R/C network,
the SPICE simulation may abort unless the .OPTIONS param
eters RELTOL is relaxed to .01. The constant current source I1,
models a constant load. In order to achieve a steady state
response at the beginning of the simulation, its value must be
adjusted to the average value of the current flow in the inductor.
A SPICE SCR subcircuit has been developed that relates well to
data book parameters. It emulates both the forward and reverse
characteristics while avoiding convergence problems. However,
the breakdown behavior, emulated in this and other models, may
cause convergence problems due to various cascading
Simulating A Resonant Regulator
Conclusions
95
Power Specialist’ s
nonlinearities. Therefore, aborted simulation results should be
checked to see if the device ratings were exceeded, especially
near the end of the simulation. Sensitive gate SCR devices can be
modeled because the internal RGK will generally have a large
value, thus allowing the addition of an external resistor. GTOs,
which are similar to SCRs except for a smaller gate resistor, can
also be modeled by putting in the proper Peak gate current and
voltage.
[1] “A Practical SCR Model for Computer Aided Analysis of AC Resonant
Charging Circuits”, R.L. Avant, F.C. Lee, and D.Y. Chen, IEEE, July, 1981.
[2] “A SPICE Model for the SCR”, Waiman, F. Ki, Master Thesis,
Department of E & CS, UC Berkeley, Dec., 1979.
[3] “PRESPICE User's Guide”, Intusoft, 1991.
[4] “Semiconductor Device Modelling with SPICE”, Paolo Antognetti and
Giuseppe Massobrio, McGrawHill, 1988.
[5] “Bipolar Power Transistor and Thyristor Data”, Motorola Inc., DL111,
REV3, 1984.
A great deal of thanks goes to the author of this article and developer of
SPICEMOD, the SPICE modeling Spreadsheet. A. F. “Slim” Petrie. Mr.
Petrie is retired from Motorola Inc., where he was a Principal Staff
Engineer and Dan Noble Fellow. He develops both hardware and soft
ware and holds 24 U.S. Patents. His “Circuit Analysis” program was sold
through Apple computer in the early 1980s. With a keen appreciation for
the problems of the working engineer, he continues to develop tools to
make that job easier. He can be reached at 7 W. Lillian Ave., Arlington
Heights, IL 60004, where he welcomes your comments.
References and Biography
2
1
5 7 6
15
17
V1
200V
D1 MUR860
L1
325UH
C2
5UF
I1
5.1A
V(7)
VOUT
V3
I(V3)
IL1
V4
D2
MUR860
R3
10
I2
PULSE
X4 BTW38
R4 100
C3 .01U
Figure 3, Using the new SCR model, a resonant buck regulator circuit can be simulated.
Yscale  50V/Div, Yzero  200V
Xscale  200us/Div, Xzero  1ms
96
Modeling For Power Electronics
LPKG
8N
RS
13MOHM
RFR
1K
RB
105MOHM
MFR
BULK CFR
10P
DIO DMOD1
BDIO
I=
DCAP DMOD2
CPAR 23P
Anode
Cathode
Schottky rectifiers are widely used in switched mode converters
due to their inherently lower forward voltage characteristics and
superior recovery time. Schottky diodes can normally be mod
eled using the builtin SPICE diode. However, in the case of
power Schottky rectifiers, two effects must be accounted for
that are not part of the builtin SPICE model. The first is the
conductivity modulation in the forward conductance and the
second is the reverse leakage current which is an exponential
function of both temperature and reverse voltage. ISSPICE3
contains the functions necessary to construct a reasonable
power Schottky model that adds these enhancements.
Figure 2 shows the subcircuit schematic of the new power
Schottky rectifier. The diode, DIO, accounts for most of the
traditional Schottky behavior. A Schottky diode is a majority
carrier device whose reverse recovery time is zero. However,
its larger junction capacitance, CJO, will produce a similar
effect. Therefore, the minority carrier storage time parameter,
TT, is left at its default value of 0. The emission coefficient, N,
is normally set close to 1. The saturation current value, IS, is
typically much higher (two orders of magnitude) than for pn
diodes. The values for saturation current temperature expo
nent, XTI =2, and energy gap, EG=0.69, are set based on the
values expected for Schottky barrier diodes. In comparison to
the manufacturer's reverse current data, the high temperature
leakage appears to be slightly overstated by these values, but
within likely product variations.
The voltage sensitive effects are produced by BDIO, an expo
nential nonlinear current source. Such a source would have
been considerably more difficult to construct with SPICE 2G.6
based programs. With the inline equation feature of ISSPICE3,
Power Schottky/Soft Recovery Diodes
Figure 2, The power Schottky rectifier
subcircuit models the forward and
reverse response better than a standard
SPICE diode.
See Table 1 on
page 8 for the
subcircuit listing
Power Schottky and Soft Recovery Diodes
Charles Hymowitz
Excerpts from the September 1993 Intusoft Newsletter #32
97
Power Specialist’ s
2
3
4
1
100.00M 300.0M 500.0M 700.0M 900.0M
Forward Voltage in Volts
30.00
20.00
10.000
0
10.000
I
D
i
o
d
e
(
W
F
M
.
1
,
2
,
3
)
i
n
A
m
p
s
4.500
3.500
2.500
1.500
500.0M
I
D
i
o
d
e
(
W
F
M
.
4
)
i
n
A
m
p
s
this function becomes trivial. The forward recovery of the diode,
not readily verifiable because of the lack of data, is modeled by
the time constant of RFR and CFR. Deleting CFR and shorting
RFR makes the forward recovery instantaneous.
Figures 3 and 4 show the VF vs. IF response in the forward and
reverse directions over temperature. All waveforms from BOTH
graphs were obtained in one simulation pass using the simula
tion scripting features of ISSPICE3. The netlist for the IR10CTQ150
(10A 150V) part used here is listed in Table 1 on page 8. Several
other models are enclosed on the subscription floppy disk.
Modeling of the transient behavior of power diodes is extremely
important for power electronics. By properly choosing the
optimum diode recovery characteristic, the designer can signifi
cantly reduce switching losses, voltage spikes, RFI and EMI. As
Modeling Soft Recovery
WFM. 4 = WFM.1
TEMP = 175˚C
125˚C
25˚C
Figure 3,
Graph of IF vs.
VF at different
temperatures.
Alternate
scaling for
waveform 4
reveals the
nonlinear
response of the
new model.
1 4
Figure 4, Graph of the reverse leakage current vs. temperature shows that the
current is an exponential function of both temperature and voltage.
2
3
4
5
7
6
1
15.00 45.00 75.00 105.0 135.0
Reverse Voltage in Volts
10M
1M
100U
10U
1U
100N
10N
TEMP = 175˚C
150˚C
125˚C
100˚C
75˚C
50˚C
25˚C
R
e
v
e
r
s
e
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
L
o
g
S
c
a
l
e
,
A
m
p
s
)
2
3
4
2
3
4
5
6
7
98
Modeling For Power Electronics
discussed earlier, the builtin diode model in SPICE does not
exhibit forward recovery. In addition, the default diode model
exhibits an abrupt “snappy” reverse recovery. With the help of
ISSPICE3 we will look at how to rectify the situation by enhancing
the builtin model. The subcircuit presented here is based on a
simplified physical model for a high voltage pin structure
operating in high level injection as is typical for most power
diodes.
A variety of approximating models are possible for improving
the accuracy of simulation without resorting to the use of C
code subroutines or other proprietary modeling languages.
Both of these approaches suffer from a myriad of syntax,
compatibility and logistical hurdles. One such model has been
proposed in [1]. This model can easily be implemented with
ISSPICE3 or even SPICE 2, though somewhat less efficiently.
SPICE’s internal recovery model of a diode only models charge
storage as a function of the diode current. When the diode is
commutated, the diode will remain on until all the charge is
removed, after which, it will suddenly snap off. The reverse
recovery time, Trr, consists of two components Ta and Tb. Ta
is caused by the charge storage in the depletion region of the
junction and represents the time between the zero current
crossing and the peak reverse current, Irrm. Tb is caused by the
charge storage in the bulk semiconductor material. Turn off
proceeds with an ultimate reversal of the biasing current and
the junction remaining forward biased (charged). This contin
ues until the charge is removed from one of the junctions
adjacent to the i layer. The i layer is still charged as the reverse
voltage rapidly increases.
Reverse Recovery
Figure 5, Curves showing the diode voltage, instantaneous power (Dpower), and
energy (integral of Dpower) curves as the new diode subcircuit is turned off and on.
3
2
1
50.00N 150.0N 250.0N 350.0N 450.0N
Time in Secs
0
100.00
200.0
300.0
400.0
E
n
h
a
n
c
e
d
D
i
o
d
e
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
i
n
V
o
l
t
s
16.00K
12.00K
8.000K
4.000K
0
D
i
o
d
e
P
o
w
e
r
D
i
s
s
i
p
a
t
i
o
n
i
n
W
a
t
t
s
1 2
800.0U
600.0U
400.0U
200.0U
0
D
i
o
d
e
E
n
e
r
g
y
i
n
J
o
u
l
e
s
Forward
Recovery
3
2
3
99
Power Specialist’ s
Such behavior is appropriate for small signal lowvoltage di
odes, but not for power diodes which are typically formed with
a lightly doped layer between the pn junctions to withstand high
reverse voltages. No additional diode state variables are avail
able in SPICE to represent the physical charge storage in the
lightly doped internal regions of such a pin structure. As a
consequence, spurious oscillations are seen in SPICE simula
tions that attempt to use the standard diode model with non
zero values of TT. Not only can the simulation be inaccurate, but
it can often refuse to converge. Adding to the confusion is the
fact that the oscillation amplitude and duration can vary de
pending on the .TRAN TSTEP and RELTOL values chosen.
The enhanced diode subcircuit, DBEHAV, is shown in Table 1.
The diode DMODEL models the space charge capacitance.
Other characteristics are removed by making RS and TT=0 and
IS small. The standard diode behavior and reverse/forward
recovery effects are added using the inline equation feature (B
element) of ISSPICE3. The parameter IS1 is similar to the IS
diode model parameter. ISE and the RS device value are
chosen for the best high current performance. N, shown in the
BE element’s equation (2∗VTA), is set to 2 for high level
injection behavior, but can be set to 1 to function as a low
voltage pn junction diode. Tm (transit time) and Tau (carrier
lifetime) are determined from a diode turnoff current waveform.
As TM increases, stored charge is removed more slowly from
the base region. This has the effect of making Ta longer and
Irrm larger. RMO controls the forward recovery.
High diode power dissipation often occurs during the final
current tail interval as evidenced by the power dissipation and
Figure 6, The diode current curves (WFM.1 & 2) reveal the softer turn off and lower
Irrm response of the enhanced diode. Qrr is shown as waveform 3.
2
3
1
50.00N 150.0N 250.0N 350.0N 450.0N
Time in Secs
60.00
20.00
20.00
60.00
100.00
D
i
o
d
e
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
i
n
A
m
p
s
4.000U
2.000U
0
2.000U
4.000U
I
n
t
e
g
r
a
l
o
f
D
i
o
d
e
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
i
n
C
o
u
l
o
m
b
s
3
2
1
SPICE
Diode
I(DBehav)
Qrr = ∫ I(DBehav) 2
3
100
Modeling For Power Electronics
energy curves in Figure 5. The power dissipation curve was
created by the ISSPICE3 Print Expression “alias dpower (v(3) 
v(2)) ∗ i(vsense)”. The power was then integrated in INTUSCOPE
to get the energy. Figure 6 shows the diode current for the
subcircuit diode (WFM.1) and for a comparable SPICE diode
.model statement (.MODEL DMOD D IS=20F RS=4M N=1
CJO=100P M=.5 TT=100N, WFM.2). The Qrr charge curve
from the new diode is shown as waveform 3. As shown in Figure
6, soft recovery diodes exhibit a faster recovery time and a
lower value of Irrm than conventional diodes.
During the turnon transient, a high forward voltage builds up
across the diode because of the low con
ductivity in the i region. As the injected
carrier concentration increases, the voltage
across the i region soon decreases to a
normal steady state diode forward drop.
This effect gives rise to the initial voltage
overshoot in the turnon forward voltage as
the i region must become flooded with
current carriers for its full conductivity to be
effective. The forward voltage peak, as
shown to the left and in Figure 5, is 10.197V.
Waveform 2 shows the standard SPICE
forward recovery.
Figure 7 contains a simple IGBT chopper circuit using the new
diode model. To simplify the circuit, the gate drive circuitry has
been replaced by a piecewise linear voltage source, V4. To
study the diode behavior, the IGBT is turned on to generate
current flow in inductor, L1, then turned off to cause current to
flow into the diode (DBEHAV), then back on again to snap the
diode off. The resulting diode turn off is shown in Figure 8.
ISSPICE3 includes a very valuable option, preferred by power
engineers, to change to the Gear method of integration. Gear
integration tends to find a stable time domain solution more
quickly than the default trapezoidal method for many types of
circuits. This results in a simulation that spends less time in high
frequency calculations and is less prone to artificial numerical
oscillations. SPICE simulators that do not have Gear integra
Reverse Recovery continued
Forward Recovery
2
1
400.0N 410.0N
12.00
8.000
4.000
0
4.000
E
n
h
a
n
c
e
d
D
i
o
d
e
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
i
n
V
o
l
t
s
Simulating an IGBT Chopper Circuit
Gear Integration Speeds Power Simulations
2
101
Power Specialist’ s
3
2
1
111.9U 112.1U 112.3U 112.5U 112.7U
TIME in Secs
8.000
4.000
0
4.000
8.000
M
o
d
i
f
i
e
d
D
i
o
d
e
i
n
A
m
p
s
12.00
8.000
4.000
0
4.000
S
P
I
C
E
D
i
o
d
e
i
n
A
m
p
s
Figure 7, IGBT chopper circuit using the
enhanced diode model along with an Intusoft
IGBT model.
tion can be more prone to
convergence problems
and often simulate more
slowly than ISSPICE3 for
switching power circuits.
Figure 8 shows the diode
response using the Gear
and trapezoidal integra
tion methods.
Lauritzen and Ma incor
rectly state in their paper
[1] that macro models are
normally valid only over a very narrow range of circuit operating
conditions. The variety of models and verified simulation results
presented in past newsletters is evidence that macro models
are far more practical and robust than indicated. SPICE macro
models are the AHDL of the past and future. Macro modeling
gives the user several advantages over other proposed meth
ods; devices can be put together in a hierarchical manner, with
predefined blocks whose convergence and behavior is well
established and well understood by the user. And when the
Berkeley syntax is adhered to, such as in the case of all Intusoft
models, the models are portable between any vendor’s SPICE
simulator. Clearly, the new behavioral modeling (IfThenElse
and inline equations) features of ISSPICE3 are easy to incorpo
rate into a model and contain virtually all of the AHDL elements
often used by socalled “mathematical simulators”. These
features allow the user to bridge the gap between modeling with
detailed physical based equations and predefined macro
blocks in order to have the best of both modeling worlds.
New Diode  Trapezoidal
SPICE = AHDL
V1
500
R1 .1
XD1
DBEHAV
R2
10
V4
PWL
R3 1 L1 1M
V(5)
VIGBT
V(9)
VINPUT
X3
ID221KA2
6 3 5 2 1
7 9
4
Powerex IGBT
1000V 25A
Figure 8, Turnoff response for the diode, Dbehav, in the IGBT chopper circuit,
shows the different recovery and superior performance of Gear integration.
2 1
SPICE Diode
Trapezoidal
SPICE Diode
Gear
2
3
102
Modeling For Power Electronics
[1] P.O. Lauritzen and C.L. Ma, “A simple diode model with forward and reverse
recovery”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 6, No. 2 Apr. 1991
[2] Gerald Stanley, “A simple SPICE3 Model for Schottky Power Diodes”, Crown
International, 992, private correspondence
[3] Gerald Stanley, “SPICE32 Rect(n) Functions”, Crown International, 992,
private correspondence
[4] Ned, Mohan, “Power Electronics: Computer Simulation, Analysis, and Educa
tion”, Minnesota Power Electronics Research & Education, P.O. Box 14503,
Minneapolis, MN 55414, 1992
[5] International Rectifier, “Power Modules Designer's Handbook”, 1991
[6] Y. Khersonsky, M. Robinson, D. Gutierrez, “The Hexfred™ Ultrafast Diode in
Power Switching Circuits”, AN989, International Rectifier, 1992
[7] Unitrode, “Semiconductor Databook and Application Notes”, 1989
[8] P. Antognetti and G. Massobrio, “Semiconductor Device Modeling with
SPICE”, 2nd Ed., McGrawHill, 1993
.SUBCKT DBEHAV 1 9 {IS1=1E6 TM=100N TAU=100N RMO=1 VTA=.0259 CAP=100P ISE=1E30}
∗ Connections A C
∗ Following components include for space charge capacitance
DMODEL 1 2 DCAP
.MODEL DCAP D (IS=1E21 RS=0 TT=0 CJO={CAP}) ; M/VJ can also be added
BD 1 2 I=V(5,6) / {TM} + {ISE} ∗ (E^(V(1,2) / {VTA})  1) ; Diode conductive currents
∗ Following components model reverse recovery
BE 5 0 V={IS1} ∗ {TAU} ∗ (E^(V(1,2) / (2∗{VTA}))  1) ; V(5)=QE, N = 2 in (2∗ {VTA})
∗RE 5 0 1E6 ; QE = Junction charge
BM 6 0 V=(V(5) / {TM}  I(VSENSE1)) ∗ ({TM} ∗ {TAU} / ({TM} + {TAU})) ; V(6)=QM
∗RM 6 0 1E6 ; QM = Charge in the base region
BDM 7 0 V=V(6)
VSENSE1 7 8 ; I(Vsense1)=dQM/dt
CDM 8 0 1
RDM 8 0 1E9
∗ Models high current effects and forward recovery
RS 2 3 4E3
BMO 3 4 V=2∗{VTA} ∗ {RMO} ∗ {TM} ∗ I(VSENSE2) / ((V(6) ∗ {RMO}) + ({VTA} ∗ {TM}))
VSENSE2 4 9
.ENDS
.SUBCKT IR10CTQ150 1 2 ; 150V 10A Power Schottky Diode
∗CONNECTIONS A C
LPKG 1 3 8N ; Lead Inductance
RS 3 4 13MOHM
RB 4 5 105MOHM
RFR 3 6 1K ; Forward Recovery
CFR 5 6 10PF ; Forward Recovery
MFR 5 6 4 5 BULK
.MODEL BULK NMOS (VTO=.19 KP=320)
DIO 5 7 DMOD1
VDIO 7 2
.MODEL DMOD1 D(IS=50NA N=.9 XTI=2 EG=.69) ; Schottky Settings XTI=2, EG=.69
BDIO 5 2 I= I(VDIO) ∗ EXP (.013 ∗ V(2,5)) ; Voltage Sensitive Reverse Current Effect
DCAP 5 2 DMOD2
.MODEL DMOD2 D(CJO=420P M=.6 VJ=.7)
CPAR 5 2 23P
.ENDS
Table 1, The enhanced SPICE diode with forward/reverse recovery and the power
Schottky rectifier model.
References
103
Power Specialist’ s
I n t u s o f t N e w s l e t t e r
Copyright © Intusoft, All Rights Reserved
Personal Computer Circuit & System Design Tools
Issue #50 Sept. 1997
Tel. (310) 8330710
Fax (310) 8339658
Spark Gap Modeling
Spark gaps or Electrical Surge Arrestors (ESAs) are highly
nonlinear devices whose function is to stop transient surges
on DC or AC powersupply lines. Such transients can be
caused by lightning strikes, motor starts, etc. In other cases,
spark gaps can also be used repetitively in ignitiontype
circuits. A spark gap is made of two electrodes that face each
other across a short distance. The gap is fill with air or an inert
gas like argon or neon. If the voltage applied to the ESA is
below its striking voltage (or avalanche potential), the current
flowing through the ESA is close to zero. Once the striking
voltage is attained, the voltage across the ESA suddenly
collapses to a value called the glow voltage. If the current still
increases, the ESA voltage decreases further to a level called
the arc voltage, where it stays until the surge passes. At this
point, the ESA stays conductive until its current falls below a
sustaining value in a manner similar to a thyristor.
Modeling such a component with SPICE can be done in
several ways [1, 2]. For the sake of efficiency, we have used
a macromodeling technique. It consists of assembling SPICE
primitives in a group to describe a complex electrical function.
Figure 8 depicts the general ESA model we have adopted.
Figure 8, The structure of the
spark gap model. The switch is
operated using an IsSpice4 If
ThenElse expression;
If V_ESA > Vstrikes Then ON,
If I_ESA > ISUS Then ON,
Else OFF.
A table model is used to add
variations with applied dV/dt.
Since the striking is usually brief,
it is best to set the .OPTIONS
TRTOL variable (overestimation
of the transient truncation error)
to 1 in order to “capture” the fast
switching events.
Leakage
Resistance
Arc
Capacitance
Lead
Inductance
Flux losses
associated with the
lead inductance
Capacitive
loading
Resistance
once struck
Arc Voltage
Spark Gap
Modeling
Christophe Basso
Excerpts from the
September 1997 Intusoft
Newsletter #50
104
Modeling For Power Electronics
In the OFF state, the voltagecontrolled switch is open and
only a leakage current circulates in the ESA. The switch stays
OFF until the voltage across the ESA rises up to the striking
voltage. At this point, the switch is immediately driven ON and
the network made of the backtoback zener diodes and the
series resistance is applied across the ESA terminals. At this
point, the voltage collapses to the arc value and the current
starts to rise. When the surge passes, the ESA current decays
until the sustaining value is reached and the switch opens. In
the first model in Table 1, the glow transition is not taken into
account, and neither is the dV/dt applied to the ESA. The
netlist uses standard SPICE3 elements combined with an
IsSpice4 IfThenElse behavioral element (BARC, in Table 1
below) which performs the arcing action.
In the second model, (Table 2), a behavioral piecewise linear
table function is used to account for the dV/dt applied to the
device. The PWL table converts the absolute value of the
applied slope in coefficients that, when multiplied by
VTHRES, will increase the final BARC level. The PWL values
in the PWL_001 model are extracted from an ignition voltage
versus the applied dV/dt curve. The curve generally appears
parabolic when the x axis uses a log scaling. The effect is
modeled by the source BARC 15 0 V=ABS(V(1,2)) >
{VTHRES} + {VTHRES} ∗ V(33) ?... V(33) increases VTHRES
by a ratio defined by the manufacturer’s curves.
.SUBCKT SPARK 1 2 {VTHRES=90 VARC=10 ISUS=500M RNEG=0.5 LPL=130N
+ RPL=2.5K CPAR=1P CARC=3P}
∗ Subcircuit parameters:
∗ VTHRES = VOLTAGE AT WHICH THE SPARKGAP STRIKES
∗ VARC = VOLTAGE ACROSS THE SPARKGAP ONCE STRUCK
∗ ISUS = CURRENT UNDER WHICH THE ARC IS STOPPED
∗ RNEG = NEGATIVE RESISTANCE ONCE STRUCK
∗ LPL = LEAD INDUCTANCE, usually in nanoHenries
∗ RPL = FLUX LOSS ASSOCIATED WITH LPL, usually in kohms
∗ CPAR = GAP CAPACITANCE
∗ CARC = ARC CAPACITANCE
∗
VDUM 1 10
LPL 10 11 {LPL}
RPL 10 11 {RPL}
CPAR 1 2 {CPAR}
RLEAK 1 2 10MEG
RNEG 11 17 {RNEG}
DTRK1 12 17 DCLAMP
DSRK2 12 16 DCLAMP
CARC 1 16 {CARC}
X1 16 2 13 SWITCH
BARC 15 0 V=ABS(V(1,2)) > {VTHRES} ? 10V :
+ ABS(I(VDUM)) > {ISUS} ? 10V : 10N
RDEL 15 13 10
CDEL 13 0 10P
.MODEL DCLAMP D BV={VARC}
.ENDS
Table 1, The IsSpice4 netlist for a
surge arrestor model. The
operation does not depend on the
applied dv/dt. Since the striking is
very fast, it is strongly advised
that you set TRTOL variable in
the .OPTION statement to 1.
(.OPTIONS TRTOL=1). This will
force SPICE to be more vigilant in
the vicinity of transitions.
The userdefined parameters in
the model are described at the
top in bold.
105
Power Specialist’ s
Obtaining the PWL points is easy. For the Siemens A81
A230x, the threshold voltage of the spark gap is 230V. The
curve is flat up to 10kV/s or 10mV/us. For shallow slopes, up
to 10mV/us, the first coefficient will be very low, between 1mV
and zero. The third point on the curve is for 10E6V/s or 1V/us.
At this point, the threshold voltage is 280V. The coefficient is
simply: ABS(230280)/230=0.217, or in the PWL table format:
1.0, 217M. For 10E7V/s or 10V/us, the curve gives a threshold
of 350V: ABS(230350/230)=521M —> 10, 521M and so on.
To adapt the model to a particular spark gap device, you only
need to enter a few parameters (variables in curly braces)
found in the manufacturer’s technical specifications.
.SUBCKT A81A230X 1 2 {VTHRES=230 VARC=10 ISUS=500M LPL=130N RPL=2.5K
+ CPAR=1.4P CARC=3P}
VDUM 1 10
LPL 10 11 {LPL}
RPL 10 11 {RPL}
CPAR 1 2 {CPAR}
RLEAK 1 2 10G
DTRK1 12 11 DCLAMP
DSRK2 12 16 DCLAMP
CARC 1 16 {CARC}
X1 16 2 13 SWITCH
BARC 15 0 V=ABS(V(1,2)) > {VTHRES} + {VTHRES} ∗ V(33) ? 11V :
+ ABS(I(VDUM)) > {ISUS} ? 11V : 10N
RDEL 15 13 10
CDEL 13 0 10P
A1 35 33 PWL_001
RA1 33 0 10MEG
*** INPUT SLOPE CALCULATION V/us ***
BDIFF 40 0 V=V(1,2)
EDIFF 30 0 0 31 100MEG
RDIFF 30 31 1MEG
CDIFF 40 31 1UF
ECONV 32 0 30 0 1U
BABS 35 0 V=ABS(V(32)) < 10M ? 10M : ABS(V(32)) > 1K ? 1K : ABS(V(32))
.MODEL PWL_001 PWL(XY_ARRAY=[10.0M 1.0M 100.0M 86.0M 1.0 217.0M
+ 10.0 521.0M 100.0 956.0M 1.0K 1.6] INPUT_DOMAIN=10M FRACTION=TRUE)
.MODEL DCLAMP D BV={VARC}
.ENDS
Figure 9, The self
relaxing circuit
configuration used
to investigate the
transient behavior
of the new spark
gap model.
Generic models
and models for
specific part
numbers are
available from
Intusoft.
V1
SIN
D1
DN4007
C1
0.68UF
R1
100K
R2
10
C2
4.7UF
X1
SPARKGAP
I(V2)
ISPARK
V(1)
VRELAX
V(4)
VSPARK
5 1 2
3
4
Table 2, The IsSpice4 netlist for a
spark gap model with the dV/dt
variation effect added. The
parameters shown are for the
SIEMENS A81A230X ESA.
106
Modeling For Power Electronics
The first IsSpice4 test is made using a selfrelaxing configura
tion as depicted by Figure 9. Since the phenomena are very
fast, you will need to view the raw noninterpolated SPICE
data (internal calculated data points) simulated by IsSpice4
and not the interpolated (.PRINT) data specified by the
TSTEP parameter in the .TRAN statement. Thanks to
IntuScope, ICAP’s waveform analysis tool, you can easily
explore both types of data. Figure 10a depicts the results
given by IsSpice4. Figure 10b shows an oscilloscope hard
copy of the actual tested circuit.
A second test is run using the spark gap as a real surge
arrestor. The power mains supply a device protected by an
Figure 10b, The laboratory results for the selfrelaxing circuit in figure 9
using the Siemens A81C90x ESA.
Spark Gap Voltages 20V/div
Arc Voltage
The arc is stopped here
Spark Gap Current
Figure 10a, Results of the self
relaxing spark gap circuit in figure
9 show excellent correlation with
actual measurements.
Top: 20V/div
Bot: 500m/div
X: 50us/div
107
Power Specialist’ s
References
[1] An Electrical Surge Arrestor (ESA) Model For Electromagnetic Pulse
Analysis, Rockwell International Electronics Operations, IEEE Transac
tions on Nuclear Science, Vol. NS24, No 6, December 1977
[2] A SPICE model for simulating Arc Discharge load, M. NARUI, 1991 IEEE
Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Volume II.
ESA. A 1µs transient (PWL source: PWL 0 0 13ms 0
13.001m 600 13.3ms 600 13.301m 0) has been added
to the sinusoidal (SIN 0 320 50) supply voltage in order to
trigger the ESA. The results simulated by IsSpice4 are shown
on Figure 11.
The model presented here runs fast and converges without
difficulties. Although the model accounts for several nonlinear
effects, it is still a simplification of the complex phenomenon
associated with spark gap ignition and arcing.
Note that a warm or cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL/HCFL)
lamp could be easily derived from this model. In the next
Intusoft Newsletter we will explore such a model and give
examples.
A premade set of surge arrestor models for various
manufacturer’s devices is available as part of the new Mecha
tronics model library. The price of the library is $1500 and will
be available November 3, 1997. More details on the Mecha
tronics library will be available in the next newsletter.
Figure 11, The
simulated response
of the Siemens A81
A350x to a transient
pulse riding on top of
a sinusoidal supply
voltage.
3.300M 9.300M 15.30M 21.30M 27.30M
Time
Current in the ESA
Voltage across the ESA
Mains line
Surge Surge
Mains line
Voltage across the ESA
Current in the ESA
108
Modeling For Power Electronics
I n t u s o f t N e w s l e t t e r
Copyright © Intusoft, All Rights Reserved
Personal Computer Circuit & System Design Tools
Issue #51 Nov. 1997
Tel. (310) 8330710
Fax (310) 8339658
A Hot Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (HCFL) is a device in which
a gaseous mixture flows between two tungsten electrodes or
filaments. In domestic applications, the mixture is made of
mercury vapor and a small quantity of inert gas (krypton or
argon). The role of the inert gas is to vaporize the mercury
during the turnon phase. To lengthen the filament lifetime, a
preheating period is necessary in order to bring the electrodes
to a sufficient temperature before the tube avalanches to its on
state. The warmup is performed by supplying the filaments
with a DC or AC current during the first few hundred millisec
onds. During this emissive period, the filaments increase the
electron population in the tube, and consequently decrease the
avalanche potential resulting in a lower striking voltage for the
lamp. Once the lamp is struck, it maintains a quasiconstant
voltage across its end points. This value is called the arc
voltage. A practical value for the cold striking voltage for a 5 foot
lamp (58W) is near the kV range with the corresponding arc
voltage around 110Vrms. An HCFL can be operated at low or
high frequencies. At low frequency, e.g. in a 60 or 50Hz ballast
application, the conducting gas reacts faster than the AC line.
Every time the polarity of the mains changes, the lamp current
cancels and the tube halts its conduction process. It then has
to restrike with the opposite polarity, but at a voltage lower than
its cold value because of the temperature. At this slow operating
rate, a second effect can be noticed; due to the negative
impedance characteristics of the conducting gas, the voltage
across the tube will decrease as the current grows. At higher
frequencies, above a few kHz, these effects are smoothed out
and we can represent the tube using resistive and weakly
capacitive behavior.
The SPICE modeling for a fluorescent tube can be generated
in several ways [1]. Fitting the I/V characteristics with a polyno
mial equation represents an elegant solution, but the parameter
extraction from the manufacturer’s data curves is invariably a
complicated process. In contrast, the SPICE macromodeling
technique offers a simplified and efficient method for model
generation. This technique consists of assembling SPICE
primitives to describe a complex electrical function. Figure 7
depicts the general model we have adopted.
SPICE Simulates A Fluorescent Lamp
SPICE Simulates
A Fluorescent
Lamp
Christophe Basso
Excerpts from the
November 1997 Intusoft
Newsletter #51
109
Power Specialist’ s
The model works as follows: if the voltage applied to the tube
is lower than its cold striking value, no current will circulate
except in the leakage elements. If the voltage is further in
creased and the stri ki ng vol tage i s reached, the
voltagecontrolled switch closes and the backtoback zener
network is connected across the tube. The voltage then col
lapses to the arc value and a current flows inside the tube. The
tube will stay conductive until the current falls below the
sustaining value. At this point, the switch opens and the tube
needs to be restruck. The netlist is written for the IsSpice4
simulator and uses standard SPICE 3 elements combined with
one of the IsSpice4’s SPICE extensions, an IfThenElse be
havioral element.
As previously stated, preheating the filaments decreases the
striking voltage. The model accounts for this specific behavior
and monitors the RMS current flowing through the filaments
prior to the first cold strike. To take advantage of this feature,
you should include the UIC (Use Initial Conditions) keyword in
the transient SPICE statement (.TRAN tstep tstop UIC). In AC
applications, where the frequency of operation is fast enough,
the thermal effects ensure a restrike voltage close to the arc
value. This is especially true for highfrequency systems, e.g.
electronic ballasts. The BDIFF element (see the netlist posted
on the Intusoft web site) models this effect in a simplistic way.
Figure 8 shows the I/V characteristics of the IsSpice4 fluores
cent tube model, where the negative effects are clearly
depicted. A low frequency AC test using the tube model in a
classical 50Hz application is shown in Figure 9. Figure 10
RLEAK
CPAR
Filament 1
Filament 2
Resistance
Once Struck
Arc
Voltage
Switch
Figure 7  The subcircuit topology
for the fluorescent tube.
The switch is controlled by the
following IfThenElse function:
If V_Tube > V_Strike Then
If I_Tub > I_Sus Then
On
Else Off.
An example tube model is
available from the
Intusoft Web site at
www.intusoft.com
110
Modeling For Power Electronics
reveals the simulation results. To operate the tube model at
higher frequencies, you can simply remove the “∗” comment
symbol in front of the RSTK element in the netlist and place one
in front of RNEG, DSTK1 and DSTK2 elements.
A typical application for a selfoscillating ballast is shown in
Figure 11. RSTK can be calculated from the RMS lamp oper
ating parameters: RSTK = VARC/INOM. For a 36W tube, RSTK
= 103/.43 = 240W.
In this second example, two MOSFETs are driven by a satu
rable current transformer, using the IsSpice4’s nonlinear
magnetic core model. The startup is driven by R17&C12 which
forces X21 to enter the conduction mode a few milliseconds
after the mains are applied. Square waves are delivered to the
nondamped L1C13 network and a high voltage appears
across the tube ends. C13 also ensures preheating of the
filaments. Once the tube is struck, the resulting load changes
400.0 200.0 200.0 400.0
8.000
4.000
0
4.000
8.000
Tube current
Cold strike
Arc value
Lamp voltage
V1
SIN
R1
35
L1
0.75H
I(V3)
IFIL
S1
SMOD
V4
PWL
V(6)
VMAINS
I(V2)
ILAMP
X1
TUBE
6
1 2 7
8
3
9
4
Figure 9  Tube
simulation in a
classical 50Hz
application. V1 is a
sinusoidal wave
form. A piecewise
linear waveform is
used to control the
switch.
Figure 8 
The DC I/V
characteris
tics for the
fluorescent
tube model.
400.0 200.0 200.0 400.0
Lamp Voltage
T
u
b
e
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
8.000
4.000
0
4.000
8.000
Arc Value
Cold Strike
111
Power Specialist’ s
the operating frequency of the ballast. Figure 11 shows the
IsSpice4 simulation results crossprobed on the schematic.
The model presented here runs fast and converges without
difficulties in low and high frequency applications. Thanks to its
macromodeling structure, operating parameters can be easily
adapted to various lamp types. Reference 2 gives further
insight into the selfoscillating ballast technique.
260.0M 280.0M 300.0M 320.0M 340.0M
The lamp strikes here
I lamp 0.5A/Div.
V lamp when struk 80V/Div.
References
1. The SPICE book, Andrei VLADIMIRESCU, John WILEY & Sons, 0471609269
2. Energy Efficient Semiconductors for Lighting, MOTOROLA, Application note BR480/D
Figure 10  The
simulation results
for a low
frequency AC test
using the tube
model in a
classical 50Hz
application. The
lamp is struck
when the PWL
source causes
the switch to
close.
Figure 11  The transient response of the selfoscillating ballast circuit. Two views
of the results can be seen; 0400us and 200us300us.
V lamp when struck 80V/Div.
The lamp strikes here
I lamp 0.5A/Div.
260.0M 280.0M 300.0M 320.0M 340.0M
112
Modeling For Power Electronics
A SIDACTOR is a bilateral switch, similar to a triac, without a
gate connection. It can be triggered into conduction regardless
of polarity, but only by an overvoltage pulse. Sidactors are often
used as overvoltage protection devices with clamping voltages
from 20 to over 500 volts.
Upon application of a voltage exceeding the breakdown volt
age, the sidactor switches on through a negative or positive
resistance region to a low onstate voltage. Conduction will
continue until the current is interrupted or drops below the
minimum holding current. The sidactor can offer longer life and
faster response (nanoseconds) than other types of protection
and is able to respond without voltage overshoot. The sidactor
is as fast as a zener diode, while offering a much lower
impedance (leakage current <5ua) during conduction.
The latest version of the powerful SpiceMod (v2.4.3) modeling
program allows you to create SPICE models for sidactors from
data sheet parameters. The program takes the data sheet
parameters and converts them to the appropriate SPICE model
parameters. The subcircuit topology and an example netlist are
shown in Figure 17. The netlist uses a SPICE 2G.6 format and
is compatible with all commercial SPICEbased simulators.
The sidactor is modeled by using two NPN/PNP transistor
pairs. The base of each transistor is connected to the collector
of the other. This produces positive feedback, resulting in the
required switching action. Resistors and zener diodes are used
to simulate the breakdown voltages and leakage currents.
Because these devices have two stable states, you may need
to tell SPICE which state to use. This is accomplished by
including the “OFF” parameter on the subcircuit transistors.
This will set up an initial starting condition in the normal starting
state.
The chief causes of SPICE convergence problems are due to
abrupt changes in a circuit’s impedance. To aid IsSpice4 in
converging during the abrupt sidactor switching, the following
OPTIONS statement is recommended “.OPTIONS ITL1=400
ITL4=500 RELTOL=.005.
It should be noted that these are the options chosen by the
Convergence Wizard feature, included in ICAP/4 version 8,
when a mild convergence problem is encountered.
Sidactor Modeling
Sidactor
Modeling
Slim Petrie
Excerpts from the
November 1997 Intusoft
Newsletter #51
113
Power Specialist’ s
The following NPN/PNP parameters control the performance of
the sidactor at high speeds (high dv/dt):
CJE = Controls the high speed triggering, CJC = (with RS + RGP)
controls the maximum forward voltage application rate (dv/dt) before
triggering occurs, and TF = Ideal Forward Transit Time (not fall time).
This determines the turnon and turnoff time
Figure 18 shows a sample application where a sidactor is
added to protect a transistor during inductive load switching.
Several sidactor models are included on the newsletter floppy
disk and are posted on Teccor’s web site at www.teccor.com.
∗K1100E70;K1100E70;Sidacs;TECCOR; 118V 1A
.SUBCKT K1100E70 1 2
∗ TERMINALS: MT2 MT1
QN1 5 4 2 NOUT; OFF
QN2 8 6 7 NOUT; OFF
QP1 6 8 2 POUT; OFF
QP2 4 5 7 POUT; OFF
DF 4 3 DZ; OFF, Forward breakdown
DR 6 3 DZ; OFF, Reverse breakdown
RF 4 3 1.18E+10 ; controls IBO
RR 6 3 1.18E+10
RT2 1 7 0.755 ; controls “on” resistance
RH 7 6 11.5 ; controls holding current
RH2 4 2 11.5 ; controls reverse holding current
.MODEL DZ D (IS=321F RS=100 N=1.5 IBV=10N BV=118) ; controls VDRM
.MODEL POUT PNP (IS=321F BF=10 CJE=134N TF=25.5U)
.MODEL NOUT NPN (IS=321F BF=20 CJE=134N CJC=26.8N TF=1.7U)
.ENDS
Figure 17, The IsSpice4 netlist for a sidactor. The parameters for a Teccor
K1100E70 118Volt 1Amp device are shown.
QN2
QN1
QP2
QP1
DR
DF
RR
RF
RH
RH2
RT2
V(1)
PIN1
V(2)
PIN2
8
6
7
5
4
2
3
1
Figure 18, The sidactor
eliminates a reverse
breakdown of the transistor
in inductive switching
V1
PULSE
R1 50
R2
50
V2
10
RBB1
150
RBB2
100
M
T
1
M
T
2
X2
K2200F1
X3
TIP47
L1
100MH
V3
20
RS
.1
V(10)
VCE
V(1)
VIN
X4
TIP36
VIN
Tran
10.2
4.75
140M 90.0M time
VCE
Tran
225
17.5
140M 90.0M time
ICOLL
Tran
660M
92.9M
140M 90.0M time
circuits. The sidactor rating
is chosen so that the
breakover voltage (Vbo) is
just below the Vceo rating of
the transistor.
Teccor Electronics,
Inc. is a
manufacturer of
semiconductor
devices.
114
Modeling For Power Electronics
Transformer Models
The usual method of simulating a transformer using
IsSpice is by specifying the open circuit inductance seen at
each winding and then adding the coupling coefficients to a
pair of coupled inductors. This technique tends to loose the
physical meaning associated with leakage and magnetizing
inductance and does not allow the insertion of a nonlinear
core. It does, however, provide a transformer that is simple
to create and simulates efficiently. The coupled inductor type
of transformer, its related equations and relationship to an
ideal transformer with added leakage and magnetizing
inductance is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 2, and has a unity coupling coefficient and infinite
magnetizing inductance. The ideal transformer, unlike a real
transformer, will operate at DC. This property is useful for
modeling the operation of DCDC converters.
The coupling coefficient of a transformer wound on a
magnetic core is nearly unity when the core is not saturated
and depends on the winding topology when the core is
saturated. The work of Hsu, Middlebrook and Cuk [3]
develops the relationship of leakage inductance, showing
that relatively simple measurements of input inductance with
shorted outputs yield the necessary model information.
The IsSpice equivalent circuit for an ideal transformer
is shown in Figure 3 and implements the following equations:
V1 ∗ ∗∗ ∗∗ RATIO = V2 I1 = I2 ∗ ∗∗ ∗∗ RATIO
RP and RS are used to prevent singularities in
applications where terminals 1 and 2 are open circuited or
terminals 3 and 4 are connected to a voltage source. RATIO
is the turns ratio from winding 3,4 (secondary) to winding
1,2 (primary). Polarity “dots” are on terminals 1 and 3 as
shown in Figure 2.
V1 = L1 di1 + M di2
V2 = M di1 + L2 di2
dt dt
dt dt
≅ ≅≅ ≅≅
K
If K ≅ ≅≅ ≅≅ 1
L1 = LM
L2 = N
2
∗ ∗∗ ∗∗L1
K = 1  LE/LM
M = K L 1 ∗ L 2
Figure 1, The coupled inductor transformer, left, is
computationally efficient, but it cannot provide access to LE and
LM or be used as a building block. The ideal transformer with
discrete inductances and their relationship to the coupling coeffi
cient is shown on the right.
+
V1

+
V2

I1
I2
N2
N1
3
4
1
2
Figure 2, Symbol of an ideal transformer with the voltage to
current relationships.
V2 = V1 ∗ N2 / N1
I1 = I2 ∗ N2 / N1
.SUBCKT XFMR 1 2 3 4
E 5 4 1 2 {RATIO}
F 1 2 VM {RATIO}
VM 5 6
RP 1 2 1MEG
RS 6 3 1U
.ENDS
Figure 3, The IsSpice ideal transformer model allows opera
tion at DC and the addition of magnetizing and leakage
inductances, as well as a saturable core to make a complete
transformer model. Parameter passing allows the transformer
to simulate any turns ratio.
Transformer and Saturable Core Modeling
Larry Meares and Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
V1 V2
V1 V2
In order to make a transformer model that more closely
represents the physical processes, it is necessary to construct
an ideal transformer and model the magnetizing and leakage
inductances separately. The ideal transformer is one that
preserves the voltage and current relationships, shown in
L1 L2
LE
LM
LE
1:N
5
4 1
2
E
F
VM
RS 1u
6
3
Rp
1meg
115
Power Specialist’ s
Multiwinding topologies can also be simulated by
using combinations of this 2 port representation.
Now that the ideal transformer has been constructed,
magnetizing inductance can be added using a separate
saturable core model described next.
Saturable Reactor Model
A saturable reactor is a magnetic circuit element
consisting of a single coil wound around a magnetic core.
The presence of a magnetic core drastically alters the
behavior of the coil by increasing the magnetic flux and
confining most of the flux to the core. The magnetic flux
density, B, is a function of the applied MMF, which is
proportional to ampere turns. The core consists of a number
of tiny magnetic domains made up of magnetic dipoles. These
domains set up a magnetic flux that adds to or subtracts from
the flux set up by the magnetizing current. After overcoming
initial friction, the domains rotate like small DC motors, to
become aligned with the applied field. As the MMF is
increased, the domains rotate one by one until they are all in
alignment and the core saturates. Eddy currents are induced
as the flux changes, causing added loss.
any SPICE program.
The parameters that must be passed to the subcircuit include:
x Flux Capacity in VoltSec (VSEC)
x Initial Flux Capacity in VoltSec (IVSEC)
x Magnetizing Inductance in Henries (LMAG)
x Saturation Inductance in Henries (LSAT)
x Eddy current critical frequency in HZ (FEDDY).
The saturable core may be added to the model of the
ideal transformer to create a more complete transformer
model. To use the saturable core model just place the core
across the transformer's input terminals and evaluate the
equations in curly braces. A special subcircuit test point has
been provided to allow the monitoring of the core flux. Since
there are two connections in the subcircuit, no connection
need be made at the top subcircuit level other than the dummy
node number.
How The Core Model Works
Modeling the physical process performed by a
saturable core is most easily accomplished by developing
an analog of the magnetic flux. This is done by integrating
1
2
3
4
5
Figure 4, Multiple winding transformers may be built out of combinations of the
ideal transformer. RATIO equals V2/V1. The transformer is center tapped and V2
will equal V3.
IsSpice Symbol Actual Topology IsSpice Netlist
V2
V3
V1
V2
V3
V1
IsSpice Subcircuit Call
X1 1 2 3 4 5 XFMR {RATIO=xxx }
IsSpice Subcircuit Definition
.SUBCKT XFMRTAP 1 2 3 4 5
E1 7 8 1 2 {RATIO}
F1 1 2 VM1 {RATIO}
RP 1 2 1MEG
RS 6 3 1U
VM1 7 6
F2 1 2 VM2 {RATIO}
E2 9 5 1 2 {RATIO}
R5 8 4 1U
VM2 9 8
.ENDS
A call to the saturable core subcircuit using IsSpice would look like the following:
X1 2 0 3 CORE {VSEC=50U IVSEC=25U LMAG=10MHY LSAT=20UHY FEDDY=20KHZ}
RS 5 6 {LSAT*500/VSEC}
VP 7 2 250
D1 6 7 DCLAMP
VN 2 8 250
D2 8 6 DCLAMP
.MODEL DCLAMP D(CJO={3*VSEC/
+ (6.28*FEDDY*500*LMAG)} VJ=25)
.ENDS
.SUBCKT CORE 1 2 3
F1 1 2 VM1 1
G2 2 3 1 2 1
E1 4 2 3 2 1
VM1 4 5
RX 3 2 1E12
CB 3 2 {VSEC/500}
+ IC={IVSEC/VSEC*500}
RB 5 2 {LMAG*500/VSEC}
Bottom ()
Flux
Test
Point
Top (+)
Figure 5, To make the netlist for the saturable core subcircuit SPICE compatible, just replace all the equations in
the curly braces with numerical values. The key parameters are shown in bold.
The saturable reactor cannot be
modeled using a single SPICE primitive
element. Therefore, a saturable core “macro
model”, utilizing the IsSpice subcircuit
feature, must be created. The saturable core
model is capable of simulating nonlinear
transformer behavior including saturation,
hysteresis, and eddy current losses. To make
the model even more useful it has been
parameterized. This is a technique which
allows the characteristics of the core to be
determined just by the specification of a few
key parameters. At the time of the simulation,
the specified parameters are passed into the
subcircuit. The equations in the subcircuit
(inside the curly braces) are then evaluated
and replaced with a value making the
equation based subcircuit compatible with
116
Modeling For Power Electronics
the voltage across the core and then shaping the flux analog
with nonlinear elements to cause a current to flow
proportional to the desired function. This gives good results
when there is no hysteresis as illustrated in Figure 6.
The input voltage, V(2), is integrated using the voltage
controlled current source, G, and the capacitor CB. An initial
condition across the capacitor allows the core to have an
initial flux. The output current from F is shaped as a function
of flux using the voltage sources VN and VP and diodes D1
and D2. The inductance in the high permeability region is
proportional to RB, while the inductance in the saturated
region is proportional to RS. Voltage VP and VN represent
the saturation flux. Core losses can be simulated by adding
resistance across the input terminals; however, another
equivalent method is to add capacitance across resistor RB
in the simulation. Current in this capacitive element is
differentiated in the model to produce the effect of resistance
at the terminals. The capacitance can be made a nonlinear
function of voltage which results in a loss term that is a
function of flux. A simple but effective way of adding the
nonlinear capacitance is to give the diode parameter, CJO, a
value, as is done here. The other option is to use a nonlinear
capacitor across nodes 2 and 6, however, the capacitor's
polynomial coefficients are a function of saturation flux,
causing their recomputation if VP and VN are changed.
Losses will increase linearly with frequency simulating
high frequency core behavior. A noticeable increase in MMF
occurs when the core comes out of saturation, an effect that
is more pronounced for square wave excitation than for
sinusoidal excitation as shown in Figure 8. These model
properties agree closely with observed behavior [2]. The
model is set up for orthonol and steel core materials which
have a sharp transition from the saturated to the unsaturated
region. For permalloy cores the transition out of saturation
is less pronounced. To account for the different response
the capacitance value in the diode model (CJO in DCLAMP),
which affects core losses, should be scaled down. Also,
scaling the voltage sources VN and VP down will soften the
transition.
The DC BH loop hysteresis, usually unnecessary for
most applications, is not modeled because of the extra model
complexity, causing a prediction of lower loss at low
frequencies. The hysteresis, however, does appear as a
frequency dependent function, as seen on the previous page,
providing reasonable results for most applications, including
magnetic amplifiers. The model shown in Figure 7 simulates
the core characteristics and takes into account the high
frequency losses associated with eddy currents and transient
widening of the BH loop caused by magnetic domain
angular momentum. Losses will increase linearly with
frequency, simulating high frequency core behavior.
Calculating Core Parameters
The saturable core model is setup to be described in
electrical terms, thus allowing the engineer to design the
circuitry first without knowledge of the core's physical
makeup. After the design is completed, the final electrical
parameters can then be used to calculate the necessary core
magnetic/size values. The core model could be altered to
take as its input magnetic and size parameters. The core could
then be described in terms of N, Ac, Ml, µ, and Bm and
would be more useful for studying previously designed
circuits. But the electrical based model is better suited to
Figure 6, A simple
BH loop model
detailing some core
parameters that will
be used for later
calculations.
µ µµ µµmag,Lmag
µ µµ µµsat, Lsat
B
H
Bm
Figure 7, The novel saturable reactor subcircuit configuration. The symbol below the
schematic displays the core's connectivity and flux test point.
1
8
6
1
7
2
9 4
3
1
5
2
3
11
3
10
12
INTEGRATION
V vs. I
Shaping
2
RB
RS
E
Rx
F
G
VM
VN
VP
D1
D2
CB
Flux
X1
CORE
117
Power Specialist’ s
the natural design process. The saturable core model's
behavior is defined by the set of electrical parameters, shown
in Figure 6 and Figure 9. The core's magnetic/size values
can be easily calculated from the following equations which
utilize cgs units.
Parameters Passed To Model
VSEC Core Capacity in VoltSec
IVSEC Initial Condition in VoltSec
LMAG Magnetizing Inductance in Henries
LSAT Saturation Inductance in Henries
FEDDY Frequency when LMAG
Reactance = Loss Resistance in Hz
Equation Variables
Bm Maximum Flux Density in Gauss
H Magnetic Field Strength in Oersteds
Ac Area of the Core in cm
2
N Number of Turns
Ml Magnetic Path Length in cm
µ µµ µµ Permeability
Faraday's law, which defines the relationship
between flux and voltage is:
E = N dϕ/dt * 10
8
Eq. 1
where E is the desired voltage, N is the number of
turns and ϕ is the flux of the core in maxwells. The total
flux may also be written as:
ϕ
T
= 2 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac Eq. 2
Then, from 1& 2,
E = 4.44 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ F ∗ N ∗ 10
8
Eq. 3
and
E = 4.0 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ F ∗ N ∗ 10
8
Eq. 4
where Bm is the flux density of the material in Gauss,
Ac is the effective core cross sectional area in cm
2
, and F
is the design frequency. Equation 3 is for sinusoidal
conditions while equation 4 is for a square wave input.
The parameter VSEC can then be determined by
integrating the input voltage resulting in:
∫ e dt = Nϕ
T
= N ∗ 2 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ 10
8
= VSEC Eq. 5
also from E = L di/dt we have,
∫ e dt = Li Eq. 6
The initial flux in the core is described by the
parameter IVSEC. To use the IVSEC option you must
put the UIC keyword in the IsSpice ".TRAN" statement.
The relationship between the magnetizing force and
current is defined by Ampere's law as
H = .4 ∗ π ∗ N ∗ i / Ml Eq. 7
where H is the magnetizing force in oersteds, i is
the current through N turns, and Ml is the magnetic path
length in cm.
From equations 5, 6, and 7 we have
L = N
2
∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ (.4 ∗ π ∗ 10
8
) / H ∗ MI Eq. 8
with µ = B/H we have
L(mag, sat) =
µ(mag, sat) ∗ N
2
∗ .4 ∗ π ∗ 10
8
∗ Ac / Ml Eq. 9
The values for LMAG and LSAT can be determined
by using the proper value of µ in Eq. 9. The values of
permeability can be found by looking at the B  H curve
and choosing two values for the magnetic flux, one value
in the linear region where the permeability will be
maximum and one value in the saturated region. Then,
Figure 8, The saturable core model is capable of being used with
both sine (below) and square (above) wave excitation as shown in
these IsSpice simulations.
1
80.00M 40.00M 40.00M 80.00M
Flux vs. I(VM)
400.0
200.0
0
200.0
400.0
F
lu
x
1
40.00M 20.00M 20.00M 40.00M
Flux vs. I(VM)
400.0
200.0
0
200.0
400.0
F
lu
x
118
Modeling For Power Electronics
from a curve of permeability versus magnetic flux, the proper
values of µ may be chosen. The value of µ in the saturated
region will have to be an average value over the range of
interest. The value of FEDDY, the eddy current critical
frequency, can be determined from a graph of permeability
versus frequency, shown in Figure 4. By choosing the
approximate 3 db point for µ, the corresponding frequency
can be determined.
It should be noted that a similar core model can be
constructed using generic physical parameters as opposed
to generic electrical design parameters. For example:
.SUBCKT COREX 1 2 3 {BI=0 N=1}
* Core Defaults shown in { }
* Defaults for parameters that are unlikely to change over
*the core family may be placed on the .SUBCKT line.
RX 3 2 1E12
CB 3 2 {N*2*BR*ACORE*1E8/500} IC={BI/BR*500}
F1 1 2 VM1 1
G2 2 3 1 2 1
E1 4 2 3 2 1
VM1 4 5
RB 5 2 {.625*N*UMAG/(LPATH * BR)*500}
RS 5 6 {.625*N*USAT/(LPATH * BR)*500}
VP 7 2 250
D1 6 7 DCLAMP
VN 2 8 250
D2 8 6 DCLAMP
* MULTIPLIER 3 AND VJ=25 GO TOGETHER
.MODEL DCLAMP D(CJO={3*LPATH *
+ BR/(6.28*FEDDY*500*.625*N*UMAG)} VJ=25)
.ENDS
where the passed physical parameters are
ACORE Magnetic cross section area in cm
2
LPATH Magnetic path length in cm
FEDDY Frequency when Lmag
Reactance=Loss resistance
UMAX Maximum Permeability, dB/dH
USAT Saturation Permeability, dB/dH
BR Flux density in gauss at H = 0 for
saturated BH loop
BI Initial Flux density, default = 0
N Turns, default one for use with
TURNS model
An example set of parameters for Permalloy
Tape Wound 80 would be BR=6K
FEDDY=600K UMAX=180K USAT=10K
BI=0 N=1 where ACORE and LPATH
would depend on the geometry chosen.
Using And Testing The Saturable Core
The test circuit shown in Figure 10
can be used to evaluate the saturable core
model. Pass the core parameters in the curly
braces into the saturable core subcircuit and
adjust the voltage levels in the "V2 4 0
Figure 9, The permeability versus frequency graph is used to
determine the value for FEDDY.
µ, µ, µ, µ, µ, Permeability
Frequency
Figure 10, Saturable core test circuit schematic and IsSpice simulation results.
The Feddy value can be
selected at various points
depending on the core
gap. Use the approximate
3 db point on the curve for
FEDDY value.
Test Circuit
*SPICE_NET
.TRAN .1US 50US
*INCLUDE DEVICE.LIB
*ALIAS V(3)=VOUT
*ALIAS V(5)=FLUX
*ALIAS V(4)=VIN
.PRINT TRAN V(3) V(5) I(VM1) V(4)
R1 4 2 100
R2 3 0 50
X1 1 0 5 CORE {VSEC=25U IVSEC=25U
+ LMAG=10MHY LSAT=20UHY FEDDY=25KHZ}
X2 2 0 3 0 XFMR {RATIO=.3}
VM1 2 1
V2 4 0 PULSE 5 5 0US 0NS 0NS
+25US
*Use the Pulse statement for square wave excitation
*V2 4 0 SIN 0 5 40K
*Use the Sin statement for sine wave excitation
*Adjust voltage levels to insure core saturation
.END
Figure 11, Equivalent IsSpice
netlist for the saturable core
test circuit.
PULSE" or "V2 4 0 SIN" statements to insure that the core
will saturate. You can use Eq. 3 and 4 to get an idea of the
voltage levels necessary to saturate the core. The .TRAN
statement may also need adjustment depending on the
frequency specified by the V2 source. The core parameters
must remain reasonable or the simulation may fail. After the
simulation is complete, plotting V(5) versus I(VM1) (Flux
vs. Current through the core) will result in a BH plot.
A Complete Transformer Model
A transformer is a subassembly; made up of a number
of components. The actual hardware consists of a core with
a number of turns, various encapsulates, insulators, fasteners
and connection points. Electrically, the components are the
5 2
R1
100
3
VM
1
X1
CORE
6
X2
XFMR
R2
50
Vout
Flux
Vin
V1
Pulse
VIN
Tran
5. 50
5.50
50.0U 0 time
FLUX
Tran
298
298
50. 0U 0 time
VOUT
Tran
2.28
2.28
50.0U 0 time
119
Power Specialist’ s
core and each of the windings. The windings have special
geometrical properties that result in series resistance, inter
and intrawinding capacitance and leakage inductance. The
series resistance, leakage inductance and capacitance are
generally ballpark estimates with the actual values established
by prototype measurements or by software such as the
Magnetics Designer tool.
The magnetizing inductance is added by using the
saturable reactor model across any one of the windings of the
ideal transformer. Coupling coefficients are inserted in the
model by adding the series leakage inductance for each
winding as shown in Figure 12.
The leakage inductances are measured by finding the
short circuit input inductance at each winding and then
solving for the individual inductance. These leakage
inductances are independent of the core characteristic shown
by ref [3]. The final model, incorporating the CORE and
XFMR subcircuits along with the leakage inductance and
winding resistance is shown in Figure 12.
A more complete transformer representation, including
geometrically defined parasitics, is shown in Figure 13.
SPICE models cannot represent all possible behavior
because of the limits of computer memory and run time.
Figure 12, The saturable core may be combined with the ideal transformer, XFMR, and some leakage
inductance and series resistance to create a transformer representation.
Figure 13, A more complete transformer model showing geometrically
defined parasitics and an equivalent schematic symbol.
This model, as most
simulations, does not
represent all cases.
Modeling the core (in
Figure 12) as a single element
referred to one of the windings
works in most cases; however,
some applications may
experience saturation in a
small region of the core, causing some windings to be
decoupled faster than others, invalidating the model. Another
limitation of this model is for topologies with magnetic shunts
or multiple cores. Applications like this can frequently be
solved by replacing the single magnetic structure with an
equivalent structure using several transformers, each using
the model presented here.
References
[1] SPICE2, A computer Program to Simulate Semiconductor
Circuits
Laurence W. Nagel, Memorandum No. ERLM520, 9 May
1975, Electronics Research Laboratory, College of
Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720
[2] Design Manual featuring tape wound cores,
Magnetics, Inc., Components Div., Box 391, Butler PA
16001
[3] Transformer Modeling and Design for Leakage Control
Shi Ping Hsu, R.D. Middlebrook and Slobodan Cuk, Power
conversion International, pg. 68, Feb, 1982
[4] Advances in SwitchedMode Power Conversion
Slobodan Cuk and R.D. Middlebrook, vol. 2, copyright 1981
[5] NEW SIMULATION TECHNIQUES USING SPICE
L.G. Meares, Applied Power Electronics Conference, (c)
IEEE, AprilMay, 1986.
5 1 2
8
3
7
4 6
Leakage
Inductance
Series
Resistance
Saturable
Core
Ideal
Transf ormer
WINDING
WINDING
7
2
3
1
16
WINDING
9
11 4
12 6
14
13 8
CORE
FLUX
OUTPUT
1
15 10
2
5
A TRANSFORMER MODEL
AND ITS SYMBOL
3
4
5
1
2
COREG
3
4
5
GEOMETRICALLY DEFINED ELEMENTS
2
11
12
13
10
C2
C3
R1
R2
C5
R3
C6
C7
C8
C9
L1
L2
L3
X1
TURNS
X3
TURNS
C10
X4
TURNS
C1
120
Modeling For Power Electronics
(310) 8330710 Fax (310) 8339658
Copyright © Intusoft, All Rights Reserved
Personal Computer Circuit Design Tools
I n t u s o f t N e w s l e t t e r
#42 June 1995 Issue
1
3
4
7
2
10
8
6
11
9
Figure 1, Nonlinear magnetic elements can be simulated in a number of ways in
ISSPICE. See page 2 for more details.
A series of BH Loops using
Intusoft magnetics models
0RGHOLQJ0DJQHWLFV
Modeling Nonlinear Magnetics
Larry Meares, Charles Hymowitz, Steve Sandler
Excerpts from the June 1995 Intusoft Newsletter #42
121
Power Specialist’ s
Modeling Nonlinear Magnetics
Many models for magnetic cores exist [1]. Some have been
added to SPICE as builtin models while others use a subcircuit
approach. In terms of modeling, however, its important to
understand what SPICE behavioral modeling can offer vs.
direct coding methods in order to determine at what point an
AHDL implementation is appropriate. Behavioral constructs in
SPICE today are plentiful and powerful. As an example, let’s
take a look at two subcircuit based magnetic core models that
use SPICE 2G and SPICE 3 behavioral modeling.
A saturable reactor is a magnetic circuit element consisting of
a single coil wound around a magnetic core. The presence of
a magnetic core drastically alters the behavior of the coil by
increasing the magnetic flux and confining most of the flux to the
core. The magnetic flux density, B, is a function of the applied
MMF, which is proportional to ampere turns. The core consists
of a number of tiny magnetic domains made up of magnetic
dipoles. These domains set up a magnetic flux that adds to or
subtracts from the flux set up by the magnetizing current. After
overcoming initial friction, the domains rotate like small DC
motors, to become aligned with the applied field. As the MMF
is increased, the domains rotate one by one until they are all in
alignment and the core saturates. Eddy currents are induced as
the flux changes, causing added loss.
Modeling the physical process performed by a saturable core
is most easily accomplished by developing an electrical analog
of the magnetic flux. This is done by integrating the voltage
across the core and then shaping the flux analog with nonlinear
elements to cause a current to flow proportional to the desired
function. Intusoft has created a SPICE 2 compatible subcircuit
model that accurately simulates nonlinear core behavior includ
ing saturation, hysteresis, and eddy current losses [2, 3].
The popular JilesAtherton magnetics model, used in some
SPICE programs, is based on existing ideas of domain wall
motion, including flexing and translation [4]. While a good
description of core behavior, the Jiles Atherton model is difficult
to use unless you have access to parameters like the pinning
energy per volume, thermal energy, interdomain coupling, and
domain flexing value. Invariably, the model can only be con
structed by trial simulations and tweaking of the model
parameters; if you know how. In contrast, the Intusoft model is
much easier to use and accepts commonly available electrical
or physical data sheet parameters.
122
Modeling For Power Electronics
The original Intusoft model had one shortcoming; it did not
include low frequency hysteresis. A modified version, shown in
Figure 2, solves this with the addition of 4 elements to the input.
Magnetizing current associated with low frequency hysteresis
is provided by current sinks IH1/IH2. With no voltage across
terminals 1 and 2, these currents circulate through their respec
tive diodes, and the net terminal current is zero. When voltage
is applied, the appropriate diode starts to block and its current
sink becomes active [3]. The model takes into account fre
quency dependent losses associated with eddy currents and
transient widening of the BH loop (Figure 1, Table 1) caused
by magnetic domain angular momentum. It provides excellent
results for most applications, including magnetic amplifiers.
The Magnetics molypermalloy powder (MPP) core is widely
used in power conversion circuits. These cores are ideal for use
.SUBCKT CORE 1 2 3
DH1 1 9 DHYST
DH2 2 9 DHYST
IH1 9 1 {IHYST}
IH2 9 2 {IHYST}
F1 1 2 VM 1
G1 2 3 1 2 1
E1 4 2 3 2 1
VM 4 5
C1 3 2 {SVSEC/250} IC={IVSEC/SVSEC∗250}
RB 5 2 {LMAG∗250/SVSEC}
RS 5 6 {LSAT∗250/SVSEC}
VP 7 2 250
D1 6 7 DCLAMP
VN 2 8 250
D2 8 6 DCLAMP
E2 10 0 3 2 {SVSEC/250}
.MODEL DHYST D
.MODEL DCLAMP D(CJO={3∗SVSEC/(250∗REDDY)}
+ VJ=25)
.ENDS
Figure 2, The modified Intusoft
saturable reactor model and
netlist. The SPICENET symbol be
low the schematic reveals the
core’s connectivity and subcircuit
flux test point.
G1
C1 E1
VM
RS
RB
VS1
VS2 DS2
DS1
F1
X1
CORE
V(9)
FLUX
INTEGRATION
V VS. I
SHAPING
2
2
0
3
DH2
DH1
IH2
IH1
E2
2
3
1
5 6
3
2
10
SVSEC Voltsec at Saturation = B
SAT
• A
E
• N
IVSEC Voltsec Initial Condition = B • A
E
• N
LMAG Unsaturated Inductance = µ
O
µ
R
• N
2
• A
E
/ L
M
LSAT Saturated Inductance = µ
O
• N
2
• A
E
/ L
M
IHYST Magnetizing I @ 0 Flux = H
• L
M
/ N
REDDY Eddy Current Loss Resistance
Svsec and Ivsec are based on peak flux values. Lmag: For an ungapped core, L =
L
M
, (total path around core), For a gapped core, µ
R
= 1, L = gap length. A
E
= core area,
m
2
, Lsat: Use core dimensions but with µ
R
= 1, Reddy: Equals Lmag reactance when
permeability vs freq. is 3dB down.
Table 1, Description of
the model parameters for
the modified Intusoft
saturable core subcircuit
shown in Figure 1.
Simulating Nonlinear Inductors
123
Power Specialist’ s
in power inductors and for flyback power transformers. The
cores are available in several types. The most popular are
currently the 55xxx and 58xxx series. The 55xxx series has a
maximum flux density of 7000 gauss and the 58xxx series has
a maximum flux density of 15000 gauss, both of which are
significantly higher than ferrite. Core loss of both materials are
significantly higher than ferrite, and the 58xxx material has a
much greater core loss than the 55xxx series.
The MPP material provides a fairly “soft” BH loop which is ideal
for applications where it is desirable to create a swinging
inductance that allows a significant decrease in inductance as
a function of the inductor current. This can be beneficial in
applications where optimum transient response is required or
to minimize the preload current of a switching power supply.
For the model to be useful, it must correctly represent the initial
inductance, the incremental inductance, which represents the
inductance under a DC biased condition, and the core loss.
Integration
B1
B2
DCR
R1 .04
G2
1
V1
G1
1
C1
15.4U
R2
1.19M
B1 V=
B2 V=
ABS(1.256*21*I(V1)/4.11)
(1.77*E^(60*V(5)*.0002))(.77*E^(60*V(5)*.00052))
B3 V=
V(4,3)/(V(6,2)+.02)
1 4 3
8 2
7
9
5 6
Core
Loss
V/%µ
%µ H
.SUBCKT MP55135 1 2 10 {N=1 DCR=.01 IC=0}
R1 1 4 {DCR}
V1 3 2
G2 4 3 8 2 1
G1 2 8 7 2 1
C1 8 9 {N^2*62*1n} IC={IC} ; {} = N^2*AL = L
R2 9 2 {48.2M*300^1.451/(62.*N^2)}
B1 5 2 V=ABS(1.256*{N}*I(V1)/0.817) ; 1.256 * NI/L, .817=LM
B2 6 2 V=(1.77*E^(300*V(5,2)*.0002))(.77*E^(300*V(5,2)*.00052))
B3 7 2 V=V(4,3)/(V(6,2)+.02) ; 300 in B2 is the U(avg. permeability)
B4 10 0 V=V(6,2)*{N^2*62*1n} ; Inductance Test Point
.ENDS
Figure 4, SPICE 3 subcircuit listing for the nonlinear inductor model. N is the number
of turns, DCR is the series resistance, and IC is an optional initial condition. The
models uses the mathematical equation feature of SPICE 3.
Figure 3, Schematic of a
nonlinear inductor model
using SPICE 3 behavioral
elements.
124
Modeling For Power Electronics
Figure 3 shows the core subcircuit while Figure 4 shows a
sample netlist and key core parameters.
Initial Inductance, DC Bias, Core Loss, & Model Operation
The initial inductance is simplified by a core parameter, AL
(inductance/1000 turns). The inductance in microhenries is
simply computed as N
2
∗ AL. The DC bias inductance and
frequency response are provided by the manufacturer in the
form of graphs for each permeability available in each of the
MPP materials. Using linear least squares, and some trial and
error, a continuous function (difference of two exponentials)
was derived which correctly calculates the % of initial perme
ability as a function of the DC bias in Oersteds and the initial
permeability Ui. A continuous function was also derived for the
loss as a function of the initial permeability Ui.
For 55xxx material: %Ui = 1.77e
0.0002µH
 0.77e
0.005µH
For 58xxx material: %Ui = 1.25e
0.0001µH
 0.25e
0.005µH
.
55xxx material: f = 3.3E9∗e
1.451
, 58xxx material: f = 3.3E8∗e
1.09
.
V1 senses the current through the inductor. B1 uses this current
to calculate the magnetizing force of the inductor in Oersteds.
The magnetizing force is used by B2 to calculate the percent
age of initial inductance. G1 along with C1 (=N
2
∗ AL=L) and B3
perform an integration whose result is passed to G2. G2
generates the inductor current. R2 adds a zero at the 3dB
frequency of the MPP material to model the core loss.
Example  Inrush Current
A simple circuit was created to compare the results of a generic
inductor and the Magnetics 55xxx and 58xxx models. The
results of the simulation, in Figure 5, show that the inrush
current is 25% greater with a 58121 MPP core versus the
generic inductor model and 50% greater with a 55121 MPP
core. In many applications this could cause concern over
additional stress on the capacitors, long term reliability degra
Generic
58121
55121
Figure 5,
In rush
current for
an inductor
and the
MPP
58121 and
55121
cores from
Magnetics.
125
Power Specialist’ s
NP1
NP2
NS1
NS2
NS3
Q1
QN5886
R1 75
D3 DN5811
R3 1000
V(8)
COLL1
V(4) BASE2
C2
10P
R4
8MEG
I(V4)
IB
V(7)
VF
V(17) VOUT
R6
200MEG
R7 .1
I(V3)
Tran
4.78
2.81
100.0U 0 time
VOUT
Tran
3.36K
3.36K
100.0U 0 time
IB
Tran
97.2M
74.3M
100.0U 0 time
VF
Tran
1.11
6.60
100.0U 0 time
COLL1
Tran
51.7
3.24
100.0U 0 time
BASE2
Tran
7.40
6.74
100.0U 0 time
I(V3)
8
13
9
4
2
6
17
5
3
11
12
7
1
dation, relay contacts and con
nector pi ns whi ch coul d be
damaged by these currents. Simi
l ar resul ts can be seen i n
characteristics such as output
ripple and EMI filter attenuation.
As a typical example, the MPP
core was used in a Royer oscilla
tor circuit shown in Figure 6. The
transformer posed an interesting
simulation challenge. The result
i ng structure, created from
individual transformers [2], is
shown in Fig 7.
Many engineers have asked Intusoft technical support if SPICE
can support nonlinear magnetics. The preceding work should
give the user a good indication of some of what SPICE and
behavioral modeling techniques can accomplish.
Thanks to Steve Sandler, Analytical Engineering Services (602)
9179727 for his contributions to this article and for the creation of
the nonlinear inductor model.
References
[1] Survey of Magnetic Core Models, Peter Lauritzen, Margarita
Takach, APEC Conference Proceedings 1995
[2] “Improved Spice model simulates transformer’s physical pro
cesses”, L.G. Meares, Charles E Hymowitz, EDN, August 19, 1993
[3] “An Electrical Circuit Model for magnetic Cores”, Lloyd Dixon,
Unitrode Corp., Oct 1994
[4] “Theory of ferromagnetic hysteresis”, D.C. Jiles and D.L. Atherton,
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 1986
X2
TURNS
X3
TURNS
X4
TURNS
X5
TURNS
X6
TURNS
V(1)
IN
V(7)
OUT
V(4)
2PRI
V(2)
BDRIVE
4
1
9
5
2
7
NP1
NP2
NS1
NS2
NS3
1
2
Figure 6, A
royer
oscillator
using the
MPP core
model.
MPP
Core
Figure 7, Transformer topology and
symbol used in the Royer oscillator circuit.
(Core and Inductance test point
Test
Point
126
Modeling For Power Electronics
Current Limited Power Supply
Larry Meares, Intusoft
Current limited power supplies are required to test circuits.
However, the independent sources in SPICE do not have
inherent current limiting capabilities, therefore, such a feature
must be added separately.
A current limiting function can be subject to convergence
problems if a continuous voltage is not generated by the
power supply during the current limiting operation. With
traditional SPICE 2 elements there is no simple way to
generate the proper response.
The IsSpice4 B element, however, allows you to create a
piecewise linear response in which each region can be
characterized by a nonlinear function. This is in contrast to
Figure 1, A simple test schematic for the
current limited power supply is shown
below. The B element IfThenElse
statement used in the model is also shown.
It uses a cosine taper to create a smooth
and continuous transfer function. The
output voltage (top waveform), first
derivative (middle waveform) and the
second derivative (bottom waveform) are
shown in the IntuScope graph.
.SUBCKT PWRSPLY 1 2 {Voltage=5 ILimit =1 Rmin=1u delta=.01}
* Smooth cosine limiting with variable sharpness
* Parameters:
* Voltage Voltage Output in Volts,
* ILimit Current limit in Amps for 1/2 output voltage,
* Rmin Minimum resistance in Ohms
* delta Fraction of Ilimit used from start of limit to 0 volts
R1 4 1 {Rmin}
V1 3 4
B1 3 2 V=I(V1) < {(1delta/2) * ILimit } ?
+ {Voltage} : I(V1) > {(1+ delta/2) * ILimit } ? 0 :
+ {Voltage * .5}*( 1+cos(3.14159*(I(V1)  ({(1delta/2) * ILimit}))/({ILimit* delta})) )
.ENDS
Figure 2, The IsSpice4 subcircuit netlist for the generic current limited power supply.
3
2
1
46.0M 48.0M 50.0M 52.0M 54.0M
WFM.1 vout vs. i_loadinAmps
4.00
0
4.00
8.00
12.0
v
o
u
t
i
n
V
o
l
ts
4.80K
800
3.20K
7.20K
11.2K
D
e
r
i
a
i
t
i
v
e
o
f
v
o
u
t
B1 3 2 V=I(V1) < {(1delta/2) * ILimit } ?
+ {Voltage} : I(V1) > {(1+ delta/2) * ILimit } ? 0 :
+ {Voltage * .5}*( 1+cos(3.14159*(I(V1)  ({(1delta/2) * ILimit}))/({ILimit* delta})) )
1
I_LOAD
R2
10k
Vout
+

X5
PWRSPLY
Voltage = 5
ILimit = 50m
delta = .01
2) * ILimit } ?
+ delta/2) * ILimit } ? 0 :
a “table model” in which each region can only be represented
by a linear response.
One such B element expression is shown in Figure 1. If uses
an IfThenElse syntax borrowed from the C programming
language. Using a cosine taper function allows a smooth
and controlled transition for the power supply, as illustrated
in Figure 1. Function variables, set by the user on the
schematic, are show in curly braces. The sharpness of the
transition is controlled by delta; the threshold and low current
voltage are also parameters. A complete subcircuit netlist
for the current limited power supply is illustrated in Figure
2.
127
Power Specialist’ s
Modelling Circuits by Computer
The circuit simulation program SPICE (Simulation Program
with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) has become the most
popular method of designing and simulating analogue circuits
by computer. Originally developed on a mini computer this
is now within the means and capability of desk top PC’s and
available from many different software vendors. However,
like any simulator it is only as good as the models it contains.
The models in a circuit simulator represent the real life
behaviour of components or circuits in a mathematical form
(e.g. V=IR for a simple ohmic resistor). The accuracy of
these models depends on the amount of characterised
behaviour available and how well the mathematics reflect
the true operation of the device being modelled.
At the lowest level we have component models such as the
ohmic resistor, inductors, capacitors and transistors.
Component models are relatively complex for active devices
such as transistors (the bipolar transistor has a 38 parameter
model in SPICE) and are consequently computationally
intensive (i.e. take a long time to simulate). Component
models also suffer from problems of convergence, this is
when the simulator is having problems resolving the actual
voltage at a node due to numerical uncertainties or local
computational oscillations.
The next level up from the component model is the macro
model, this is where a circuit or component is described in
less detail and its operation at the terminals of the device is
described, possibly with quite straight forward mathematics.
A typical example of a macro model would be an operational
amplifier, the silicon may contain over 300 transistors to
provide the circuit, however, all the user may really interested
in is simulating how the gain and frequency response will
change with external resistors for example. A model using
simple voltage sources and a multiplier may suffice for the
resistor gain characteristic and a feedback capacitor say to
limit frequency. The simpler macro model would be very
quick to simulate and containing only simple formulae and
primitive elements should not suffer convergence problems.
The advantages of the component level model over the macro
model are that the component level model will be appropriate
for all users, hence the component level model should always
be more accurate. Taking the amplifier circuit again for
example, if one amplifier user is interested in the power
supply rejection ratio and not gain, then in the amplifier
model previously described the macro model will not reflect
the reality of the circuit in this application. Therefore the
user has to always bear in mind that with a macro model you
are trading accuracy for speed of simulation and simplicity.
These are considered fair trades in the electronics business
and most silicon suppliers would only release a macro model
and not the full component level version of their analogue
IC’s.
The Isolated Hybrid DCDC Converter
The hybrid DCDC converter has similar problems to the
amplifier circuits described above, at its terminals the device
looks simple, you apply say 5V DC at the input and 5V DC
appears at the output. However, internally the device has to
convert the input DC to AC, transfer the power via a
transformer, rectify the AC, smooth back to DC and deliver
at its output terminals. Also since the device is a basic power
supply building block, if this takes a long time to simulate it
will slow down the simulation of the whole circuit, hence
macro modelling of this function is almost mandatory.
Any seasoned SPICE user may see an immediate problem
for the DCDC converter; it contains some form of oscillator
to produce AC. In SPICE, if you look at circuits under DC
conditions (a DC operating point for example), oscillators
will have no output, hence for a 5V DC input there would be
no output for a full component model of the DCDC converter
under DC simulation. Containing an oscillator and an
inductively coupled transformer results in very long
simulation times and many possible convergence problems,
hence this approach has been discarded as impractical even
for fast processors. The DCDC converter therefore has to
be examined as a macro model.
Macro Modeling Low Power DCDC Converters
by Martin O’Hara, Newport Components Limited, U.K.
Abstract
Presented here is a macro model for low power DCDC converters that allows fast simulation times without convergence
worries. The model uses primitive circuit elements to model the transfer characteristic of the device rather than a full
component model, avoiding simulation pitfalls of non convergence and speeding up the simulation time due to the simple
macro model construction. The resultant macro model provides output characteristics under DC simulation conditions as
well as AC noise characteristics which are shown to closely match measured device performance.
128
Modeling For Power Electronics
The Macro Model
The first thing to consider when looking at producing a macro
model is the overall function of the device (its transfer
function), then how the device appears at its terminals (i.e.
high impedance, low impedance, DC blocking etc) and
finally add in any additional features that need to be
considered.
The hybrid DCDC converter is a good circuit for a case
study as its function is relatively simple to understand; you
apply a given DC voltage at two terminals and a second
isolated DC voltage appears at two other terminals. In fact
this is virtually directly available in SPICE as a voltage
controlled voltage source (VCVS). However, other factors
that need consideration at this stage are the zero load power
consumption (the converter will consume some power with
no load attached), the efficiency curve, load regulation
(efficiency and output voltage vary with load demand) and
of course noise or ripple due to the oscillator. These are the
core properties that require modelling.
The terminals of a DCDC converter are low impedance at
the input, high at the output with a DC block due to the
internal rectifiers. There are also capacitors internally at
input and output and these need modelling if the circuit is to
simulate the effect of line filtering to and from the device.
The characteristic switching noise from the oscillator is
present on the DC levels at both input and output and should
be included to allow users to estimate the effect this may
have on their target circuit. A schematic of the subcircuit is
shown below.
RNL
CIN
VRPL
DOUT
COUT
CISOL
Voltage Transfer
Model
Efficiency
Model
+Vout
Vout
Vin
+Vin
Primitive Elements in SPICE
The voltage controlled voltage source can be used to
represent the internal transformer this should enable line
regulation properties to be modelled. DC output blocking
and load regulation can both be modelled using a diode
model at the output. The ripple can be applied to the output
as an additional voltage source, this can be used to monitor
the output current drain and feed this back to an input current
demand. At zero load a loss occurs due to the operation of
the oscillator even without an output load, losses are usually
modelled in SPICE as resistors. Finally the input, output
and isolation capacitance can be added to provide suitable
filter and coupling components.
Model Element Values
Deciding the elements is only half way to completing the
model, values needed to be determined for all of the ele
ments and modelling terms. The input and output capacitors
were chosen from the known input and output capacitor val
ues (COUT=CIN=1uF in the example being used here). This
data is not always explicitly stated by the manufacturer, but
can be determined from application notes on appropriate
filter values if these are given. Isolation capacitance is in
reality a measure of the capacitive coupling across the trans
former, this is a very low value compared to most discrete
capacitors (CISOL=24pF).
The transfer ratio of the voltage controlled voltage source
should be the same as the transformer ratio, where this is not
available an estimate can be gained from the voltage
conversion ratio plus an additional factor for the diode drop.
The loss resistor (R
L
)is a simple calculation based on the
known zero load power consumption (P
z
) or quiescent current
(I
q
)and using the devices nominal input voltage (V
nom
);
P
nom
Vsub
=
I
V
=
R
z
2
q
nom
L
The AC ripple voltage was chosen to give a zero DC bias
effect so as not to offset the output voltage bias levels dur
ing AC simulations, hence a small positive and negative
excursion is modelled. The ripple frequency was chosen at
twice the nominal switching frequency since full wave rec
tification is used in the actual device being modelled. The
switching waveform is square from the oscillator and to
model this a fast rise/fall pulse waveform is used.
******************************************************
*** NEWPORT COMPONENTS LIMITED
*** NME0505S DCDC CONVERTER MODEL
*** 1W ISOLATED SINGLE OUTPUT DEVICE
******************************************************
*** NODE DESCRIPTION: VIN GND +VOUT 0V
.SUBCKT NME0505 1 2 3 4
DOUT 5 3 NCLD105
.MODEL NCLD105 D (IS=1E7 N=2.3 RS=2.8
+ EG=1.11 XTI=3 BV=50 IBV=25.9E3 TT=2E9 )
COUT 3 4 0.5UF
E1 6 4 1 2 1.25
F1 1 2 VRPL 1.25
RNL 2 1 250
CIN 2 1 0.5UF
VRPL 5 6 DC 0 PULSE 0.68 0.02 0 0.25US 0.25US 4.5US 5US
CISOL 1 3 24PF
.ENDS NME0505
******************************************************
The most difficult element to determine accurately is the
diode model, this has to represent the actual diode
arrangement (full or half bridge) as well as junction type (p
n or Schottky). Any winding and track resistance should be
included to reduce the number of elements in the finished
macro model. The model was determined by starting with
the supplied diode model from the diode manufacturer and
adjusting various parameters until the model fitted the
measured response. The basic diode model parameters were
129
Power Specialist’ s
slightly changed for the load regulation characteristic, and
the resistance parameter increased to include estimated track
and wire resistances.
Using a current controlled current source for the feedback
of load current demand also provides the method for
modelling the efficiency curve. The transfer ratio of the
transformer can again be used for the current feedback. The
use of the noise source as the current measurement element,
also results in a feedback of this noise to the input, hence no
further noise source is required, plus the input and output
noise is synchronised as occurs in the actual device.
Simulation Against Measured Performance
Once the model was developed several aspects of measured
performance against simulated performance were made. The
two of most interest were the load regulation and the
efficiency curves. These were measured under DC
conditions, hence it was interesting to see that the model
worked well, unlike the oscillator version, and simulated
quickly. Both efficiency and load regulation curves were
almost exact fits over the operating range of the device. The
largest discrepancies occur when the device sees a load
demand exceeding its normal limit, in the real circuit the
oscillator will fail to supply the current as it is current limited
itself, and the output voltage falls much more rapidly than
the simulator suggests.
Other examined parameters such as line regulation (the
variation of output voltage with input voltage) is well
modelled as is the noise characteristic. The only problem
with the noise value is that this has to be examined in an AC
or transient signal simulation which is more difficult to
measure than the DC parameters. The ripple from a DC
DC converter under full load was measured on a digital
storage oscilloscope (DSO) and compared with the simulated
result. Again both showed very close agreement, even the
DC offset value is within 50mV. The ripple source model
was designed to add no DC offset under simulation by having
it swing between a small positive and negative value.
Originally this was done to prevent the ripple source
overcoming the diode block at zero input, but has also helped
in preventing the output suffering a DC offset under transient
simulation.
NME0505 Macro Model  Line Regulation
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Input Voltage (V)
O
u
t
p
u
t
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)
Simulation
Measured
Limitations of the Macro Model
The macro model is a useful tool for giving the circuit
designer an indication of how the DCDC converter will work
under various load and line conditions over the devices
normal operating region. The main limitations are when the
device is being driven outside of its normal operating region.
Below its quoted minimum load (10%) the device can have
a relatively large excursion of output voltage, up to 50%
above its nominal output at zero load. The model only
predicts a slight increase at zero load, typically in the 20%
above nominal region. This is primarily due to the operation
of the real circuit and the model. The oscillator in the real
circuit continues to charge up the capacitors at a very low
charge rate until a quiescent point is achieved between the
very low charge and the leakage of the output circuit. In the
model the limit to the output voltage excursion at zero load
is still the diode model regulation characteristic, hence it is
130
Modeling For Power Electronics
lower than the trickle charge capacitor effect. Despite this
difference the model is still useful below this minimum load
level as it remains in a defined state.
At loads exceed the recommended full load of the DCDC
converter the model again fails to accurately describe the
action of the real circuit. At high loads (>100%) the oscillator
is current limited by design and the charge available from
the output capacitors drops as the load demands increases
over 100%. The net effect is that the load regulation begins
to fall dramatically after around 125% load and the ripple
increases significantly. The model simply continues to
predict a gradual fall of the output along the same regulation
curve with constant ripple. This does need to be borne in
mind if the simulation of the load circuit causes the DCDC
converter to be overloaded, the resultant DC supply levels
are unlikely to reflect the true situation.
The other limitation in the macro model is lack of modelling
temperature effects. This is not a major problem as the effect
of temperature on the operation of the DCDC converter is
relatively small. These small temperature dependant effects
could be included quite easily at a later date into the primitive
element models.
Although there are some limitations, this is to be expected
of a macro model, especially where an oscillator is being
replaced by a DC operated circuit. The limitations are very
minor over the normal operating range of the DCDC
converter and are certainly worth the price for a macro model
that simulates operation under DC conditions.
Summary
The model works well over the normal operating region of
the DCDC converters examined. The characteristics of line
regulation, load regulation, efficiency and noise are all
accurately simulated in both DC and transient signal analyses.
The macro model is simple to construct from either design
or specification data and provides fast simulation of the DC
DC converter circuit without convergence problems.
[1] Switching Power Supply Design, A.I. Pressman,
McGrawHill, 1991.
[2] IsSPICE User’s Guide, Intusoft, 1994.
[3] Power Supply Design Seminar, SEM1000, Unitrode,
1994.
Newport Components Limited, 4 Tanners Drive,
Blakelands North, Milton Keynes, MK14 5NA
Tel: 01908 615232 Fax: 01908 617545
131
Power Specialist’ s
Introduction
Modelling of inductors and inductive elements in SPICE
has always been of low importance to analogue designers.
This is partly because SPICE was developed primarily for
IC design where inductive elements are usually parasitic and
very small.
The widespread use of SPICE for discrete analogue circuit
design has seen the program being used to analyze switch
ing power supplies and filters in which the behaviour of the
inductive element is critical to the accuracy of the simula
tion. In general these circuits operate using ideal inductors
reasonably well since the current and frequency of opera
tion are in the ideal operating region of the inductors used
(i.e. relatively low frequency and well below the saturation
current limit).
More recent applications employing inductive elements are
electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters, in which the reso
nances across a very wide range of frequencies needs to be
examined. Likewise employing inductors in dc supply fil
ters can put the inductor near its dc saturation region. In
both later cases the modelling of the nonideal behaviour of
the inductor is important for accurate predictions of circuit
performance.
Real Inductor Behaviour
In an ideal inductor the impedance (Z) is purely reactive
and proportional to the inductance (L) only; The phase of
signal across the ideal inductor would always be +90° out of
phase with the applied voltage and there would be no effect
of DC current bias on the behaviour of an ideal inductor.
If we compare the measured frequency response for the im
pedance of a real inductor to the ideal model we can see two
distinct differences at either end of the frequency spectrum
(figure 1). At the low frequency (near DC) there is a domi
nant resistive element, observed in the constant impedance
value and loss of the phase shift. At high frequency the in
ductor goes though a resonance peak and the impedance then
falls and a voltage phase shift of 90° is observed, indicative
of capacitive dominance. The frequency response is there
fore observed to be nonideal, however, it can be stated that
near ideal behaviour does occur over the majority of the
inductors operating region.
Modeling NonIdeal Inductors in SPICE
Martin O’Hara Technical Manager, Newport Components, U.K. November 8 1993
Abstract
The nonideal inductor exhibits both resonance and nonlinear current characteristics. These effects can be modelled in
SPICE by adding only 3 additional elements to model the real inductor characteristics of dc resistance, wire capacitance and
magnetic core loss. The values for these model parameters can all be obtained from standard data sheet parameters via a few
simple calculations. The resulting model gives accurate impedance and phase simulations over a wide frequency range and
over the peak resonance frequency. The dc current saturation characteristics is modelled by a simple 2nd order polynomial
that gives a close simulation to measured performance over 2.5 times the recommended dc current limit. Comparisons of
measured inductor performance and simulation results are given to illustrate the proximity of the models to real inductor
behaviour.
Inductor Impedance Curve
1mH Toroidal Inductor
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000
frequency (Hz)
Im
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
(
O
h
m
s
)
Ideal Measured
Figure 1
Figure 2
Inductance Under DC Current Bias
1mH Toroidal Inductor
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300
DC Current (%of IDC)
In
d
u
c
t
a
n
c
e
(
%
o
f
n
o
m
in
a
l)
Under DC current bias there is a loss of inductance due to
magnetic saturation. This is observed as a fall in inductance
as the DC current through the inductor is increased.
Modelling NonIdeal Behaviour
There are essentially two nonideal characteristics
1
that are
encountered when using an inductor; one is the resonance
of the inductor and the other is magnetic saturation. Since
these essentially act in different analyses in SPICE (i.e. AC
or DC analyses), they can be considered separately, although
combined into a single model.
132
Modeling For Power Electronics
RDC LO
CP
Figure 3: Basic Inductor Model
The additional parasitics that cause the behaviour of an in
ductor to be nonideal over the frequency range can be eas
ily visualised and characterised. There are essentially two
additional parameters that contribute; the dc resistance of
the wire and its self capacitance (figure 3). These two addi
tional parameters can usually be easily obtained from the
specification for the inductor, hence additional measurement
by the circuit designer should not be required, just a few
simple calculations.
The series resistance is obtained simply from the quoted dc
resistance of the inductor (R
dc
). The parallel capacitance(C
p
)
can be obtained from the self resonant frequency of the in
ductor, since at this frequency the reactance of the wire ca
pacitance (X
C
) and the reactance of the inductance (X
L
) are
equal. Hence the capacitance can be expressed as;
L
) f (2
1
=
C
o
o
2
p
π
(1)
Where f
o
is the self resonant frequency.
The effect of dc current causing magnetic saturation can be
modelled as a simple second order polynomial. In SPICE
2G6 this was available directly in the standard polynomial
inductor model by using the POLY key word after the node
description.
The polynomial is specified by the equation;
I L
+ ... +
I L
+ I
L
+
L
=
L
n
n
2
2 1 o I
(2)
where n≤20.
An inductor specification usually gives the dc current (I
dc
)
at which the inductance falls to 90% of its nominal value
(L
o
). Hence, using a second order approximation, the equa
tion becomes;
I L
+
L
=
L
0.9
2
dc 2 o o
(3)
Yielding a second order coefficient of;
I
L
0.1
 =
L
2
dc
o
2
(4)
Note that the first order coefficient will have to be speci
fied as zero.
In SPICE 3E2 the polynomial inductor is no longer avail
able and a more complex method of modelling this effect is
required using the nonlinear element B and a zero value
voltage source to measure the current through the inductor.
The complete polynomial inductor of SPICE 2G6 can be
written as a subcircuit in SPICE 3E2.
XL 1 2 POLYL L
o
L
1
L
2
L
3
....
.SUBCKT POLYL 1 2
V1 1 3 DC 0
LO 3 2 L
o
B1 2 3 I=I(V1)^2*L
1
/(2*L
o
)+I(V1)^3*
+ L
2
/(3*L
o
)+I(V1)^4*L
3
/(4*L
o
)+....
.ENDS
Here we are only interested in modelling the second order
polynomial, hence only the L
2
term is of interest. This can
be determined from the SPICE 2G6 coefficients, or directly
from the maximum DC current value.
I
30
1
 =
L
3
L
=
L
2
dc o
2
3E2
(5)
The polynomial subcircuit can hence be rewritten;
.SUBCKT POLYL 1 2
V1 1 3 DC 0
LO 3 2 L
o
B1 2 3 I=I(V1)^3*L
3E2
.ENDS
It should be noted that this subcircuit only replicates the
polynomial equation from version 2G6, the additional model
elements also need to be added.
Simulation and Test Results
A radial leaded bobbin inductor (14 105 40) was measured
for the nonideal characteristics described above. Imped
ance and phase were determined on a HewlettPackard
HP4192A Low Frequency Impedance Analyzer, dc current
characteristic was determined on a WayneKerr (WK) 3245
Precision Impedance Analyzer and 3220 Bias Unit.
The effect of dc current saturation proved long winded to
simulate. The reason for this is that an AC analysis cannot
be performed concurrently with a DC sweep. Hence the dc
current through the inductor had to be manually changed
and the circuit resimulated to get a simulation of imped
ance over a range of dc current (the inductance was calcu
lated from the simulated impedance characteristic from
SPICE and read directly from the WK3245).
133
Power Specialist’ s
Figure 2: Impedance Analysis
Discussion
Impedance results proved to be exceptionally well matched,
the only discrepancy being a slight difference in the reso
nant frequency. The difference in resonant frequency is
purely a production variation, the model is centred on the
typical value of 800kHz, whereas the sample used was reso
nant at 696kHz.
In simulation it is important that the measuring instrument
is modelled as closely as possible so that any effects this
may load onto the component is determined. The problem
of the measurement system model is clearly illustrated in
the phase results. If a 50O oscillator source to load imped
ance is used (as suggested in the HP manual) a poor simu
lated phase response is observed due to the loading of the
source, however, using a 1MO impedance gave an accurate
simulated match to the measurement characteristic (the simu
lated impedance response was the same with either source
impedance).
not required. What the simulation implies is that it results in
the worse case characteristic for the least effort.
3 Element Model Simulation
1mHToroidal Inductor
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000
frequency (Hz)
Im
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
(
o
h
m
s
)
SPICE Measured
Peak Resonance Impedance Plot
1mHToroidal Inductor
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 1000000 1100000
frequency (Hz)
Im
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
(
O
h
m
s
)
3 Element Model
4 Element Model
Measured
Peak Resonance Phase Plot
1mHToroidal Inductor
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
80
100
300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 1000000 1100000
frequency (Hz)
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
re
e
s
)
3 Element Model
4 Element Model
Measured
Inductanc e under DC Current Bias
1mH Toroidal Induc tor
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300
DC Current (%of IDC)
In
d
u
c
t
a
n
c
e
(
%
o
f
n
o
m
in
a
l)
SPICE Measured
Figure 3: DC Current Analysis
The simulated dc current characteristic looks dissimilar to
the measured result. The initial inductance is higher for the
measured part (1.05mH) and it can be observed that the char
acteristic is more likely a 3rd order polynomial expression.
However, the simulation is reasonably close and estimates a
worse case (particularly since the I
dc
current value for the
sample used was nearer 5A; Newport inductors are always
specified conservatively). The shape of the characteristic is
reasonably close over 2.5 times the parts recommended op
erating current shown and using the 2nd order polynomial
rather than a 3rd means that additional measurements are
Figure 4: Peak Resonance Impedance Analysis
Peak Resonance
If the peak resonance is more closely examined it is observed
that there is some disparity between simulation
2
and mea
surement for both the peak impedance result (figure 4) and
rate of phase change (figure 5). This can be expected in that
there is no provision is this simple model for the finite loss
in the magnetic material.
Figure 5: Peak Resonance Phase Analysis
The magnetic loss can be modelled reasonably well as a
parallel resistor (R
p
) across the existing model. The value
can again be calculated from data sheet parameters, using
the quality factor (Q). In a parallel RLC
3
circuit the rela
tionship between the quality factor and inductance is given
by;
L
f 2
R
= Q
o
o
p
π
(6)
The data sheet value for the 14 105 40 inductor used here is
Q=49, hence a parallel resistance of 246kO is calculated
(225kO using the actual values for the sample part).
The resulting simulations for impedance and phase now
match the measured results exceptionally well. This indi
cates the method for determining R
p
is a reasonable approxi
mation from a circuit designers point of view.
134
Modeling For Power Electronics
Summary
It is possible to simulate several complex aspects of induc
tor operation in SPICE using only 3 extra passive elements
(figure 6) and a simple polynomial expression. The result
ing model gives accurate inductor simulations over a wide
range of operating conditions with a minimal increase in
computation time (only one extra node is introduced) and
no additional measurements are required.
SPICE 2G6 Example
The following example is a model for a Newport Compo
nents 1400 series 1mH inductor (14 105 40) where L
o
=1mH,
R
dc
=0.173O, I
dc
=4.0A, Q=49 and f
o
=800kHz.
.SUBCKT IND14105 1 2
LO 3 2 POLY 1E3 0 6.25E6
RDC 1 3 0.173
CP 1 2 39.6E12
RP 1 2 250K
.ENDS
SPICE 3E2 Example
The following example is a model for a Newport Compo
nents 1400 series 1mH inductor (14 105 40) where L
o
=1mH,
R
dc
=0.173O, I
dc
=4.0A, Q=49 and f
o
=800kHz.
.SUBCKT L14105 1 2
LO 1 4 1E3
V1 4 3 DC 0
B1 4 1 I=I(V1)^3*2.08E3
RDC 3 2 0.173
CP 1 2 39.6E12
RP 1 2 250K
.ENDS L14105
References
[1] SPICE Version 2G1 User’s Guide, A. Vladimirescu, A.R.
Newton, D.O. Pederson, UCB, 1980 (+2G6 upgrade, undated).
[2] Electric Circuits, 2nd ed., J.A. Edminster, Schaum’s Outline
Series, McGrawHill, 1983.
[3] Soft Ferrites, 2nd ed., E.C. Snelling, Butterworths, 1988.
[4] IsSPICE 3 User’s Guide, Intusoft, 1992
[5] Private communication, M. Penberth, Technology Sources
Ltd, November 1993.
[6] Inductor Databook, Newport Components Limited, 1993.
Newport Components Limited, 4 Tanners Drive,
Blakelands North, Milton Keynes, MK14 5NA
Tel: 01908 615232 Fax: 01908 617545
The above simulation results suggest the model gives a rea
sonably good approximation to the real behaviour of the
inductor over a wide frequency and current range. The im
provement has also been gained for no additional measure
ments, which means that the model can be derived from the
component specification.
Limitations
The above model is now quite sophisticated for an induc
tive element, however, there are still limitations and this
should be borne in mind. The model assumes that there is
no variance of resistance and capacitance with dc current, at
low values of these parameters this may be adequate as these
will tend to be swamped by the rest of the circuit.
Negative inductance values can be obtained when the dc
current exceeds approximately 3.16 times the I
DC
value
1
. In
the SPICE 3E2 subcircuit this can be compensated for by
putting in an IF..THEN conditional statement, this can ei
ther set the value of the inductor to zero, or some specified
value. In SPICE 2G6 this facility is not available, it is there
fore advisable to have a some measure of the dc current in
the circuit element if it is suspected that the dc current is
greater than 2.5 times the I
DC
value.
Parameter Tolerances
The tolerance for inductance is usually specified in the data
sheet (±10% for the sample used), however, few of the other
parameters have a tolerance figure. In the cases of R
dc
and
I
dc
these are worse case values and no other tolerance is re
quired.
The tolerance of the self resonant frequency is related to the
inductance value and wire capacitance. The tolerance of
the wire capacitance is difficult to estimate accurately since,
even with machine wound products, the value is so small
that slight variations in winding cause noticeable changes in
the capacitance. As an estimate, it could be expected that
±20% variation in the value of C
p
would be observed.
The tolerance in the R
p
value is also difficult to determine,
even the core manufacturers do not usually specify toler
ances of the loss parameters of the core. Again a ±20%
tolerance is predicted to be sufficient to allow a MonteCarlo
analysis to accurately predict worse cases.
Figure 6: Completed Inductor Model
135
Power Specialist’ s
M otor a nd Re la y
M od e ling
Authors
Mike Penberth, Technology Sources, U.K.
Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
136
Motor and Relay Modeling
Modeling A Relay
Mike Penberth, Technology Sources, U.K., Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
Excerpts from the March 1997 Intusoft Newsletter #49
In this article we’ll look at how IsSpice4 can be used to model
a relay in detail. Figure 12 shows the full model which is split into
the following parts:
The Coil and Drive
The transistor drives the coil which is represented by the
components between the collector and supply, V3. We might
usually think in terms of using a voltage source in the coil circuit
to develop the back emf, but this implies differentiating the flux
in the magnetic circuit. In this model, we integrate the voltage
across the coil (less the resistive drop) to obtain the flux at node
7. When performing a simulation, integration is always prefer
able to differentiation, and the LAPLACE function provides a
very fast and simple integrator.
The Magnetic Circuit & Force
The reluctance of the magnetic circuit has two series compo
nents, that of the fixed iron and air path and that of the changing
solenoid air gap. For simplicity, we initially assume no fringing
and a linear relation between gap and reluctance. Flux flows
through the series combination of the reluctances to give a
“potential” which is the ampereturns, V(17). From the ampere
turns we have the current flow in the coil from nodes 1 to 12.
The magnetic force on a body is the integral of the square of the
normal component of B over the surface. For a simple solenoid
plunger with little fringing, we initially assume B squared times
the plunger face area. This, in turn, is the square of the flux
divided by the area.
The Moving Air Gap
The plunger acceleration is the result of the sum of the forces
which are acting upon it. The acceleration can be double
integrated to obtain position with respect to time. The other
forces acting on the plunger are friction and the hard stop.
Friction is calculated from velocity via a high gain limiter; this
gives a constant force whose sign is dependent upon the
direction of movement, i.e. static friction. The characteristic of
the stop is obtained from a table model which gives a high
spring rate for negative gap. The gap position, V(14), is fed back
into the magnetic circuit to control the air gap reluctance.
Arcing
The solenoid plunger is connected to the relay contacts. The
contact gap closes before the plunger hits the end stop. A limiter
by Mike Penberth, Technology Sources, U.K.
Modeling A Relay
137
Power Specialist’ s
function is used to generate the contact gap from the plunger
position. Arcing will occur when the electric field strength across
the gap exceeds a certain value. By calculating the field
strength and applying it to a switch at node 20, we can short the
relay contacts to simulate arcing.
Results
The plot of Figure 13 shows the plunger bouncing off the end
stop following coil energization and the rise of current in the coil.
Figure 14 shows some detail of arcing at the contacts, node 19,
and the contact gap, node 18. An example IsSpice4 netlist is
shown in Table 2.
Comments
The constants in this example are purely arbitrary and do not
represent any real device. When modelling a real device, it
would be relatively easy to introduce some second order effects
such as nonlinear reluctance change with air gap by using
either the equation facilities in the B source, or the table model
to introduce data obtained from a field modelling package.
Figure 12, IsSpice4 model of a relay. The model includes the effects of coil impedance,
back emf, nonlinear air gapreluctance relationship, plunger position, plunger friction,
plunger stop elasticity, and arcing. Test circuitry is shown in white.
Friction Limiter
Table element
RCOIL
100
V1
V2
V3
12
Laplace
V(7)
FLUX
Q1
QN2222
R2
100
V4
PULSE
Laplace Laplace Table
Coil current proportional to H
Integral of coil voltage gives flux
Fixed reluctance
Air gap reluctance
Velocity Position Force at stop
Sum of forces
Flux drives through reluctances
C1
1N
R3 1K
V7
50
R4
1
V=ABS(V(19)/(V(18)))
V= (I(V2)*3E4)^2V(15)
V=V(3)V(4)
Magnetic force  spring force at stop
Damping force
Electric field strength
V=V(1,12)
I=V(7) V=.1*I(V2)
V=I(V2)*(1.1V(14))
I=V(17)
Contact gap
V(17)
NI
6
1
2
12
16
5
8 7
10 11
9 13 14 15
17
3
4
18
19
23
20 21
1
12
19
23
Coil/Drive
Magnetic Circuit
Air Gap
Arcing
Magnetic Force
Symbol
138
Motor and Relay Modeling
As the air gap widens, fringing increases and the effective
magnetic path length becomes longer than the gap. This can be
introduced as a second order term in the B source, or added as
a nonlinear behavioral resistor.
Rgap 16 0 R=(1.1V(14))+(1.1V(14))^2
As presented previously, the stop is perfectly elastic, energy
loss in the stop can be added by subtracting another force
computed from the stop force times plunger velocity. For
example by changing B10 to read:
V=V(3)  V(4)  V(13) ∗ V(15) ∗ .0001
2
1
1.00M 3.00M 5.00M 7.00M 9.00M
TIME in Secs
1.50
500M
500M
1.50
2.50
P
l
u
n
g
e
r
P
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
80.0M
60.0M
40.0M
20.0M
0
C
o
i
l
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
i
n
A
m
p
s
2
1
4.06M 4.07M 4.08M 4.09M 4.10M
TIME in Secs
10.0M
0
10.0M
20.0M
30.0M
C
o
n
t
a
c
t
G
a
p
60.0
40.0
20.0
0
20.0
C
o
n
t
a
c
t
A
r
c
i
n
V
o
l
t
s
Figure 13, The plunger bouncing off the end stop can clearly be seen
from this graph of the plunger position and the energizing coil current.
Figure 14, The relay model includes the effects of arcing as shown by
this plot of the relay contact voltage as the contact gap is closed.
1 2
1 2
139
Power Specialist’ s
Figure 15, The relay models from CircuitMaker (left) and Electronic
Workbench (right) don’t include key features found in the real devices. The
models are first order and support only coil inductance, turnon current,
holding current, and coil resistance.
.SUBCKT RELAY 1 12 19 23
∗Connections Crtl+ Crtl Out+ Out
V1 2 12
S1 19 23 20 0 SW1
.MODEL SW1 SW RON=10M ROFF=10G
+ VT=3K VH=1K
B13 20 0 V=ABS(V(19) / (V(18)))
B5 8 0 V=V(1)  V(12)
A1 8 7 S_001
.MODEL S_001 s_xfer(in_offset=0 gain=1.0
+ num_coeff=[1.0] den_coeff=[1.0 0]
+ denorm_freq=1.0)
A2 9 13 S_002
.MODEL S_002 s_xfer(in_offset=0 gain=1.0
+ num_coeff=[1.0] den_coeff=[1.0 0] out_ic=0
+ denorm_freq=1.0)
A3 13 14 S_003
.MODEL S_003 s_xfer(in_offset=0 gain=1.0
+ num_coeff=[1.0] den_coeff=[1.0 0] out_ic=0
+ denorm_freq=1.0)
A4 14 15 PWL_001
.MODEL PWL_001 Pwl(xy_array=[0 0 1.0
+ 0 1.1 100.0Meg 1.2 200.0Meg]
+ input_domain=10.0M fraction=TRUE)
A5 13 4 LIM_002
.MODEL LIM_002 Limit(in_offset=0 gain=1K
+ out_lower_limit=10 out_upper_limit=10
+ limit_range=1.0U fraction=FALSE)
A6 14 18 LIM_001
.MODEL LIM_001 Limit(in_offset=0.8
+ gain=1 out_lower_limit=10K
+ out_upper_limit=1U limit_range=1U)
B7 1 2 I=V(17)
B8 17 5 I=V(7)
V2 5 0
B12 17 16 V=.1 ∗ I(V2)
B4 16 0 V=I(V2) ∗ (ABS(1.1V(14)) +
+ (1.1V(14)) ∗ .5 ; Use Rgap for
∗ nonlinear air gap effects
∗ Rgap 16 0 R=(1.1V(14))+(1.1V(14))^2
B10 9 0 V=V(3)  V(4) 
+ V(13)∗V(15)∗0.0005 ; added for
∗ Imperfect plunger stop
B11 3 0 V=(I(V2) ∗ 3E4)^2  V(15)
∗ 3E4 Plunger area
.ENDS
Table 2, IsSpice4 relay netlist.
Relay Model Comparison
Many analog simulation tool vendors claim to have a large
number of SPICE models in their libraries. But when you look
more deeply into their offerings, you will see that there are
significant shortcomings for which numbers of parts are not a
substitute.
Take, for example, the relay we just reviewed. The relay models
found in Electronic Workbench and CircuitMaker are shown in
Figure 15. The relays use only the ideal SPICE (twostate)
switch to model the relay. No nonlinear inductive, mechanical
or arcing effects are included in their models.
V= 4abs(V(6)V(7))
V= abs(V(6)V(7))
Vsrc
Current controlled
(Vsrc) switches
Coil Representation (top)
Switch
Contacts
(bottom)
140
Motor and Relay Modeling
By comparison, the models in these products are simplistic and
only model “first order” phenomenon. First order models have
their place in the simulation process. They are quite useful,
especially for system level simulations, and Intusoft includes
them in ICAP/4.
However, while these software products can be less expensive,
you will find that you really get what you pay for when it comes
to model features and performance. Good models are CRITI
CAL to a successful simulation, and they don’t come cheap.
The quality of a model library should not be judged by how many
models are included, but by the effects that the models emulate.
The number of models simply doesn’t tell the whole story.
For further information on this article, contact Mike Penberth at:
Technology Sources Ltd. U.K. Tel: +4401 223 516 469, Fax:
+4401 223 729916, Web  www.softsim.com.
141
Power Specialist’ s
Figure 1
V=3.1416*FRAC( V(1) / 3.1416 )
V=EXP( 1.5*(V(2)3.1416 / 2 )^2 )
V=TIME
1 2 3
Figure 2
New SPICE features aid motor simulation
Nanotechnology is increasingly featured in the science pages of serious newspapers as well as the
technical journals. The developments in this field are often demonstrated by the construction of a
capacitance motor built to dimensions to which few of us can relate. What is a capacitance motor
and what are its characteristics? This article explores capacitance motors using SPICE as a simula
tion tool and taking advantage of some new features added to IntuSoft’s latest version of this popular
simulator.
The primary feature of a motor is that it produces torque. If this torque changes sign as a function of shaft
angle the device is usually referred to as an actuator. Many types of motor consist of a number of actuators
set with an angular spacing so that by switching the drive from actuator to actuator a continuous torque can
be produced. Capacitance motors are in this class.
Take the simple geometry of Fig 1. Here a pair of rotor electrodes can vary in angular alignment with a pair
of stator electrodes. The capacitance seen
across the stator pair varies with angle
reaching a maximum twice per revolution. If
a voltage V is applied across the stator
plates a torque T will be developed in a
sense that will seek to maximise the capaci
tance. The torque can be calculated from
the equivalence in the work done in moving
through a small angle δθ and the change in
electrical stored energy due to the change
in capacitance across the small angle.
Tδθ = ½ C
1
V
2
 ½ C
2
V
2
= ½ δCV
2
giving:
T = V
2
dC/dθ
Note: The V
2
dependence shows the torque
direction is independent of the polarity of
applied voltage.
Our simple geometry suggests a triangular wave variation of capacitance with position, maximum at 0 & 180
degrees, zero at 90 & 270 degrees. Field fringing and construction details will modify this ideal into a more
complex function.
In a real motor we could calculate the capacitance at a number of angles using field modelling software with
a parameter extractor. Using this data we could then curve fit to a function.
It is at this point that we come across our first simulation problem. In looking at the motor dynamics we will
want to simulate across several revolutions of the motor. This presents no problem if our curve fit is to a
periodic function such as a sine wave and we could make other functions periodic by expanding them as a
Fourier series. There is now an easier way. IntuSoft
have introduced a number of extensions to the arbitrary
source syntax one of which is a fractional function. For
our purposes, if the rotor position in radians divided by
2π is the argument of the FRAC function the output will
be the fractional part of the total number of revolutions.
We can use this fractional part as the argument in a
nonperiodic function to give a repeating capacitance
variation with angular position.
In the SPICE circuit of Fig 2 I have chosen to use a
gaussian function to represent the change of capaci
tance with angle. Since there are two maxima per revolution the angular position is divided by π not 2π.
Mike Penberth, Technology Sources, U.K.
“New SPICE Features Aid Motor Simulation”, Copyright Technology Sources, U.K.
New SPICE Features Aid Motor Simulation
142
Motor and Relay Modeling
1
2
1.0000 3.0000 5.0000 7.0000 9.0000
ANGULAR POSITION IN RADIANS
3.5000
2.5000
1.5000
500.00M
500.00M
T
o
r
q
u
e
3.0000
1.0000
1.0000
3.0000
5.0000
F
r
a
c
t
io
n
a
l
P
o
s
it
io
n
Figure 3
V=3.1416*FRAC( V(1) / 3.1416 )
POSITION INPUT
VOLTAGE INPUT
C =EXP( (1.5*(V(2) 3.1416 /2)^2))
POSITION OFFSET
V=2*1.5*(V(2) 3.1416 /2)*V(5)*V(4)^2
TORQUE
2 1
3
4
5
3
2
1
1.0000 3.0000 5.0000 7.0000 9.0000
WFM.1 A vs. TIME in Secs
2.0000
1.0000
0
1.0000
2.0000
A
in
V
o
lt
s
2.0000
1.0000
0
1.0000
2.0000
C3
L2 R1
V=1e6*V(2)
INERTIA R=.01+1*ABS(I(R1))
DAMPING
POSITION OUT
1
2
3 4
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
The resulting capacitance against
angle plot is shown in Fig 3.
The expression for torque includes
the derivative of capacitance with
respect to angle. For the Gaussian
function chosen this has the
analytic form :
2θe
θ
2
The circuit of Fig 2 is extended in
Fig 4 to generate the torque output
from the drive voltage input. The
capacitor across the input drive
voltage represents the actuator
input capacitance and uses
another new feature of IntuSoft’s
SPICE that allows capacitor ( and
L & R ) values to be written as
functions of circuit voltages and
currents. An additional input allows
us to rotate the torque characteris
tic through an offset angle.
A typical motor might consist of three of these
actuators disposed at 120 degree angles. The
torque / rotation curves are then as shown in Fig 5
and we can see that we can always energise at
least one of the actuators to produce a positive or
negative torque.
The next step is to use the torque/rotation charac
teristic to simulate the dynamics of the motor.
Motor position is the double integral of the torque/
inertia ratio. A compact way of producing the
double integral is using an L and C combination
around a gain stage as in Fig 6. The LC node is a
virtual earth point, the current in the inductor then
represents angular velocity with the output voltage
representing angular position, since
Vout = ∫ ∫ Vin/LC
L is equivalent to inertia while C scales the output.
143
Power Specialist’ s
posn
phase
torque
drive
posn
phase
torque
drive
posn
phase
torque
drive
A D
Zero
clk
res
u/d
h/step
A
B
C
A D
A D
A D
A D
One
Figure 7
1
2
7.2000 11.200 15.200 19.200 23.200
TIME in Secs
5.4000
4.2000
3.0000
1.8000
600.00M
A
N
G
U
L
A
R
P
O
S
I
T
I
O
N
I
N
R
A
D
I
A
N
S
5.4000
4.2000
3.0000
1.8000
600.00M
Figure 8
Any practical motor contains and drives some form of friction, friction absorbs torque that would otherwise
accelerate the motor and is related to angular velocity. A resistor in series with the inductor effectively
absorbs an amount of torque proportional to velocity i.e. viscous friction. Some losses ( e.g. windage )
increase with the square of velocity. Here we can use the ability to write expressions for resistance values
to make the resistance proportional to velocity.
Fig 7 shows a complete three phase ca
pacitance stepper motor, each actuator is
represented by a subcircuit symbol, the
total torque is summed into the integrator of
Fig 6 and the output angle is fed back to the
actuators. The actuator drive voltages are
provided from a state machine (see next
page) programmable for full step or half
step drive
Fig 8 shows the results obtained when
driving the motor in full step and half step
mode respectively. The ringing following
each step is a consequence of the spring
like characteristic of the torque curve. The
lower frequency ringing on half steps is a
result of the reduced slope of the torque/
position characteristic with two phases
energised.
The completed simulation model can now be
used to investigate such features as the
maximum stepping rates achievable, the
importance of friction in damping the ringing and the effects of more complicated drive strategies such as
microstepping.
Variable reluctance motors can be treated in a similar way though inductance in such motors is a function
of both rotor position and excitation due to the nonlinearities of the magnetic core.
The motor model can be made a single sub
circuit and represented by a symbol. Some
simulation packages provide such “ready
wrapped” models but it is important for
designers to understand the workings of
these models in order to account for their
limitations. The model developed here, for
example, does not include voltage break
down, more torque can always be obtained
by increasing the drive voltage.
Full details of the SPICE circuits used in this
model can be obtained from Mike Penberth
at:
Technology Sources Ltd
Phone: +441638561460
Fax: +441638561721
Email: info@softsim.com
144
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
Te st Prog ra m
De ve lop me nt a nd
Fa ilure Ana lysis for
S M P S
Authors
Larry Meares, Intusoft
Harry Dill, Consultant, Phoenix, AZ
Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
Kyle Bratton, Chris Sparr, Naval Aviation Depot, MCAS Cherry Point, NC
Lloyd Pitzen, CCI Incorporated, Arlington VA
145
Power Specialist’ s
Introduction
Historically, product acceptance testing has stopped at
specification compliance testing. While quality and safety
considerations suggest that more testing is required, product
cost has driven the testing toward a minimal solution. The
ubiquitous desktop computer has relentlessly driven down
the cost of design and test. It is now possible to use widely
available Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools to
provide the specification for additional tests at a reasonable
cost.
This paper will illustrate, using existing EDA
technology, how it is possible to apply longestablished
techniques, which were originally developed for the
aerospace industry, to define faults and sequence
measurements in order to produce an optimal test sequence.
Most tests require the design engineer to establish pass/fail
limits. Methods are discussed to set these limits and to create
tests that are robust, that is, tests which aren’t likely to give
incorrect pass/fail indications. Then a method will be
described to establish optimal test sequences that will either
maximize the likelihood of fault isolation, or minimize the
effort that is required in order to demonstrate faultfree
performance.
Defining Faults
What is a failure? A good design can accept part tol
erances that are far wider than the tolerance of the individual
components. For example, a 2k pullup resistor may work
just as well as the specified 1k resistor. Clearly, we want to
accept the outoftolerance part in order to take advantage
of the increased yield which is provided by a robust design.
Production engineers should be able to substitute parts based
on cost and availability.
In the pullup resistor example, an open resistor could
actually pass a test which is based upon functional require
ments, and fail in the next higher assembly when the noise
environment increases.
It’s reasonable to conclude that we want to detect and
reject products which contain catastrophic component fail
ures; but accept products which may contain parametric “fail
ures” that do not affect functional performance. Actually,
these parametric failures are part of the tolerance distribu
tion of the parts which we are using. Monte Carlo analysis
will show the robustness of the design when we compare the
resulting performance predictions with the product specifi
cation.
Defining failure modes: Failures are well character
ized by a finite number of catastrophic failure modes. For
digital circuits, there are 2 failure modes; the outputs may
be stuck at logic one, or stuck at logic zero. Film and com
position resistors are characterized by open circuit failures.
The US Navy characterizes the catastrophic failures for many
common parts for its Consolidated Automated Support Sys
tem [3] and are the default failure modes used by several
EDA vendors.
You may define failure modes using common sense ex
perience, historical data or physical analysis. Depending on
your application, you might want to consider additional fail
ures; for example, IC bridging or interconnect failures which
result in shorts between devices. In a PWB design, you may
wish to simulate high resistance “finger print shorts” which
are caused by improper handling of sensitive components.
Abstracting subassembly failure modes to the next
higher assembly is a common error. For example, consider
the case of an IC opamp. Failures detected and rejected by
the opamp foundry are primarily caused by silicon defects.
Once eliminated, these defects won’t reappear. At the next
higher assembly, failures may be caused by electrical stress
due to static electricity, operator error in component testing,
or environmental stress in manufacturing. Therefore, a new
set of failure modes at the next production level is required.
Again, we can usually describe these failure modes in terms
of catastrophic events at the device or assembly interface,
e.g. open, short or stuck failure modes for each interface
connection.
Unusual failure modes are infrequent: Unusual fail
ure modes get a lot of attention. For example, it is unusual
to find a PNP transistor die in an NPN JANTXV package.
Although these things do happen, they are very rare. If ac
Automating Analog Test Design
Lawrence G. Meares, Intusoft, San Pedro California USA
email info@intusoft.com, http://www.intusoft.com
Abstract
A method of performing analog/mixed signal test will be described based on the assumption that:
1. All failure modes do not have to be defined.
2. The majority of failures are described by catastrophic faults [13].
Working forward from these assumptions, a comprehensive method will be presented that results in identifying a test suite
that can serve either as a product acceptance test or a field test for fault isolation and repair. The resulting test suites are
characterized by their percent fault coverage and number of replaceable components required for repair. The role of toler
ance faults, correlated process faults and traditional IC defects are folded into the test methodology.
146
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
ceptance testing detects only 99% of all failed parts, then
the quality of the product increases 100 fold after these tests
are performed. For many products, the increased quality
guarantees that products with undetected failures will not
be delivered to the customer.
Detecting process faults: Process faults could cause
the shift of many parameters simultaneously. When this is a
consideration, as is usually the case for Ic’s, the process pa
rameters are monitored separately. If the process fails, the
unit is rejected before the acceptance test is performed.
Therefore, acceptance testing does not need to account for
multiple parametric failure modes.
Setting Test Limits
Test limits are established using information from the
product specification, simulation, analysis, laboratory test
ing and instrumentation capability. When parts fail or age,
the measurement value for a given test may be near the test
limit. Variations in circuit parameters, environment and test
equipment can migrate these results across the test limit,
thereby invalidating the test conclusion. Figure 1 shows why
this happens when failed parts are included in the Unit Un
der Test, UUT.
By setting test limits suitably wide, the movement from
pass to fail can be eliminated. In most cases, there isn’t a
product requirement which sets each test limit; test limits
are determined via analysis, simulation or lab testing. Here
are a few tricks we use:
* Include a liberal input voltage tolerance for power
sources
* Perform a Monte Carlo analysis; include test set toler
ances
* Vary ambient temperature + 20 degrees celsius
Mean
Hi Limit
LoLimit
Distribution w/o
any failures
.
.
.
Typical result mean for
various fault modes
Faults that could give
spurious results
Figure 1, Failed parts can result in measurements that are near the
measurement limits for normal operation, leading to false conclu
sions if the test is used for diagnosing those nearby faults.
After subjecting the circuit to these simulation environ
ments, expand the measurement tolerances so that the UUT
passes all of the above tests with a liberal margin (5 sigma
or higher). Remember: any lack of knowledge about com
ponent models, test equipment or environment will ALWAYS
necessitate a larger test limit. Increasing the limit accounts
for unforeseen conditions. Movement of nearby failures
across the limit, from fail to pass are handled by rejecting
tests that could fail in this manner.
Seting Alarm Conditions
Another kind of simulation limit is the stress limit or
alarm condition which is produced by some EDA tools [6].
When a part fails, it is frequently possible to overstress other
parts, or cause an undesired circuit condition. It is recom
mended that power and/or current limits are set to the
manufacturer’s limit before part failure mode simulations
are performed. In many instances, there are product safety
issues such as firing an airbag or launching a rocket; these
events must be prevented. Since these conditions are caused
by special circuit states, you must devise measurements in
order to catch these problems and group them with the stress
alarms. The line between acceptance testing, builtin test
and product quality begins to blur as we consider safety is
sues. For example, not only do we want to prevent unneces
sary damage during an acceptance test, we also want to elimi
nate or detect safety hazards.
Resolving Alarms
Part failure modes which cause stress alarms should be
detected as soon as possible. Tests can be sequenced in a
manner which reveals these destructive failure modes early
on, and therefore avoid the possibility of damage to any other
circuit parts. Safetostart tests are among the tests which
can reveal potentially damaging failure modes, e.g. shorts
from power nodes to ground. After performing the tests
which detect destructive failure modes, tests that could oth
erwise cause damage (if one of the destructive failure modes
were present) can then be run. Using EDA tools for simula
tion is an ideal method for understanding circuit operation
and specifying the new test limits.
Organizing a Test Sequence
Some test ordering has been described, based upon re
solving stress alarms and simulation failures. The next level
of ordering is by test difficulty or cost. Simple and inexpen
sive tests are performed first. Tests which use the same setup
are grouped together. Tests which validate product perfor
mance are performed after eliminating the overstories fail
ure modes. Product performance tests should not be used
for fault detection because the tolerances are not set with
failure modes in mind; they should only lead to a pass or
outoftolerance conclusion.
147
Power Specialist’ s
Building a Test FaultTree
Tests are used to detect faults using the logic which is
illustrated in Figure 2. Each test has one input and 2 outputs
[2],[4]. The input contains a list of failure modes, and the
test performs the logic which is necessary in order to classify
the outcome as pass or fail. Each outcome has a list of failure
modes that can be passedon to successive tests. The process
of selecting the best test in each ordered group results in a
binary fault tree. After selecting a test, successive tests are
placed on the pass and fail nodes of the tree until no more
useful information is gained. When a new test configuration
is selected, it may be possible to further isolate failure modes
by expanding the tree from each node that has more than
one fault. We will develop these concepts in considerable
detail.
Since the world of simulation has more resources, that
is, more observable information and more elaborate test
capability, the job is generally acceptable at this point,
although consuming excessive resources. We can gradually
eliminate the most expensive test configurations,
measurements and test points until the overall test objectives
are met. These objectives are generally stated as a percent
fault detection and if fault isolation is required, some goals
regarding replaceable group size and distribution. Of course,
if the objectives weren’t met, you need to devise more tests,
or if all else fails  change the objectives.
Figure 2: Test definition showing the logic used to sequence tests.
Test Synthesis
Next, we lay out a method for test synthesis that is based
on standards developed for the aerospace industry [1,4,5].
Before proceeding, several concepts are required to under
stand the synthesis procedure.
Ambiguity Group: An ambiguity group is simply a list
of failure modes. Since the failure mode references a
part, all of a parts properties are implicitly included. The
most important for this discussion is the failure weight.
Failure Weight: The failure weight of a part failure
mode is an arbitrary number proportional to the failure
rate; it is set to 1.0 for each default failure mode. The
failure weight will be used to grade a test. Using these
weights, each ambiguity group can be assigned a prob
ability which is the sum of all failure weights. A selec
tion procedure will be developed that favors tests that
split these cumulative weights equally between their pass
and fail outcomes.
No Fault Weight : When we begin a test, there exists an
input ambiguity group that contains all of the failure
modes we will consider, it’s the fault universe for the
UUT. It is useful to add a dummy failure to this uni
verse, the no fault probability. The no fault probability
will change depending on where, in the product life cycle,
the test is being performed. An initial production test
should have a high yield so we use a high no fault weight.
If the product is returned from the field, it’s expected to
be faulty so that the no fault weigh is low. For builtin
tests, the no fault weight depends on the accumulated
failure rate. It turns out that the no fault weight will change
the grade for tests in the “go” line; that is, the product
acceptance test list. The no fault weight will tend to re
duce the number of tests needed to arrive at the expected
conclusion.
Test Definition
What’s a test? In order to compare one test with
another there must be a precise definition of a test.
A test consists of a comparison of a resultant value
against limits that classify the UUT as good (pass) or
bad (fail).
The resultant value can be the combination of one or
more measurements and calculations. Each test has an
associated ambiguity group. At the beginning of the test,
there isa set of failure modes that have not been tested; these
are defined by the Input Ambiguity Group. The test itself is
capable of detecting a number of failure modes, these modes
are grouped into a set called the Test Ambiguity Group. The
pass and fail outcomes, then carry a set of failure modes that
are the result of logical operations carried out between the
Input Ambiguity Group and the Test Ambiguity Group such
that:
Fail Ambiguity Group = Input Ambiguity Group AND
Test Ambiguity Group
Pass Ambiguity Group = Input Ambiguity Group
MINUS Fail Ambiguity Group
148
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
where AND represent the intersection of the lists, and
MINUS removes the elements of one group from the other.
Using MINUS here is a convenient way of avoiding the defi
nition of NOT (Input…), since we really aren’t interested in
a universe that’s greater than the union of the Input and Test
groups. Figure 2 illustrates this logic.
The fail or pass outcomes can then be the input for fur
ther tests. If further tests are only connected to the pass out
put, then a product acceptance test is created. If tests are
connected to both the pass and fail outcomes, then a fault
tree is created which isolates faults for failed products. In
either case, the object of each test is to reduce the size of
output ambiguity groups. When no tests can be selected to
further reduce these ambiguity group sizes, the test design
will have been completed.
Test Strategy
The strategy used to select test and test sequences is as
follows:
a high no fault weight will steer the tests through the pass
leg fastest; making the best product acceptance test. The
rationale for a high no fault probability is the expectation
that most units will pass the production acceptance test, a
condition of an efficient and profitable business. If, on the
other hand, we want to test a product that is broken, we would
give the no fault probability a lower value. Then the test tree
would be different, having a tendency to isolate faults with
fewer tests.
Robust Tests
Tolerances can cause measurement results to migrate
across the test limit boundary. As a result, a fault could be
classified as good or a good part could be classified as a
failure. Tolerances include:
UUT part tolerances, computer model accuracy, mea
surement tolerances, UUT noise, test set noise and fault pre
diction accuracy.
To arrive at a conclusion; that is, the
smallest ambiguity group using the
least number of tests.
The least number of tests is actually
the smallest mean number of tests to
reach the terminal nodes of the diag
nostic fault tree. The fault tree is made
by interconnecting the tests, illustrated
here, in a binary tree.
The Best Test
Without performing an exhaustive
search, the best test tends to be the test with
the highest entropy. Variations on the ex
haustive search technique, such as looking
ahead one test, rarely produce better results.
Exhaustive search has been shown to consume computational
resources so rapidly that it is not a viable method.
Selecting the best test: A terminal conclusion is de
fined as the pass or fail conclusion for which no more tests
can be found. Then if “no fault” is present, then it is the
product acceptance test result, with all remaining faults be
ing the ones that are undetectable. Otherwise the parts in the
resulting Ambiguity Group would be replaced to repair the
UUT.
In general, our goal is to reach the terminal passfail
conclusions by performing the fewest numbers of tests to
reach each conclusion. The general solution to this problem
using an exhaustive search technique expands too rapidly to
find a solution during the lifetime of our universe[4]. Sev
eral heuristic approaches are possible [5], one of which fol
lows.
If we take the idea of failure modes one step further, we
can give each failure mode a failure weight that is propor
tional to the failure rate. To avoid looking up failure rates,
we can default these weights to 1.0, and some time later fill
in a more precise number. For each test candidate, we can
compute the probability of a pass outcome and a fail out
come. From a local point of view, the summation of the pass
and fail probabilities must be unity; that is, the UUT either
passes or fails a particular test. Borrowing from information
theory, we can compute the test entropy using the following
equations [4],[5]].
Entropy = q ∗ log(q)  p ∗ log(p)
where p and q are the pass and fail probabilities
and:
p = Σ pass weights / (Σ pass weights + Σ fail weights)
q = Σ fail weights / (Σ pass weights + Σ fail weights)
The highest entropy test contains the most information.
We select the best test as the test having the highest entropy.
For the case when failure weights are defaulted to unity, this
method will tend to divide the number of input failures into
2 equal groups. Since no fault can only be in the pass group,
149
Power Specialist’ s
Previously; we showed that avoiding false test conclu
sions for tolerance failures requires setting the test limits as
wide as possible. Now we will show how to set the limits as
far away from expected failed results as possible. We will
do this by a unique test selection procedure. But first, to
compare one test with another, we need to define a measure
of test robustness.
Guard Band (the fudge factor)
A test measurement for a good UUT has a range of
values that define acceptable performance which we call a
tolerance band.
The measure of test robustness with respect to a failure
mode is then the distance between the failed measurement
result and the nearest test limit divided by the tolerance
band. We call this value a guard band.
The test limit can be safely placed in the guard band
as long as no other faults have results in this band.
Normalizing all measurements using their tolerance band
allows us to compare guard bands of different tests. We can
then modify the entropy selection method to reject tests with
small guard bands. Figure 4 shows how this works.
In this example we have 2 operating point tests. Failure
modes are identified as NoFault,F!, F2, …F6. Assume test
A is performed first, and test B is performed on the pass
group of test A as shown in figure 5.. Test A divides the
failures into a pass group containing (F4,F5,F6) and a fail
group containing (F1,F2,F3) . Connecting test B to the test
A pass outcome eliminates F1 from the test B failure input
and the guard band for test B extends from the hi limit to F4.
If test B were done first the guard band would be smaller,
from the test B hi limit to F1.
An incorrect test outcome will invalidate subsequent
Test A
Test B
(NoFault,F1,F2,F3,F4,F5,F6)
(F1,F2,F3)
(NoFault,F4,F5,F6)
(F4,F6)
(NoFault,F5)
Fail
Fail
Pass
Pass
Test A, Operating point for node 11
Test B, Operating point for node 7
mean
hi limit
F1 F2 F3
F1
F4 F6
hi limit
mean
Tol Guard band
Pass Fail
Figure 4, Adjusting a test sequence achieves a robust test.
test decisions. In order to be right most often, tests with
large guard bands should be performed first because they
are less likely to be wrong. Moreover, tests which were
previously rejected may turn out to be excellent tests later
in the sequence (as illustrated in the example). Tests with
small guard bands simply shouldn’t be used.
While a model of the statistical distribution was
shown in figure 4, you should be aware that there usually
isn’t sufficient information to have a complete knowledge
of the statistics of a measurement result. In particular the
mean is frequently offset because of model errors; for
example, a circuit that is operating from different power
supply voltages than was expected. The statistics of failed
measurements are even less certain because the failure
mode and the failed circuit states are less accurately
predicted. It is therefore necessary to increase the toler
ance band as much as possible. We avoided saying exactly
where in the guard band the measurement limit should be
placed because it’s a judgment call, depending on how
much the tolerance band was widened and on the quality
of the fault predication.
Summary
We have shown how to use EDA tools with various
test configurations to describe normal and failed circuit
behavior. Methods for establishing test tolerances for
circuits without failed parts were presented. Assuming that
failures mechanisms are reasonably well known, a method
to recognize the existence of a single fault and further
diagnose which part was responsible was developed. All
of these procedures can be closely integrated in existing
EDA tools to provide a cost effective method for test
design [6].
150
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
Simulation measurements vs. Real
world test equipment
There are fundamental differences between simula
tion measurement and test equipment measurements in ac
curacy, capability and measurement strategy. These differ
ences will influence the way you map the simulation tests
and measurements into real world test sets and measurement
equipment. The following summary describes the most im
portant differences:
Transient Simulation Accuracy:
Simulation accuracy is frequently no better than 1% to
3%; about what you expect from an oscilloscope. Accu
racy limitations occur because of model accuracy, numeri
cal errors and the user defined topology description. The
implicit topology description is probably the largest source
of error. Interconnect imperfections and parasitic coupling
are assumed absent. You must explicitly include these ef
fects. The designer usually adds these models sparingly
because they are difficult to describe and may adversely
impact the simulation. Fortunately, most parasitic elements
have no important effects on a design; the trick is to iden
tify and model the “important” ones.
Model Range:
Component models are made to be accurate in the neigh
borhood of a components expected useful operating point.
Part failures will often place other components in an ab
normal operating condition, one for which their model does
not apply. To mitigate these problems, current limited
power supplies should be used in the simulation. More
over, when a simulation fails because the simulator cannot
converge; it should be a warning that the failure mode can
not be studied with that particular test. It will be necessary
References
[1] ChengPing Wand and ChinLong Wey, “Efficient
Testability Design Methodologies for Analog/Mixed
Signal Integrated Circuits”, 1997,3rd International
Mixed Signal Testing Workshop, pp 6874
[2] H. Dill et. al., “Application of Analog & Mixed
Signal Simulation Techniques to the Synthesis and
Sequencing of Diagnostic Tests”, 1977 Autotestcon
Proceedings, pp425434
[3] CASS Red Team Package data item DIATTS
80285B, Fig. 1 SRA/SRU Fault Accountability
Matrix Table, pg. 11
[4] W.R. Simpson and J.W. Sheppard, “Fault Isolation in
an Integrated Diagnostic Environment, IEEE D&T,
vol. 10 No. 1, March 1993
[5] Sharon Goodal, “Analog/Mixed Signal Fault Diagno
sis Algorithm and Review”, 1994 AutoTestCon
Proceedings, pp 351359
[6] Test Designer, A software program from Intusoft,
1998.
to isolate the failure before running that particular test so
that the failure mode does not need to be addressed any
more.
Visual Tests:
For items returned from the field, some component fail
ures could have caused catastrophic damage that can be
identified by visual inspection. Don’t test a smoked board!
Multimeter Tests:
Consider running “dead” circuit tests to isolate failures
that result in simulation convergence failures. These tests
are run without the power supplies and can be used to find
shorted or opened power components. Isolation of open
or shorted bypass capacitors can be done in this manner
using an AC multimeter.
Measurement Range:
You don’t need to set the range or limits. There is no simu
lation range limitation. You automatically get IEEE double
precision results.
Units:
Units are always converted to standard engineering postfix
notation; for example 1.23e9 volts will be shown as 1.23n
volts. You may also use this notation for parameter input.
Coupling:
There is no need to worry about AC coupling when mak
ing measurements. You can always subtract the average
value. In fact the stdDev function does just that. The simu
lator will work just fine at offsets of thousands of volts
and your virtual instrument will not be overloaded.
Current vs. Voltage:
Current and voltage are properties of the quantity being
measured. There is no need to select a current or voltage
meter in the simulation.
Measurement Time:
Simulation time is a valuable resource. Measurement of
period and frequency can be done on a much smaller data
sample since there is no noise. Frequency measurement
includes the specification of the number of events to be
included so precise timing “gate” can be set in order to
eliminate quantizing effects. Remember to let the circuit
settle to its steady state condition before making measure
ments that assume the circuit has be running awhile.
151
Power Specialist’ s
AC Simulation Accuracy:
Frequency domain measurements made from AC analysis
data are frequently more accurate than can be achieved
with test equipment. The reason for this is that there is no
noise to corrupt measurement accuracy and the numerical
equations are solved exactly, rather than using the itera
tion procedure used in the transient simulation. For ex
ample; highly accurate estimates of oscillator frequency
can be made through phase measurements. These would
then map into counter/timer based measurements for the
automated test.
Noise:
Thermal noise must be explicitly modeled, otherwise it is
absent. This allows measurements to be made accurately
without averaging them over many cycles. There is gener
ally no benefit to adding noise unless the noise influences
the value of the parameter you want to measure; for ex
ample, the lock time of a phase locked loop.
Numerical Artifacts:
Numerical artifacts are sometimes encountered in the Tran
sient Simulation. You will have to pay attention to simula
tion settings such as RELTOL and integration METHOD
in the simulation setup that have no counterpart in real
world test equipment.
Fault Tree Design:
Simulators accumulate large chunks of data for each simu
lation run. These datum can be thought of as a state vec
tor; representing the UUT state under some setup condi
tion. These states then become a number of conventional
tests; where a test is a measured value compared to some
set of limits. The difficulty in acquiring data for the simu
lator, and probably for the hardware test are equivalent for
each test. It is therefore convenient to lump all of these
simulation measurements together when designing a fault
tree; if you need to separate these measurement groups,
you can name them differently and separate test vectors
between these new measurement groups. Test sequencing
is then performed by selecting the groups for a sequence,
the test mode (binary, tertiary, …) and either manually or
automatically completing the fault tree using the selected
groups and mode.
152
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
New Techniques for Fault Diagnosis and Isolation of Switched Mode Power
Supplies
C.E. Hymowitz, L.G. Meares, B. Halal
Intusoft P.O. Box 710, San Pedro CA 907330710, info@intusoft.com
Abstract  This paper describes new software techniques to
perform analysis, diagnosis, and isolation of failures in ana
log and mixedsignal circuits including switched mode power
supplies. Unique methods and algorithms for schematic en
try, setting of failure characteristics, definition of test strate
gies, recording of simulation based measurements, creation
of fault trees and sequencing tests are all discussed. To en
sure a realistic test of the new software techniques, diagnos
tics were developed for a moderately complex analog and
mixed signal switched mode power supply. A discussion of
some of the drawbacks of sensitivity based failure analysis
techniques is also included.
I. INTRODUCTION
In late 1996, the SPICE simulation tool manufacturer Intu
soft initiated development of a new product, tailored to the
unique and demanding needs of the test engineer. This prod
uct, called Test Designer, provides an effective, interactive
design environment for the synthesis of diagnostic tests, gen
eration of fault dictionaries and the building of diagnostic
fault trees. Since the category of analog and mixedsignal
test synthesis and sequencing software is relatively new, a
number of unique techniques were developed to solve key
parts of the FMEA (failure mode effects analysis) and test
program set design process.
The motivations for improving the analog and mixedsignal
test set design and failure analysis process are plentiful and
well documented [15]. For instance,
identification of early production faults,
improved safety and reliability through
the analysis of difficult to test failures,
investigation of power supply failure
mechanisms such as power switch over
current, FET gate overvoltage, start
up failures, and excessive component
stress could all benefit from improved
simulation software. Yet little dedicated
software currently exists to help stream
line and organize analog and mixedsig
nal circuit test procedures.
Most testing is done to assure product
performance standards. UL standards
for various types of supplies require that
tests be developed for overload protec
tion circuitry, short circuit tests, and
breakdown of components[6]. In some
cases, when circuit analysis indicates that no other compo
nent or portion of the circuit is seriously overloaded as a
result of the assumed open circuiting or short circuiting of
another component, some tests can even be bypassed.
The software can add benefits in 2 other ways. First, if it can
identify failure modes that aren’t tested, you will have found
either unnecessary parts or a flaw in the acceptance test.
Either case would improve the quality of the product. An
other important aspect is the tracking of component quality
during the production lifetime. Frequently, a supplier’s prod
uct will evolve or the supplier will be changed, and the
product’s performance will drift away from its design cen
ter. This drift itself is observable from the acceptance test
results, but the software also allows you to track the nearby
failures, including parametric failures. These, of course,
aren’t really failures in the sense that the product can’t be
shipped; rather, they are component quality indicators.
The software, outlined in Figure 1, provides the aforemen
tioned benefits and includes a complete system capable of
design entry, simulation, analysis, and test synthesis and fault
tree sequencing. The schematic entry program is specially
enhanced to hold the entire design database including part
and model values and tolerances, and all part failure modes.
It also contains a description of the various test configura
tions and measurements for each test. Using Object linking
and embedding (OLE) communication, the schematic builds
the required netlist for IsSpice4, a SPICE 3/XSPICE based
SPICE 3/XSPICE
Simulation Engine
Failure Modes
Definition
Part Tolerances
and Models
Failure Results
Reporting &
Database
PassFail
Tolerance
Setting
Simulation
Output
Processing
Alarm Reporting
Schematic Entry
Design Database Schematic
Configurations
Simulation
Settings
Fault Tree
Generation
Test Synthesis &
Sequencing
Reports &
Documentation
Test
Measurement
Definition
ICL (SPICE 3) Script
Commands
Monte Carlo,
UserDefined,
Expandtopass
PseudoLogic Sequence,
Test Entropy Rankings,
Test Description
OLE/ActiveX
Communication
Figure 1, A block diagram of the software system implemented to provide auto
mated failure analysis and test program set development.
153
Power Specialist’ s
analog and mixed signal simulator. The simulation output
data is processed using the Berkeley SPICE Interactive Com
mand Language (ICL) in order to extract the desired mea
surements. This process is continued automatically until all
of the faults are simulated. The measurements are then parsed
into various report forms which contain the passfail toler
ances. Finally, the tests are sequenced into a fault tree.
A six step process, described in detail below, is utilized for
the development of fault diagnostics. In chronological or
der, the steps are:
• Design Entry including: Schematic Layers setup,
Schematic Configurations setup, Simulation Directives
setup, Failure modes characteristics definition,
Test Configuration definition
• Measurement definition
• PassFail tolerance setting
• Fault simulation
• Results reporting
• Failure states and sequencing
II. CONFIGURABLE SCHEMATICS
A longstanding problem in electrical and mechanical cir
cuit design has been the conflict between the needs of the
designer and the needs of production and manufacturing.
The main method of conveying the designer’s creation is
the circuit schematic which is used to describe the behavior
of the circuit as well as the details of how production will
build the hardware.
The designer is concerned with creating a circuit that meets
specifications. This is done chiefly through various EDA
tools but, mainly with circuit simulation. The designer must
build multiple test configurations, add parasitic components
and stimuli, and even include system elements in the simu
lation. A topdown design methodology, where different lev
els of abstraction are inserted for different components, is
commonplace. Modeling electrical behavior often results in
different representations for different test configurations. In
general, the schematic becomes so cluttered with circuitry
and data, that it must be redrawn for production, greatly rais
ing the probability of a transcription error.
The need for a reconfigurable schematic capability becomes
even more mandatory when we analyze the needs of the fail
ure analysis and test program development engineer. In or
der to be effective, the simulation process can not become
burdened with the bookkeeping intricacies of multiple sche
matic variations and analysis specifications. The designer
must have a way to connect various stimuli and loads to
core circuitry and to group the desired SPICE analyses and
test measurements with each schematic configuration.
Until now, the best approach has been to hide these special
configurations in subcircuits; for example a resistor’s para
sitic capacitance could be included in a subcircuit. While
this approach works for hierarchical schematic entry and
extending individual component models, it doesn’t solve the
problem of adding test equipment, different stimulus inputs,
or dealing with multiple simulation scenarios.
A test setup provides loads, voltage and current stimuli and
instrumentation connections at specific points on the Unit
Under Test (UUT). When viewed in a broader context, the
combination of the test setup circuitry and the UUT can be
considered to be a circuit configuration in and of itself. In
deed, for simulation purposes, the test setup circuitry must
be included as part of the circuit. Most Test Program Sets
(TPSs) implement multiple setups during the testing se
quence. This increases the simulation burden by requiring a
separate schematic for every test setup.
The system described by Figure 2 addresses the multiple
test setup problem with a unique solution. It allows the user
to assign each setup/UUT combination a different configu
ration name and simulates all of the standalone configura
tions in a batch operation. The setup/UUT combination is
called a “circuit configuration”. The circuit configuration is
defined during the schematic entry process. Every circuit
configuration is composed of one or more schematic layers.
An active layer can be thought of as a transparency that over
Simulation
Directives
AC, DC,
Tran, etc.
Layers combined
into a configuration
C1 R4 390
Y8
Q2 2N2222
Q3
2N2222
R5 470
Q4 2N2222
VCC
X4 HL7801E
R6 1k
R9
470
R10
27
R11
330
vpd
vq4e . 01u
Sample Circuit
R7 820
VCC
VEE
X5
LM741N
VCC
VEE
R3 10k
C3 . 01u
R12 10k
R13
5k
R14
100
C2 .01u
Vi n
vi n
vq3e
Vcc
5
Vee
5
VEE
1
3
2
Layer #
Simulation
Netlist
Measurement
Directives
(Max, Min
Prop delay, etc.)
Circuit Description
ICL
Scripts
SPICE
Statements
Design Database: Part values,
tolerances, stimuli and failure modes
4
Schematic Configuration
Combination of Layers 1&3
Figure 2, A unique reconfigurable schematic program allows different schematic layers to be combined in order to
create various circuit configurations. Simulation and measurement directives are then added to create multiple tests
descriptions.
154
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
lays other transparencies such that as you view them, you
see the complete circuit configuration schematic. Circuit
nodes on the top layer connect with nodes on underlying
layers as if the drawing were created on a single page. The
schematic allows mixing and matching of layers to form the
required circuit configurations. Any circuitry, elements, or
documentation can be placed on any layer.
Use of a layered concept in itself is not unique. It is gener
ally used as a drawing management feature to remove com
plexity from the user’s visual field, rather than making a
multiplicity of configurations. While PCB layout software
has had a similar feature for quite some time, a configurable
schematic has not been implemented (to the best of our
knowledge). This is the first known graphical entry method
which is capable of solving the Test  Simulation bridge us
ing a reconfigurable layered schematic approach.
III. SIMULATION DIRECTIVES
The system also allows different sets of SPICE analysis state
ments to be grouped and stored (Figure 2). For instance, an
operating point analysis can be specified to run along with a
brief transient analysis. In another group, a frequency re
sponse can be run with a long transient analysis. The user
can then pair any set of SPICE simulation directives with
any circuit configuration to create a unique “Test Configu
ration”. For example, a single circuit configuration can be
assigned multiple types of simulation analyses in order to
define multiple test configurations.
IV. FAILURE DEFINITION
Each component is defined by a set of nominal device and
model parameter attributes, as well as parametric tolerances.
Each component also has a set of associated failure modes.
Initially, parts include the failure modes as defined in the
Navy’s CASS (Consolidated Automated Support System)
Red Team Package[7]. Users can edit the predefined failure
modes or add their own catastrophic or parametric failure
modes.
Failure modes are simulated by programmatically generat
ing the proper SPICE 3 syntax to describe the failure. Fail
ure modes can be setup for primitive (resistor, transistor,
etc.) as well as subcircuit macromodelbased elements. Any
node on a part can be shorted to any other node, opened, or
stuck. The stuck condition allows the user to attach a B ele
ment expression. The B element is the Berkeley SPICE 3
arbitrary dependent source which is capable of analog be
havioral modeling[8,9]. Behavioral expressions can contain
mathematical equations, IfThenElse directives, or Bool
ean logic [10]. The expressions can refer to other quantities
in the design such as nodes and currents, thus creating an
unlimited fashion in which to “stuck” a node. A series of
examples are shown in Table 1.
It should be noted that the software builds the B element
expressions and SPICE models, inserts the required elements,
and generates the SPICE netlist automatically. All of the
failure mode definitions are carried out in a graphical man
ner. No script writing or programming is necessary in order
to define or simulate a fault. There is no need for the user to
write or know the required SPICE syntax (examples are
shown in table 1). The characteristics (open/short/stuck re
sistance) of each failure mode can be defined by the user
(Figure 3).
V. MEASUREMENT DEFINITION
In order to create a “test”, the user must combine a circuit
configuration with a set of SPICE simulation directives and
a desired measurement which will be made on the resulting
data. Therefore, the simulator, or some type of data post
processing program, must be included to extract and record
information from each desired test point waveform. For the
Test Designer software, the former was chosen and imple
mented using ICL which is available in SPICE 3 and Nut
meg.
The software uses the IsSpice4 simulation engine to per
form the failure analysis. IsSpice4 is an enhanced version of
Berkeley SPICE 3 [9] and XSPICE [11,12]. IsSpice4 in
cludes and expands upon the standard Berkeley SPICE 3
Table 1, SPICE Syntax for Various Failure Modes
Fault Before Insertion After Fault Insertion
Shorted Base Emitter Q1 12 19 24 QN2222A Q1 12 19 24 QN2222A
Rshort_19 19 24 .1
Open Resistor R3 17 0 10K R3 17_open 0 10K
Ropen_17 17_open 17 100Meg
Low Beta Q1 12 19 24 QN2222 Q1 12 19 24 Q1_Fail
Parametric fault .MODEL QN2222 NPN AF=1 BF=105 .MODEL Q1_Fail NPN AF=1 BF=10
BR=4 CJC=15.2P CJE=29.5P… BR=4 CJC=15.2P CJE=29.5P…
Resistor Stuck R1 6 0 1K R1 6 0 1K
2V below Vcc Rstuck_6 6_Stuck 6 10.00000
Bstuck_6 6_Stuck 0 V= Vcc 2
Timed Dependent L2 3 0 62U L2 3 0 62U
Inductor Fault Rstuck_3 3_Stuck 3 10.00000
Bstuck_3 3_Stuck 0 V= Time > 10n ? 0 : V(3)
155
Power Specialist’ s
ICL. ICL is a set of commands that can direct SPICE to
perform various operations such as running a particular
analysis or changing a component value. The commands,
which look and act like Visual Basic scripts, can be run in
teractively or in a batch mode. IsSpice4 contains new ICL
commands which allow SPICE 3 plots, or sets of vectors
(i.e. waveforms) to be scanned and measured with cursors.
In contrast to traditional SPICE “dot” statements, ICL com
mands are performed in order, one at a time. This makes
ICL scripts perfect for describing test procedures.
A “Wizard” approach is taken in order to alleviate the syn
tax headaches associated with script development. For ex
ample, a Cursor Wizard is employed to position one or more
imaginary cursors on a waveform or set of waveforms. Y
axis cursors are positioned with respect to a single wave
form or vector, while X axis cursors are positioned with re
spect to an entire set of vectors. A Measurement Script Wiz
ard is used to manipulate the data derived from the cursors
in order to produce a single measurement.
A variety of functions are available for setting the cursor
positions and for measuring the data in between the cursors.
Two example scripts are shown in Table 2. As shown in
figure 2, these measurement scripts are combined with tra
ditional SPICE analysis directives and a test configuration
description to form a simulatable IsSpice4 netlist.
VI . EXAMPLE
Now that we have defined how a design is setup, we can
show how the software performs the simulation, and discuss
the failure diagnostic and test sequencing process. This is
best done through an example. The circuit shown in Figure
4 is a forward converter which uses the Unitrode UC1843
PWM and Magnetics MPP5812 core models from the Intu
soft Power Supply Designer’s Library. The startup transient
waveform (V(5), top right) is shown, along with a closeup
view of the output ripple. Because the circuit uses a full
nonlinear switch level PWM IC model and an accurate power
Mosfet model, we can examine such detailed phenomenon
as the Mosfet’s switching characteristics, operating current
into VCC, under voltage lockout threshold, and propaga
tion delay. To simulate the startup of the circuit, the power
supplies V1 and V4 were ramped from zero to their final
value, over a 100us interval.
Initially, the SMPS was simulated in full startup mode for
1.2ms. The simulation runtime was 184.90s. It was decided
that a shorter transient run could yield enough useful tests to
detect the majority of the faults and be simulated more
quickly. For the first failure analysis, a nominal transient
analysis of .3ms in length was selected.
The selected measurements were the value at 50us, the maxi
mum value, and the final value at .3ms. The maximum value
will be useful for oscillating waveforms, while the final value
will be useful for filtered and slowchanging waveforms.
The 50us measurement can be used as a comparative mea
surement of startup performance. The measurements were
determined after looking at the nature of the waveforms and
estimating which tests would best be able to detect signifi
cant differences when a fault is inserted.
For each of the three measurements, all of the available vec
tors (circuit test points including voltage current and power
dissipation) were recorded. While not all vectors can nor
mally be probed on a circuit card, it is important to gather
all of the possible data. Later, when the test sequencing is
performed, we can grade the usefulness of each measure
ment. By measuring all possible test points up front, we elimi
nate the need to perform subsequent simulations.
Group Delay Measurement
Cursor Script
HomeCursors Reset cursor to waveform endpoints
Vsignal = db(???) Use dB values
Vphase = PhaseExtend(ph(???)) Use phase values
theDelay = differentiate(Vphase)/360 Differentiate the phase waveform
theMax = max(Vsignal) Find the maximum
MoveCursorRight(0,Vsignal,theMax) Move the left cursor to the maximum
Fmax = GetCursorX(0) Store the frequency
SetCursor(1,Fmax) Move the right cursor to the maximum
MoveCursorRight(1,Vsignal,theMax3) Move the right cursor to the upper 3dB point
MoveCursorLeft(0,Vsignal,theMax3) Move the left cursor to the lower 3dB point
Measurement Script
groupDelay = mean(theDelay) Store the measurement
Table 2, Example Wizard
generated ICL scripts used to
automate measurements of the
failure analysis. The ??? fields are
replaced with the desired vectors
which will be processed.
Figure 3, An example of the dialog which is used to de
fine the failure mode characteristics.
156
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
The initial results, shown in Figure 5, indicate that all of the
tests fail, since no passfail tolerances have been applied.
Figure 6 shows the results after applying default tolerances
of t100uV for voltages and t1mA for currents.
The results report shows the simulated (Measured column)
value, whether the test passed or failed, and shows the mini
mum, nominal, and maximum values. A special histogram
bar icon is used to provide a quick visual indication of the
test status.
Figure 4, An SMPS forward converter example using the UC1843 PWM controller. Note the use of the nonlinear core (MPP)
model. The test point in the center of X10 shows the inductance value as a function of time.
Figure 5, The results of
an initial simulation
before the default tol
erances are applied to
the measurements.
Figure 6, The results of
an initial simulation
after the default toler
ances are applied to
the measurements.
The Results dialog
shows the passfail sta
tus through the use of
a unique histogram in
dicator (left side).
VII. SETTING PASSFAIL TOLERANCES
A variety of methods are available for setting tolerances in
cluding hard limits, Monte Carlo analysis, and a unique “Ex
pand to Pass” method (as shown in Figure 7). Expand to
pass moves the min and max tolerance bands outward until
the measurement is within the pass band. This allows toler
ances to be set through different simulation scenarios such
as high and low temperature, or high and low power supply
voltage.
157
Power Specialist’ s
Setting test
limits is an it
erative pro
cess of select
ing highly re
liable tests
with regard to
d e t e c t i o n
characteris
tics, and ad
justing the
limits on less
thanreliable
tests in order
to improve
their detection
characteris
tics.
Test set toler
ances and
variations can
cause measurements to fail. Therefore, a convenient way to
account for this is to expand the tolerances by increasing
and decreasing the power source values and then using the
Expand to Pass feature.
Monte Carlo analysis can also be used to set the measure
ment tolerances. However, Monte Carlo results tend to yield
tolerances that are too tight. A combination of the two meth
ods can also be used. Of course, tolerances can also be set
manually on individual measurements or groups of measure
ments. Figure 8 shows the results dialog for the FinalValue
measurement after increasing and decreasing the power sup
ply values by 5% and using the Expand to Pass feature.
VIII. FAULT SIMULATION
At this point, a failure analysis is run. Measurements alarms
can be set in order to flag failure modes which overstress
parts. Once these failure modes are detected, separate tests
can be added to find them. They can then be sequenced so
that the failure mode test does not destroy functioning parts.
The fault universe for the SMPS consisted of 51 failure
modes. Of particular interest were the PWM and power
Mosfet faults. The three considered PWM IC failure modes
were: Output shorted to VCC, Output shorted to ground,
and Output open. The five considered power Mosfet failure
modes were: (D=Drain, G=Gate, S=Source) shortedGS,
shortedGD, shortedDS, OpenDS, and OpenG.
Failure mode simulation can proceed in one of several ways:
• One fault mode is inserted at a time for 1 test configu
ration.
• One fault mode is inserted at a time for several test con
figurations.
• All of the fault modes individually inserted, in succes
sion, for 1 or more test configurations.
In this example, all failure modes are individually simulated
for a ramped power supplies configuration, running a short
transient analysis. The results are reported in a special dia
log which is shown in Figure 9. For each failure mode, the
software records the value of every userdefined measure
ment.
Past work [13,14] implies that simulation runtime is a major
inhibitor to this methodology. However, these remarks tend
to ignore recent developments in the area of model optimi
zation and behavioral modeling, Analog Hardware Descrip
tion Language (AHDL) modeling, and stateoftheart simu
lator and computer performance. With the proper applica
tion of the these items and control of the simulator options,
analysis of a SMPS in the transient domain using faultby
fault simulation is clearly possible, as the indicated by the
following results:
Figure 7, The dialog which is used to set mea
surement tolerances.
Figure 8, The Results
dialog after using the
Expand to Pass fea
ture to set tolerances
for
t 5% power supply
variations.
158
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
Type of Run Analyses Circuit Configuration Time
Single Simulation Full Transient Ramped Supplies 184.90s
Single Simulation Short Transient Ramped Supplies 49.18s
Monte Carlo (30 Cases) Short Transient Ramped Supplies 23.5minutes
Failure Modes (51) Short Transient Ramped Supplies 47minutes
All simulations were performed on a 200Mhz Pentium® processor with 32MB RAM.
Figure 9, The results dia
log after simulating all of
the fault modes. The list of
measurements for
R2:Open are shown.
Figure 10, This version
shows all of the fault
modes results for the final
value measurement of the
output V(5).
Figure 11, Shows all of the
faults for the final value mea
surement of V(5) using a his
togram sorting technique.
Failed tests are on the left.
The rest of the faults are
grouped into bins where T is
the pass bandwidth (max
min).
159
Power Specialist’ s
IX. RESULTS REPORTING
The results for each failure are reported in a special dialog
(shown in Figure 9). A tree list, similar to the Windows 95
Explorer tree, lists each drawing configuration, the simula
tion setups which are used under that configuration, and the
individual analyses for each setup. Folded out from the analy
sis type are the various measurements that have been de
fined. There are two other display types; one that shows all
of the failure results for each test, and another that shows a
histogram of test measurements vs. failure modes, as shown
in Figures 10 and 11.
The meter on the left of the report is used as a quick indica
tor of the measurement’s passfail status. A long bar on the
left or right of the meter center indicates that the associated
failure mode moves the measured value outside of the pass/
fail limits by more than 3 times the difference between the
upper and lower pass/fail limits (e.g., a very high probabil
ity of failure detection). A short bar just to the right or left of
center indicates that the failure is detected but is out of lim
its by less than one tolerance range (e.g. could be an uncer
tain detection and may merit further investigation using
Monte Carlo techniques). The Variation dropdown contains
a list of all of the simulated faults, making it easier to thumb
through the results of each fault.
X. ADDING MORE TESTS
Using the test sequencing techniques which are described
below, 78% of the faults were detected. X13:OuttoVcc,
C3:Open, C2:Open, D1:Short, D1:Open, D2:Short,
D2:Open, L2:Open, Q1:ShortCE, R1:Open, and
X16:ShortGD were not be detected. Some faults were not
be detected from the test data, while other faults caused simu
lation convergence failures. It is evident that the SMPS di
agnostics require several additional test setups in order to
completely detect all of the faults. Three other configura
tions are necessary. They are described below.
In a second failure analysis pass, the three new configura
tions were simulated with respective failure modes inserted.
The last step, discussed below, involves the sequencing of
the tests into a fault tree.
XI. RANKING OF FAILURE STATES
The process of fault detection and fault tree generation takes
place in the Fault Tree design dialog (Figure 12) using a
novel test sequencing technique.
It is generally accepted that the best fault tree is one that
arrives at the highest probability failure conclusion with the
least amount of work. The best test is then the test that pro
duces the optimum fault tree, free from errors. Several meth
ods for selecting the best test out of those remaining have
been proposed [1,2]. Given an equal probability of occur
rence for each fault, the best test is usually one that evenly
divides the input group between the pass and fail group. A
somewhat more complex procedure has also been proposed.
Note that a general solution, made by exhaustive search,
rapidly becomes intractable [2].
If the component failure rate is used to weight each fault in
the ambiguity group, then we can assign a probability of
detection to the pass group, p, and the fail group, q. What is
really determined is the probability that a test will pass (p)
and the probability that a test will fail (q). Then p + q = 1.0,
because the test will either pass or fail. The input probabil
ity must be 1.0 because one of the conclusions in the current
ambiguity group will be the answer. Weighting is used to
reassess individual failure probability, given that the group
is the answer at this point in the isolation process. Now the
probability of reaching each conclusion can be predicted,
based on failure weights. The best fault tree can now be
defined as the one which arrives at each failure conclusion
with the least amount of work. If each test is equally diffi
cult, then the work is the summation of the probabilities of
Circuit Configuration Analyses Faults Detected Measurement Description
Dead Circuit Test AC analysis C3:Open Resistance DMM resistance check
PWM Output Test Short Transient X13:OuttoVCC Peakpeak PWM IC output short to Vcc
Reduced Supplies Short Transient C2:Open, D1/D2:Short Maximum Main power supply off
D1/D2:Open, L2:Open PWM supply ramped on
Q1:shortCE, R1:Open slowly
X16:shortGD
One of the three configurations differed solely in its stimu
lus and power supply settings. Five schematic layers were
created in order to implement these three configurations.
The first layer, “Core Circuitry”, contains all circuitry for
the SMPS. The other layers contained different power sup
plies for the other configurations, or in the case of the im
pedance measurement, a DMM instrument. It should be
noted that each of the configurations is a standalone de
sign. Each has a unique netlist and a unique part list. The
common production circuitry is carried across all configu
rations; this greatly helps minimize transcription errors.
reaching each conclusion. To compute these probabilities,
we simply traverse the tree for each conclusion, multiplying
the probabilities of each successive outcome, and then sum
ming the resultant probabilities for each conclusion. The best
result from this procedure is 1.0. The figure of merit tells us
how well we did, and can be used to compare fault trees.
Clearly, we must select tests which produce high probabil
ity outcomes. To find these tests, we compute the entropy of
each useful test that is available:
Entropy = p*log(p) q*log(q)
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Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
Figure 12, The Fault Tree
Design dialog sequences
tests into a Fault Tree. The
Fault Tree structure for the
SMPS example shows the
test and the number of faults
in the ambiguity groups (pass
first, then fail). For instance,
L4[I]lo 1, 2 would have 1
fault in the pass ambiguity
group and 2 in the fail ambi
guity group. The description
of each highlighted test is
shown to the right.
According to information theory, the highest entropy test
contains the most information. Proceeding in this manner
tends to produce efficient fault trees. The software does not
attempt to grade tests by difficulty, since this may be very
subjective. Instead, tests may be grouped into a common
pool for selection. This allows tests to be ordered logical
requirements; for example, high temperature vs. low tem
perature and safetostart vs. operating point.
The failure state, (binary, tertiary, histogram or vector), de
fines the method by which measurements are used to make a
test. Tests have only 2 outcomes, pass or fail; but a measure
ment can be compared with many different limits, creating a
large number of possible tests for each measurement. Here’s
the way each failure state works to define tests:
1. Binary: The test passes if the result is within the test
limits, and fails if it is outside of the limits.
2. Tertiary: The measurement is divided into 3 states; fail
low, pass and fail high. Two tests are generated for each
measurement, with outcomes of <pass, fail low> and
<pass, fail high>.
3 Histogram: Measurements are divided into 7 groups
which correspond to the values in the Results dialog’s
passfail meter. There are 6 tests, and each defines one
of the failed bands; that is, <fail if in band, else pass>.
The nominal band is not needed.
4 Vector: Let nFault be the number of faults. Then a vec
tor can be created having nFault members, each con
taining the measured value for its respective fault. We
arbitrarily set a limit about the fault, equal to the nomi
nal tolerance, thus creating an ultimate histogram. Each
measurement then has nFault tests, where the fail con
dition is the case in which the measurement is within
the tolerance limits for that vector value.
Ambiguity groups are created for each test. Test ambiguity
groups contain a list of faults that can be detected; that is,
faults that will be reported to the fail outcome it they are in
the input fault group. The subset of the fault universe that goes
into a test must be present in either the pass or fail outcome.
Vector and histogrambased tests require accurate measure
ments outside of a circuit’s normal operating region. Mea
surements in this region are inherently less precise because
fault models are less precise than nominal models, and faults
can place parts that are not failed in unusual or high stress
states for which analytic models are less accurate. These
facts lead us to conclude that both vector and histogram fail
ure states tend to produce less robust results.
Measured values can migrate across Failure State bound
aries because of component and test tolerances. In order to
produce robust tests, the concept of a guard band has been
added. The guard band is measured in pass tolerance units,
and is used to eliminate from consideration any test that has
fault detections within the guard band limit of the test bound
ary. You can change the guard band for any Fault Tree step.
The guard band width is reported in the Test Description
field using the test measurement units.
When measurements are close to test boundaries, UUT tol
erances and test set accuracy can move the result across the
boundary, yielding a false result. This effect is mitigated by
inserting a guard band just outside of the test limits. Setting
the test limit to the center of the guard band produces a test
that is least likely to give false results.
Referring to the Fault Tree Generation dialog in Figure 12,
several groups of tests are available. They are shown in the
Group sequence and selection section. Any of the test group
161
Power Specialist’ s
ings can be activated using the Sequence dropdown list.
The resulting ranking of the tests, in order of best to worst,
is shown in the TestEntropy section below. In this case, 4
groups were arranged. All of the tests with the same sequence
number will be evaluated at the same time. A fault tree can
be sequenced from the activated tests manually, by hitting
the insert button, or automatically, by hitting the AutoBuild
button. This second action builds the entire fault tree, as
shown in Figure 12.
From the failure analysis of our initial configuration, the
pass ambiguity group from the last test in the fault tree was
used to determine which faults could not detected (22% of
the total shown in the “Adding More Tests” section). With
all of the tests now available, 100% detection is possible.
Figure 13 displays a sample of some of the report outputs
that are produced by the software.
XII. PROBLEMS WITH SENSITIVITY BASED
FAILURE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
In several recent papers [13,14], claims are made that fail
ures can be inferred from tolerances using sensitivity analy
sis. To accomplish this, a product specification is required.
Based on that specification, tolerances are extracted using
sensitivity analysis. The author claims that he can detect out
oftolerance failures based upon these data. The underlying
assumption is that test measurements are linearly related to
parameter changes. This is simply not true for most cir
cuits.
There are two key problems with the sensitivity approach.
First, the frequency of part failures near the tolerance limits
is but a small fraction of the total failure universe. Second,
the linear nature of this prediction makes the implicit as
sumption that all parameters are related to each output by a
first order (straight line) function. It can be shown that even
many passive linear circuits fail to meet this criteria!
Using sensitivity analysis to predict circuit performance for
extreme values or for component failures only works for
certain linear circuits. The basic problem for most analog
circuits is that the derivative of a test vector with respect to
circuit parameters cannot be guaranteed to predict even the
correct sign of the resulting test vector for large parameter
changes. For example, consider a simple amplifier which
has a gain of zero when its operating point is at either ex
treme, and a maximum value in between. If the test vector is
proportional to gain, then the sensitivity will predict infinite
gain for most operating points for one of the extreme fault
cases. Even linear circuits can exhibit these characteristics
for complex transfer functions; for example, parallel net
works can shift complex zeros smoothly from left to right
half planes by varying a single component value, yet the
output waveform and its AC phase component will exhibit a
discontinuity that can’t be predicted using sensitivity analy
sis. In addition, this technique is generally not valid for cir
cuits which contain switches or switching elements. Mixed
signal circuits, by nature, are excluded. Hence, mixedsig
nal circuits and most power circuits such as PWM ICs can
not be analyzed using sensitivity analysis.
Figure 13, The software produces several types of reports. Shown above is a portion of the fault tree which points to the V(3) test. The
matching Test description and hardware independent Clike pseudologic code to duplicate the fault tree are shown to the center and
right, respectively.
162
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
In summary, here are a few examples that invalidate sensi
tivity based techniques:
• Circuits which contain switches. The sensitivity of a
switched output with respect to its controlling input is
always zero, so no inference is possible. This applies
to all mixed mode circuitry, including most power
supply circuitry.
• Linear circuits which have a nonminimum phase be
havior (right half plane zeros). Twin T notch filters are
a prime example, as are inverting transistor amplifiers.
• Control systems which have phase shifts of more than
180 degrees. AC sensitivity is based on the adjoint
matrix solution at each frequency, so dependence on
results at other frequencies is not possible. It is there
fore not possible to distinguish between phase planes,
making Nyquist stability criteria unavailable.
XIII. CONCLUSIONS
1) The simulation techniques employed here act as a “force
multiplier” for development of diagnostics for analog
and mixed signal circuits. Over the course of a few hours,
it was possible to generate a variety of tests, determine
the failure mode detection characteristics of each test,
and sequence a subset of these tests into an effective
diagnostic fault tree.
2) Simulation is proven to be an effective method for iden
tifying problem areas in fault detection. Simulation re
veals key problem areas: first, by identifying the low
probability fault detections for individual tests; and sec
ond, by providing an infrastructure for further circuit
analysis when integration results do not agree with simu
lator predictions.
3) Reasonable simulation times can be achieved by pars
ing the circuit into separate subcircuits and linking the
simulation results through the use of voltage and cur
rent stimuli.
4) The software allows the user to study various power
supply failure mechanisms.
Accounting for achieved detection and isolation of failure
modes is a difficult problem for the TPS developer. While
accountability is easy to achieve in simple circuit analysis,
it becomes considerably more difficult as the circuit com
plexity increases. The preceding techniques provide a sig
nificant advantage, by keeping track of detection and isola
tion of failure modes during generation of the fault tree.
There are several ways to overcome simulation runtime is
sues. The first is to use a faster computer or many fast com
puters to perform the runs more quickly and in parallel. A
more attractive method for reducing simulation time is to
model the switching elements using a linearization technique
called state space averaging [2]. Many faults cannot be de
tected when using this approach, however, the simulation
time for the long switching simulations will be reduced by
an order of magnitude.
REFERENCES
[1] Sharon Goodall, “Analog/Mixed Signal Fault Diagnosis Al
gorithm and Tool Review”,1994 AutoTestCon Proceedings, pp.
351359.
[2] W.R. Simpson and J.W. Sheppard, “Fault Isolation in an Inte
grated Diagnostic Environment, “IEEE D&T, Vol.10,No.1,Mar.
1993, pp5266.
[3] C.Y. Pan and K.T. Cheng, “Test Generation for Linear, Time
Invariant Analog Circuits, 3
rd
IEEE Intl. MixedSignal Testing
Workshop, June 36, 1997.
[4] Harry H. Dill, “A Comparison of Conventional and Inference
Model Based TPS Development Processes”, AutoTestCon ‘95 Pro
ceedings, pp 160168.
[5] Harry H. Dill, “A Comparison of Conventional and Inference
Model Based TPS Development Processes”, 1997 AutoTestCon
Proceedings.
[6] UL508C Standard for Power Conversion Equipment, ISBN 0
762900938, Copyright © 1996 Underwriters Laboratories Inc.,
Nov. 1996.
[7] CASS Red Team Package data item DIATTS80285B, Fig. 1
 SRA/SRU Fault Accountability Matrix Table, pg 11.
[8] L.W. Nagel and D.O. Pederson, Simulation program with inte
grated circuit emphasis, ERL Memo No. ERLM520, University
of California, Berkeley, May 1975.
[9] B. Johnson, T. Quarles, A.R. Newton, D.O. Pederson, A.
SangiovanniVincentelli, SPICE 3F User’s Guide, University of
California, Berkeley, Oct. 1992.
[10] “IsSpice4 User’s Guide”, Intusoft, P.O. Box 710, San Pedro,
CA 907330710, 1997.
[11] Fred Cox, W. Kuhn, J. Murray, S. Tynor, “CodeLevel Mod
eling in XSPICE”, Proceedings of the 1992 Intl. Syp. on Circuits
and Systems, May 1992, IEEE 0780305930/92.
[12] “XSPICE Users Manual”, Georgia Institute of Research,
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 303320800.
[13] N.B. Hamida, K. Saab, D. Marche, B. Kaminska, and G.
Quesnel, “LIMSoft: Automated Tool for Design and Test Integra
tion of Analog Circuits”, 2nd IEEE International Mixed Signal
Testing Workshop, Quebec City, Canada, May 1518, 1996.
[14] N.B. Hamida and B. Kaminska, “Analog Circuit Fault Diag
nosis Based on Sensitivity Computation and Functional Testing”,
IEEE Design and Test of Computers, March 1992, pp.3039.
[15] Steven M. Sandler, SMPS Simulation with SPICE, McGraw
Hill, 1997.
163
Power Specialist’ s
Application of Analog & Mixed Signal Simulation Techniques to the Synthesis
and Sequencing of Diagnostic Tests
Harry H. Dill, Deep Creek Technologies, Inc., Annapolis, MD 21401 USA, Kyle Bratton, Chris Sparr, Naval
Aviation Depot, MCAS Cherry Point, NC USA, Lloyd Pitzen, CCI Incorporated, Arlington, VA 22202 USA
Abstract  This paper describes the fault definition, simulation, test strategy development and validation activities that were
accomplished during beta testing of a new CAE tool, Test Designer. It addresses the issues of simulation convergence,
component fault models, circuit model implementation, simulation run times and test strategy accuracy. To ensure a realistic
test of Test Designer’s capabilities, diagnostics were developed for a moderately complex analog and mixed signal UUT
which was selected from the Navy’s list of CASS TPS offload candidates. These diagnostics were evaluated on the CASS
to measure the diagnostic sequence accuracy and to assess the ability of Test Designer to predict the nominal measurement
values and fault detection characteristics of each test.
I. INTRODUCTION
In late 1996, the SPICE simulation tool manufacturer Intu
soft initiated development of a new product tailored to the
unique and demanding needs of the test engineer. This prod
uct, Test Designer, was to provide an effective, interactive
design environment for the synthesis of diagnostic tests, gen
eration of fault dictionaries and the building of diagnostic
fault trees. As part of the product testing process, a beta
version of Test Designer was used to synthesize diagnostic
tests and build diagnostic fault trees for an analog and mixed
signal UUT which was selected from the Navy’s CASS
offload candidate list. This paper describes the process by
which the diagnostics were developed and documents the
accuracy of these diagnostics as demonstrated in the Navy’s
Test Integration Facility in Chesapeake, VA.
A seven step process was implemented for development of
the diagnostics. In chronological order, they were:
1) Circuit Parsing 5) Test Synthesis
2) Schematic Entry 6) Fault Tree Generation
3) Measurement Definition 7) Integration
4) Simulation
Details of each step in this process are provided in the sec
tions that follow.
II. CIRCUIT PARSING
The Annunciator Light Control Power Supply (ALCPS) was
chosen as the UUT for which diagnostics would be devel
oped because of its complexity. It contains two virtually
identical sections, each converting aircraft power input of
16Vdc to 30Vdc into 28Vdc in the “Bright” mode of opera
tion and pulsed dc voltage averaging 7 to 14 Volts in the
“Dimmer” mode. Since the two sections of the ALCPS are
very similar, only the Emergency section was evaluated. The
results are easily transferred to the Essential section of the
ALCPS. Figure 1 is a block diagram of the Emergency sec
tion of the ALCPS. Subsequent reference to the ALCPS
refers only to the Emergency section of the power supply.
The original plan called for simulating the entire supply as a
single entity. An initial attempt at such a simulation showed
that the runtime to complete diagnostics development would
be excessive as far as this paper is concerned. There were
several reasons :
1) While the simulation time increases linearly (approxi
mately 1.2 times [1]) with the size of the circuit, the time
constants that are associated with the functional blocks the
ALCPS posed a greater problem. They range from approxi
mately 100us in the VGS/minus 5Vdc block to 250ms in the
digital block. A transient analysis in SPICE must compute
a sufficient number of points on the time line in order to
accurately reproduce the circuit waveforms. In the case of
the VGS/minus 5Vdc block the time interval for the compu
tations must be in the 1us to 10us range. The digital block
must be simulated over a total time period of several sec
onds in order to accurately capture its behavior since it con
tains several long timeconstant RC delay circuits. There
fore, more than a million computations could be required to
simulate the ALCPS behavior for a single test setup.
2) Test Designer computes the fault dictionaries by simu
lating circuit behavior for each failure mode of each com
ponent  one at a time. Approximately 300 failure modes
must be considered for the entire ALCPS Emergency sec
tion. With a simulation time for a single run in excess of 8
hours on a 90Mhz Pentium®, 4 months of processing time
would be required to complete the task.
There several ways of overcoming these issues. The first is
to use a faster computer or a “farm” of fast computers to
make the numerous runs more quickly and in parallel. Cur
rent stateoftheart computers (i.e., 266MHz Pentium® II)
would reduce the simulation time for each failure mode by
approximately 25% making the problem much more man
ageable.
A more attractive method for reducing simulation time would
be to model the switching elements using a linearization tech
164
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
nique called state space averaging [2]. Some faults would
not be detected when using this approach, however, the simu
lation time for the long switching simulations would be re
duced by an order of magnitude.
In this case, the solution we adopted was to simulate each
block of the ALCPS as a separate entity. By replacing func
tional blocks that interface with the block under evaluation
with voltage sources that emulated both the nominal and
failed modes of operation, the behavior of each block was
easily simulated. For example, the digital functional block
in Figure 1 provides CMOS outputs of +12Vdc or 0Vdc
(depending on its stimuli) to the On/Off Analog circuit. For
each digital block stimuli setup, voltage sources can repre
sent the digital block outputs for nominal, Stuck Hi and Stuck
Lo failure modes that might exist at those outputs or propa
gate to those outputs. These voltage sources (emulating the
Digital Block outputs) were used as stimuli when evaluat
ing the On/Off Analog block. Subsequent simulation of the
digital block showed that for all failures within the block,
these were the only failures observed at the digital block
outputs. Since there is no clocking associated with these
outputs, static voltage levels may be used. Had clocking
been an issue, we could have used stimuli that generate time
varying waveforms.
The objective of the circuit parsing step was to break the
circuit up into functional blocks in such a manner as to re
duce simulation time while maintaining the integrity of fault
effects propagation across block boundaries. The configu
ration in Figure 1 accomplished this objective.
III. SCHEMATIC ENTRY
Test Designer employs graphical “drag and drop” schematic
entry features found in most modern EDA systems. How
ever, there are two significant differences  component pa
rameter data entry and circuit configuration definition.
A. Component Parameter Data Entry
Each component on the schematic has an associated graphi
cal dialog that can be accessed to define nominal device and
model parameter information, as well as parametric toler
ances. The tolerances can be used in subsequent Monte Carlo
analyses to assist in the definition of test pass/fail limits.
Each component also has an associated failure mode defini
tion dialog that allows you to define the parameters for each
of the component’s failure modes. Up to 32 failure modes
can be assigned to any single component. In addition, Test
Designer provides selectable failure modes that are defined
in the CASS Red Team Package. Theses failure modes were
used for the ALCPS. The fault universe for the modeled
portion of the ALCPS consisted of 204 faults that are allo
cated as follows:
On/Off Analog block 66 component failure modes
Dimmer Analog block 66 component failure modes
Digital block 72 component failure modes
B. Circuit Configuration Definition
A test setup provides loads, voltage and current stimuli and
instrumentation connections at specific points on the Unit
Under Test (UUT). When viewed in a broader context, the
combination of the test setup circuitry and the UUT can be
considered to be a circuit configuration in and of itself. In
deed, for simulation purposes, the test setup circuitry must
be included as part of the circuit. Most Test Program Sets
(TPSs) implement multiple setups during the testing se
quence. This increases the simulation burden by requiring a
separate schematic for every test setup. The ALCPS diag
nostics require several different test setups in order to com
pletely test the “Bright” and “Dimmer” functions. Specific
setups include the connection of high and low resistance
values to the dimmer inputs and changes in the ALCPS pri
mary power and digital inputs.
Test Designer addresses the multiple test setup problem by
assigning each setup/UUT combination a unique configura
tion name and simulating all configurations in a batch op
eration. In Test Designer, the setup/UUT combination is
called a “circuit configuration”. The circuit configuration
is defined during the schematic entry process. Every circuit
configuration is composed of one or more schematic layers.
An active layer can be thought of as a transparency that over
lays other transparencies such that as you view them you
see the complete circuit configuration schematic. Circuit
nodes on the top layer connect with nodes on underlying
layers as if the drawing were created on a single page. Test
Designer allows mixing and matching of layers to form the
required circuit configurations.
Two circuit configurations were defined for the digital block
of the ALCPS. Three schematic layers were created in or
der to implement these two configurations. The first layer,
“UUT”, contained all circuitry for the digital portion of the
ALCPS. The second layer, “MainStim”, contained five
piecewise linear voltage sources (digital signal stimuli), a
pulsed voltage source (Vplus12, the power into the digital
functional block), and a pulsed voltage source (Vi, filtered
power). Vi and Vplus12 were given associated failure modes
which were representative of their respective functional
blocks. The third layer, “MainStim2”, was similar to
MainStim, however, the definition of the five piecewise lin
ear voltage sources reflected the required digital stimuli for
tests that differed significantly from those of MainStim. A
165
Power Specialist’ s
circuit configuration was named MainLine and assigned lay
ers “UUT” and “MainStim”. Another circuit configuration
was named MainLine2 and assigned layers “UUT” and
“MainStim2”. Circuit configurations were created in a simi
lar manner for the On/Off Analog and Dimmer functional
blocks. None of the PWM blocks were included in the analy
sis. Due to the low component count in these blocks, a
manual analysis was performed. A transient analysis was
run on the VGS/minus 5Vdc block to gauge the difficulty
associated with its simulation. This block contains an
SG1524 Pulse Width Modulator and simulation time using
a 90Mhz Pentium® was approximately four hours. Tech
niques exist for reducing this time but were not implemented
in the ALCPS circuit model. [3]
The developer of the ALCPS Offload TPS wished to use an
existing set of verification tests and prepare diagnostic fault
trees that branch from failed verification tests. The setups
defined for these verification tests formed the basis for the
circuit configurations “MainLine” and “MainLine2”.
Figure 2 shows the waveforms for the digital stimuli that are
defined in the “MainStim” layer of the “MainLine” circuit
configuration. These waveforms were derived directly from
the existing ALCPS verification tests and represent digital
stimuli as the TPS progresses sequentially through verifica
tion tests T1010, T1020, T1030, T1035, T1040, T1050,
T1060 and T1080. T1070 applied exactly the same stimuli
to the digital block as T1060 and was not repeated in the
simulation. Each test toggles only those digital stimulus lines
that are needed to achieve the desired 5 bit pattern, then
delays 700ms to allow the circuit to settle and makes a volt
age measurement at the main output node of the ALCPS.
The UUT is not deenergized between tests. Since the digi
tal block contains two simple NOR gate flip flops, it retains
the state of the circuit as defined by the stimuli that were
applied during previous tests. Therefore, the sequence of
these tests is important in the context of the failure modes
that each test will detect. The circuit configuration
“MainLine” duplicates this scenario by using identical stimuli
in the simulation. The simulator was set up to record the
circuit parameters at every node in the circuit at the time of
each test measurement as performed by the actual TPS. At
the conclusion of test T1080, power is removed from the
ALCPS, then power is reapplied and testing is resumed us
ing the stimuli duplicated in the “MainLine2” circuit con
figuration.
IV. MEASUREMENT DEFINITION
Test Designer uses the IsSpice4 simulation engine. IsSpice4
is an enhanced version of Berkeley SPICE 3 [4] and XSPICE
[5]. This engine offers several simulation analysis options,
among them DC Operating Point, AC and Transient. Each
of these options provides different information regarding the
circuit. Transient analysis was selected for development of
the ALCPS since we are interested in dynamic circuit per
formance over a period of time.
A specific type of analysis must be assigned to each circuit
configuration before it can be simulated. The association of
a simulation analysis type with a circuit configuration is
defined as a test configuration by Test Designer. A single
circuit configuration can be assigned multiple types of simu
lation analyses in order to define multiple test configura
tions. Only transient (timebased) analyses were performed
on the ALCPS.
Test Designer records only the simulation information that
is relevant to the test measurements that have been defined
and selected by the test engineer. The available information
includes the voltage at each circuit node (at any specified
time for the transient analysis), time relationships between
events (rise times, triggered measurements, pulse widths,
etc.), the current through any component and the power dis
sipated by any component. For the ALCPS
“MainLine+tran1” test configuration, a total of 224 mea
surements were recorded. These measurements consist of
the node voltage at each of 32 circuit nodes as recorded at
2.8 seconds, 3.7 seconds, 5.5 seconds, 6.7 seconds, 8.5 sec
onds, 9.8 seconds and 10.8 seconds into the simulation. These
measurement times correspond to those of the verification
tests T1010 through T1080. The ALCPS provides probe
access to every circuit node via the back of the circuit card.
Similarly, 192 test measurements were defined for the
“MainLine2+tran1” test configuration. This yields a pool
of 416 tests from which to choose when isolating a failure in
the digital block fault universe of 72 failure modes. Not all
of these measurements will necessarily be used in the final
fault tree. The objective at this point is to create a large
population of tests from which to choose when computing
an efficient fault isolation strategy.
A similar process was used to define measurements for the
On/Off Analog and the Dimmer Analog functional blocks.
Eightyseven (87) measurements were defined for the On/
Off Analog functional block; 116 were defined for the Dim
mer Analog block. Thus, the total measurement pool for
the simulated sections of the ALCPS was 619.
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Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
V. SIMULATION
Test Designer generates a value for every defined measure
ment in every test configuration for every enabled failure
mode of the circuit by performing the simulations that are
defined in the test configurations. A measurement value is
also generated for the No Fault condition. The test engineer
may declare any component as “can’t fail” in order to ex
clude special circuitry such as external test equipment inter
faces from the fault analysis computations. In addition to
this automated “batch simulation” mode, Test Designer per
mits simulation of individual failure modes in an interac
tive, manual mode.
Simulation of the ALCPS test configurations posed few prob
lems. It was quickly noted however that the first run of a
simulation should be performed in manual mode for the No
Faults case to ensure the circuit is correctly configured and
the simulation runs to completion.
Convergence problems appeared only once. The digital sig
nal stimuli for the UUT is applied 1 second before power is
applied. Application of the power caused a transient in the
circuit simulation that resulted in a nonconvergence situa
tion. This situation was quickly resolved by invoking Test
Designer’s Convergence Wizard. The Convergence Wiz
ard asks various questions and automatically manipulates
the IsSPICE simulation control options in an attempt to miti
gate the problem. Once the circuit converged for a test con
figuration, no additional problems were observed during the
fault simulation process. If convergence problems do occur
during an individual fault simulation in “batch” mode, the
measurement value is flagged as nonconvergent and can be
subsequently evaluated individually in manual mode by
changing simulation parameters.
“Batch” mode simulation times for all faults and all test con
figurations were as follows:
Digital block 51 minutes
Dimmer Analog block 25 minutes
On/Off Analog block 42 minutes
All simulations were performed on a 90Mhz Pentium® pro
cessor.
VI. TEST SYNTHESIS
A test is defined as a set of circuit stimuli, a parametric mea
surement, a circuit node where the parameter is measured
and criteria for determining whether the test passes or fails
[6]. At this point in the process 619 parametric measure
ments have been defined for the ALCPS including stimuli
and measurement locations. The next step is to convert these
measurements into tests by assigning pass/fail criteria.
Figure 3 shows one of the graphical methods Test Designer
provides in order to facilitate test limits definition. A de
scription of the methodology that is used to set the ALCPS
digital block test limits will illustrate the application. Ex
amination of the digital block topology revealed that most
of the circuit nodes connect CMOS digital components and
can be expected to fall within ±1volt of +12Vdc or 0Vdc
during normal operation. Initially, the limits for all nodes
were set to ±1volt about the nominal value using the global
set capability in Test Designer. The limits for the nondigi
tal nodes were then set to ±10% of the nominal values. (A
more rigorous approach would have been to use the Monte
Carlo feature of Test Designer to derive circuit performance).
This rough cut converted the 416 measurements into 416
tests. Figure 3 shows the test results for the
“MainLine+tran1” test configuration at the T1080 test time
for node V(4) for every simulated failure mode. Note the
167
Power Specialist’ s
Meter on the left of the graphic. A short bar in the center of
the meter indicates that the associated failure mode is not
detected. This bar is colored green on the computer screen.
A long bar on the left or right of the meter center indicates
that the associated failure mode moves the measured value
outside the pass/fail limits by more than 3 times the differ
ence between the upper and lower pass/fail limits (e.g., a
very high probability failure detection). This bar is colored
bright red. A short bar just to the right or left of center
indicates that the failure is detected but is out of limits by
less than one tolerance range (e.g. could be an uncertain
detection and may merit further investigation using Monte
Carlo techniques). This bar is colored purple. A quick scan
of this display gives a good indication of the reliability of an
individual test in detecting the failures in its fault dictionary.
There are two other display types available to display the
failure detection characteristics of each test. Figure 4 shows
all T1080 test results for the failure mode X1d::OutStuckLo.
Figure 5 shows a histogram of test measurements vs. failure
modes for the T1080 voltage test at node 4.
Setting limits for the ALCPS tests was an iterative process
of selecting highly reliable tests with regard to detection
characteristics (created using the rough cut limits) for inclu
sion in the Fault Tree and adjusting the limits on less than
reliable tests in order to improve their detection characteris
tics when such tests were required to achieve desired isola
tion metrics.
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Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
VII. FAULT TREE GENERATION
Figure 6 shows the Test Designer dialog that was used to
build the diagnostic fault trees for the ALCPS. Test De
signer can automatically generate the entire tree from the
test pool; it can complete a partial fault tree or the test engi
neer can create the entire tree manually.
The first step in creating the fault tree is to select the test
grouping (located the upper left of the dialog box). This
selection is made by assigning a sequence number to each
group of tests from which tests are to be drawn. Multiple
test groups can be assigned the same sequence number when
changing test setups from one test to the next in a sequence
does not cause problems in the actual test process (e.g., ex
cessive test setup times).
In the case of the ALCPS we wanted to run tests T1010,
T1020, T1030, etc. in a sequential order, so we built the
fault trees manually. The fault tree in Figure 6 depicts “go
line” tests as if the measurements were made at node 20 of
the digital block. The actual observation point for the “go
line” tests is at the output of the On/Off Analog block. How
ever, since the fault tree for the On/Off Analog block has a
callout for digital block failure modes (recall the digital block
was modeled as a voltage source in the On/Off Analog
block), entry into the digital block fault tree can be made at
the equivalent digital block “goline” test entry point when
the On/Off Analog block fault tree calls out the digital block
failure modes. The linkage of fault trees is performed out
side of the Test Designer environment and must be com
pleted manually. The “goline” tests of the digital block are
linked instead of presented as independent trees because Test
Designer can eliminate from consideration those failure
modes which have been cleared from previous “goline” tests.
To build the fault tree, a Sequence number is selected using
the pulldown window on the left side of the dialog. An
entropy value is computed for all tests in test groups that
have this sequence number and the tests will then be dis
played in the lower left of the dialog box in priority order 
from best test for the active tree node to least desirable test
in the context of diagnosing the highest failure rate compo
nents in the minimum number of steps. The test engineer
has the option to select any test in this list. Tests that pro
vide no new information regarding the failure modes have
an entropy value of zero and are not displayed. The se
quence number can be changed at any time during fault tree
development in order to control which setups are used at
various places in the fault tree.
The ALCPS tests used in the fault tree were selected based
on their failure detection reliability. If a review of the detec
tion characteristics for a recommended test showed “soft”
detections for unknown failure modes (as indicated for fail
ure mode Dcr14::Short in Figure 3), a different test was se
lected from the prioritized list. If there were no acceptable
tests available, the detection characteristics of the listed tests
were examined to see if limit changes would improve their
reliability. With a pool of 416 tests for the digital block
169
Power Specialist’ s
alone, it was easy to find reliable tests to use in the fault
tree.
Fault trees for the simulated blocks of the ALCPS were manu
ally linked together and into the preexisting “goline” test
sequence using a word processor. These diagnostic fault
trees were then passed to NADEP Cherry Point representa
tives for integration.
An interesting side note is that although the test pool was
very large, there was substantial room for improvement in
the detection characteristics of the digital block tests. Only
59.4% of these failures are detected by the “goline” tests.
Most of the nondetects occur in the RC delay circuits that
filter and debounce the digital inputs from the aircraft. All
“goline” tests are designed to make measurements after the
RC networks have reached steady state conditions and are
not designed to detect open capacitors.
VIII. INTEGRATION
Results of inserting 15 faults and testing the ALCPS using
the first three performance tests and the Test Designer gen
erated diagnostic procedures are shown in Table 1. Results
for 10 of the 15 faults were as predicted by Test Designer.
The discrepancies between integration results and Test De
signer predictions are discussed below.
The pass/fail limits for each test were assigned during the
test synthesis phase by inspecting the “distance” of each
simulated failure mode value relative to the nominal value
for the measurement and selecting a limit between 5% and
10% of nominal up to a limit of 0.5 Volts. Subsequent Monte
Carlo analyses reveals that these limits were well beyond
those needed to accept 99.9% of unfailed UUTs as ready for
issue. Furthermore, these pass/fail limits provided good dis
crimination between failure modes and resulted in reliable
isolation of low failure count ambiguity groups. However,
there was one unanticipated problem that caused many of
the simulated nominal values for the On/Off analog block to
be roughly 0.5 Volts above the nominal value observed on
the actual ALCPS. Consequently, many pass/fail limits were
also high by 0.5 Volts and tests failed when they should have
passed. Recall that the input to the On/Off Analog block
from the digital block was simulated using voltage sources.
These voltage sources were assigned a nominal value of
11.91 Volts. On the ALCPS board used for integration, these
CMOS outputs were measured at 11.2 Volts. This 0.7 Volt
differential caused an adverse effect in the limit definition
process. In addition, the power supply voltage for each of
the integrated circuits was assumed to be 12.0 Volts. It was
closer to 11.4 Volts on the actual ALCPS. This 0.6 Volt
difference also contributed to the shift in test pass/fail lim
its. An alternative and preferable approach would have been
to include tolerances on the voltage sources that represent
the power supply and digital blocks and setting limits based
on a Monte Carlo analysis. Subsequent analyses using more
realistic tolerances for the voltage sources matched the per
formance observed when performing the tests on the CASS.
The fault tree that was generated with Test Designer was
computed such that failure modes C20 short and Q4 collec
tor/emitter short were isolated after detection by the T1010
“goline” test. During integration, T1010 failed to detect
C20 short and Q4 collector/emitter short. An inspection of
the Test Designer Results dialog (similar to figure 3) indi
cated that both of these failure modes are “soft” detections
for T1010 and may therefore be detected on some UUTs
and not others. Expanding the limits of T1010 to ±1.0 Volts
in order to make these failure modes nondetects for T1010
should eliminate this problem. Both failures can be subse
quently detected by T1030.
Test Designer predicted that CR4 short and CR3 short were
high probability detections for test T1020. Yet neither fail
ure mode was detected by T1020 during fault insertion. This
problem appears to be related to the architecture of the On/
Off Analog circuitry. Op amp U6a of the On/Off Analog
circuitry acts as a comparator. CR3 short and CR4 short
Number of cases Result Result agrees with model
8
fault detected and isolated successfully; that is,
failed the performance test as expected and fault
isolated to the correct component
Yes
2 fault not detected Yes
4
fault detected (a function of the performance test)
but not isolated correctly. Component was in Fail
Ambiguity Group for a performance test that
passed and was not in Fail Ambiguity Group for
the subsequent performance test that failed. Test
Designer predicted two of these four faults were
"soft" detects for the performance tests and may
not be detected for some UUTs (see text).
No
1 fault not detected No
170
Test Program Development and Failure Analysis
failure modes shift both the positive and negative inputs to
the comparator away from their nominal values by a small
amount; the negative moves at a faster rate than does the
positive input. For some tolerance accumulations of com
ponents feeding the comparator, either of these failure modes
will cause the comparator to switch states and will be “hard
over” detections for T1020. For other tolerance accumula
tions, the comparator will not switch states and the T1020
measurement will yield its nominal, unfailed value. Addi
tional “goline” tests should be devised for the ALCPS in
order to detect CR3 short and CR4 short in the event they
are not detected by T1020.
IX. LABOR EXPENDITURES
Following are manhour estimates for each of the tasks lead
ing to integration of the fault tree that was prepared using
Test Designer. The listed hours are within ±25% of the ac
tual expended hours.
Circuit Parsing 6.0 hours
Schematic Entry
Digital block 4.0 hours
On/Off Analog block 3.5 hours
Dimmer block 3.0 hours
Measurement Definition
Digital block 3.0 hours
On/Off Analog block 1.0 hours
Dimmer block 0.5 hours
Simulation (Includes reruns due to circuit model errors,
stimuli changes, problem solving, etc.)
Digital block 24.0 hours
On/Off Analog block 10.0 hours
Dimmer block 16.0 hours
Test Synthesis
Digital block 0.5 hours
On/Off Analog block 2.0 hours
Dimmer block 2.5 hours
Fault Tree Generation
Digital block 0.5 hours
On/Off Analog block 1.0 hours
Dimmer block 1.0 hours
Once these six steps of the process have been completed,
changes can be made very quickly. To illustrate, consider
that the first set of diagnostics that were generated for
NADEP Cherry Point integration contained an error in the
stimuli for test T1020. This error invalidated much of the
logic in the fault tree so the simulation showed many detec
tions that didn’t exist and missed a number of detections
that would exist (actually, the simulator results were correct
based on the stimuli defined in the model; unfortunately, the
model didn’t agree with the implementation). This error
was discovered at 3pm. By 9pm that evening, a completely
new set of diagnostic tests for the ALCPS had been synthe
sized, sequenced and emailed to the Chesapeake Test Inte
gration Facility.
X. LESSONS LEARNED
A. General Comments
1) The simulation techniques which are employed by Test
Designer act as a “force multiplier” for development of di
agnostics for analog and mixed signal circuits. Over the
course of 80 hours it was possible to generate 619 tests,
determine the failure mode detection characteristics of each
test against a failure universe of 204 failure modes, and se
quence a subset of these tests into an effective diagnostic
fault tree.
2) Simulation is an effective method for identifying prob
lem areas in fault detection. The beta testing of Test De
signer surfaced problems in two ways; first, by identifying
the low probability fault detections for individual tests and
second, by providing an infrastructure for further circuit
analysis when integration results did not match simulator
predictions.
3) Reasonable simulation times can be achieved by parsing
the circuit into separate subcircuits and linking the simula
tion results through the use of voltage and current stimuli.
4) Assumptions regarding linkage of separate simulations
through the use of voltage or current sources should be vali
dated on actual circuitry. Monte Carlo techniques should
be employed to ensure that test limits are valid over the full
range of values that these sources can assume.
5) The simulation model should be validated against actual
circuit operation in the no fault condition prior to develop
ing diagnostic tests.
B. NADEP Cherry Point Comments.
As a first time user of Test Designer the engineer came on
line very quickly. There was a short learning curve to get an
understanding of what information is required.
Accounting for achieved detection and isolation of failure
modes is a difficult problem for the TPS developer. While
accountability is easy for the developer to achieve in simple
circuit analysis, it becomes considerably more difficult as
the circuit complexity increases. Test Designer provided an
advantage to the ALCPS TPS developer in that it kept track
of detection and isolation of failure modes during genera
tion of the fault tree.
Direct application of Test Designer can be made to all stages
of avionics design and test program development, and also
implemention of design for testability during avionics de
sign. Models developed during this process would be of great
value to subsequent test program development.
Test Designer provides the engineer a fault matrix in the
form of a Fault Tree .tdf text file. The .tdf file provides an
accounting of components and associated fault modes de
tected by the defined test. This output provides a list of
detectable, undetectable, and destructive fault modes. The
171
Power Specialist’ s
information required to develop the Fault Accountability
Matrix (FAM) Table [7] as required in the Navy’s Red Team
Package resides in this .tdf file.
Once confidence is achieved in the circuit model it can be
used by both contractor and customer to simplify and shorten
the final product validation and acceptance process. Upon
delivery of the TPS to the Fleet, the models would be main
tained by InServiceEngineering in order to provide guid
ance in avionics changes and upgrades to test program ca
pability.
Test Designer is not a replacement for engineering exper
tise. It does however allow the engineer to focus the TPS
development efforts in a fashion that targets high failure ar
eas for additional diagnostics. After becoming familiar with
its application, we anticipate that the engineer will include
Test Designer as an integral part of the TPS development
process.
REFERENCES
[1] L.W. Nagel and D.O. Pederson, Simulation program with
integrated circuit emphasis, ERL Memo No. ERLM520,
University of California, Berkeley, May 1975
[2] L.G. Meares, New Simulation Techniques Using SPICE,
IEEE APEC, 1986, pp.198205
[3] Steven M. Sandler, SMPS Simulation with SPICE,
McGrawHill, 1997
[4] B. Johnson, T. Quarles, A.R. Newton, D.O. Pederson,
A. SangiovanniVincentelli, SPICE 3F User’s Guide, Uni
versity of California, Berkeley, Oct. 1992
[5] F. Cox, W. Kuhn, J. Murray, S. Tynor, CodeLevel Mod
eling in XSPICE, Proceedings of the 1992 Intl. Syp. on Cir
cuits and Systems, May 1992, IEEE 0780305930/92
[6] Harry H. Dill, “A Comparison of Conventional and In
ference Model Based TPS Development Processes”,
AutoTestCon ‘95 Proceedings, pp 160168
[7] CASS Red Team Package data item DIATTS80285B,
Fig. 1  SRA/SRU Fault Accountability Matrix Table, pg 11
POWER SPECIALIST’S APP NOTE BOOK Edited by Charles E. Hymowitz
Copyright intusoft, 1998. All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language, in any form, by any means, without written permission from intusoft. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers at the following address: Intusoft P.O. Box 710 San Pedro, CA 907330710 USA While the editor and the publishers believe that the information and the guidance given in this work is correct, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgement when making use of it. Neither the editor nor the publishers assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work, whether such error or omission is the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is disclaimed.
is a trademark of intusoft Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Epson is a registered trademark of Epson Inc. HP is a trademark of the HewlettPackard Corp. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Intusoft, the Intusoft logo, ICAP, ICAPS, Design Validator, Test Designer, IsSpice4, SpiceNet, PreSpice, IntuScope, and IsEd are trademarks of Intusoft, Inc. All company/product names are trademarks/registered trademarks of their respective owners. Printed in the U.S.A. rev. 98/11
Acknowledgments Authors Christophe BASSO, consultant, Sinard, France Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft, San Pedro, CA USA, charles@intusoft.com Lawrence Meares, Intusoft, San Pedro, CA USA Harry H. Dill, Deep Creek Technologies, Inc. Annapolis, MD USA, Testdesigner@compuserve.com A. F. Petrie, Independent Consultant, 7 W. Lillian Ave., Arlington Heights, IL USA Mike Penberth, Technology Sources, NewMarket Suffolk, U.K. Martin O’Hara, Motorola Automotive and Industrial Electronics Group, Stotfold Hitchin Herts. U.K. Kyle Bratton, Naval Aviation Depot, Cherry Point NC USA Chris Sparr, Naval Aviation Depot, Cherry Point NC USA Lloyd Pitzen, CCI Incorporated Arlington, VA USA
Editors Charles Hymowitz Bill Halal
Table Of Contents
Switched Mode Power Supply Design Average simulations of FLYBACK converters with SPICE3 A Tutorial Introduction to Simulating Current Mode Power Stages Write your own generic SPICE Power Supplies controller models Keep your Switch Mode Supply stable with a CriticalMode Controller Exploring SMPS Designs Using IsSpice Average Models For Switching Converter Design Simulating SMPS Designs SSDI Diode Rectifier Models High Efficiency StepDown Converter IsSpice4 Scripting Gives You More Power Magnetics Design and Modeling Designing a 12.5W 50kHz Flyback Transformer Designing a 50W Forward Converter Transformer With Magnetics Designer Signal Generators IsSpice4 introduces a deadtime in your bridge simulations Three Phase Generator Simulating Pulse Code Modulation Modeling For Power Electronics A Spice Model For TRIACs A Spice Model For IGBTs SPICE 3 Models Constant Power Loads Simulating Circuits With SCRs Power Schottky and Soft Recovery Diodes Spark Gap Modeling SPICE Simulates A Fluorescent Lamp Sidactor Modeling Transformer and Saturable Core Modeling Modeling Nonlinear Magnetics Current Limited Power Supply Macro Modeling Low Power DCDC Converters Modeling NonIdeal Inductors in SPICE Motor and Relay Modeling Modeling A Relay New SPICE Features Aid Motor Simulation Test Program Development and Failure Analysis for SMPS Automating Analog Test Design Simulation measurements vs. Real world test equipment New Techniques for Fault Diagnosis and Isolation of Switched Mode Power Supplies Application of Analog & Mixed Signal Simulation Techniques to the Synthesis and Sequencing of Diagnostic Tests
5 17 24 33 40 48 51 56 57 58
62 65
72 74 76
80 84 90 91 96 103 108 112 114 120 126 127 131
136 141
145 150 152 163
Analytical Engineering Services 4 . Analytical Engineering Services Steve Sandler. Sinard. consultant. Intusoft Larry Meares.SMPS Design Switched Mode Power Supply Design Authors Christophe BASSO. France Charles Hymowitz. Intusoft Scott Frankel.
By varying the source from 0 to 1V. Simulating SMPS with SPICE is not a new topic In 1976. and allowed the simulated circuit to operate in both conduction modes. the time variable t is of utmost importance since it controls the overall circuit operation and performance. the operating switching frequency. the models developed by R. M. Dr. and the peripheral elements are normally included. Because SMPS circuits usually operate at high frequencies and have response times on the order of milliseconds. Average models do not contain the switching components. it is practically impossible to evaluate the AC transfer function of the simulated circuit due to the switch. Some recent models require the loop propagation delays or overall efficiency. without an error amplifier. However. The calculations involved in the design of a Flyback converter. This article will show how you can benefit from these new investigation tools. our example circuits which have been based upon them will demonstrate how well they still behave.Power Specialist’s Average simulations of FLYBACK converters with SPICE3 Christophe BASSO May 1996 Within the wide family of Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS). DC or TRAN). Middlebrook settled the mathematical basis for modeling switching regulators [1]. fax machines. Figure 1 shows the basic way to simulate an average voltagemode Flyback converter with its associated components. Two years later. are not overly complex. the effects of the filter stage. FLYBACK converter model Output transformer Out+ In+ Output voltage COUT RLOAD InInput voltage OutDuty Cycle ESR Duty cycle input Figure 1 By clicking on the average Flyback model symbol or simply filling in the netlist file. no error amplifier etc. offline battery chargers. A SPICE simulator can help the designer to quickly implement his designs and show how they react to real world constraints. i. load conditions. a set of equations describe the circuit’s electrical characteristics for the two stable positions of the switch/ (es). perfect transformer (XFMR symbol). The “statespaceaveraging” technique consists of smoothing the discontinuity associated with the transitions of the switch/ (es) between these two states. R. R. Although these models are 15 years old. load and line transients. As a starting point. the corresponding duty cycle will sweep between 0 and 100%. The general simulation architecture The key to understanding the simulation of SMPS with a SPICE simulator is to first experiment with very simple structures. etc. The result is a set of continuous nonlinear equations in which the state equation coefficients now depend upon the duty cycles D and D′ (1D). the transformer and its associated leakage elements. Keller was the first to apply the Middlebrook theory to a SPICE simulator [2]. Switching or average models ? Switching models will exhibit the behavior of an electrical circuit exactly as if it were built on a breadboard with all of its nonlinearities. the value of the primary power coil. Also. For the first simulation. the Flyback converter represents the preferred structure for use in small and medium power applications such as wall adapters. especially one which operates in discontinuous mode. must be considered. distributed by e/j BLOOM Associates. the analysis of the impact of the environment upon the system may require a lengthy period of time: ESR variations due to temperature cycles. This source will directly pilot the duty cycle of the selected model. In this case. Furthermore. the working parameters will be entered. In 1978. “DCDC Switching Regulators Analysis”. you will have to adjust this source such that the output matches the desired value. At that time. An indepth description of these methods is contained in D. capacitor aging. other models have been introduced since then. Keller required manual parameter computation in order to provide the simulator with key information such as the DC operating point. Vincent Bello published a series of papers in which he introduced his SPICE models [3]. or buckboost converter may be described by a canonical model whose element values can be easily derived. This value 5 . ON or OFF. output capacitor with its ESR. simply draw a minimum part count schematic: simple resistive load. including semiconductor losses and ringing spikes which are due to parasitic elements. They contain a unique state equation which describes the average behavior of the system: in a switching system. no input filter. Middlebrook showed how any boost. except for the duty cycle input source. D. etc. etc. Mitchell’s book. and the designer can rapidly lose himself in the eclecticism of the offer. The parameters for the remaining components are obvious. analysis times may be very long. These models had the capacity to automatically calculate DC operating points. The semiconductor models. buck. regardless of the analysis type (AC. A linearization process will finally lead to a set of continuous linear equations.e. The simulation market constantly releases SMPS models. the simulation was only valid for small signal variations and continuous conduction mode.
00 Open loop phase (deg.4.00 40. The average models accept a 1 volt maximum duty cycle control voltage (D=100%).while the voltage at node OUT is less than or equal to 15V tran 1u 100u .print the output and the duty source average values end The SPICE simulator will compute the different values and refresh the output windows until the specified conditions are met.SMPS Design corresponds to the DC operating point that SPICE needs for its calculations. the conduction time of the primary switch depends upon the DC voltage that is compared with the oscillator sawtooth. To account for the 1 volt maximum input of our average models.5 volts and limit the lower value to greater than VL.00 1 This circuit can be seen as a box which converts a DC voltage (the error amplifier voltage) into a duty cycle (D). thus forcing the internal PWM stage to deliver the maximum duty cycle when the error amplifier reaches this value. the insertion of an 80. Simulation trick: temporarily replace your large output capacitor with a small value in order to shorten the necessary transient time at every iteration. and yield a more precise result. This will give us the openloop AC response of the circuit. Monitoring the AC output voltage yields the graph of Figure 4. In order to reduce execution time.00 10 100 1K Frequency in Hz 10K 100K Figure 4 6 . The Interactive Command Language (ICL). but the AC 1 command is added. the IC’s oscillator sawtooth can swing up to 3 or 4 volts.00 VH D= VL oscillator sawtooth σ σ 40. Small values require fewer switching cycles in order to reach the output target level. 80. as shown in Figure 2: Comparator VC Error amplifier output voltage Duty cycle Output VC . Below is a brief example of how the previous iteration process could be written: while V(OUT)<=15 .5=0.5Vpp. is a tremendously powerful language which has been primarily derived from the SPICE3 syntax and allows the designer to dynamically run SPICE commands without going back and forth from the schematic to the simulator. At this time.run a TRANSIENT analysis lasting 100us alter @Vduty[dc]=@Vduty[dc]+1mV . we would have to restrict the maximum output value of the error amplifier to 2. you could also run a DC sweep. Vduty for the desired output value is known and can be reflected back to the schematic. Generally. Figure 3 updates the schematic of Figure 1. to account for the previous sawtooth peaktopeak value. In our simulation schematic. The correct value can be determined incrementally or via the features in Intusoft’s (SanPedro.V VH . if the sawtooth amplitude of the integrated circuit we use is 2. then the ratio will be: 1/2. which shows the control to output transfer function for a discontinuous Flyback converter.4 Vduty DC 380mV AC 1 Figure 3 40.V attenuator with 1/(VHVσ) ratio after the error amplifier output is mandatory. The purpose of the next stage will be to sweep the duty cycle source around its DC steadystate level. The Vduty source keeps its DC statement to provide SPICE with a DC point.00 Open loop gain (dB) GAIN Attenuation ratio K = 0.00 20. For example. although this method is less flexible. to duty cycle input Performing AC simulations We now have a functional openloop system with the correct DC output value.increment the duty source by 1mV steps print mean(V(OUT)) mean(@Vduty[dc]) . CA) IsSpice software.00 40.) 0 0 2 Figure 2 20. The Pulse Width Modulator gain In a voltagecontrolled Flyback SMPS.
000U 900. but also has to be reflected back to its BV value. the amplifier swings between 200mV and 5V with the following values: .00000 500.05072 4. the faster the simulation runs.00000 Figure 5a Output Voltage Verror out G1 3200UMHO x 440.000U 1.70000M 2.9432 > Vclip low Vclip high Figure 5b Open loop phase (degrees) 40. It can be adjusted by the IsSpice BV parameter in the diode model. etc.e.00000 RLimit element Verror out x 2. Thus. The previous models do not really lend themselves to the addition of various internal pole and zero transfer functions.00000 1 > Error voltage E1 10E4 Vref 2.0926 < 86.0000 To account for the characteristics of the error amplifier integrated in your real PWM controller.0000 x 10.0000 2 10 100 1K 10K 100K Frequency (Hertz) Rinput Rp1 (+) Cp1 DCLAMP Vout=V(Cp1) x 1 Figure 5e Figure 5c 7 .10000M Time in Secs Comp.0000 80.0000 80. Compensation network Output voltage This complete model associates a voltage controlled current source and a unity gain buffer. Figure 5b represents a transconductance type with its associated clipping network.2V IBV=10mA) and VCOMP=680mV. Network Figure 5d Vref 80.0000 40. unrestrained output voltage. i. while other passive filter structures may be added between Cp1 and the unity gain buffer. the negative limit is the diode threshold voltage and the upper limit corresponds to the breakdown voltage of the diode.30000M 1. The first pole is modeled across Rp1 and Cp1. Figure 5c shows another type of amplifier that will facilitate this task. To overcome the problems associated with perfect sources.MODEL DCLAMP D (BV=4. the simpler the model. some components have to be added in order to tailor the response curve.0000 Open loop gain (dB) 40.464M 0 > 2. From a SPICE point of view. This model is the simplest error amplifier model you can create. The easiest method is to use a perfect amplifier like the one depicted in Figure 5a. In order to deliver an output voltage which matches the amplifier specifications. the action of a limiting element will confine the output voltage swing within a convenient range. G1 VCOMP () Routput Output 1 0 0 40. openloop gain.0000 80. the VCOMP source will compensate the negative threshold of the diode. The first stage output clipping is made via the diode DCLAMP and forces the output voltage of G1 to remain within the desired boundaries. This model is a simple voltage controlled source which amplifies the input voltage by the open loop gain.000U < 220.19444M < 5. as Figure 5d shows: 6. In our example.Power Specialist’s Adding the error amplifier The error amplifier can be selected in function of various criteria: bandwidth.
The fastest way to open the loop is to include an LC network as depicted in Figure 6. The Rref resistor in series with the VREF source does not play a role in the loop gain. but stops any AC error signal that would close the loop.SMPS Design The open loop gain is given by: AVOL = G1∗Rp1. and the designer has the ability to adjust the compensation network until the specifications are met. it might be interesting to temporarily open the loop and perform AC simulations. as long as AOP is closed by Rf. Dr.5 (Rref = Ri) because the negative pin is ½ Vout instead of zero. The C element permits an AC signal injection. Bello described the basic structure models (Buck. Average simulation of the Flyback converter in discontinuous mode Figure 7a shows a complete average Flyback converter made with Dr. Boost . Opening a closed loop system When the complete SMPS structure is drawn. It offers better transient behavior and simplifies the feedback network as a first approximation.. Note that Vref now becomes Vout. The inductive element maintains the DC error level such that the output stays at the required value. and allows you to quickly modify the output parameter without having to adjust the duty source. or add a capacitor in series. Bello states that despite statespace average technique results. Simulation trick: Figure 5f provides an alternative for connecting the reference voltage. the Vout/Output DC gain is no longer the open loop gain of AOP alone. thus allowing a normal AC sweep.. Rf To duty cycle input L_OL From error amp. In [3]. This condition maintains a virtual ground at the negative input of AOP. At this time. C_OL For AC sweep: C_OL=1KF L_OL= For AC Sweep: C_OL = 1KF L_OL For TRAN sweep: C_OL=1P L_OL For TRAN Sweep: C_OL = 1P L_OL AC 1V Figure 6 This method has the advantage of an automatic DC duty cycle adjustment. one model correspondeds to a particular Conduction Mode: Continuous (CCM) or Discontinuous (DCM). as Vorperian demonstrated [4]. But if you now remove Rf. keeping the inductor at its nominal value produces a second highfrequency pole and a RHP zero. Dr. but is multiplied by 0. The Flyback converter operating in DCM is built with the PWMBCK (Buck) and the PWMBBSD (Discontinuous boost) as depicted in Figure 7a. Ri Output Vout Rref Vref= Vout Figure 5f Some SPICE editors not only propose the switching models of many PWM controllers. These models use SPICE2 syntax and can therefore be run on any SPICE compatible engine. with R ref = Ri. we have an open loop gain of 90dB. With G1=100µMHOS and Rp1=316MΩ. The error amplifier can thus be isolated. However.36pF. which is 10Hz if Cp1=50.) and showed how to create topologies such as Flyback and Forward converters. Vincent Bello’s models. Figure 5e confirms these results. and Rref is in the loop gain calculation. 8 . The primary coil is simply shortened since it does not affect discontinuous operation in the average model. The first pole is at 1/2πRp1∗Cp1. but also their standalone internal error amplifiers that can easily be incorporated in place of the previous simplified structures.
04544.571428U < 14.992980 19.00000 14.994510 1 > 355.993380 325. the . In our application.999991U 59.00000 14.66mV. In our application (see parameters below) E2 will take the following value: E2 25 0 1 2 1. Its nominal characteristics and the corresponding polezero calculation are described below: Operating parameters: Vout=15V Vin=330V Cout=68µF Vramp=1. the corresponding rise in output voltage will be: 10∗0.7P 7 R38 121K C21 657P 15 V(5) VOUT LOL 1GH V(7) VERR 10 9 X19 RLIMIT R35 50K 20 COL 1KF R37 50K R36 10K 18 V24 AC E1 1E4 V22 15V Figure 7a In the models we used here.TF V(5) Vin .7Vpp Inom=1A Lp=4mH ESR=45mΩ Rload=15Ω Ns/Np = 0.49051 and 0. as previously shown in Figure 3.999988U 99. the results are placed in the output file. 365. which is 14. With the simulated parameters. Then we ask SPICE to perform a . PWMBBSD has to be modified such that it accounts for operating parameters.7) GPWM = 1/1.19 = 33. If the amplifier error exhibits a gain AErrAmp .TF V(5) Vduty . which corresponds to a duty cycle of 34.00000 14.999985U 139. audio susceptibility Once computed. The output voltage is then 14. respectively. the new closed loop parameters can be expressed as: dVout/dVin= (GVout/Vin) / (1 + AErrAmpGVout/Vduty) closed loop audio susceptibility ε = Vref ∗ [1 / (1 + AErrAmpGVout/Vduty) ] static error 2 8 11 3 R17 45M V(8) VC D2 V(11) V_D2 GAIN X18 GAIN C20 4.581/1.99998U Time in Secs Figure 7b 9 .99998U 179.Power Specialist’s I(V11) IFIL X14 PWMBCK 12 6 L1 1NH X15 PWMBBSD 13 1 X16 XFMR 14 D3 DIODE 19 5 V(5) VOUT V(5) VOUT R39 15 V23 330V C8 68UF 4 To verify the various gains.6dB for the openloop DC audio susceptibility) FP1 = 2 / 2πCoutRload = 312Hz Fz1 = 1 / 2 πCoutESR = 52kHz 2 335.00000 Output voltage (V) Input voltage (V) 14. dVout/dVduty open loop gain .00000 14.99451V.993780 The iteration process gave a Vduty source of 581mV.6dB K = 2LpFsw / (Rload ∗ (Ns/Np)2 ) = 0.0468 (26.49051) = 5.2% (0.994580 x 17. The openloop characteristics of this Flyback operating in DCM were already depicted in Figure 4.6) GVout/Vin= (D / √ K ) ∗ Ns/Np = 0. suppose that an error amplifier with a gain of 100 and a 15V reference voltage is used to close the previous SMPS. E2 = 1/2∗L∗FSW=TSW/2∗L The SMPS drawn represents an offline walladapter delivering 15V@1A.994340 > x 186.99999U < 14.04544 / (1 + 100∗26. and in the absence of a divider network (Figure 5f).5µV.49051) = 171. we open the loop and insert a DC source of 581mV.99434V. If we now step the input voltage by 10V.7 = 4.TF (Transfert Function) analysis: .TF statements gave 26. the static error is evaluated at: 15∗1 / (1 + 100∗26.5dB (26.1dB GVout/Vduty= G1(dB) + GPWM(dB) = 28.994180 345. dVout/dVin open loop gain. Figure 7b shows how SPICE reacts to this test.25M .05 Fsw=100kHz For instance.1333 G1= (Vin / √ K ) ∗ Ns/Np = 45.
3K < 447N > 1 GAIN PWM gain 40.7P C28 657P R44 50K 4 V(9) VOUT V(16) VERR GAIN 16 11 R52 50K 10 R51 3.SMPS Design Once all of the modifications are done. In our example. These SPICE3 compatible models have been developed by Steven Sandler of Analytical Engineering (Chandler. TS = current loop propagation delay Figure 8a Figure 8b shows the same SMPS as the one we previously studied. voltage mode control with feedforward. By adding an external voltage source. as shown in Figure 8a. The circuit is built with the Flyback model in direct duty cycle control. DATE: 4896 Discontinuous FLYBACK in voltage mode NP=1.4K R45 10K V31 15V Figure 8b 10 . AZ) and are fully described in [5]. NC = current sense transformer turns ratio NP = output transformer turns ratio. and load resistance. The library also includes models for various PWM and PFC ICs. or current mode control with/without compensation ramp. EFF = efficiency RB = current sense resistor. Current Mode Control. RB is set to 1M Input voltage VIN FLYBACK VOUT Output voltage VC RTN DUTY Vduty 120 Error amplifier phase (deg. but also new parameters such as overall efficiency. the designer can easily tailor the error amplifier so that the SMPS fulfills his target criteria. L = primary coil. F = operating frequency. voltage mode control K < 1. The Flyback model is the one of our main interests. The various operating modes are obtained by inserting an external voltage source in series with the VC input with the proper polarity. outside XFMR sets ratio FLYBACK 6 I(V24) ITOTAL X24 XFMR D5 DIODE 8 1 9 V(9) VOUT V(9) VOUT C22 68UF VIN VOUT 13 V28 330V VC 12 RTN DUTY 3 2 I1 PWL R42 45M V(3) DUTY 19 K B1 V=V(3)*1 X26 GAIN R50 121K C29 4.0 2 V K V=Vduty*K K = 1.0 0 x 21. The models are represented by a single box in which the user enters the typical working parameters: Lp.0 60. and the simplified error amplifier structure is replaced with an amplifier model like that which is shown in Figure 5c. no compensa 80. Fsw etc.0 Duty cycle input 0 120 Flyback parameters: 10 100 1K 10K 100K Frequency in Hz Figure 7c New generation models Intusoft has recently released a SPICE model library for Power Supply designers that includes new models that work in both DCM and CCM and can also be configured in current mode. Current Mode Control. you can configure the model the way you want to: voltage mode control. 160 120 Indirect duty cycle control. ramp compen V = 0. and its symbol appears in Figure 8a with its associated parameters. propagation delay.) Error Amplifier gain (dB) 60. the compensation network gives a 21kHz bandwidth (Figure 7c).
0100 15. as Figure 8a describes. the dynamic impedance. The error amplifier is replaced with the real UC3845 amplifier which is available as a single SPICE model. Its output is clipped to 1V and the output of the internal error amplifier goes through a diode before it is divided by 3.0067.Power Specialist’s The output is loaded by a current source whose purpose is to make the supply react to a sudden load increase. The . if present.90000M Time in Secs Voltage Control SMPS output [2] At this stage.8500 control factor (K) which is set by the sense resistor and.0000 Current control SMPS output [1] Figure 8c 15. (For our 85% efficiency. The DC value of the input impedance is easily calculated by: Zin = V2inη/Pout. the impedance is 6. any excitation of the LC network will make it oscillate. Because of the closed loop system.50000M 2. It varies with the frequency and exhibits a negative peaking which is somewhat damped. the designer should keep the input impedance. is set to 1Ω.17kΩ or 75.0500 x 2. 15. as shown in Figure 8c.70000M 2.2P X5 UC1845AS REF 1 VC COMP FDBK 2 12 V(3) VOUT 3 R7 56K 9 C4 1.10000M 2. you can modify the error amplifier structure and modify the configuration until the SMPS behaves as required.12500M < 15. just as it is built in the real part.0000 1 2 14.9722 > 1 14.8dBΩ).1500 15. 15W SMPS operating on a 330V source. Unfortunately. Current Mode Control SMPS The Flyback model can be easily modified to toggle from one structure to another. Figure 9a shows the new arrangement of the current mode control without implementing any ramp compensation.7500 2.90000M Time Figure 9b To transformer structu VIN VOUT Input impedance of the power supply V2 330V VC 11 RTN DUTY 7 C5 10. by the internal current gain and the current sense transformer ratio. the current sense element.9800 14.0100 15. You may easily add a compensation ramp. When used in conjunc 11 . Current Control Mode Power Supplies are less sensitive to the input impedance peaking.0020 > Output voltage (V) x 2. Figure 9b compares the response to an input step of the previous direct duty cycle SMPS and its Current Mode Control version.10000M 2.9500 14.0200 14.0200 15. dVin/dIin is negative. RB parameter is set to 1 ohm FLYBACK 4 6 15.30000M 2.48900M < 14. Zin. the internal RB.50000M 2.9900 14. depending on the SMPS structure. One of the features of the Current Control Mode is its inherent feedforward capability.42N R8 50K V4 15 OUT GND R9 10K Figure 9a In our application.9900 14. SPICE will help the designer to select an EMI structure without degrading the characteristics of the power supply. the input impedance is complex. The GVout/Vduty gain now depends upon the current The input impedance has a direct impact on the overall stability when an EMI filter is connected in front of the supply. which is 17dB better than the equivalent direct duty cycle version. well above the filter’s output impedance Zout. 15.9800 2. The compensation network has been slightly modified in order to account for the different gain values.TF statement gives a GVout/Vin of 0. with a simple voltagecontrolled source and the appropriate coefficient. To avoid the previous situation. The EMI filter is primarily an LC network. If this network is loaded by a negative resistor whose value perfectly compensates the ohmic losses of the coil.30000M 2.70000M 2.
the last EDIS parameter equals 0. 79. but. the model naturally accounts for the highfrequency Vorperian’s pole and RHP zero. as described below: X10 FLYAVG I(V8) I_OUT X13 XFMR Out+ In+ 3 12 Input impedance VM control (dBOhms) [1] Input Impedance CC mode [2] dBohms Frequency in Hz Figure 9c V(5) VOUT 5 V(5) VOUT Once the EMI filter is selected. neglecting the diode’s voltage drop Figure 10 12 . Figure 11 depicts another Flyback converter structure. The SMPS operates in continuous mode and delivers 12V to a 2. Figure 10 shows a continuous power supply which uses the Caldwell model. As the author stated in his article. 1 6 4 C2 10MF R18 2.0947∗(T/2L).4 R1 10M Vout=12V Inom=5A Rload=2.8NF 2 10 15 GAIN X17 GAIN R15 50K R14 163. you need to edit the UNICON netlist and modify the EDIS generator in order to account for the operating parameters: for a 66µH coil associated with a 80kHz operating frequency. Vorperian [4].0000 75.0000 10 100 1K 10K The Flyback operating in the continuous voltage mode is always harder to stabilize because of its second order behavior. In DCM. but the use of arbitrary SPICE3 B sources can easily accomplish the same functions. and also because of the presence of a Right HalfPlane (RHP) zero.0000 2 78.0000 77.4Ω resistive load. D.1 Cout=10mF ESR=10mΩ Fsw=80kHz Vramp=2. thus inviting the designer to modify its calculations. unfortunately.0000 76.91V. as we’ll describe later.5Vpp Reflected output voltage at the primary: Vr = Vout / (Ns/Np) = 10. these SMPS will be less sensitive to the negative resistance effect than their Voltage Mode counterparts. using a model introduced by Lloyd Dixon in [7]. Once again.4Ω Vin=12V Lp=66µH Ns/Np = 1. did not give any application examples.0000 75.0000 1 76. The Unicon model is written in SPICE2 syntax and thus permits its use on various compatible platforms.8K V(8) VERR 8 L_OL 1GH R17 163. CA). The model was originally written in PSpice syntax (Microsim. The RHP zero moves with the operating parameters and the designer is forced to rolloff the gain so that the SMPS stays stable within its operating range. an excitation stimulus on the input or the load will immediately reveal any parasitic resonance.6K X16 ERRAMP V18 AC 13 C_OL 1KF 14 V17 12V Figure 11 I(V2) I_OUT X1 UNICON R 8 1 Operating parameters: 4 D 6 X2 XFMR 2 V(4) VOUT UNICON C1 L 7 C1 10MF 3 V1 Duty cycle input 12V L1 66UH R2 2. SPICE will ease the designer’s task by providing all of the necessary investigation tools to cover the numerous situations encountered by the design in its future life. It operates in both DCM and CCM.0000 79. Caldwell showed in practical terms how to implement the PWM switch theory as described by V. CCM and DCM. The model works in both operating modes.4 R6 10M V3 12 In OutDuty Cycle 9 V(5) VOUT C7 398P C8 10NF C6 33. The compensation of the error amplifier takes into account the presence of the low frequency pole and zeros. Figure 9c clearly shows the differences in the Zin variations depending on the SMPS topology: Voltage Mode or Current Mode Control. Irvine.0000 77.6K 11 R16 5.0000 78. The Flyback converter in continuous conduction mode In [6].SMPS Design tion with an EMI filter.
it induces a phase lag. and also the openloop gain.00 0 0 20. you can follow their respective displacements. Figure 14 13 . the Vout/Verr gain becomes 5k. the slope becomes 1 with a boost in the phase plot.71 < 90.591kHz Fz2 = Rload / [(Ns/Np)2∗DnomLe2π] = 2.00 x 93.96dB G1(dB) = Vin / (1Dnom)2 = 32.0000 40.503.0 2 10 100 1K 10K 100K Frequency (Hertz) Figure 12 The 90° point corresponds to the 3dB cutoff of the second order system. At Fz1. To highlight this problem and eventually compensate it. are very close to the ones theoretically calculated. simply replace the load by a PWL current source that simulates a large load step.0000 > 10M 100M 1 10 100 1K 10K Frequency (Hertz) Figure 13 The open loop gain obtained by the .758kHz (Right HalfPlane zero) You could also use the V.1879 100.0 20. as we previously stated. respectively. To make the converter operate in continuous conduction mode. GVin/Vout and GVout/Vduty. The AOP of Figure 11 exhibits an open loop gain of 10k.3dB Limitations inherent to the continuous voltage mode Open loop phase (degrees) [2] 20. The DC audio closed loop susceptibility is then: 20LOG[0.0000 80.4µH GPWM = 1 / 2.83dB GVout/Vduty= G1(dB) + GPWM(dB) + G2(dB) = 25.00 90.Power Specialist’s Dnom = Vr / (Vr + Vin) = 0. The closed loop audio susceptibility is easily evaluated by decreasing C_OL and L_OL to 1pF and by adding the AC 1 statement to the input source.00 > 1 40.7dB GVout/Vin= Dnom / (1 . The elements responsible for this behavior are the C7 and C8 capacitors which charge to large transient values when the error amplifier’s output is pushed to its maximum.9983 / (1 + 18. is 0.TF statement. Nevertheless.31Hz Fz1 = 1 / 2πESR∗Cout = 1. The compensation network which has been calculated using the worst case conditions then becomes more straightforward. as already described in Figure 7a. Figure 13 shows how the supply behaves. without modifying its internal node list. the error amplifier compensation network which is shown in Figure 7a is no longer valid to stabilize the continuous SMPS. Figure 11 represents a possible solution. Note that this value. But.00 180.0000 1 x 1.5 = 7. The error amplifier structure depicted in Figure 11 severely impairs the time response of the power supply in the presence of large output variations. Fz2 starts to act and because of its position in the right half plane. This phenomenon is described in details in [9].00 180.00 Open loop gain (dB) [1] 90.Dnom)∗Ns/Np = Vo/Vin = 1 = 0dB FP1 = 1 / 2πNs/Np√CoutLe = 93.9983 and 18. simply replace the PWMBBSD model with the PWMBST model. in the absence of a feedback resistor. by varying some key parameters. Figure 14 represents the simulation result of the error amplifier’s output and indicates the amount of time which is required in order to properly recover the output transient. 40. The coil is set to its nominal value (66µH) and you can immediately run an AC analysis to obtain the plot of Figure 12.8dB G2(dB) = 20LOG (Ns/Np) = 0. Bello models.503∗5000)] = 99. This graphic immediately shows you where the various poles and zeros are located.476 Le = Lp / (1Dnom)2 = 240. The slope is now 0.00000M < 99.0000 Audio susceptibility (dB) 60. and. This block is also fully documented in the reference papers [3].
The full model is described in Listing 1. PSpice Because of their perfect behavior. from the BenGurion University of the Negev (Israel).11) < 100MV is true. Else (if any of the two previous conditions is met) ED2 = V(11A.100M 1. making the simplifies the conversion from one simulator to another. For instance. and thus allows you to write logical expressions.8)∗1000∗V(12)/(V(11)+V(12)) . IN out1 Rs 5 OUT If you try to run these lines using the previously referenced simulators. This syntax is not SPICE3 compatible.11) .11)). V(11A.SMPS Design Using the models with different platforms The use of a model can be extended to various SPICE compatible platforms as long as its syntax conforms to the Berkeley definition. then the following lines illustrate how to make it with through the different syntax: D2 vc 6 D1 7 R4 DON VCLP EDOFFM GND EDOFF Rin GIN = I(LM)*V(DON)/(V(DON)+V(DOFF)) ELM = V(IN)*V(DON)V(OUT)*V(DOFF)/N GOUT = I(LM)*V(DOFF)/N/(V(DON)+V(DOFF)) EDOFFM = 1V(DON)9M EDOFF = 2*I(LM)*FSW*LM/V(DON)/V(IN)V(DON) Figure 15 Listing 1 describes a full functional netlist of the discontinuous converter of Figure 7a. But if the designer adopts a proprietary syntax. Figure 15 shows its internal connections and associated sources. For IsSpice and AWB. but its output is clipped between 100MV and 1V.11) > 1V is true Then ED2 = 1V. 10M ) . Then ED2=100MV. which adds a DC path of 100MEGΩ to ground for all the nodes in the simulated circuit. he naturally reduces the implementation of his models among the remaining systems. the simple G. The Flyback model he created is of great interest for the designer since it works for both continuous and discontinuous modes. the internal parser will generate an error. IsSpice and AWB or. you’ll need to modify the syntax. Another nice feature lies in its simplicity. the B elements used in comparison functions often require a small RC circuit as an output interface to slow down their transitions. PSpice current source B1 OUT GND V = V(PLUS) > V(MINUS) ? + 5V : 10MV . IsSpice (C syntax) B1 OUT GND V= IF ( V(PLUS) > V(MINUS). IsSpice implements the statement . If the second condition V(11A. The G0 current generator can also be simply written as: B_G0 4 3 I = V(9.11) > 1 ? 1 : V(11A. PSpice voltage source G0 43 VALUE = + {V(9. CA). For instance. The ED2 generator produces a voltage equal to the difference between nodes 11A and 11. IF (V(11A. As a first step. for a voltage source: B_ED 4 3 V= V(9. Modeling the Flyback converter.OPTIONS RSHUNT=100MEG. and the second sets the value of the current generator: ED2 12 0 TABLE {V(11A)V(11)} 100M. The model accounts for the high frequency pole and the RHP zero highlighted 14 . IsSpice B_ED2 12 0 V = IF ( V(11A.11) < 1. + 100M.11). since they accept inline equations or implement IfThenElse structures. let’s look at the following PSpice lines as they are written in Dixon’s Flyavg model. Lloyd Dixon’s model in [7] uses PSpice syntax to clamp the output voltage of some internal sources.1) .8)∗1000∗V(12)/(V(11)+V(12))} . has developed a range of models for simulating numerous converter structures [10]. 10MV ) } .11) < 100M. AWB E_B1 OUT GND VALUE = { IF ( V(PLUS) + > V(MINUS). If you would like to run the model with Intusoft’s IsSpice or Cadence’s Analog WorkBench (SanJose. E or complex polynomial sources (POLY) allow the model to be used with different simulators.8)∗500∗V(13) . these lines will look like this: B_ED2 12 0 V = V(11A. One easy solution lies in working with arbitrary sources or B elements. + 5.11) < 100MV ? 100M : + V(11A. IsSpice and AWB PSpice also has IfThenElse conditions. AWB GIN ELM GND LM GOUT DOFF doff The Boolean style helps you to understand these lines: If the first condition V(11A. suppose you want to build a perfect comparator whose output is the B1 voltage source. The first is intended to limit the output variations of a generator within usersdefined boundaries.1 . Fixed resistors between the inputs and ground may also be necessary in order to provide the simulator with a DC path in the presence of infinite Pspice input impedances. other solutions Professor Sam BenYaakov. 5V.
you can. November 22. IEEE PESC.3kHz. we can calculate the values of the VORPERIAN’s pole and zero. You should always keep in mind that any reference to and/or discussion of poles or zeros above 1/2 the switching frequency is purely fictitious.909 Transfer Ratio The numerical application leads to: Fz2 = 137. and [7]. Parts I (CCM) and II (DCM) ”. R. VORPERIAN. from the engineering point of view. These combined actions can be seen in Figure 16. BELLO.COM 4. McGraw Hill. most of the time. Outputs of the average model N1 N2 Load 1 N1 N3 Load 2 N1 Naux To Error Amplifier Figure 16 If we take the operating parameters of the first discontinuous Flyback converter example. Electronic Design. If you do not want the model to account for the highfrequency pole and zero. D = 0. The poles and zeros in question (other than the first pole and ESR zero) will always shift toward high frequencies at which the average model does not hold. That is to say. METASOFTWARE email: DrVGB@AOL. “Simplified Analysis of PWM Converters Using The Model of The PWM Switch. Primary regulated Flyback converters The primary regulation is a feedback method in which the output level is sensed via an auxiliary winding.6kHz and Fp2 = 66. Vol. when Figure 17 Conclusion The lack of comprehensive articles upon the subject has made the SPICE approach a difficult stage for SMPS designers who are not used to the simulation philosophy. D. [5]. decrease the LM coil between nodes 5 and 8 to 1nH. If the average models cannot highlight the regulation defaults associated with leakage inductances. CUK. Figure 17 shows how to modify the previous structures in order to implement primary regulation and perform fast and efficient AC analysis. “Circuit Simulation of Switching Regulators Using HSPICE ”. The Nyquist sampling theorem restricts our ability to deal with cases in which the modulation signal is above 1/2 the sampling (switching) frequency. pp 1834 2. KELLER. Vorperian’s work. 1978.) have to be reflected back to the regulated winding with the corresponding turns ratios. that the frequency response above 1/3 of the switching frequency is irrelevant. “Closed Loop Testing and Computer Analysis Aid Design Of Control Systems ”. V. all of the output networks (capacitors. Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics Systems. S. Needless to say. 26. as described in his paper [4]: Sz2 = Rf/M∗(1 + M)∗Lp Right HalfPlane Zero Sp2 = 2Fsw∗[(1/D) / (1 + 1/M)]2 Second High Frequency Pole. These points are well above the switching frequency and. 1976 Record. in discontinuous conduction mode. This article presents a stepbystep method to implement the available models for simulating your own Flyback structures on a SPICE platform. MIDDLEBROOK and S. they can be neglected by the designer. loads etc. R.Power Specialist’s by Dr. You will then obtain a phase curve which is similar to the one in Figure 4. thus avoiding all galvanic isolation related problems. May 1990 5. References 1. they may ease your work when you tackle the stability discussion. “SMPS Simulations with SPICE3 ”.33 Rf = Rload/(Ns/Np)2 = 6kΩ Reflected load to the transformer’s primary M = Vout/(Ns/Np)/Vin = 0.COM 15 . Power Factor Correction simulations with Boost structures may also be accomplished. V. pp 132138 3. email: ssandler@aeng. multiple outputs are implemented. The proprietary libraries and the public domain models will allow you to easily simulate other kinds of topologies such as Buck or Forward converters. N°3. SANDLER. “ A general Unified Approach to Modeling Switching Converter Power Stages ”. as demonstrated in [3].
1P for . Lloyd Dixon (Unitrode) and Daniel Mitchell (CollinsRockwell). model ****** . Erramp Compensation network C5 10 8 657P . AC stimulus * I1 6 0 PWL 0 100M 100U 100M 101U 1A 500U 1A 501U 100M * . DIXON. L. IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC’93).AC C7 2 3 1KF . PWM modulator gain X12 0 8 13 0 ERRAMP .TRAN 1U 1000US . Internal transformer BGIN IN GND I = I(VLM)*V(DON)/(V(DON)+V(DOFF)) * GIN IN GND VALUE = { I(VLM)*V(DON)/(V(DON)+V(DOFF)) } BELM OUT1 GND V = V(IN)*V(DON)V(OUT)*V(DOFF)/{N} * ELM OUT1 GND VALUE = { V(IN)*V(DON)V(OUT)*V(DOFF)/{N} } RM OUT1 5 1M LM 5 8 {L} VLM 8 GND BGOUT GND OUT I = I(VLM)*V(DOFF)/{N}/(V(DON)+V(DOFF)) * GOUT GND OUT VALUE = { I(VLM)*V(DOFF)/{N}/(V(DON)+V(DOFF)) } VCLP VC 0 9M D2 VC DOFF DBREAK D1 DOFF 6 DBREAK R4 DOFF 7 10 BEDOFFM 6 GND V = 1V(DON)9M * EDOFFM 6 GND VALUE = { 1V(DON)9M } BEDOFF 7 GND V = 2*I(VLM)*{FS}*{L}/V(DON)/V(IN)V(DON) * EDOFF 7 GND VALUE = { 2*I(VLM)*{FS}*{L}/V(DON)/V(IN)V(DON) } . “SPICE Modeling for VoltageMode Flyback Power Supplies ” (DCM and CCM) 9. Primary coil . 1991 7.MODEL DMOD D .TRAN run RL 6 0 15 . Error amplifier V6 9 0 15V . EDN September 6.SUBCKT ERRAMP 20 8 3 21 * + .05 F 1 2 VM 0.PARAM FS=100K .END Acknowledgment I have greatly appreciated the help of Pr. Input voltage .PRINT TRAN V(6) V(13) R1 4 0 45M . Switching frequency . Output step response for .5 V4 3 16 80M RP1 11 21 316MEG .TRAN 1kF for . 1P for .MODEL QPMOD PNP 16 . “Average Simulation of PWM Converters by Direct Implementation of Behavioral Relationships”. Open loop coil. Output reference voltage R10 13 10 121K .PRINT AC V(6) VP(6) V(13) VP(13) . Output Capacitor X8 11 1 5 0 FLYBACK .SUBCKT FLYBACK DON IN OUT GND . UNITRODE Power Supply Design Seminar.PARAM N=1 . Sam BenYaakov and Daniel Adar (BenGurion University.ENDS PWMGAIN **** Sam BENYAAKOV’s model in Discontinuous mode **** .OUT GND RIN 20 8 8MEG CP1 11 21 16. Open loop capacitor.8P E1 5 21 11 21 1 R9 5 2 5 D14 2 13 DMOD ISINK 13 21 150U Q1 21 13 16 QPMOD ISOURCE 7 3 500U D12 3 7 DMOD D15 21 11 DCLAMP G1 21 11 20 8 100U V1 7 21 2. appendix A. SEM800.TRAN.MODEL DCLAMP D (RS=10 BV=2. “SPICE Simulations of Switching Power Supply Performances ”.05 RS 6 3 1U VM 5 6 .AC V7 3 0 AC 1 . Sam BENYAAKOV.ENDS TRANSFORMER ***** Error Amp.AC run V1 1 0 330 . Israel).7P .01 TT=1N) .ENDS FLYBACK ***** Perfect Transformer model ****** . B and C ”.SUBCKT PWMGAIN 1 2 E1 2 0 1 0 0. email: 71045.8 IBV=0.IL .MODEL DBREAK D (TT=1N CJO=10P N=0.ENDS ERRAMP **** PWM modulator Gain Model **** .BGU.SUBCKT TRANSFORMER 1 2 3 4 RP 1 2 1MEG E 5 4 1 2 0. email: SBY@BGUEE. DIXON. Erramp Compensation network C6 8 13 4. “Closing the Feedback Loop. Listing 1: Complete discontinuous Flyback converter with Sam BenYaakov’s model ****** SAM BENYAAKOV’S FLYBACK MODEL ******* . Nominal load for . “Techniques Let You Write General Purpose SPICE Models ”.PARAM L=4M . Output transformer R8 6 8 50K R9 8 0 10K X11 2 11 PWMGAIN . SEM500 10. D.01) .COM 8. 1GH for .AC DEC 10 10HZ 1MEG . AN6 and AN8. Power Integration DataBook.1206@COMPUSERVE. Dr Vincent Bello.SMPS Design 6. Sam BENYAAKOV’s model X9 5 0 6 0 TRANSFORMER . pp 510516. Erramp Compensation network R12 9 8 50K L2 2 13 1GH . L. Output Capacitor’s ESR C1 6 4 68U . UNITRODE Power Supply Design Seminar. CALDWELL.AC.5882 .
VORPERIAN demonstrated among other results. What kind of model do I need? Depending on the analysis to be carried on. Vincent BELLO has been the first in the 80’s to port MIDDLEBROOK’s nonlinear statespace average models to the SPICE domain [1]. In this case. The SSM is then usually employed for harmonic simulations where the AC transfer functions are of interest. MIDDLEBROOK in 1976 [2]. developed the concept of the PWM switch model [3. Modeling SMPS. In BELLO’s models. the previous AC terms were no longer neglected but rather dynamically multiplied by some POLY SPICE2 statements. Largesignal variations could then be simulated and allowed the user to visualize the effects of a 0 to 100% dutycycle sweep. including various in/out passive components. Do not use a SSM to simulate a 100% transient load span. and then insert an equivalent model into the converter schematic. the process can be very long and complicated. 3a]. as shown in figure 1a for a BUCK. D. Statespace approach SW On X1 X1 SW Off u1 Y2 Y2 SW Figure 1a X2 X2 PWM switch approach two modeling options: a c Buck Converter p Figure 1b Only this part has to be modeled Figure 1 17 . These largesignal models (LSM) are best suited for TRANSIENT runs. Some SSM models can find their DC point alone. several choices are offered to the designer. secondorder AC crossproducts can be neglected and the model is linear around its operating point. CA). France. VORPERIAN wondered why not simply model the power switch alone. email: basso@esrf. that the flyback converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) was still a second order system. in lack of a tutorial documentation. This article will detail the utilization of 90’s models developed around the PWM switch model and more recent ones included in the new INTUSOFT’s IsSpice4 SMPS library package (SanPedro. one can state that SSA models the converter in its entire electrical form. two distinct approaches There are two ways to model a SMPS system. the choice and the implementation of the models is not always obvious to the novice designer. The first one is the well known statespace averaging (SSA) method introduced by R. some not and the operating point must then be fed by the designer.fr February 1997 SPICE simulation of Current Mode Control (CMC) switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) is certainly not a new topic.Power Specialist’s A Tutorial Introduction to Simulating Current Mode Power Stages Christophe BASSO. The first one is called a SmallSignal Model (SSM). the SSA process is carried over all the elements of the converter. exactly the same way it is done when studying the transfer function of a bipolar amplifier (figure 1b). With his method. Larry MEARES and Vatché VORPERIAN. output or input voltages) are small around a steadystate DC operating point. However. It assumes that the variations of concern (e. Without describing the process once more. affected by a highfrequency RHP zero. A lot of people have contributed to make this domain affordable to the design engineer and nowadays EDA packages are shipped with comprehensive dedicated libraries. consultant. In other words.g. Depending on the converter structure. the result would be wrong since AC crossproducts could no longer be negligible. Sinard. from Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPEC). In 1986.
N1=D et N2=1 D ∗ Vg/Req = Vg/Req .V1 = Vo V1 = Vo ∗ D Vg + Vo ∗ D = Vo Vg = Vo . Inversely. we will go through a quick example. Vg/Vo = 1D. the DC Vo/Vg transfer function is really straightforward. Reference [3]’s BOOST example appears in figure 2b that shows how to properly include the PWM model.d rCf A Vg P Cf 1 R Vg D R D. with I3 = Vo/Ro By definition. thus redrawing a simplified version of figure 2c. I1 = Vo .Req ∗ Vo) / (Req . From [1]. Vg D' 1 1 rLf 2 D' . If we first consider the DC operation.SMPS Design rLf Vap. Generally speaking. If Pin=Po.d/D A D.D) = Req/Ro. figure 2c appears (re = R // rCf and D’=1D).(Req ∗ Vo)/Ro Vg / Vo . Ro). figure 3b represents our DC BOOST where Ro has been reflected according to equation (2). There are different approaches to solve this kind of circuit where the transformer is not commonly wired: the classical brute force. We first mark the currents. but without entering into the details of its electrical origins. is also simple to derive: N1.Io / D’. Thus. Because its implementation is easy and powerful. Ic = I1 = . I2. V1 I1 D I1 I3 Vo I2 1 Vg Req Ro Figure 3a rLf DD're D Vo Vg R .re Vo 1 D Lf C P Vo rLf Figure 2a Figure 2b Figure 2c Let us adopt the second method. the soft method produces socalled low entropy expressions [4] and yields insight into the circuit under study.Vo ∗ D so Vo/Vg = 1 / (1D) or Vo/Vg = 1/D’ (1) The input impedance. Lf shorted and Cf open.I3. after Vo 1 .re C Ic. the first method usually leads to correct but abstruse results in which the action of a component inside the considered function is not obvious. (1 . D'² Vg' 1 re. With these simple formulas. I3. or the way Ro is reflected across Vg (Req). as depicted in figure 3a.D'. so I1/I3 = Vo / Vg = 1 / D’. keeping in mind that a current entering a winding by a dot leaves the coupled winding by the other dot.D'.I1 = N2. D' M Figure 3b factoring the R∗D’² term: (3) 18 . From KIRCHHOFF’s law. R Since its introduction. gives the designer an immediate insight on how the converter performs in the domain of concern. it is possible to write: N1 ∗ Vg/Req = N2 . So. the PWM Switch has not been the object of many publications in the specialized press and some designers might think that its use is only reserved to modeling experts. one can write: Vg. The Vo/Vg transfer function is easily obtained after a few lines: Vg . Isolating one part and applying it to the converter under study. so: Req = Ro ∗ D’² (2) The I3/I1 ratio is important to feed the model with its DC operating points. Simplifying by Req : D ∗ Vg = Vg . D R. using nodal and loop equations or the soft approach that will consist to transform the schematics until a well known structure is found. as we will see later on.I2. We are in presence of a simple resistive divider whose output Vg’ undergoes a 1/D’ multiplier ratio (1).Vo/Ro D ∗ Vg/Req = (Vg ∗ Ro . Calculating a transfer function with the PWM switch The PWM switch model operating in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) is presented in figure 2a and can be split into an AC and a DC part. in the same direction. Back to VORPERIAN’s model of figure 2b. Since I1 = Vg/Req. I2 = I1 .
the resulting transfer matrix contains. SPICE simulations with the PWM switch model Despite the fact that the PWM switch model was intended to be an alternative tool for teaching SMPS theory. Since we want to obtain the Vo/Vg transfer function but also the Zin Zout parameters of this circuit. but the principle remains the same. x2 C.Power Specialist’s rLf D. rLf re. C. R2 1 . 1 R3 R2 R3 R3 R2 R3 . in one shot. To obtain the Vo/d AC transfer function. .2 = Zout U1( s ) U2( s ) 1 Figure 5b The generalized transfer function of a nth order linear passive system is: M(s) = [M (sIA)1 B + N]. C ωz1 = 1 / R2 ∗ C = 1 / rCf ∗ Cf s²∗L∗C∗(R2+R3)/R1+R3 = s²/ωo² —> ωo = Zin and Zo can be deducted the same way. x2 u2. But one remarkable point is that once you found the matrix coefficients. MA). R3 . Further. Vo/Vg ratio is extracted from figure 5b’s matrix transfer. you can replace the PWM switch model by its smallsignal equivalent and rearrange the schematic until a known structure is found. L u1 L R2 R3 1 . R2) R1 R3 1 After replacing by the elements by figure 4b’s values and putting the equation into a second order form. x2 1. D. R1 R1. 1 R3 R2 R3 The final results delivered by MathCAD are in a clear ordered form. R1 R3 R2 R3 L. the equivalent SPICE model lends itself very well to simu y1 R2 u1 R3 C x2 y2 u2 Figure 5a 19 . To solve figure 4b’s problem. where all the output elements (rCf and Cf) have been reflected to the other side of the transformer. Matrix algebra is well suited for numerical computations on a computer and SPICE makes an extensive use of it. if matrixes require a constant attention when do you manipulate them by hand.re Lf Y1( s ) Y1( s ) D Vo rCf . The steps will be to write the state and output equations. R3. exactly as we previously did. a good method is to use matrix algebra. R rCf R L. It is true that the symbolic answer given by a transfer matrix does not give the designer much insight of the circuit’s operation. L R1 R2. where A and M are the state coefficient matrixes. u2 L R2 R3 Figure 4a rLf Lf DD're D Vo Vg 1 rCf R Cf Figure 4b The AC openloop line to output transfer function will use the previous results to transform figure 4a to figure 4b’s drawing. we draw a simplified schematic of the LC filter (figure 5a) where we put state and output variables. x1 1. R3 ( R2 R3) . x1 x2' ( R2 R3) . C 1 . ( R2 R3) Output equations Y1 x1 Y2 x1. Vg D' R1 R3 2. R3 R3. R3 R2 s LC R1 R3 1 s. once again followed by a 1/D’ multiplier.1 = Vo/Vg T2. L s . R2. u2 C. ordered as follows: State equations x1' 1. D' D' . we extract the first zero sz1 and the tuning frequency ωo: 1 . ( R2 R3) R3 . R1 x1 L R3 . .D' ² Cf / D' ² T( s ) U1( s ) U2( s ) Y2( s ) Y2( s ) T1. ( R2.D'. R2 C. all the parameters of interest (figure 5b). Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) study would have required the use of the appropriate PWM switch model. R3. D' ² Vg R.1 = Zin T2. R3 . C 2 1 . it becomes a child play when you use some mathematics programs such as Mathsoft’s MathCAD (Cambridge. B and N the source coefficient matrixes [5]. T21: Vo 1 . Figure 4b unveils a classical LC filter affected by its parasitic elements.
RIDLEY built his model using the average PWM switch to which he added an internal current sampling loop.SMPS Design lations. Ri scales the current information (delivered by a simple resistor or via a transformer) and Fm models the dutycycle generation. the DC parameters are shown in the box below. Actually. showed that a CMC power stage was best modeled by a third order polynomial form [6]. For a BOOST operating in CCM.d Vo/d openloop phase plot 20. That is to say. you will have to provide the model with its DC operating points.2)*D } Vd 9 3 0 . we obtain the wellknown second order response of a BOOST converter operating in CCM. but the currentloop instability had to be addressed as a separate issue. resulting in a different transfer function Fm for the Pulse Width Modulator section.0 a 10 1K 10 p Frequency in Hertz Vap. ωp. they were able to properly model the low frequency response of the CMC power stage. and two poles which are located at Fs/2.00 180.00 Current mode models Numerous CMC models have been developed over the past decade. RIDLEY’s model is universal since reducing Ri to 0 (or a very low value in IsSpice4) shadows the internal current loop and turn the model into voltage mode. The INTUSOFT’s IsSpice4 netlist of the PWM switch model in CCM is as follow: BOOST DC PARAMETERS: D={(VOUTVIN)/VOUT} VAP={VOUT} VAC={VIN} VCP={VOUT+VIN} IA={((VOUT^2)/RL/VIN)*D} IP={VOUT/RL} IC={VOUT/RL/(1D)} . The new model is presented in figure 7c. Ts d Fm 1 1 ( Sn Se ) .45 VAP=11 IC=0. for steadystate on/off inductor voltages. Raymond RIDLEY of VPEC. Sn. the naturally sampled dutycycle modulator is fed by an error voltage Vc and a reference sawtooth. Vo/d openloop gain plot 40. The first models suffered from their inability to predict the instabilities inherent to this kind of control. Current mode instabilities A current mode controlled SMPS exhibits one low frequency pole. Ts m c. In 1990. control dutycycle d Sn Sawtooth Current mode Vc. a CMC differs from a voltage mode converter in the way the dutycycle is generated. Ts where m c 1 Se Sn Vc Figure 7a Figure 7b Figure 7c 20 . Figure 7b depicts a current mode modulator where the current sense information is added. In his thesis.d/D Figure 6 1 D Voltage mode Vc. In figure 7a. This is classical voltage mode. Since the power stage was not affected by this change. These poles move in relation to the duty cycle and the PWM Switch model Ic. control Current Sense dutycycle d ic c L Se Ts Ts External ramp Fm He(s) Ri Fm 1 Vc Se.00 90.00 180. Gain Phase 60.8} * A P C Control B1 7 1 V = { V(4)*(VAP/D) } B2 1 2 I = { V(4)*IC } B3 7 2 I = { I(Vd)*D } B4 9 2 V = { V(7.00 20. the PWM switch model is only able to simulate an harmonic behavior. as explained in figures 7a (Ri=0) or 7b (Ri≠ 0). He(s) is the second order polynomial form RIDLEY found to represent the sampling process in the continuous time.ENDS If we now simulate figure 2b’s schematic. For instance. RIDLEY identified the current sampling action as being culprit of experimentally observed Fswitching/2 subharmonic oscillations.00 0 0 90.SUBCKT SWITCH 1 2 3 4 {D=0. In his original form.
This will oppose the duty cycle action by lowering the currentloop DC gain and correspondingly increasing the phase margin at Fs/2. . CMC models and IsSpice4 In his thesis report. The model would also let you investigate different transfer functions (audio susceptibility). PI constant .PARAM PI = 3. which are part of the Vo/Vc transfer function.ENDS BUCK DC parameters: D={(VOUT/VIN)*(RL+RS)/RL} . RIDLEY presented his models in a simple SPICE2 format. any perturbation in the current will make the system unstable since both voltage and current loops are embedded.SUBCKT PWMCCM 1 2 3 4 5 {RI=0. the high Fs/2 Q will make the SMPS unstable in response to a transient step.14159 . you need to provide the model with DC operating points. which will damp the high Q poles in the Vo/Vc transfer function. Q and ωp. figure 8c).fr.4)*KF + V(4.2)*KR + V(15)*RI + V(5) } **** Modulator Gain **** BEFm 17 0 V = { V(16)*1/(VP+(VAC*TS*RI/L)) } .5UH p R2 20M 3 R3 1 C1 400UF V2 AC Figure 8a The simulation results of figures 8c and 8d clearly demonstrate the action of the compensation ramp upon the CMC BUCK converter. DC duty cycle for continuous mode D={SQRT((M^2*8*L)/(((2M)^2M^2)*RL*(1/FS)))} . the converter’s transfer function behaves like a classical voltage mode control system.PARAM TS = {1/FS} . this process creates two RHP zeroes in the current loop which are responsible for the boost in gain at Fs/2 but also stress the phase lag at this point. when present. The two high frequency poles present a Q that depends on the compensating ramp and the duty cycle. confirming the inherent instability of a current mode SMPS which has a duty cycle greater than 0.5) 1 Ts + ⋅ ( mc ⋅ D'−0.D The presence of two highfrequency poles in the Vo/Vc transfer function is due to the sampling process of the inductance current. 21 . IntuScope. RIDLEY showed that an external ramp whose slope is equal to 50% of the inductor downslope could nullify the audio susceptibility (mc=1. A simple BUCK converter operating at 50kHz will be simulated. The DCM listing will not be printed here but can be obtained via email to the author at basso@esrf.5 with no external ramp. without any parameter passing capability. PWMCCM 7 c' c 4 5 1 a R1 20M V1 11 Control 2 L1 37. The following IsSpice4 netlist provide greater flexibility by providing full SPICE3 parameter passing for the CCM model. As other benefits of ramp compensation. Zin/Zout parameters and give an immediate insight of the compensation ramp effects.2) * {D} Vxf 9 3 0 **** He(s) Circuit **** Hi 10 0 Vxf 1 C1 10 12 {TS/PI} L1 12 13 {TS/PI} C2 13 14 {TS/PI} Re 14 15 1. in lack of compensation ramp. Discontinuous mode VAP={VIN} VAC={VINVOUT} VCP={VOUT} IC={VOUT/RL} IA={(VOUT/RL)*M} IP={ICIA} 1 π ⋅ ( mc ⋅ D'−0. You can fight the problem by providing the converter with an external compensation ramp.8 VP=2} * A P C C’ Control .5). The first one will move towards lower frequencies until it joins and combines with the first low frequency pole at ωp. This connection is intended to inject current information inside the model. For large mc (32). the converter behaves as if it is operating in voltage mode (mc=32. according to figure 8a. are expressed as follows: Q= BG1 1 2 I = V(17) * {IC} BGxf 7 2 I = I(Vxf) * {D} BExf 9 2 V = V(7. Se is the external ramp slope.5. If the gain margin is too low at this frequency. At this point. You will notice the presence of the C’ connection in the model.PARAM KF = {(D*TS*RI/L)*(1D/2)} .45 VAP=11 VAC=6 IC=0. RIDLEY demonstrated that the Q becomes infinite at D=0. Actually. Switching time .PARAM KR = {((1D)^2*TS*RI)/(2*L)} **** PWM Switch model **** BE2 7 1 V = V(17)*({VAP/D}) As for the PWM switch. Inversely.5) CR LC ωp = where mc = 1 + Se / Sn.5U FS=50K RL=1 + D=0. the low frequency pole ωp moves to higher frequencies while the double poles will be split into two distinct poles. As more external ramp is added. as reference [6] thoroughly explains. Sn is the inductor ontime slope.Power Specialist’s external compensation ramp.33 L=37. BUCK DC parameters are given above. These curves have been automatically generated by IsSpice4 using its powerful Interactive Command Language in conjunction with the INTUSOFT’s graphical investigation tool. D’ = 1 .57 E1 15 0 12 0 1E6 **** Summing gains **** BEd 16 0 V = { V(1.
14 V(5) Output K=0. Reference [7] details the way the models were derived.00 mc=8 mc=16 mc=32 New largesignal models INTUSOFT has recently released its new SMPS library that contains numerous IsSpice4 models operating in switched or averaged mode. For instance.1 TO 0. RIDLEY showed an nullified audio susceptibility for an external ramp whose slope equals 50% of the inductor downslope. providing the designer with the value of the optimum ramp (K=0. As more ramp is injected.999 mc=32 180.11 Frequency in Hertz Figure 8c 4.42U 149.15 STEP=5M.81U 89.00 mc=1. To highlight this phenomenon. the FLYAVG and FORWARD average models let you simulate any voltage/current mode converter and allow the testing to large steps.115 K=0.125 10 1K 10K 4.000 10. IsSpice4’s optimizer capability will ease the work by providing the adequate automation tool. K=0.5U R18 20M I(V10) I_OUT V(5) VOUT 20 5 K=0.0 K=0. You simply need to add the following line and run IsSpice4 to see multiple run results gathered upon a single graph (figure 9b): *OPT RAMP=0. the phase of the linetooutput transfer function is negative.000 70.36N 7 2 V(24) VC 6 V(25) DUTY 4 R21 3.00 mc=1. the output step diminishes until null audio susceptibility is obtained.5 For low compensation ramps. Among these novelties.996 VOUT 3 VIN VOUT 18 9 K=0.5 mc=2 mc=4 50.0 K=0.00 100 1K 10K Frequency in Hertz Figure 8b Phases (deg) 0 45.1 C6 400U VC V9 PWL 24 RTN DUTY 25 21 R24 1 R16 20M 29.997 V(3) VIN X7 FORWARD FORWARD L4 37.55K V12 2. But it is well suited to study the impact of the compensation ramp upon the overall characteristics.135 K=0.3U Time in µs Figure 9b V(5) VOUT V(4) VERR R20 20K C7 6. As a simulation example.135).5 mc=2 mc=4 135.7U 268.998 K=0.13 mc=8 mc=16 4.12 K=0. Figure 9a depicts the electrical schematic whose netlist will be given to IsSpice4. we will take figure 8a’s BUCK converter to see how you can take profit of these new parts. The FLYAVG model does not take into account the previous Fs/2 high frequency poles. X9 GAIN V13 AC Figure 9a 22 .145 5.55K K B3 V=V(25)* 8 C8 426P L5 1P GAIN 1 C9 1P 10 R22 3. let us sweep the K coefficient which sets the amount of external compensation in figure 9a. It is clearly depicted by the lower curves where the sudden steppedup input voltage engenders a negative output transient.00 mc=1 90.SMPS Design Gain (dB) 10.000 mc=1 30.105 V(5) 4.0U 208.
The new INTUSOFT’s SMPS library includes averaged but also popular switched models (e. “Circuit Simulation of Switching Regulators Using HSPICE ”. 26.COM) This document can be ordered from Ray RIDLEY’s homepage : http://members. 1976 Record. McGrawHill.399403 5.COM) 23 . R. MIDDLBROOK. giving the designer all the tools he needs to develop rugged designs from the theoretical study (average models) to realistic simulations (switched models). Vatché VORPERIAN. “DCDC Switching Regulators Analysis”. B.3274@compuserve. “ A general Unified Approach to Modeling Switching Converter Power Stages ”. September 2124.COM) 2. D.com). RIDLEY. dissertation. “SMPS Simulation With SPICE3”. MITCHELL. IEEE Frontiers in Education. SANDLER. ISBN 0079132278 (email : SSANDLER@AENG. Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics Systems. METASOFTWARE (email: DrVGB@AOL. M. MIDDLEBROOK and S. Parts I (CCM) and II (DCM) ”. Vol. pp 1834 3.Power Specialist’s Conclusion Both small and largesignal models should help the designer to better understand the intricacies of CMC converters stability. D. IEEE PESC. Purdue University. May 1990 4. “A new smallsignal model for currentmode control“. M. 21st Annual Conference. V. R.html 7. 1990 (email : RRIDLEY@AOL. N°3.g UC384X family). References 1. R. D. S.com/ridleyeng/index.aol. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. CUK. “Simplified Analysis of PWM Converters Using The Model of The PWM Switch. PhD. distributed by e/j BLOOM Associates (71147. 6. BELLO. “LowEntropy expressions: The key to DesignOriented Analysis”. 1991.
This is especially true if the designer wants to use an exact SPICE model for the Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) controller which will be used in the design. 0. PSpice current source E2 2 0 VALUE = { V(9.8)*500*V(12) } . THEN V(3. CA) and CADENCE’s Analog WorkBench Spice Plus (SanJose. PSpice modifies the standard calls for dependent voltage controlled sources (E and G elements). it would not be clever to model an internal current comparator with the complete transistor architecture of a LM311 or a LM193. BOOLEAN and IFTHENELSE expressions have become a part of most vendors’ B elements. If your simulator does not support B element modeling. The diversity in implementing the B elements is only bound by the user’s imagination. For INTUSOFT’s IsSpice4 (San Pedro. Fixed frequency Current Control Mode (CCM) and Voltage Control Mode (VCM) models will be thoroughly covered in this article. 5 ) . IsSpice or AWB voltage source MICROSIM’s PSpice (Irvine. ELSE V(3. If we pass the logical thresholds directly into the equation. Fortunately. PSpice NAND gate BNAND 3 0 V = IF ( (V(1)>800M) && + (V(2)>800M). as well as the model translation between different simulators. IsSpice or AWB current source B2 2 0 V= V(9. 5V ) } . Depending on the compatibility of your SPICE 3 simulator. which was released to the public domain in 1986. This threshold is driven by the keyword LTHRESH. we obtain the following IsSpice IFTHENELSE statement: BNAND 3 0 V= (V(1)>800M) & (V(2)>800M)? 0V: 5V In other words.0)=0V.0)=5V Now the translation to AWB and PSpice syntax is more straightforward: E_BNAND 3 0 VALUE = { IF ( (V(1)>800M) & + (V(2)>800M). The Berkeley B element. CA). INTUSOFT exploits the concept of “binary” voltage. there is a simple inline equation that can describe the perfect comparison function. If the model has not been created. CA) has departed from the Berkeley standard and uses a different syntax. Some vendors have expanded the B element syntax to include BOOLEAN and IFTHENELSE functions.8)*500*V(12) . a node value which is lower or higher than a userdefined threshold can be associated with 1 or 0. 0V. whose value is set via a . is part of Berkeley SPICE3.OPTIONS line. Two other options. 24 . What we have shown above is only a small part of the possibilities offered by Behavioral Modeling via the B element. current/voltage generators whose current depends on various nodes can be expressed as: B1 1 0 I = V(5. A simple NAND equation between two nodes is simply expressed as: BNAND 3 0 V= ~ ( V(1) & V(2) ) . The PWM model may exist. IF V(1) is greater than 800mV AND V(2) is greater than 800mV. it would be much easier to adopt a simpler expression in order to simplify any further translations. the writing of I or V math equations using B elements is the same because both are SPICE 3 compatible. that is to say. For instance. the debate over whether or not to do the simulation is closed! The solution that is proposed in this article consists of writing your own generic model of the PWM controller and then adapting its intrinsic parameters to comply with the real one you are using. Their implementation also depends on the SPICE simulator. PSpice voltage source Implement your logical operations As stated in the above “paragraph. For example. the corresponding syntax may vary significantly.8)*100*V(10)/(V(8)+V(12)) } . Some examples on how to model the logical functions with SPICE2 syntax are given at the end of this article.SMPS Design Write your own generic SPICE Power Supplies controller models Christophe BASSO. or B element. input offset voltage. By adding some passive elements to incorporate various effects (propagation delay. email: basso@esrf. but its syntax may be incompatible with your simulator.fr November 1996 Simulating the switching behavior of a Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) is not always an easy task. LONE and LZERO.IsSpice complemented (~) AND operation between V(1) and V(2) Because the other SPICE simulators do not directly support this syntax. The equivalent PSpice examples are as follows: G1 1 0 VALUE = { V(5. will define the HI and LO electrical values which are delivered by a B element source when it is performing such BOOLEAN operations. the standard behavior element An efficient PWM model that is easy to model must include functions that are generic.8)*100*V(10)/(V(8)+V(12)) . The nonlinear controlled source.) we can achieve the functionality we need without sacrificing the simulation speed. the situation becomes complex. B elements can be linear or nonlinear current or voltage sources. AWB NAND gate Note that the AWB parser does NOT accept suffixes for the passed numerical values and the && symbol is doubled as in the C language to distinguish a logical AND from a binary AND. etc.
Even if the function is only called once. the conversion process to another platform will be greatly simplified. • Use subcircuits whenever a function is called more than once. either with a “*” in column one (for a complete line). 100M. Also. the internal circuitry of a generic single output CCM PWM controller. All individual blocks should be tested before they are used within larger models.SUBCKT COMP 1 2 3 * (+) () OUT E1 4 0 VALUE = { IF ( V(1) > V(2).SUBCKT EXAMPLE **** MAIN CLOCK **** VCLOCK 20 21 PULSE ICHARGE 22 24 10MA **** TRIGGER **** RTHRES 30 33 10K CDEL 33 38 10NF **** COMPARATOR **** RINP 40 42 10K RFEED 45 49 120K .1 . if required. A perfect comparator which accounts for these conditions is given below.0)=V(1. . a simple voltage limiter which limits the differential voltage of nodes 1 and 2 between 100mV and 1V: E1 3 0 TABLE {V(1)V(2)} 100M. you can create a subcircuit and therefore simplify the netlist.SUBCKT functions are easily pasted into the netlist. RDUM for a dummy load. The modelling of such a block consists of: a) defining and testing each subcircuit individually. Threshold high . IF (V(1.0)=100mV. A simple RC network is suitable for this purpose. We recommend that you tailor the output switching times in a more realistic manner. For example. a well known architecture Figure 1.e. let’s dip into the nittygritty of a constant frequency CCM PWM controller.2) > 1 ? + 1 : V(1.100M 1. AWB (No suffixes!) B1 3 0 V = V(1. This characteristic may create convergence problems on transitions associated with these perfect sources. ELSE V(3. THEN V(3. where nodes 7 through 19 are preserved in order to output test signals or add additional pins: .2) is less than 100mV.0)=1V.” immediately preceding a comment within a line.2) < 100M. Feedback resistor Clock Osc OUT SR Latch Error Amp. IsSpice Syntax: B1 4 0 V=V(1) > V(2) ? 5 : 0 RD 4 3 100 .2) is greater than 1V. Main clock . THEN V(3. Below are some recommendations that will ease your task: • Draw the symbol of your generic model with your favorite schematic capture tool. Duty limit ISENSE Reset Set Q Output Driver Osc. Internal subcircuit testing is simplified since you may then access the connection pins directly in the schematic model.2) B elements switch in essentially a zero time span. 5V. RC network CD 3 0 100P . IsSpice In other words. • Use descriptive names for the components you assemble in the subcircuit netlist. We have included it in a SUBCIRCUIT in order to highlight the philosophy of constructing your own models: .2) < 100MV ? 100M : V(1. i. Once this is done.2) < 1. Propagation delay . and b) assembling all of these dominolike circuits to form the complete generic model. • Use realistic parameter values for primitive SPICE components such as the diode (D). Input resistor . Current mode controllers. Current charge of capacitor C1 . FB + + VREF Current Comp. IF V(1. 0 ) } .ENDS COMP Now that we have reviewed the basics of generating inline equations. PSpice B1 3 0 V = IF ( V(1.2) .MODEL DMOD D (TT=1N CJO=10P RS=100M) • Use a main subcircuit pin number of up to 10 or 20 and use incremental decimal digit notation as you change the internal function.ENDS EXAMPLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 . + V(1. This will also facilitate the writing of new models because the . to slow down transitions . Figure 1 25 . Max. etc. VCLOCK for a clock source. ELSE IF V(1. you won’t have to worry about incorrect pin connections (as you would if you were creating a SPICE netlist with a text editor). This is especially recommended for complex models in which the parent subcircuit may be large.1) . • Place comments on every pertinent line.Power Specialist’s Here’s an application example. use different commented header names for each section of code within the listing. These models may generate convergence problems since some of the default parameters are set to zero. Also.2)). and the pin passing process (from schematic to netlist) is performed automatically. PSpice syntax. Below is an arbitrary example. or a “.
SMPS Design Writing the model step by step Let’s start with the synchronization signals, Clock, Osc. and Max. duty cycle. The first one will initiate the ontime of the external switch by triggering the flipflop latch. Its frequency sets the functioning period of the entire PWM circuit, and will therefore require user input (PERIOD). Osc. is provided for ramp compensation purposes. It delivers a signal which is equivalent to that which was delivered by the classical linear charge of the external oscillator RC network. Using the oscillator ramp is a possible option for ramp compensation, but there are others such as charging a RC network from the MOSFET driver output. If the capacitor voltage is kept at around 1 volt, it is possible to obtain a very low impedance linear ramp, without adversely affecting the PWM oscillator. Osc. will have the same period as Clock, but the user will select its peak amplitude (RAMP). Once the Clock pulse is issued, the Max. duty cycle must reset the latch after a specific period of time. This time is userdefined (DUTYMAX) and selects the maximum allowable duty cycle. Parameters for IsSpice and PSpice are quite similar in format: the parameter, or any equations between parameters, is enclosed by curly braces. Our three generators are listed below. Arbitrary node numbers are used to simplify their understanding: VCLK 1 0 PULSE 0 5 0 1N 1N 10N {PERIOD} VRAMP 2 0 PULSE 0 {RAMP} 0 {PERIOD2N} 1N 1N {PERIOD} VDUTY 3 0 PULSE 0 5 {PERIOD*DUTYMAX} 1N 1N {(PERIODPERIOD*DUTYMAX)2N} {PERIOD} A quick simulation of this set of equations appears in figure 2, where a maximum duty cycle of 0.5 was selected. The current comparator requires a simple equation followed by a RC network which slows down its transitions. The model is the same as the one given in the example above. The SR latch may be defined in many ways. We do not recommend the use of a proprietary flipflop model. You can draw a classical RS flipflop and add a couple of inverters in order to generate the required signals. Figure 3 shows the electrical circuit.
Set Q
Q\ Reset
Figure 3 The subcircuit will appear as shown below, according to common AWB and IsSpice syntax rules:
.SUBCKT FFLOP 6 8 2 1 * S R Q Q\ BQB 10 0 V=(V(8)<800M) & (V(2)>800M) ? 0 : 5 ; one input ; inverted two input NAND BQ 20 0 V=(V(6)<800M) & (V(1)>800M) ? 0 : 5 RD1 10 1 100 ; delay elements CD1 1 0 10p IC=5 RD2 20 2 100 CD2 2 0 10p IC=0 .ENDS FFLOP
The “IC” statements are mandatory in order to avoid conflicts when SPICE computes the DC operating point. You will then add the keyword “UIC” (Use Initial Conditions) at the end of the .TRAN statement.
Figure 2
26
Power Specialist’s A simplified error amplifier macromodel There are an infinite number of ways to realize the error amplifier model. However, keep in mind that the simplest model yields the fastest simulation runs. We will use basic building blocks to create a model with the following parameters: • • • • • • DC openloop gain: 90dB, or 31622 {GAIN} First pole: 30Hz {POLE} Maximum output voltage: {VHIGH} Minimum output voltage: {VLOW} Maximum sink current: {ISINK} Maximum source current: {ISOURCE}
.SUBCKT ERRAMP 20 8 3 21 * + OUT GND RIN 20 8 8MEG CP1 11 21 {1/(6.28*(GAIN/100U)*POLE)} ; pole calculation E1 5 21 11 21 1 R9 5 2 5 D14 2 13 DMOD IS 13 21 {ISINK/100} ; sink limit, with BF=100 Q1 21 13 16 QPMODI ISRC 7 3 {ISOURCE} ; source limit D12 3 7 DMOD D15 21 11 DCLAMP G1 21 11 20 8 100U V1 7 21 {VHIGH0.6V} ; max output clipping V4 3 16 {VLOW38MV} ; min output clipping RP1 11 21 {GAIN/100U} ; open loop gain calculation .MODEL QPMOD PNP .MODEL DCLAMP D (RS=10 BV=10 IBV=0.01) .MODEL DMOD D (TT=1N CJO=10P) .ENDS ERRAMP
The last two parameters correspond to the output current capability of the opamp. Modeling its output current capability. instead of using a simple resistor R out in series with the final voltage source, yields more accurate results. This is because once the loop is closed, the dynamic output impedance of the amplifier is close to zero since the openloop gain TOL is large: Rout = Ropenloop / (1+TOL). However, this expression is only valid within the limit of the current capability of the amplifier. If the amplifier current exceeds this limit, the component is unable to maintain the proper voltage level, and the output plummets to zero (or rises, if the sink current limit is exceeded). A simple resistor cannot properly model this effect. The electrical schematics is given below:
The test of the amplifier confirmed the presence of the pole and the current output limits. Test of the complete current mode model Now that all of the individual elements have been defined and tested, it is time to place them within the final subcircuit model, PWMCM. The output driver model is simplified, and converts the latch levels to userdefined voltages which are associated with a resistor:
E_BOUT 15 0 VALUE = { IF ( V(10) > 3.5, {VOUTHI}, {VOUTLO} ) } ; node 10 is the latch output ROUT 15 1 {ROUT}
OUTPUT
Source limit
FB
For editing convenience, the final PWMCM model will not be printed in this article, but may be downloaded from our BBS or our Internet Web site. Gain = 1 The complete example .CIR files are 100U available there also. They are available in PSpice, IsSpice and SPICE2 formats. The test circuit is a buck Sink limit VREF Rin Vclamp=10V converter which delivers 5V at 10A. All of the elements have been calculated RP1 CP1 using the new release of POWER 456 [2], which was developed by RIDLEY Engineering (http:// members.aol.com/ridleyeng/index.html). Figure 5a depicts Voltage and current offset effects are not modeled, this switchmode converter: but can be easily added. Offset currents are important, especially when high value feedback networks are used (in The ramp compensation is accomplished by the presence of high voltage regulated output, for instance). summing a fraction of the oscillator sawtooth and the current Output clipping of the voltage controlled sources is always sense information. It has several beneficial effects that we a problem. It is alleviated by using a voltage controlled will discuss later on. This circuit has been simulated in 25s current source whose output is clipped by a diode and then upon a P120 machine for a 200µs transient run. With this buffered by a unity gain voltage controlled source. Sink and simulation speed, output response to load or input step can source limits are associated with the output transistor; the be accomplished rather quickly. Figure 5b shows the startsink limit is dependent of its static gain (default BF=100). up conditions before the output voltage has reached its final The final netlist is as follows: value. A switching frequency of 200kHz has been selected. Figure 4
Max output limit Min output lim
27
SMPS Design
R11 12.94K I(V3) I_SWITCH R9 193M V(2) VLC L1 9.33U R1 4.5M
X1 PSW1
15
V(9) VIN
9
35
2
1
23
V(23) VOUT
V(14) ERROR
5
D1 DN5829
6 4
C2 70P
14 38 3
X7 PWMCM CMP FB OUT V(5) VGS
C1 727UF I(V4) I_DIODE
V1 11.5
22
C3 241P
R7 220K R12 24.17K
7
OSC GND SENS V(12) SENSE R8 1K
R13 0.5 R2 16M
Figure 5a
R6 12.94K
V(18) VSUM
18
12
C4 10P
B1 V=V(35,1
5.200
14.0
0.5. Q and ωp, which are part of the Vo/ Vc transfer function, are expressed as follows:
Coil current (2A/c)
Q=
5.10 10.00
1 π ⋅ ( mc ⋅ D'−0.5) 1 Ts + ⋅ ( mc ⋅ D'−0.5) CR LC
Error voltage (0.5V/c)
5.000 6.000
ωp =
Output voltage(50mV/c)
4.900 2.000
where mc = 1 + Se / Sn. Se is the external ramp slope, Sn is the inductor ontime slope. D’ = 1  D
4.800
2.000
20.00U
60.00U
100.00
140.0
Time (Secondes)
Figure 5b Current mode instabilities The controltooutput transfer function (Vo/Vc) of a continuous current mode control converter is a three pole system, as Raymond RIDLEY demonstrated in 1990 [1]: one low frequency pole, ωp, and two poles which are located at Fs/2. These poles move in relation to the duty cycle and the external ramp. The two high frequency poles present a Q that depends on the compensating ramp and the duty cycle. RIDLEY demonstrated that the Q becomes infinite at D=0.5 with no external ramp, which confirms the inherent instability of a current mode SMPS which has a duty cycle greater than
The low frequency pole, ωp, moves to higher frequencies as additional compensation ramp is injected. The addition of the external ramp will also damp the Q factor of the double Fs/2 poles, which are the result of the current 180.0 sampling action, in continuous inductor current. The addition of more ramp will split the double pole into two distinct poles. The first one will move towards lower frequencies until it joins and combines with the first low frequency pole at ωp. At this point, the converter behaves as if it is operating in voltage mode. Think of the current loop as an RLC network which is tuned to Fs/2. If we excite this network with a transient current step, it will ring like an RLC response [3], whose damping depends on the duty cycle and on the amount, if any, of ramp compensation. By increasing the duty cycle, we will raise the DC gain of the current loop until the phase margin at Fs/2 vanishes and makes the system unstable. When the duty cycle is greater than 0.5, the current gain curve crosses the 0dB point at Fs/2, and because of the abrupt
28
Fs/2 oscillation Switching component 20K 50K 100 200K 500K 1MEG Frequency (Hertz) Figure 5d The audio susceptibility is also affected by slope compensation. This sharp drop in phase at Fs/2 is created by the 80. providing an external ramp is a wise solution.5.5V. This socalled gain peaking is attributed to the action of the highQ poles.00 the voltage loop and place a fixed DC source at the right tail of R11 (node 23) in Figure 5a. and produce an abrupt drop in phase at this point. These double RHP zeros which appear in the current gain are transformed into double poles when one 60. If we abruptly change the input voltage from 18V to 12. RIDLEY showed in his work that an external ramp whose slope is equal to 50% of the inductor downslope could nullify the audio susceptibility. the converter oscillates. The Q of these poles is inversely proportional to the phase margin in the current gain at Fs/2. Figure 5d illustrates these behaviors when the input of the buck converter is stressed by a 6V variation. which push the gain above the 0dB line at Fs/2.5: the Fs/2 Q will be reduced. the Fs/2 component 0 appears (100kHz) and is damped after several switching periods. The middle curve shows how the response starts to degrade as additional ramp is Figure 5c 29 .Power Specialist’s drop in phase at this point. Also. The upper curve depicts the output voltage for a critical ramp compensation. which leads to a (theoretical) ∆Vout/∆Vin of 55dB. if minimal compensation or no ramp is provided.00 duty cycle action by lowering the DC gain and increasing the phase margin at Fs/2. even if your SMPS duty cycle will be limited to 0.5V).00 calculates the Vo/Vc transfer function. the phase of the resulting audio susceptibility is negative. In conclusion. and an increase in input voltage will cause the output voltage to decrease. Compensating the system with an external ramp will oppose the 40. excessive ramp compensation makes the converter behave as if it is in voltage mode. good input voltage rejection is achieved.00 double RHP zeros which are engendered by the sampling action in the current information.5. If this network is now closed within a high gain outer loop. the oscillations will naturally cease. but if the duty cycle is greater. even if the loop gain has a good phase margin at the 0dB crossover frequency. any current perturbation will make the entire system oscillate at Fs/2. If the duty cycle is smaller than 0. since the duty cycle is less than 0. which will damp the high Q poles in the Vo/Vc transfer function. Further stressing of the output would lengthen the damping time or produce a steadystate oscillation. let’s open 20. as Figure 5d demonstrates with the FFT of the error amplifier voltage (Vin=11. To highlight this phenomenon. R12 is elevated to 1MEG in order to suppress any ramp compensation. The result is depicted in Figure 5c. thereby preventing oscillations. The voltage difference in the output envelope is only 10mV for a 6V input step. As previously stated. which degrades the audio susceptibility. the oscillation will remain. where a filter has removed the main switching component from the coil current to allow the Fs/2 signal to be properly established.
ENDS OR2 Since the remaining elements have already been defined (comparators.045 2. the final PWMVM model will not be printed in this article. Vvalley and Vpeak. Figure 7 depicts the wellknown naturally sampled PWM modulator.9U 388.7U amplifier output swing. The measured rise time. In MICROSIM’s Pspice or INTUSOFT’s IsSpice. we are all set.5kHz. The error amplifier output swing will then define the duty cycle limits. error amplifier etc.6U 344. Clock Osc. Output voltage. As previously stated.925 2. tr. which gives a bandwidth of: BW=1/π∗tr = 14. 0 ) } RD 4 3 100 CD 3 0 10P .SMPS Design added. The voltage mode model. the model will calculate the peak and valley voltages of the reference sawtooth such that the chosen duty cycle boundaries are not violated.109 Error voltage. but can be downloaded from our BBS or our Internet Web site.DUTYMIN * VP) / (1 + DUTYMIN)} The sawtooth source then becomes: O Q VRAMP 1 0 PULSE {VV} {VP} 0 {PERIOD2N} 1N + 1N {PERIOD} The OR gate which routes the reset signal to the latch from the PWM or the limitation comparator requires a simple inline equation.965 2. Comparator Duty cycle Output VC .205 Output voltage with strong comp. without ramp VL oscillator sawtooth D= Figure 7 4.005 2.VL 5. The reading of the remaining lines in the netlist is then considerably simplified: . In this model.PARAM statement.SUBCKT OR2 1 2 3 Figure 6 The architecture allows the inclusion of a current limitation circuit to reduce the ontime of the external power switch when its peak current exceeds a userdefined limit. FB + VREF IMAX + Max.VL VH . critical compensation 5. By simply connecting the ISENSE input to ground. The test circuit of Figure 8a is a 30 . 5V.VHIGH * + DUTYMIN + VHIGH . is roughly 22µs.253 5. Since this output swing is user dependent.157 Error amplifier VC output voltage VH 4.). It is controlled by the PWM modulator. The lower curve represents the error amplifier response when a slight ramp compensation is added. E_B1 4 0 VALUE = { IF ( (V(1)>800M)  (V(2)>800M).4U Time (secondes) A close look at the error voltage response time leads to the closedloop bandwidth of the SMPS.085 2. the duty cycle is no longer controlled by the current information (except in limitation mode). which corroborates our initial design goal value which was passed to POWER 456. Duty limit ISENSE ILIMIT + PWM Out Reset Output Driver Since you will provide the main subcircuit with the duty cycle limits and the error 474.2U 431.VLOW) / (DUTYMAX + DUTYMIN)} .061 301. followed by the classical delay network: . SR Latch Set OUT Error Amp. it is easy to define some particular variables with a . which compares the error voltage with the reference sawtooth. This option is strongly recommended to make a rugged and reliable SMPS design that can safely handle input or output overloads.PARAM VV = {(VLOW . you disable this option. it is possible to calculate the corresponding sawtooth peak values.PARAM VP = {(VLOW * DUTYMAX . PWMVM The voltage mode generic controller will follow the description given in Figure 6. The decrease in the output voltage is clearly revealed by the rise in the error voltage.
31N K1 L2 V1 160 V(1) VGS R6 134M 8 7 CMP OUT FB GND IMAX 1 V(8) X2 VSWITCH PSW1 19 I(V4) I_RESET 2 15 V(18) ISENSE 18 R14 1K Figure 8a R13 1 D9 DCLAMP R4 29.824K V(4) VERR C4 676P R10 20K X7 PWMVM 4 L2 1MH 6 D7 DIODE C2 48. Figure 8b depicts the curves which are obtained at startup. as provided by MICROSIM and INTUSOFT.17K R12 2. The switching frequency is set at 200kHz. Figure 9a shows one solution. This behavior is typical of the adopted compensation scheme for a voltage mode converter which is operating in continuous mode. you simply cannot use the B element syntax. some equivalent (but more time consuming) circuits can be constructed.Power Specialist’s V(13) DC C6 578P 13 V(9) VOUT_SQ X3 XFMR 5 V(17) VOUT R7 70M D8 DIODE 9 L3 130U 10 17 16 R5 135.8U 3 R9 14 R8 245M L4 1MH 14 C3 5. The unlabeled resistors provide a DC path to ground (10MEG). and needs some time to recover this transient situation. The power switch is modeled with a smooth transition element. The first generic function which is called in our models is the perfect comparator.45 because of the forward structure. with a maximum duty cycle of 0. The error amplifier is pushed to its upper limit. Modelling with SPICE2 If you own a SPICE2 compatible simulator. Figure 8b 31 .386K C7 10P forward converter which delivers 28V@4A from a 160V input source. To overcome this limitation.
McGrawHill. 1984 Record. RIDLEY. V1 5V References 1. PWMCM and PWMVM. “The SPICE Book”. RIDLEY ENGINEERING (BattleCreek. HOLLAND.vpec. B Figure 9b The FlipFlop is also translated to SPICE2 syntax. written by Steve SANDLER [5].SMPS Design E2 1 {VOUTLO} G1 100U 100 300MEG 10P BV={VOUTHIVOUTLO} Conclusion This article describes some guidelines which will help you in the process of writing your own generic models for the platform of your choice. written by Andrei VLADIMIRESCU [4] or “SMPS Simulation with SPICE3”. MI) B. SANDLER. The ideal gates in Figure 9b simulate quickly and converge well. They use the ideal SPICE2 voltage controlled switch or the PSpice/IsSpice smooth transition switch. as the following lines explain. **** FFLOP **** . “A new smallsignal model for currentmode control“. “Modelling. The two models. ~(A & B) B A A&B AB 4. simulate OUT quickly and converge very well. 1990 This document can be ordered from the VPEC Web site: http:/ /www. giving an increase in simulation time of 184%. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. VLADIMIRESCU.MODEL SMOD VSWITCH (RON=1 +ROFF=1Meg VON=3 VOFF=100M) . 5. Analysis and Compensation of the Current Mode Converter”. B. ISBN 0079132278 2. John Wiley & Sons. Paper H2 A. Powercon 11.ENDS FFLOP **** **** 2 INPUT NAND **** .SUBCKT NAND 1 2 3 RDUM1 1 0 10MEG RDUM1 2 0 10MEG S1 3 5 1 0 SMOD S2 5 0 2 0 SMOD RL 3 4 100 CD 3 0 10P VCC 4 0 5V . R. 32 . PhD. If you are interested in the SPICE2/SPICE3 macro modeling technique and the SPICE engine in general. dissertation. at least if you want to build something easily.ENDS NAND The simulation of the buck converter circuit of figure 5a using SPICE2 syntax took 71seconds on our P120 machine. consult “The SPICE Book”. therefore allowing the designer to readily implement the average model results to see if they are verified by the “real world” switched elements. Figure 9a The logical functions are less obvious. A A B 3.vt. ISBN 0471609269 S.SUBCKT FFLOP 6 8 2 1 * S R Q Q\ RDUM1 6 0 10MEG RDUM2 8 0 10MEG XINVS 6 6 10 NAND XINVR 8 8 11 NAND XNAQB 11 2 10 NAND XNAQ 10 1 20 NAND RD1 10 1 100 CD1 1 0 10P IC=5 RD2 20 2 100 CD2 2 0 10P IC=0 . “SMPS Simulation With SPICE3”.html POWER 456 Technical manual.edu/cgibin/home.
the converter operates in Critical Conduction Mode. Vin (1 − D ) Figure 1 If the switch is switched ON again during the ramp down cycle.fr November 1997 Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) can operate in two different conduction modes. thus equating figure 2b’s areas: Vdd × N × D = Vo × (1 − D ) . if As we can see from figure 1b. we will refer to the following statements: 1b • The avg. to stay in critical conduction. Christophe BASSO. After factorization. will push my supply into CCM? Or what minimum load my SMPS should see before entering DCM? The third one uses fixed values of the above elements but adjusts the operating frequency. LC. before the current reaches zero (figure 1a). the magnetic field collapses and. the current has to find some way to continue its flow and start its decrease (in the output network for a FLYBACK.). the current ramps up when the switch is closed (ON time) building magnetic field in the inductor’s core. The stress upon the power elements they are made of will also be affected. In the picture. the voltage across the inductance reverses. the flux stored in the coil during the ON time is down to zero right at the beginning of the next cycle when the inductance equals its critical value (L=LC). each one depicting the level of the current circulating in the power choke when the power switch is turned on. email: basso@esrf. Toulouse. RC. according to LENZ’s law. Now. When the switch opens (OFF time). the supply is said to operate in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). the properties of two black boxes delivering the same power levels but working in different conduction modes. In that case. France.N Lp Vdd 1 3 Ls Rload Vo DT (1D)T PWM IL Not 0 at turn ON L>Lc 1a Voltage across the secondary coil IP Figure 2a 0 L<Lc Figure 2b L=Lc ON IL(avg) 0 before turn ON OFF To help determine some key characteristics of this converter. IL(avg) = 2xIp (2) • An 100% efficiency leads to Pin=Pout (3) The DC voltage transfer ratio in CCM is first determined using statement (1). inductor voltage per cycle should be null (1) • From figure 1b. This article explains why the vast majority of lowpower FLYBACK SMPS (offline cellular battery chargers. If the current through the coil reaches zero and the switch turns ON immediately (no deadtime). What level of load. Where is the boundary? There are three ways you can think of the boundary between the modes. The amount of deadtime where the current stays at a null level defines how strongly the supply operates in DCM. the energy storage capability of the coil is such that its current dries out to zero during OFF time. a FLYBACK converter: N:1 5 2 4 Vdd. for which the supply will work in either CCM or DCM given a fixed nominal load. Defining the mode Figure 1a and 1b show the general shape of a current flowing through the converter’s coil during a few cycles. when L=LC.Power Specialist’s Keep your Switch Mode Supply stable with a CriticalMode Controller MOTOROLA Semiconductors. will change dramatically in DC and AC conditions. we talk about Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM). One is about the critical value of the inductance. FC. These questions can be answered after a few lines of algebra corresponding to figure 2’s example. VCRs etc. it comes 0 D/Fs time Deadtime Vout D = × N (4). The second deals with a known inductance L. As will be shown. through the freewheel diode in a BUCK etc. Mathematically this can be expressed by integrating the formula: 33 .) operate in the discontinuous area and present a new integrated solution especially dedicated to these particular converters.
(1 + sz1)×.. with the switch conduction time. In fact. extending the filling time etc. This “idle time” allows the switch duty cycle to lengthen in presence of a step load increase without lowering the diode conduction time. it implies a decrease in the average diode current at first.SMPS Design • VL × dt = L × dIL thus.∫ dIL . the RHPZ gives a boost in gain. In DCM. The first one is the well known StateSpace Averaging (SSA) method introduced by R. Unfortunately.. Io = Vout ). The extra delay is mathematically described by a Right HalfPlane Zero (RHPZ) in the transfer function ( Av = (1 − sz1)×. 34 . dt = LC. The fire engine will run out of power. a classical zero in the Left HalfPlane ( Av = Fillingin the bucket The FLYBACK converter. it is possible for the DCM circuit to adapt perfectly to a step load change of any magnitude in the very first switching period. For additional information. When heavily into the continuous mode and if the inductor current rate is small compared to the current level. the fireman will require more power from its engine and will ask the bucket man to provide the tank with a higher flow. The enduser is a fireman who closes the feedback loop via his voice. its position moves as a function of the load which makes its compensation an almost impossible exercise. it can take many cycles for the inductor current to reach the new value.. if the flames suddenly get bigger. The bucket is first presented to the spring (ON time) until its inner level reaches a defined limit. In the modeling process. from (2). The loop compensation becomes easier. Fs • From (3). ⇒ or IL ( avg ) = Io × ( N + • By definition. Let’s suppose that the man is experimented and he ensures that the recurrence period (ON+OFF time) is constant. The bucket can be totally emptied before refilling (DCM) or some water can remain before the user presents it back to the spring (CCM). ) provides a boost in gain AND phase . ∫ D Fs 0 IP VL. 0 Vin × D = Lc × Ip = 2 × IL ( avg ) × LC . the peak current. During this time. BUT. has an operating mode comparable to someone filling a bucket (coil) with water and flushing it into a water tank (capacitor). More viciously. even if the peak diode current is rising. by definition. In other words. BUCKBOOST) operating in CCM and moves to higherfrequencies (then becoming negligible) when the power supply enters DCM. loop gain at a point where the phase margin is still secure. the bucket operator will fill his container longer (ON time increases).. This necessitates a temporary dutycycle augmentation which (with only two operational states) causes the diode conduction time to diminish. the output current is actually reduced because the diode conduction time (TOFF) has been decreased. shouting for more or less flow for the tank. making the fireman shout louder for more water. How can I model my converter? Two main solutions exist to carry AC and DC studies upon a converter. Vin Vout and R Vout = Vin × N × D from (4). Rollingoff the gain well under the worse RHPZ position is the usual solution. MIDDLEBROOK and S.. D. we can solve for the critical values of RC. Then the bucket is removed from the spring (OFF time) and flushed into a water tank that supplies a fire engine (load). 1− D If we introduce these elements in the above equations. The loop oscillates! This behavior is typical for converters in which the energy transfer is not direct (unlike the BUCK derived families) and severely affects the overall dynamic performances. ) and forces the designer to rolloff the . as with the BOOST and BUCKBOOST structures. a large step load increase requires a corresponding percentage rise of the inductor at the point it is inserted. a third state is present whether neither the diode or the switch conduct and the inductor current is null. and the diode conduction time all increasing at once to the values that will be maintained forevermore at the new load current. but lags the phase. reference [1] gives an interesting experimental solution to cure the BOOST from its lowfrequency RHPZ. Now. In time domain. a set of equations describes the electrical characteristics of a switching system for the two stable positions of the switches. Vin × IL ( avg ) = Io × (Vin × N + Vout ) . Actually.. since by experience he keeps his working period constant. CÙK in 1976 [2] that leads to average models.. Therefore. rather than an increase as desired. as figures 3a and b portrait for a BOOST type converter. Let’s also point out that the lowfrequency RHPZ is only present in FLYBACK type converters (BOOST. so will the amount of water poured. LC and FC: RC = 2 × LC × FS × N ² RC × (1 − D )² LC = (1 − D )² 2 × FS × N ² FC = RC × (1 − D )² 2 × LC × N ² current.. the time he will spend in flushing into the tank will naturally diminish (OFF time decreases).
including various in/out passive components. Table 1 1st order pole 2nd order pole Left HalfPlane Zero Right HalfPlane Zero Voutput/Vinput DC Gain Voutput/Verror DC Gain DCM 2 2 × π × Rload × Cout High frequency pole. Depending on the converter structure. from Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPEC). in exactly the same way as it is done when studying the transfer function of a bipolar amplifier (figure 3c). developed the concept of the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) switch model [4]. A linearization process will finally lead to a set of continuous linear equations. VORPERIAN considered simply modeling the power switch alone. Vatché VORPERIAN. giving the designer the necessary insight to make a power The SSA technique consists in smoothing the discontinuity associated with the transition between these two states. The Bode plot of the FLYBACK converter From the previous works.Power Specialist’s S1 closed. An introduction to simulating with VORPERIAN’s models is detailed in reference [5]. The result is a set of continuous nonlinear equations in which the state coefficients now depend upon the duty cycles D and D’ (1D). The reader interested by an indepth and pedagogical description of these methods will find all the necessary information in MITCHELL’s book [3]. affected by highfrequency second pole and RHPZ. and then inserting an equivalent model into the converter schematic. As one can see from figure 3. VORPERIAN demonstrated among other results. the SSA models the converter in its entire electrical form.see reference [4] N ×D× Vinput VSAW Rload 2 × LP × FSW Rload × 2 × LP × FSW (1 − D ) 2 × π × LP × Cout 1 2 × π × RESR × Cout Rload × (1 − D )² 2 × π × LP × D D ×N (1− D ) Vinput Voutput 2 × 1+ VSAW Vinput 35 ( ) . the process should be carried over all the elements of the converter. S2 open 6 7 L 1 L Vin 8 11 Cesr rL Cout 3 2 12 Rload 15 L 16 rL 19 P C Cesr Vin rL S2 Vin Cesr S1 open S2 closed 4 18 Rload PWM S1 Cout Rload 9 10 13 A Cout L Vin rL Cesr 14 PWM Switch Model Approach Rload Cout State Space Average Approach Figure 3a Figure 3b Figure 3c In 1988. then deriving a model where the switching component has disappeared in favor of a unique state equation describing the average behavior of the converter. In other words. the poles and zeroes of converters operating in DCM and CCM have been extracted. see reference [4] CCM 1 2 × π × RESR × Cout High frequency RHPZ. the process can be very long and complicated. With his method. that the flyback converter operating in DCM was still a second order system.
and also specifies the various gain definitions for a FLYBACK converter. the CCM’s second order pole moves in relationship to the duty cycle while the poles/ zeroes are fixed in DCM. CA). it is clear that the DCM converter will require a simple doublepole single zero compensation network (type 2 amplifier). The results are given below (figure 4).01) . Finally. while some only accept smallsignal conditions. as described in [4]. This model converges well and finds its DC point alone.SMPS Design supply stable and reliable. average and switching. they cannot include leakage energy spikes or parasitic noise effects. The netlist is given below: **** Sam BENYAAKOV FLYBACK’s Model **** . 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 1 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) 10000 100000 1000000 From the above pictures. Furthermore. FSW = switching frequency. we will describe a very simple and accurate model which has been developed by SamBENYAAKOV from BenGurion university (ISAREL). SPICE models are available from several sources. Reference [7] will guide you in case you would like to write a switching model yourself. including the highfrequencies pole and RHPZ in DCM. We have asked the program to design two 100kHz voltagemode SMPS with equivalent output power levels. switching models are the SPICE reproduction of the breadboard world and simulate the supply using the PWM controller you selected or the MOSFET model given by its manufacturer. they allow the designer to dive into the nittygritty of the converter under study.MODEL DBREAK D (TT=1N CJO=10P N=0. V SAW = sawtooth amplitude of the oscillator’s ramp. For Table 1. The summary in Table 1. the IsSpice4 editor. The average models implement either the SSA technique or the VORPERIAN’s solution. has recently released his new SMPS library which gathers numerous average and switching models. On the other side. but INTUSOFT (SanPedro. and LP = primary inductance The Bode plots can be generated in a multitude of manual methods or in a more automated way by using a powerful dedicated software such as POWER 456 [6]. but by definition. Switching models take longer time to run because the simulator has to perform a thin analysis (internal step reduction) during each commutation cycles but since parasitic elements can be included. SPICE simulations of the converter One can distinguish between two big families of converter SPICE models. Some support large transient sweeps. Among these models. Since no switching component is associated with these models. while a twopole twozero type 3 amplifier appears to be mandatory to stabilize the CCM converter. they require a short computational time and can work in AC or TRANSIENT analysis. it allows AC simulations as well as large signal sweeps.ENDS Gain (dB) Phase (deg) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 1 10 100 1000 10000 Frequency (Hz) 100000 1000000 Continuous Conduction Mode (figure 4a) 25 20 15 Gain (dB) 10 5 0 5 10 1 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) 10000 100000 1000000 0 20 40 Phase (deg) 60 80 100 120 140 160 1 10 100 1000 10000 Frequency (Hz) 100000 1000000 Discontinuous Conduction Mode (figure 4b) 36 . gives their positions in function of the operating mode. Both models have their own advantages: average models simulate fast. but operating in different modes.SUBCKT FLYBACK DON IN OUT GND {FS=??? L=??? + N=???} BGIN IN GND I=I(VLM)*V(DON)/(V(DON)+V(DOFF)) BELM OUT1 GND V=V(IN)*V(DON)V(OUT)*V(DOFF)/{N} RM OUT1 5 1M LM 5 8 {L} VLM 8 GND BGOUT GND OUT I=I(VLM)*V(DOFF)/{N}/ + (V(DON)+V(DOFF)) VCLP VC 0 9M D2 VC DOFF DBREAK D1 DOFF 6 DBREAK R4 DOFF 7 10 BDOFFM 6 GND V=1V(DON)9M BDOFF 7 GND V=2*I(VLM)*{FS}*{L}/V(DON)/ + V(IN)V(DON) .
The error amplifier model is directly derived from the specifications given by the controller’s datasheets you selected. You can see it as a box converting a DC voltage (the error amplifier voltage) into a duty cycle D.).000 130.0400 Without FeedForward 12. For example.0000 90. Time dB 50.0200 IN DON GND OUT Voutput Verror C5 2. In the opposite sense. This method presents the advantage of an automatic DC duty cycle adjustment and allows you to quickly modify the output parameter without tweaking the duty source at every change. X6 FLYBACK X9 XFMR 5 6 Vout 12.0000U 140.5=0. the insertion of an attenuator with 1/VSAW ratio after the error amplifier output is mandatory. A simplified macromodel can be built and simulated as refererence [7] details. as demonstrated by figure 5a schematic which shows the converter we already dimensioned with the help of POWER 456. as figure 5b portraits. a better behavior . as expected. if the sawtooth amplitude of the integrated circuit we use is 2.0000U 60. as figure 5c depicts (10V input step) for both of the previous conditions. But it stops any AC error signal that would close the loop. thus forcing the internal PWM stage to deliver the maximum duty cycle when the error amplifier reaches this value.5V V7 AC = 1 R8 1. Adding a bit of feedforward with a simple source in series with X5’s output (500U*V(1)) gives you. The inductive element maintains the DC error level such that the output stays at the required value. The transient response to an input step does not take longer. let L2 1kH and C7 1kF.000 10 100 1K 10K 100K Hz Figure 5c These kind of SPICE circuits let you immediately check the parameters of interest without sacrificing your time in watching the machine computing! The audio susceptibility is delivered in a snap shot.0000U 100.9600 20. The average models accept up to 1 volt as a duty cycle control voltage (D=100%). then the ratio will be: 1/ 2. the IC’s oscillator sawtooth can swing up to 3 or 4 volts.Power Specialist’s The implementation of the model is really straightforward. Generally.5VPP.0000 C1 500u 4 R2 20k 10 1 C6 4nF R7 4. X5 subcircuit simulates the gain introduced by the PWM modulator.0000 With FeedForward 110. You can also directly include a full detailed component to highlight the impact of its key parameters upon the supply under study (slewrate etc. The fastest way to open the loop is to include an LC network as depicted in the above schematic (L2C7). run a TRANSIENT by decreasing L2 to 1nH and C7 to 1pF.000U 180.11k 11. 37 . The C element gives an AC signal injection thus allowing a normal AC sweep.22k R13 5 R1 100M 11. To account for the 1 volt maximum input of our average models.000U Figure 5a Figure 5b It is interesting to temporarily open the loop and conduct AC simulations in order to isolate the error amplifier in AC and let you adjust the compensation network until the specifications are met.9800 With FeedForward V1 330 11 L2 1kH GAIN 2 7 C7 1KF X5 GAIN 3 9 V4 2.7nF 8 12.0000 Without FeedForward 70.4. To do so.
This last solution has been adopted in the MC33364 from MOTOROLA (Tempe. While the bulk capacitor voltage begins to decrease. the controller needs to know the level of the primary current. The resulting linear ramp will add to the sense information. initiating a new cycle. The critical conduction controller ensures a switch turn on immediately after the primary current has dropped to zero. it can be wise to add some current ramp compensation even in DCM. engendering unacceptable switching losses and making the design of the EMI filter a difficult task. The MC33364 is thus declined in two versions including or not the clamping capability: 33364D and D1 limit to 126kHz the upper value of the switching frequency. the system adjusts its frequency to maintain the DCM. The most economical solution exploits the signal delivered by the auxiliary winding. In case the synchronisation signal would be lost. an internal watchdog timer restarts the converter if the driver’s output stays off more than 400µs after the inductor current has reached zero. Output switching frequency clamp As we already said. When this one has fallen to zero. you hunt down any source of wasted power to raise the overall efficiency at an acceptable value. Figure 7 illustrates this will for an economical 12W AC/DC wall adapter. the MOSFET charges up the bulk capacitor until the voltage on its pins reaches the startup threshold of 15V. the MOSFET opens and the circuit operates by itself. but you assume to know all load conditions. Good riddance startup resistor! The majority of offline SMPS are self supplied. To circumvent this intrinsic problem. However. DC_rail 1 Current Source IC_Vcc 4 It works as follow: when the mains is first applied to the converter. The integrator solution prevents the internal oscillator to be externally loaded which in certain circumstances can lead to erratic behaviors. The leakage energy spike is clipped by the R5C5 network whose second function is to smooth the rising drain voltage. b) you permanently adjust the switching frequency to stay DCM. correspondingly limiting the radiated noise. Since every current mode converter are inherently unstable over a certain dutycycle value. regardless the load span you apply at the output?? Two solutions: a) you calculate LP in order to always stay in DCM. as Ray RIDLEY demonstrated in the 90’s [8]. How can you provide the 33364 sense input with some ramp to since no oscillator pinout is available? Figure 8 shows a possible solution by integrating the driver’s output. How can you be sure to stay in DCM. 38 Bulk capacitor + Auxiliary Winding 5 15/7. the operational frequency can shift to high values. the designers of the IC have added an internal frequency clamp whose function is to limit the maximum excursion.SMPS Design A critical mode controller As we saw. you do no longer worry about the values your load will take since the controller tunes its frequency to keep the SMPS in DCM. But once the steadystate level is reached. This last feature is unfortunately no longer valid when you use a clipping circuit made of a fast rectifier and a zener diode. an internal set is delivered to the latch. or when using the IC in a standalone application. A startup resistor charges a bulk capacitor until the IC’s undervoltage limit is reached. The circuit’s sensitivity to the noise present on the sense resistor is largely diminished by the implementation of a leading edge blanking network. thus stabilizing the converter. The stability is then guaranted over the full load range. A low partcount converter The 33364 has been specifically designed to save a maximum of parts. In low power SMPS. It will also ensure a stable and reliable behavior as long as you stay in the discontinuous area. while the 33364D2 does not host this feature. the startup resistor is still there and wastes some substantial energy in heat. whatever the load is. keeping your SMPS in the discontinuous mode will let you to design the compensation network in a more easy way. Am I critical? To answer this question. In this case. This system blanks the starting portion of the primary rampup current which can be the seat of spurious spikes: a resonance with the parasitic interwinding capacitors and the ON gatesource current. Figure 6 shows the method MOTOROLA has implemented in the 33364 to quash the startup element. AZ). even when the oscillator’s ramp is available. in absence of load. the circuit starts to actuate the switching transistor and the auxiliary supply feeds the controller back through the rectifier. You can also adopt this method in other cases. At this time.6 Figure 6 .
CHO. RIDLEY.com/ ridleyeng/index. R. C. distributed by e/j BLOOM Associates (http:// www. Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics Systems.2 IC2 MOC8102 1 C2 100nF 8 TL431C IC3 Figure 7 From coil 6 References 1. “A new smallsignal model for currentmode control“. B. Parts I (CCM) and II (DCM) ”. PhD. dissertation.Power Specialist’s R4 56 R3 22k D4 MBRS340T3 D1 1N4148 330µF/10V C6 C5 1nF R5 91k R6 430 + 6. part I and II”. D. “ A general Unified Approach to Modeling Switching Converter Power Stages ”. Vatché VORPERIAN. C. Elimination of the Positive Zero in Fixed Frequency Boost and Flyback Converters. MITCHELL. “A tutorial introduction to simulating current mode power stages”. APEC. R.ejbloom. M. M.aol. 1976 Record. H.2k R2 6 Q1 MTD1N60E 10 4 MC33364 5 27k R9 10nF C7 330pF C8 + C1 20µF R1 2. SABLE. “Write your own generic SPICE Power Supplies controller models. B. PCIM April/May 97 8. 26. “Simplified Analysis of PWM Converters Using The Model of The PWM Switch.com). BASSO. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. D. “DCDC Switching Regulators Analysis”. 4. May 1990 5. Vol.html 7. IEEE PESC.COM) Driver 5 R 1 Radd C Sense 3 Figure 8 6 39 . D.BASSO. N°3. Ridley Engineering home page: http://members. pp 1834 3. March 1990 2. B. MIDDLEBROOK and S. RIDLEY. R. CUK. PCIM October 97 6. 1990 (email : RRIDLEY@AOL.0V@2A EMI Filter IC1 + C3 10µF/350V 1 2 3 8 7 D3 MURS160T3 92 to 270 VAC R10 1.
First. With the topology shown in Figure 1. Government regulations will soon force power supply designers to correct this problem.SMPS Design Intusoft Newsletter Personal Computer Circuit Design Tools Copyright © Intusoft. we don't expect the component values to affect current very much. let's look at the problem. we will explore some of the design concepts for power factor friendly switched mode power supplies. The high frequency impedance T Exploring SMPS Designs Using IsSpice Average Models For Switching Converter Design Larry Meares. the turnon surge is so large that it can cause operational glitches in other equipment. however. Charles Hymowitz Excerpts from the March 1993 Intusoft Newsletter #29 40 . SMPS. The short circuit impedance was estimated to be equally divided between resistive and inductive components. In this article. Our motivation here is to show how IsSPICE can be used as a high level design tool to explore concepts and develop design requirements before beginning the detailed design phase. Moreover. All Rights Reserved March 1993 Issue (310) 8330710 Fax (310) 8339658 Simulating SMPS Designs he ubiquitous personal computer has made a mess of office power mains. the power line impedance must be modeled. the voltage distortion is totally dependent on this configuration. Its characteristic cosine shaped power pulse requires 75% more current carrying capacity than is necessary. To begin with.
Power Specialist’s Exploring SMPS Designs Using ISSPICE continued from page 1 was approximated to be that of free space.7A RMS.0M 25.0 1 2 600 5. The graph illustrates the effect of this circuitry on input power along with the capacitorrectifier voltage. 41 .0 IS (WFM.00M 15.0M Figure 1. hence the choice for the capacitance and the inductor damping. Power factor is defined as the product of the RMS current and voltage divided by the average input power delivered to a circuit.0M TIME in Secs 35. The detailed circuit is shown in Figure 1.00 3 30. 37A Peak with the peak output ripple at about 5% of the average output voltage. Rectifier circuit showing typical SMPS startup transient. mainly to prevent component damage at startup. The circuit topology of most offline SMPS uses a full wave capacitorrectifier with some soft start provisions.25 6 L1 670U 9 I(V1) IS V1 SIN R4 300 C2 5N V2 PULSE D3 DN4004 R2 97 10 power line impedance 50.3) in Amps 0 2 10. the following measurements were made using INTUSCOPE.0M 45. The model could be made more accurate by using test data for a specific case.0 VLOAD/VIN (WFM. Current is 3. For this circuit.1 2 3 V(3) VLOAD C1 300U R1 .2) in Volts 200 1 30. a SPICE 4 E1 1 5 V(4) VIN X1 SWITCH 8 1 Circuit Name: RECT R3 .00 200 3 400 10.1/WFM. but the current waveform will not change much and hence the power factor calculation will not be seriously affected by the approximation used here.
0M 30.1P V(1) VMOD X4 RLIMIT E1 1E4 R5 10K Figure 2. the circuit shown in Figure 2 uses a buckboost regulator to control the input current at a desired level. it is necessary to provide reactive elements to store power which can later be used when the input power is less than required.0 2 12.00 70.22U 1 R9 30 V(8) VX R4 100K 8 C5 . 13 X3 MUL 9 4. Notice that the peak ripple is about 5% of the average voltage.SMPS Design data post processing program: Iin=3. is the unregulated input to the switched mode power regulator.0M TIME in Secs 70. The input power will then be pulsating at a frequency of twice the input voltage ranging from zero to twice the average input power.00 10. must be constant.0M 50.2) in Volts V(9) VY IS (WFM.0 90.596 The voltage. BuckBoost regulator using the Intusoft PWM switch model developed independently by Meares [4] and Vorperian [6]. VLOAD. The output voltage and current.0 1 2 10. In this H2 V2 V2 2 15 12 PWM Switch I(V5) IL Circuit Name: PFCOR R1 . in Figure 1.0 8.0M 90. on the other hand.0 1 50. The regulator must remove this ripple along with other line and load variations.0M 42 .1) in Amps 0 30. Graph shows the output voltage and input current.25 V1 SIN 10 I(V1) IS D3 DN4004 14 R10 100 3 5 I(V2) IIN 7 L2 2M C3 300U V(7) VOUT 4 V(15) VIN C4 .68 ARMS Pavg=263 Watts Vin=120 VRMS Power Factor = . See page 12 for references. To accomplish this. Therefore.00 VOUT (WFM.00 6 4. The object of a power factor correction circuit is to force the input current to be sinusoidally varying and in phase with the input voltage.
Power Specialist’s circuit. where: IS = Input current Vs = Input voltage Vset = Desired output voltage Ireq = Required output current Vout = Output voltage Iout = Output current k = Efficiency then. The output voltage magnitude is lower than that of the capacitorrectifier circuit and the percent ripple has increased from 5% to 15%. the ripple will distort the input current. therefore. On the other hand. the voltage at the output of our first stage will be difficult to control. Also. To learn more about using this model and review the various PWM topologies. the pulse width modulator model from the Intusoft library. First. If we select a buck regulator for the second stage. the input current requirement can be estimated based on the output power and input voltage. To overcome these conflicts. then feedback can be used to control the input current such that the second PWM controller has a 50% duty cycle. since the division by VLOAD may be costly. Next. If this control loop is very fast. is connected in the buckboost configuration. With this configuration we will be using a constant current source to drive a constant current load. For example. The schematic in Figure 3 shows the complete two regulator circuit along with the control 43 . IS = k ∗ Vset ∗ Ireq/ Vin however. we should investigate the consequence of making it a constant. is 1. In Figure 2. the second stage may be presented with too high or too low an input voltage. So far we haven't addressed the output regulator.0. The power factor. This type of limiter converges and performs better than hard limiters created with Tabletype functions. Here. as measured using INTUSCOPE. then. see the article entitled “Average Models For Switching Converter Design” in this newsletter. Notice the use of the limiting resistor (Rlimit) in the error amplifier. the output regulator is a constant power device as is our input regulator. if it is too slow. IS ∗ Vs= k ∗ Vset ∗ Ireq. This was previously discussed in depth in the September 1992 newsletter. we will show why the buckboost configuration has excellent control characteristics for input current. called PWM. The resulting waveforms show excellent control of the power factor and startup current. the input current is compared with a signal proportional to the rectified input (V(15)) and the resulting error signal (VMOD) is used to control the PWM switch. Ireq = Vset / Rload and Rload = Vout / Iout finally giving IS = k ∗ Vset ∗ Vset ∗ Iout / (Vout ∗ Vin ) Several simplifications can be made. the transfer function from input to output will contain those dreaded right half plane zeros. Vin is assumed to be a constant since it won't vary by more then 15%. causing problems in designing a responsive controller. Ideally.
25 V1 DC 33 37 C7 5N 15 C1 300U 19 V8 Figure 3.5 B3 V= 1. The element B2 (lower right) can be swapped with B3 (lower center) at node 20 in order to investigate the effects of division by VLOAD.47U I(V2) IIN V3 10 L1 2M 57 22 R7 10 I1 PULSE 8 V(26) VLOAD 26 2 3 4 7 9 H1 V2 I(V4) IO V(15) VOUT Circuit Name: PCOR3 I(V9) IS L2 670U R15 300 1 R14 . The startup is somewhat slower.SMPS Design mechanism we just discussed. V(22) VMOD2 C2 1000P Limited from . the power components can be sized based on the currents and voltages found in this 14 6 E5 1 V(6) VS V(3) VIN V2 29 38 R1 .002 25 R3 100K V(25) VY V(13) VX R8 10K C4 100P 21 E2 10K 13 E1 1E4 28 V(28) VMOD V6 50 R11 500K Limited from 0 to .01) / (1 .01) B2 V= 90 * (I(V8) + . The results are substantially the same as those shown in Figure 4. It is important to extract the maximum information from the continuous time model because the actual switched model simulation will run hundreds of times slower. Power factor. as measured using INTUSCOPE.5 D3 DN4004 R4 47 16 C3 . Figure 4 shows the performance comparison when the Vout division is removed. The complete expanded two regulator circuit (PCOR5) is contained on the newsletter floppy disk. we have produced a solid framework for an initial design. however. the final design is discussed in sections. the slight performance degradation is not objectionable. Then.1 Volt 18 E3 10K 17 R9 100K 5 R10 100K 24 V7 . Due to space limitations.01U 23 R12 10K 27 E4 10K R13 10K V(12) VCNTRL 20 Limit = +. especially the outer loop that is used to adjust the output regulator head room.95 Volts A K*A*B 12 B K = 0. The schematic of a complete two regulator circuit using a BuckBoost input regulator and Buck output regulator. The next step is to add the input and output noise filters and finalize the compensation circuitry.95 Volts 11 R6 10K R2 100K Limited from 0 to 15 Volts V(18) VCNTRLX C6 . The power factor is still above 99% although some waveform distortion is beginning to creep in because capacitors were added at the input for noise filtering.991.8 * (I(V8) + .05 to . The compensation scheme is interesting. The duty cycle control provided by amplifier E3 makes up for variation in efficiency with load and changes in input voltage. The loop gain for this section is shown in Figure 5 and the schematic 44 . Its authority is limited to 20% of the total control range.V(26)) simulation. was . This limit will be adjusted as the design progresses as will the compensation component values. Overall.
0M 60. A voltage source is inserted at the point we wish to "cut" the loop.0 .0 IS 4 2.1/WFM.0 5 VCNTRL 20.00 VOUT/VLOAD (WFM.1) in Deg 40.0 10.4) in Amps 20. shown in Figure 7.0 60. If your final input regulator has current limiting. If it were to be removed. Capacitor C3 is used to shape the startup current. otherwise the voltages on either side will contain an additional component. The circuit is excited using only this voltage source. in this case V2. startup would be fasted.2) in Volts 60. 45 .2) in dB (Volts) .00 VLOAD 2 60.0 100.0M 100M TIME in Secs 140M 180M 4 1 2 Figure 4.Power Specialist’s 2.Result of VINOL (WFM.0 1 3 20. uses a "poor mans" form of current feedback in order to extend loop bandwidth past the L160. The gain is the difference in the log of the magnitudes and the phase is the difference in phase at each side of the voltage source.0 180 120 2 200 300 1 280 10 100 1K 10K 420 1 2 FREQUENCY in Hz Figure 5. Notice the technique for making closed loop frequency response measurements. Comparison between controllers with and without VLOAD division reveals minimal differences. The output regulator. of the compensation circuitry for this loop is shown in Figure 6. 14.00 w/Vload Div.0 40. the startup surge current would be larger. VINOL and VOUTOL.0 6.00 IS (WFM. however. making the gain and phase calculations wrong. w/o Vload Div.Result of VP(34) (WFM. then this capacitor would be unnecessary. Frequency response of the outer loop head room regulator (VINOL/VOUTOL). The exciting signal must only come from the source we inserted.
46 . Rlimit is made with the new “IfThenElse” behavioral feature in ISSPICE3. In order to help the AC analyses converge rapidly. The voltage at test point VLOAD should also be summed. Head room regulator section showing the compensation circuitry and technique for calculating a closed loop response.1U C3 .5 B1 V= Figure 6. Rval. it is approximately a constant and was omitted to reduce complexity.15U V(11) VINOL R6 10K V(8) VOUTCNTR E2 10K R7 10K V2 AC E1 10K V(4) VOUTOL R3 25K R5 500K R4 25K V1 . however.1 C2 300U R1 10 I1 PULSE V(3) VMOD2IN V2 R3 10K C1 . C2 resonance. Current feedback is established by integrating the voltage across L1 using amplifier E1. The limiters using RLIMIT elements force reasonable operating ranges and also act to aid convergence. V(9) VLOAD L1 100U V8 X1 PWM R2 . Generic parameters include Vmax. The output stage regulator section.03U C3 300P R6 1MEG R4 10K E1 10K V(4) VMOD2 X3 RLIMIT V4 R5 10K E3 1 E2 10K R7 10K V3 50 V(15) VLOADIN Figure 7. a . and Rmin.NODESET statement was inserted in order to set the output to 5mV for the DC analysis. Vmin. The loop is broken at VLOADIN and V4 is inserted as the AC stimulus source. The VLOADVLOADIN loop response is shown in Figure 8.SMPS Design C2 6000P V(13) VINCNTRL C1 .
0 60.22U D3 DN4004 35 V2 C6 2. particularly in relation to housekeeping power turn on must be kept in mind as the design progresses.2U I(V2) IIN V3 10 C1 300U 12 R12 5 L1 IS 1 V(16) VX V(13) VY 22 C2 1000P 18 V(11) VMODIN V6 R3 100K 13 16 15 E1 1E4 V(15) VMOD Figure 9.05 C3 2.5 C8 . filters. It's clear that initialization of the regulators. Selection of the “best” pulse width modulator technology will further refine the control loops.2U 19 C5 5N R4 . The designs presented here are geared to a 50KHz chopper frequency for the input regulator and 100200 KHz for the output regulator. and control loops are all realizable. 21 32 I(V5) IS R10 .0 120 40. Schematic and SPICE netlists for the circuits shown here. with Figure 10 showing the results. are included on the newsletter floppy disk. The VLOADVLOADIN loop response for the buck output regulator section.1) in Deg 80. R2 100K While the design is by no means complete. Changing these frequencies will affect performance and require revisiting the control loop design.25 1 33 E4 1 V(32) VS V(3) VIN L3 100U 5 6 H1 V2 I(V4) IO 9 11 V(14) VOUT 14 L2 670U 34 4 2 3 R11 300 V1 DC 8 R1 .0 2 1 10 100 1K 10K FREQUENCY in Hz Figure 8. we see the major resonant peaks from the input regulator at 100 Hz and the input filter at 2KHz.0 60. we are confident that the topologies.0 1 0 0 2 40. The final stabilization and filtering is shown for the input regulator section in Figure 9. and for switching models of various regulators that can be utilized along with the PWM switch.Power Specialist’s 120 180 Gain (WFM. The BuckBoost input regulator section. In this loop (VMODVMODIN). 47 .2) in dB (Volts) Phase (WFM.
The BuckBoost and Vin V(1) Cuk topologies offer the ca1 V(3) VIN L3 VOUT Vout pability to convert the input 1M 6 3 voltage to an output voltV(4) age ranging from nearly VCNT 4 zero to substantially greater than the input voltage.1) in Deg 80. The implementation using SPICE elements was initially done by Keller [2] and Bello [3] with further enhancements by Meares [4] and Vorperian [6]. and large signal time domain simulations. The VLOADVLOADIN loop response for the input regulator section.2) in dB (Volts) Phase (WFM. hence the pictorial representation. In fact.0 40. averaged model configurations for produce the opposite pothe Buck and Boost power stages. in the trans1 Figure 11. formerless configuration. it is possible to predict reBuck Boost sponse past the Nyquist Vout Vin V frequency by adding a zero Vin Vout order hold element. AC small signal. But we all know enough to keep our control system bandwidths well below the Vin Vin Vout Vout Nyquist frequency in order to avoid modal nonlinearities. It has been shown to provide excellent experimental correlation.SMPS Design 120 180 Gain (WFM.0 0 0 2 40.0 2 1 10 100 1K 10K FREQUENCY in Hz Figure 10. Real. Both topologies. larity output voltage from Average Models For Switching Converter Design 48 . switching. The duty cycle control has two inputs allowing a differential control voltage. The resulting “PWM switch” model can be used for DC. The basic PWM model is simply an electrically variable turns ratio DC transformer. even in the neighborhood of the Nyquist frequency (usually 1/2 the switching frequency). Average Models For Switching Converter Design The mathematical basis for modeling switching regulators was established by Middlebrook using statespace average techniques [1].0 120 1 60.0 60.
It is frequently necessary to replace the duty ratio. Boost. with its inverse. The pulsating voltage is then smoothed using an inductor to produce an average output voltage which is the product of the duty ratio and the input voltage.Power Specialist’s BuckBoost Vin Vout Iin Cuk Iout the input voltage. that is Di=1 . In the first 3 topologies we are concerned with voltage transformation and allow ripple currents. while the dual CUK topology (Figure 12). it is simply a Buck regulator with the input and the output reversed. A typical Buck regulator is shown in Figure 11 using bipolar components. It takes an input voltage from a power source and chops it into a series of pulses. In the real world. The duty ratio is defined as the period the PWM switch is turned on divided by the switching period. Buck. averaging element with each topology. The most familiar is the Buck regulator. Real. Vin Vout Iin Iout I(V4) IOUT V(4) VOUT 4 Iin Iout Vcontrol V(2) VIN 2 6 3 V(3) VCNT 5 L3 1M I(V1) IIN 1 L1 2M L2 2M V(5) VOUT 5 R1 50 C2 100U 7 2 R3 30 4 VCNTRL DC 9 C1 1U R2 . Since most converters will incorporate transformer isolation within their topology. All 4 topologies require additional filtering at the input and output to make a practical power supply. The Boost configuration shown in Figure 11 is quite different in appearance when viewed as a set of bipolar components. switching and averaged configurations for the BuckBoost and Cuk power stages. BuckBoost and Cuk. The Basic Power Supply Topologies There are 4 basic power supply topologies. however. which is the time the opposite switch is on divided by the switching period. when replaced with a “forced” PWM switch representation. Representing each of these configura 49 . transforms current and allows ripple voltage. the distinction gets a bit blurred. For the AC analysis. When forcing switching in both directions. this will shift phase by 180˚.D (Fig 11 right bottom). of course you will have to determine the control range and polarity of your PWM in order to account for the scaling and polarity differences between your circuit and the simulation. D. Notice that we always associate one reactive. Actual Cuk regulator with external parts shown below right.01 10 Cuk Regulator Figure 12. the polarity inversion is usually not significant.
26. 1991 [10] V. The floppy disk. "Nonlinear Modeling of the PWM Switch". "Modeling Pulse Width Modulators". Middlebrook and S. the PWM switch subcircuit. "Closedloop Testing and Computer Analysis Aid Design of Control Systems". Fall 1988 [8] V. Intusoft Newsletter. this occurs at light load.SMPS Design tions using "forced" switching is the same as restricting them to continuous conduction of current in the reactive element. pp. It turns out that this assumption is valid over most operating points of the power electronics we design. Bello. While Intusoft and the enclosed newsletter floppy provide models capable of transitioning this region[1]. August 1990 [6] V. 25. Dixon. plus models for switching regulators (SG1524. #2. 1976. even a status light would work. Vorperian. Bello. making output and input voltages equal for duty ratios approaching zero. 198205 [5] L. 1980. "Simplify PWM Converter Analysis Using a PWM Switch Model". 10] describe many of the PWM models included on the newsletter floppy disk and add many excellent regulator design examples. at least for initial design tradeoff's. contains all of the schematics and SPICE circuit netlists in this newsletter. Clearly this condition must be solved in your circuit design. 22 1978. The point is that the discontinuous conduction region is generally avoided and the continuous conduction region is frequently extended using nonlinear inductors. IEEE APEC April 1986. "A General Unified Approach to Modeling Switching Converter Power Stages". PCIM March 1990 pp. For the Buck regulator. Keller. pp. Vol. This is a very important consideration for simulation because the computational complexity is dramatically increased when discontinuous conduction must be simulated. MetaSoftware. diodes. Unitrode Corp. Meares. Nov. The PWM switch is a versatile element that allows simulation of the majority of features of switching regulators. 4. BJTs.. "Computer Aided Analysis of Switching Regulators Using SPICE2". IEEE PESC. "Spice Simulation of Switching Power Supply Performance". 1991 References [9. 1834 [2] R. and IGBTs) are also included. usually with some kind of bleed load. and an assortment of over 50 models for high power components (Mosfets. Vorperian. pp. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. and UA1846 taken from reference [10]). SCRs. Its use is essential for performing effective simulations. included for newsletter subscribers (available to nonsubscribers for $20). in fact with no load at all the Buck regulator with free wheeling switch commutation fails to provide any regulation. Models for the basic PWM topologies. [1] R. IEEE PESC. April 1989 [7] V. we strongly recommend using the continuous model. 311 [4] L. Cuk. "Simplify Your PWM Converter Analysis Using The Model of The PWM Switch". Vorperian. VPEC Current. A Collection of Papers and Subcircuit Models". "New Simulation Techniques Using SPICE". 132138 [3] V. 816 [9] L. Electronic Design. "Simulation of Switching Regulators Using SPICE2. Meares. pp. 50 .
1M 550U time 600U R9 1K C4 1NF V9 PULSE R8 2. See page 2 for more details.85 550U time 600U V(28) VERR R10 3K X7 LT1243 C6 56P CP V3 350V R14 10K V(17) VSENSE FB ISENS C5 4. Intusoft’s New Power Supply Designer’s Library allows you to simulate forward converters like this one using the LT1243.96 Tran VERR 2.8 550U time 600U R3 2 D1 DIODE X5 XFMR C2 68UF V(16) VOUT R12 146K V(16) VOUT R13 50K RT/CT GND 545M Tran VSENSE 23. Charles Hymowitz Excerpts from the August 1995 Intusoft Newsletter #43 51 .00 Tran ILOAD 985M 550U time 600U VREF VCC OUT X9 PSW1 I(V6) ILOAD L1 4MH R2 15 R6 45M Tran VOUT 15.0 14.Power Specialist’s Intusoft Newsletter Personal Computer Circuit Design Tools #43 August 1995 Issue Copyright © Intusoft.7N 1. Simulating SMPS Designs SSDI Diode Rectifier Models High Efficiency StepDown Converter Steve Sandler.8 Figure 1. All Rights Reserved (310) 8330710 Fax (310) 8339658 Simulating SMPS Designs 2.
SMPS Design
Simulating SMPS Designs
In the June 1995 newsletter we introduced a new SPICE model library for power supply designers. The library contains a comprehensive set of nonlinear models for popular Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) ICs. Here we continue our review with a few examples of what the models allow you to accomplish. Applications today are much more demanding, requiring increases in switching frequency, higher efficiency and lower standby current. State space models simply do not reveal many important factors which influence these performance characteristics. As shown in Table 1, the models accurately account for many characteristics including prop. delay, switching speed, drive capability, and operating current. The features included in the models allow you to directly compare the performance of components from different vendors. You can also analyze the effects of different implementations such as peak current mode control, hysteretic current control, low voltage and low operating current to name a few. The new library has over 400 models:
• Models for various PWM ICs including those from Unitrode, Linear Technology, Siliconix, and Cherry Semiconductor • ‘Unified’ state space model for forward, and flyback converters topologies plus state space models for several specific ICs • Nonlinear Magnetic Cores and Transformers • Power Mosfet Drivers • Motor controller IC (UC1637) • Power factor correction IC (UC1854)
The price of the Power Supply Designer’s Library is $395. The models are compatible with ICAP/4 systems on DOS, NEC, Windows, Macintosh and the Power Macintosh. ICAP/ 4Lite and ICAP/4Lite Xtra systems must have the ISSPICE4 upgrade in order to run the new models.
Hysteretic CMC and Buck Regulators
Figure 2 shows a current mode converter example using the Cherry CS322. The circuit uses hysteretic control, which is different from constant frequency or constant off time control. In constant frequency control, the instant of turnon is always independent of the closed loop dynamics of the supply thereby limiting its regulation performance. However, because hysteretic control can change both edges of the switching waveform to keep a constant inductor current hysteresis, it has no mode on instabilities; no slope compensation is required. In Figure 2, the load resistance was varied from 5Ω to 2.5Ω. The
52
Power Specialist’s
UC1842/3/4/5 Model Performance Comparison
Parameter Reference Output Voltage Load Regulation Oscillator Section Initial Accuracy Amplitude Discharge Current Standard Error Amplifier Input Voltage AVOL Unity Gain Bandwidth Output Sink Current Output Source Current Vout High Vout Low Current Sense Gain Maximum Input Signal Delay To Output Output Section Output Low Level Output High Level Rise Time Fall Time Undervoltage Lockout Start Threshold Condition 1mA 120mA Type Spec 5V 6mV ISSPICE4 5V 6.2mV
52kHz 1.7Vpp 10mA
52.1kHz 1.72Vpp 9.8mA
2.5V 90dB 1mHz 6mA 0.8mA 6V 0.7V
2.5V 89.1dB 1mHz 6.07mA 0.8mA 5.64V 0.72V
3V/V 1V 150nS
3V/V 1V 151nS
20mA 200mA 20mA 200mA
0.1V 1.5V 13.5V 13.5V 50nS 50nS
0.13V 1.43V 13.56V 13.43V 35nS 50nS
UC1842/4 UC1843/5 Min Operating after TurnOn UC1842/4 UC1843/5 PWM Section Maximum Duty Cycle UC1842/4 UC1843/5 Minimum Duty Cycle Total Standby Current Startup Current UC1842/4 UC1843/5 Operating Current UC1842/4 UC1843/5
16V 8.4V 10V 7.6V 97% 48% 0% 0.5mA 0.5mA 11mA 11mA
16V 8.4V 10V 7.6V 97% 49% 0% 0.45mA 0.51mA 11.1mA 11.5mA
Table 1, The PWM models use a mixed mode modeling approach. They combine switches, behavioral models, and logic gates in order to provide a full set of features, simulation efficiency and excellent accuracy as shown above.
53
SMPS Design
5.02 R6 10K 4.01 Tran V(1) C2 470P R5 150K 5 12EA13SENSE+ R4 10K 9
SENSE
V(10) VCC 0 time X2 CS322 1 COMP
DELTA I VCC VO GND
Tran VOUT
4.83 0 time V(9) VOUT 300U
678M 300U L1 30U 2 7 10 11 V3 15 V4 .4 D2 DN5822 R7 100 V(2) SW 8
R1 .22
C1 390U X3 SWITCH 15 3 R2 .01 V5 PULSE
C3 100P Tran I(L1)
2.23 555M
Figure 2, The response to a step change in the output load 0 time 300U of a 15V to 5V DCDC converter using the Cherry CS322 Hysteretic Current mode controller. The switching frequency is 300kHz.
CS322 simulates very quickly; the entire 300µs simulation took only 181.9s on a Pentium/90 even with TMAX (maximum timestep) limited to 200ns. Gear integration was used to speed the simulation while Tmax was set to 200n in order to maintain accuracy. In Figure 3 we see the result when the load is shortcircuited by changing the switch resistance from 5Ω to 1mΩ in 1µs. Figure 4 shows a 5Vto3V, 300mA, 1MHz buck regulator example as described in the Siliconix Low Voltage DCtoDC Converter design guide. The design uses the high speed Si9145 switchmode controller and low onresistance (Pchannel 20mΩ Si4435, Nchannel 100mΩ Si9952) Little Foot® power Mosfets. Traditionally, SMPS simulations, especially with this level of detail, can take a long time to simulate. New modeling techniques, however, have brought the simulation
9.00
Inductor Current in Amps Switch Current in Amps
5.00
VOUT (5V > 0V)
Figure 3, The response to a short circuiting of the load
1 1
7.00
3.00
5.00
1.00
2
1.00
3.00
3
3 1.00
2 3.00
180U 190U 200U TIME in Secs 210U 220U
54
This simulation (.0U V(14) VOUT V(13) VCHOKE R11 10K V(15) VGATE 15 Si4435 13 L1 4. modeling.81K 100N 2. Intusoft will be releasing a book on the subject entitled “SMPS Simulating with SPICE 3” in the near future. 2 3 1 Figure 5. The . Starting the simulation presented some problems.0U 8395 1:37:25 3.38 0 time 75. Steve is a design consultant specializing in SMPS simulation.81K Si9145 R5 9.01U 3 C5 . Thanks to Steve Sandler.29 1.2UF 16 4 R3 3. Unless the VDD capacitors (C1/C2) are initialized with ICs (IC=5V) the VDD pin will start low and ramp to 5V and the switching action will not begin.1UF 1 R4 100 X1 SI9145 VDD MODE DMAX VS OUT PGND UVLO ENABLE OTS COSC ROSC 2. Stay tuned to the newsletter for more information.09K time down.37 Tran VOUT 161M 0 time 14 75. and design.Power Specialist’s Figure 4.2UF V1 5 C2 . Analytical Engineering (602) 8907191 for his contributions to this article and the Power Supply Library.7UH R7 221 C7 C6 R8 6.1UF COMP FB NI REF GND 12 10 8 7 6 C11 100P V(7) VOSC R2 10K Si9952 D4 SSR 8045 C8 2200P R9 6.tran UIC keyword is used to initialize the internal logic in the 9145. New Simulation Tutorial Book for SMPS Designers For those interested in pursing more indepth SMPS simulation techniques and modeling.32K 5 R6 1K 2 9 C10 10PF C3 . C1 2. Close up view of the buck regulator switching waveforms. 55 . Startup transient Tran of a buck regulator using the I(L1) 8395 1:37:51 Siliconix Si9145.tran 50n 75n 0 10n) takes only 450s on a 486/25.
86N VJ=.71M TT=1.040 0.079 .4P VJ=.92 1. 300V 20A several .1M N=1.786 0. and SSR8045 (0.75 XTI=4) . and a number of schottky diodes.75 XTI=4) . SSDI has .102 CJO=211.9E5 RS=.6N BV=486 created +IBV=100U M=.4V drop @ 20A) power diodes. XTI.MODEL SRM3UF D (IS=9. Over 40 AsianPacific BJT and FET models are also included.MODEL SRM5SOFT D (IS=4.6N BV=303.74M N=2. 500V 20A ISSPICE4 . Forward voltage.344E7 BV=1111 new +IBV=100U M=.5 RS=. CA. (Irvine.252 CJO=669.458 RS=1.4P .63M N=11.0210 N=7. How Accurate Are The Models? The accuracy of the models is controlled by the SPICE parameters. 45V 40A .75 XTI=4) . SSDI Provides ISSPICE4 Rectifier Models Solid State Devices Inc.78 TT=65. over 100 TIP Power BJT models.15) .002 %Error 0.5 +IBV=100U M=. +CJO=2. More models are forthcoming and will be available on future Intusoft Newsletter floppies for subscribers. (714) 6707734) has created models of their SRMx.MODEL SRM6UF D (IS=59.1P VJ=. a TL431 voltage reference. 100V 20A Figure 9. 500V 20A power .6M RS=.75 M=. N.5 TT=129.1P VJ=.39 CJO=678. The diode models were made using average measurements from 10 randomly selected parts of each type.042 0.7E5 RS=. plus the models applicable to the switching converter example in Figure 10.75 XTI=28) .57M N=2 BV=50 IBV=5M devices.787 0.34 + IBV=100U BV=674 TT=30N EG=1.838 0. SSDI specializes in Power semiconductors.MODEL SSR8045 D (IS=26M RS=3. The following table provides the actual measured and simulated data along with the error.96 TT=11.MODEL SRM1UF D (IS=4.738 0.77M N=2.92 1. IF (A) 5 10 20 50 100 Simulated VF 0.333 TT=14. and EG parameters.116 0.838 0.75 XTI=58) . The SPICE model netlists are shown in Figure 9.2N BV=1237 diode +IBV=100U M=.739 0. 600V 20A models for . RS. All of the simulations were performed using the ICAP/4Windows software. SDR937.52U BV=1128 their line of +IBV=100U M=.MODEL SRM5 D (IS=.410 CJO=709. including temperature effects.348 CJO=467.044 0.359E6 N=2. The Intusoft Newsletter subscription disk contains new models from Analog Devices.6 VJ=0.45 TT=65.MODEL SDR937 D(IS=8.SMPS Design T h e I n t u s o ft Mo d e l i n g C o r n e r In this edition of the modeling corner we present models from SSDI and Intusoft Tech support.95E7 RS=1.002 Measured VF 0.7P VJ=.93M CJO=600P M=0. 700V 100A SSDI Diode Rectifier Models 56 .3P VJ=. is characterized by the IS.
but did require that the maximum transient time step be specified.00M time 5. Initial conditions were set on the output LC filter elements.83 R1 2.08U SPICE 2 model for R3 4 6 10 the TL431 regulator.99 4. The test circuit (Figure 11) achieved a simulated efficiency of over 70% for a 5 volt output.2mV Vin=10V Io=1A 41.59 + CJO=45P VJ=.Power Specialist’s High Efficiency StepDown Converter . The circuit did not require these initial conditions to start the circuit switching.00M time 5.5U Figure 10. Other simulated results are shown in the figure.11 .1U Tran I(RL) 8295 20:44:1 1.49 C2 .7K 4.SUBCKT TL431 7 6 11 ∗ K A FDBK .00M High Efficiency StepDown Converter 57 . all contained within a three pin package. The programmable output voltage feature permits a wide range of output voltages by changing one resistor value.2K 24. high efficiency stepdown converter using the TL431 voltage regulator.00 R2 1K X2 TIP115 13.04 998M 4. Simulated Results Vin=1020V Io=1A 200.00 V(9) VOUT D1 DN5822 8.75 M=.18 Test Line Regulation Output Ripple Output Ripple Efficiency Conditions Measured Results 53mV 50mVpp 100mVpp 82% Figure 11.5N RS=25M N=1.6 C1 2 6 .4M R4 10 R6 4. The ISSPICE4 simulation revealed that the converter operation is very sensitive to parasitics which explain some of the differences between simulated and measured results.83mVpp Vin=20V Io=1A 125.00M L1 150U 5. R5 4.4 I(V1) 15.0 Q3 MPSA20 R3 4.73 D1 5 8 DCLAMP D2 7 8 DCLAMP V4 5 6 2 G1 6 2 1 11 0. G2 6 8 3 6 1.4N BV=34 IBV=1M) V1 1 6 2.MODEL DCLAMP D (IS=13.25K RL 5 R8 51K C1 .7K V1 15 2.495 R1 6 2 15. The R2 2 3 100 C2 3 4 .52 7. The TL431 performs the function of both a voltage reference and a voltage comparator.302 TT=50.58mVpp Vin=15V Io=1A 70% Tran V(9) 8295 20:43:50 5.ENDS The TL431 programmable precision reference (Figure 10) may be used to implement a low cost stepdown switching converter.7K 5.01U C3 R7 470U 50. along with measured results from the Motorola Linear IC data book. Low cost.
power dissip. All Rights Reserved ISSPICE4 Scripting Gives You More Power By Scott Frankel.. etc. (310) 8330710 Fax (310) 8339658 Copyright © Intusoft. using a series of commands rather than by pulling down a menu or by double clicking a part and changing its value. IsSpice4 will autorun the entire script when the simulator is started.ICL Script Example #2 save all allcur allpow Save data view tran v(3) Real time display function rms(vec) sqrt(mean(vec*vec)) Create a function dowhile rms(v(3)) > 400m Do script while V(3) > .) • Watch for any operating condition or combination of circuit variables and make decisions on what test path to choose based on the results • Set Simulation Breakpoints on any circuit condition • Run any SPICE analysis. either batch style or interactively.SMPS Design Intusoft Newsletter Personal Computer Circuit & System Design Tools Issue #47 Aug. The ICL contains over 60 commands that allow you to: • Sweep any circuit variable (resistance. Parameter Sweeping . complex measurements. Any number of analyses can be run. Analytical Engineering One of the most powerful features of Intusoft’s SPICE is the Interactive Command Language (ICL). DC.) IsSpice4 Scripting Gives You More Power Scott Frankel Excerpts from the August 1996 Intusoft Newsletter #47 ICL scripts can be run in one of two ways.6 Break if OR condition is true tran 1n 100n Run a transient analysis alter @q5[temp]=@q5[temp]+10 Increment the temperature print @q5[temp] rms(v(3)) Save data end End loop 58 . or transient analysis. line by line. in any order. ICL is basically a macro or scripting language.CIR file. In both cases.25 when V(8)>1. the simulation is not limited to only 1 AC. etc. 1996 Tel. voltage. it is also one of the most unused features.4 stop when @q5[p]<.ICL Script Example #1 view tran v(3) Display waveform in real time foreach param 2 4 6 Parameter values for dummy variable “param” alter @V7[DC]=$param Change the DC value of V7 to equal param tran 1n 200n Run a transient analysis print v(3) Save the data for V(3) end Do next parameter (if any) Repeating Loop W/Breakpoints . model parameters. then the script can be run interactively. Two example scripts are shown below. as many times as desired • Record data from anywhere in the circuit (curve families. If the netlist is placed in the input . If the script is placed in the Simulation Control Window inside IsSpice4. or test procedures. This article will attempt to illustrate the potential capabilities of ICL by demonstrating its ability to make complex simulations easy. You can use ICL to perform complex tasks. temperature. The latter method is useful for script debugging. Unfortunately.
59 . An ICL script (with explanations) used by ISSPICE4 to run a series of unattended AC simulations on the forward converter. You will notice that there are several inductors. Inject an AC current of 1 (magnitude) ALTER @Izout[ACMAG]=0 . Optional.Control > *. Save the output impedance waveform to the output file . Set LZIN = 1PH ALTER @IZIN[ACMAG]=0 . End the ICL control block *.1 C4 33U 10 V(9) OUTPUT LZOUT 100P 9 X15 XFMR IZOUT 1P R3 . Save all node voltages.TST . Get script (. Saves the input impedance waveform to the output file *The next section of code allow the circuit to measure output impedance ALTER @LZIN=1P . Set LOL = 10pH in order to close the loop ALTER @COL[CAPACITANCE]=10P .PRINT AC ZOUT *. Measure the gain in DB at node 9 ALIAS PHASE VP(9) . and input and output impedance with a single simulation. Measure the gain in DB at node 26 AC DEC 20 10 100K .ENDC .PRINT AC GAIN PHASE . capacitors. The simulation is driven by the ICL script in Figure 11. Measure the gain in DB at node 1 AC DEC 20 10 100K .01 4 FORWARD VIN VOUT 5 6 R13 . Set COL = 100 Farads ALIAS GAIN VDB(9) . Schematic of a buck converter.TST file . Set LOL = 100 Henries ALTER @COL[CAPACITANCE]=100 .01 D1 DN5811 12 D3 DN5811 8 L2 150U 26 C3 33U 11 R2 . Change input AC magnitude to zero ALTER @Izout[ACMAG]=1 .Power Specialist’s LZIN 100P 30 V2 28 1 L1 530U C1 .22U LOL 100P 2 C2 1U 3 V(9) VOUT R8 20K 27 COL 100P 29 V3 AC R9 20K 16 C8 1N C9 100P R11 47K 28 15 COMP FDBK REF VC OUT GND V(17) +5V 17 7 13 V1 15 IZIN 1P R1 33 X12 UC1843S R12 . Measure the phase at node 9 AC DEC 20 10 1000K . Save the Gain and Phase waveforms to the output file * The next section of code allows the circuit to measure input impedance ALTER @LOL[INDUCTANCE]=10P . Set LZIN = 100H in order to inject an AC signal * into the input in order to measure input impedance ALTER @IZIN[ACMAG]=1 . Generate IntuScope Waveform List *. Change output AC magnitude to 1A ALIAS ZOUT VDB(26) .1 RLOAD 3 VC RTN DUTY 19 V(13) VGATE Figure 10. Perform another AC analysis PRINT ZOUT . Turn off AC current source on the output of the converter ALIAS ZIN VDB(1) . and AC current and voltage sources in the schematic that do not affect the operation of the circuit. We will use these components to measure the frequency response.PRINT lines) out of the ICL. The ICL script is shown in Figure *INCLUDE ICL. Start of the Included ICL script SAVE ALL .CONTROL . necessary to print out waveforms later *The next two lines effectively open the control loop so we can check the loop response ALTER @LOL[INDUCTANCE]=100 . Perform an AC analysis PRINT GAIN PHASE . Perform another AC analysis PRINT ZIN . The circuit in Figure 10 is a forward buck derived converter.PRINT AC ZIN Figure 11. Set COL = 10pF in order to close the loop ALTER @LZIN[INDUCTANCE]=100 .
This capability could be used to run a Monte Carlo analysis or an Optimizer routine and return numerous parameters using only one IsSpice4 simulation file! Clearly the potential benefits of ICL suggest more investigation into this powerful tool.0 80. simulation.SMPS Design 80. called by the ∗INCLUDE statement. AEI offers engineering design.0 80.0 0 0 40.0 80. He currently works at Analytical Engineering Incorporated (602) 8907197. 11.0 80. The script.0 40. the .Control and .0 Output Impedance In dB Input Impedance In dB 40.0 40. and circuit modeling services.0 2 1 100 1K 10K 100K 80. Read the chapter on ICL in your IsSpice4 manual and start saving time today. 60 .Endc statements are required. Gain Phase plot (top) and Input/Output Impedance plot (bottom). these results would have taken three separate SPICE runs with three separate schematics and three separate netlists.0 2 0 0 1 40.0 1 80.0 40. Scott Frankel graduated from Arizona State University with a BSEE degree. In this batch style mode. is appended to the SPICE netlist and run when IsSpice4 is started.0 2 1 100 1K 10K FREQUENCY in Hz 100K Figure 12.0 40. Remember.0 PHASE in Deg GAIN In dB 40. The simple demonstration presented here is only a hint of the abilities of ICL. without ICL.0 2 80. The results of the ICL script are shown in Figure 12.
Power Specialist’s Magnetics Design and Modeling Authors Robert Martinelli. Intusoft 61 . Analytic Artistry Charles Hymowitz. consultant.
I 2 rms = I 2 dc + I 2 ac 62 .Magnetics Design & Modeling Designing a 12.5(. It is best described as an inductor because energy is intentionally stored in the core or core gap.9 Vsat = . The frequency range of the magnetics that can be designed extends from DC to over 5MHz. = =. temperature rise. on the other hand.5 Adc It can be shown that the RMS value of a trapezoidal waveform is found from the following equation: Irms = 1 2 D ( Ipk ⋅ Imin) + ( Ipk − Imin) 3 Likewise. the switching regulator usually has a current limit which is 10 to 20% greater than the maximum load condition. as evidenced by the fact that the current on both the primary and secondary are equal to zero during a part of the switching cycle. we will use the inductor design features of Magnetics Designer to create a flyback transformer. The basic voltage and current waveforms and structure of a flyback regulator. the primary winding peak current (see Figure 1) is 1. the flux in the flyback transformer (inductor) returns to 0 on every cycle.5 Tamb = 50 deg C Vpri 29. required inductance. and the desired voltage and current for each winding.8 Apk. Unlike finite element analysis (FEA) programs Magnetics Designer is a synthesis tool as well as an analysis tool. Therefore. Magnetics Designer does the rest through it sophisticated synthesis algorithms. core type. especially if you are in the initial design stages.5) 2 = 2 = 2. The first step is to determine the specifications. The Edt across the primary winding is found from the equation: 29.5 Adc 2 2 On the secondary. email: charles@intusoft. The required parameters for the (inductor) flyback design are: core type and material. Here we will take a look at how Magnetics Designer can be used to design a flyback transformer.7V Vout = 5V Freq.5 Apk. the FEA analysis times can be quite lengthy. Edt = DVpk (. USA. Although it's called a transformer. Edt (voltseconds). Magnetics Designer. energy is released to the output.5 + 2.297mH 1 4 C1 I1 2.3 Duty Cycle = . the principal magnetic component in a flyback regulator is actually an inductor. Charles Hymowitz.5)(29. With Magnetics Designer all you need to design a transformer is the operating frequency.7) = = 2. energy is stored in the inductor. That is. operates virtually instantly allowing far more optimizations and “whatif” scenarios to be explored. primary and secondary (AC and DC) currents.5A Ipri 2. It is unique in the marketplace.7V 1.97 x10 − 4 V − sec 50kHz fsw Although. using principles derived from Fourier analysis.5A Q1 Vsat Figure 1. In addition. The type of core we will use is the EI Ferrite from TDK.com October 1998 Magnetics Designer is a versatile tool that designs all types of layer wound transformers and inductors. This negates the interactive nature of the design process. Since the turns ratio is 1/5. = 50kHz Kt = 1/5 Vfwd = . Therefore. The average (DC component of current) on the primary is: Idc( pri ) = D( Ipk + Imin) . the peak current reflected to the secondary is 9 Apk. The result is a fully designed and characterized magnetic meeting all of your specifications. the average current is Idc( sec) = (1 − D)( Ipk + Imin) .5(7. operating frequency. A flyback regulator is designed to operate in the discontinuous mode. we choose Ipk = 1. During the “off” time of the transistor.5W 50kHz Flyback Transformer Robert Martinelli.5A 0A Kt 5 Isec Vout 3 2 Ipri Isec V1 30Vdc Lp=. With FEA based tools you must enter far more information about the design than you usually have. Intusoft. Magnetics Designer includes a database of over 7000 cores and dozens of materials including newly developed exotic materials. During the “on” time of the transistor.5 + 15) .5A . even hours. and the peak primary current.
Since the primary winding occupies 2. The information for each temperature rise specifications.5 turns are required on the primary and that two windings will not share space on a single layer. some slight adjustments are required to achieve exact turns ratios. and minimum inductance entered. the build algorithm have 47 turns and the secondary will have 10 turns. the inductance on the secondary is 11. it was determined that this problem was primarily due to increased AC resistance on the secondary side.765 primary to achieve and exact turns ratio of 5/1. wrappers. if the program The window fill algorithm calculates the build assuming calculates that 46.6 turns are required on the secondary. The calculates the height of that winding as if it consumed designer would then have to adjust the turns on the two full layers. Using the Irms equations above.1 layers. To test this assumption. Also the turns ratio was defined to be 1/5. that still meets the fill and Figure 3. The maximum allowed temperature rise is set 30 degrees C. Magnetic Designer winding is shown in the center of the screen under “Windings 1 and 2”.7 Arms respectively. 9. the AC currents were calculated to be . maximum allowable temperature rise. program. The requirements were entered on the Inductor screen (Figure 2). if a winding has 1. The ambient temperature was set to 50C in the Options tab. generally met the design requirements with the exception Turns are always rounded to the nearest integer by the that the turns ratio was not exactly 1/5. 63 . Figure 2. Therefore. the primary will That is. foil windings were substituted for the magnet wire on the secondary. the RMS value of I(t)Idc). and so forth. This resulted in a significant temperature rise increase. different wire sizes. Foil windings typically have very low AC resistance since the thickness required to achieve the desired crosssectional area is usually much thinner than the skin depth of corresponding wire.9 uH. The total time to layers and the secondary occupies 1. Edt. in an effort to generate a design with the minimum power losses in the smallest core possible. Therefore.54 and 2.297 mH. heavy formvar (HF) wire was substituted for the Litz wire. Solving for Iac.Power Specialist’s where Iac is the RMS value of the AC component of current (i.e. For example. current peak.746 and 3. Litz wire was chosen due to the high operating frequency. The inductance on the primary was originally specified as .68 Arms respectively. It tries different stranding arrangements. respective fills and temperature rises. AC/DC current. After closely reviewing the results. is under 1 second! The initial design. shown in Figure 3. Therefore. Several design changes were tried to improve the inductor design. and end margins to prevent shorts between turns and other windings. After the Apply button is clicked the program performs thousands of calculations. Since a foil winding was used. The last geometry is the one the program finally settled on. the program adds layer insulation. It was originally assumed that Litz wire was necessary to avoid excessive losses due to potential high frequency AC resistance problems (skin and proximity effects).818 layers the calculate the full design specifications on a Pentium 133 window is not utilized to its fullest efficiency. The initial design using Litz wire. provides a list of the cores it tried along with their The performance of the whole design is shown on the right side. the RMS current for the primary and secondary windings is calculated to be . The inductor screen with frequency. The Apply button generates the rest of the flyback design.
Magnetics Designer provides a simple and fast way to design custom transformers and inductors. To maintain the inductance at approximately . Magnetics Figure 6. Both the Winding and User Data fields scroll revealing more information like leakage inductance. magnetizing inductance and more. The final design meeting all specification is shown in Figures 4 and 5. 64 . At this point you explore the design further by splitting windings or trying different materials. layers. weight per winding. and AC/DC resistance. lower AC and DC resistance. Here.044 cm. the Gap was increased to . strands. The SPICE model can be used with ANY SPICE program. a key part of virtually all electronic systems and many EMI filtering applications. lower temperature rise. and flux density. As shown in Figure 6. This allows you to simulate the device while it is being built.3 mh. The User Data fields show the temperature rise. losses. winding capacitance. It has a slightly lower peak flux. wire size. Magnetic design is an art that is slowly being lost as experienced designers retire. The software even designs planar magnetics. fill. Products like Magnetics Designer help fill the void by providing intelligence and design expertise in a software tool. the Windings window show the required turns. Figure 5. weight. A SPICE model (SPICE 2G syntax) can be produced along with a reconfigurable schematic symbol. the number of turns on the primary was set to 45 so that the turns ratio from primary to secondary would be exactly 5/1. Next. Figure 4. The flyback design using heavy formvar and Foil windings. The result of these changes are shown in Figure 4. an important part of many new high frequency applications. and uses a smaller geometry than the initial design. A winding sheet and design summary report can be printed out or copied to Microsoft Excel.Magnetics Design & Modeling Designer can also produce a SPICE model and schematic symbol for the magnetic.
Intusoft. Throughout the offtime of the transistor. forward biasing D1. While the voltage is positive. Vfwd is the rectifier forward voltage. Magnetics Designer only needs to consider the case which results in the maximum transformer ratings. the inductor current increases towards its maximum value while magnetizing current builds up in the transformer. D1 9 1 3 10 2 Vpri Np L2 Ns D3 L1 C3 7 6 5 8 C1 400U R2 4 D2 SSR8045 Ipri R1 . and Kt is the turns ratio transformer. The following equations describe the converter behavior: Output voltage: Vo = Dk t η Vin where Vo is the output voltage. Therefore. PP Inductor Current: ∆I l = (1 − D )Tsw (Vo + Vfwd ) L where IL is the peaktopeak inductor current. we will assume that the converter is operating in the continuous mode. indicating that the transformer flux has returned to the residual flux of the core material. USA. thus reversing the polarity across the transformer and providing a voltage to reset the flux. we will synthesize a transformer for a forward converter which is similar to that shown in Figure 1. when the current in the transformer winding reaches zero. Isec When the transistor turns on. However. and Ro is the load resistance. The forward converter waveforms are shown in Figure 2. For the forward converter. the voltages on the starts (dotted ends) of the transformer are driven positive.Power Specialist’s Designing a 50W Forward Converter Transformer With Magnetics Designer Robert Martinelli. When the transistor turns off. The second case is described as operating in the discontinuous mode. Charles Hymowitz. Generally. Magnetics Designer can synthesize transformers for designs like this forward converter. In this example. email: charles@intusoft. the voltage across the winding reduces to zero. However. However. the inductor current will not return to zero and the converter is described as operating in the continuous conduction mode. inductor current decays. the inductor current returns to zero during the off time.com October 1998 In order to introduce you to the power of Magnetics Designer. D is the duty cycle of the switch. Ave.01 M1 Nm L3 Vsec Figure 1. Key waveforms for the forward converter. Tsw is the switching time and L is the inductance. If the inductance is small. Inductor Current: I l ( ave ) = I o = Vo Ro where Io is the output current. the only path for magnetizing current to flow is through D2. transformer magnetizing must continue to flow. Ton Tsw Figure 2. η is the efficiency of the converter. Vin is the input voltage. this is low line where the RMS current in the wind 65 . if the inductance is large enough. a converter must operate over a wide dynamic range of input voltage and load current.
on the average. Figure 3. and an 8µH inductor. on a first order basis. 66 .5 = 11. The electrical requirements for the three windings are then entered on the Transformer design screen (Figure 4). that the ambient air temperature is 25 degrees C.508. the peaktopeak inductor current is 3. and that the maximum desired surface temperature is 75 degrees C (50 degree rise).06 Aac (rms) = 40.) are entered at the top. We also assume that the converter operates at 100 kHz. the DC current is: The transformer’s design assumptions are summarized below: Core Type Material type Max Temp. For a unipolar trapezoidal waveform. after using the Core Browser to make an initial core selection. Rise Max.05/3.22)/2 = 5A The RMS current in the winding is given by: Irms = 1 D I p × I m + ( I p − I m )2 = 7.7V.44 Aac (rms) = 11. The average voltage across the secondary is (Vo+Vfwd)/D = 5V+. etc. be equal to the output voltage plus the rectifier drop. Ferrite. with a frequency of 100kHz. the core losses. The Core Browser will select the smallest core that can handle the frequency and power specified.4 V).5 (50%). Ipk (Ip) is therefore 11.7V/.05A The required turns ratio is then Vpkpri/Vpksec = 3. Magnetics = F (High Frequency.508) and the AC component of current is 1. C data) = 50 deg C = 25 deg C = 90% = Half Wave = 57 Watts = 100 kHz = Square Wave = 40 V ave = 1. the flux type is half wave. the Core Browser is used to make an initial core selection.78A (Ip=Idc + Ipp/2.43 Adc = 1. Im=Idc . the transformer output voltages should be somewhat greater than 5. is 40 V while Vpksec is 11. are unaffected by line and load changes. Therefore. A forward converter has a flux swing which begins at Br and achieves a maximum value. and additional effort would be required in order to calculate the transformer requirements.5(11. The output power is 57 watts (5. The pencil icons indicate fields where data can be entered. which is the same as the peak voltage for a square wave. window fill.11A 3 Initial Computer Generated Design The core material and family are first selected in the Core Selection screen (Figure 3).4 V average = 5 Adc = 5. the waveforms for each winding would be more complicated.508). Without this assumption. Knowing the DC and RMS currents. 100 deg. (The average voltage on the primary. The Core selection screen. The transformer output voltage must. Window File Flux Type Output power Frequency Waveform Type Vpri Idcpri Iacpri Vsec(5v) Idc(5v) Iac(5v) Vflyback Iac(40v) = Pot Core. Since the average output voltage from the regulator is maintained at a constant. Bmax.0 V average = 200m Aac (rms) I dc = D ( Ip + Im) 2 = . Amb. Temp.Ipp/2). Max. The maximum required steady state output for our design is +5Vdc at 10Adc with a minimum input voltage of 40V.4V.Magnetics Design & Modeling ings is maximum and duty cycle is .78 + 8.56A. The eye glasses indicate calculated “per winding” results that can be viewed.43 Adc (=5/3. After entering the power and frequency.7 Vdc x 10 Adc). Finally. the AC current is: I ac = I 2 rms − I 2 dc = 5. Assuming that the 5 volt output uses conventional rectifiers. Design constraints (temperature rise. The User Data section on the right contains input and output parameters associated with the entire design. Using the previous equations.44 Arms (=5. The DC (Idcpri) current on the primary is 1. it is assumed that the inductor ripple current and transformer magnetizing current are small relative to the various winding currents and that they do not appreciably affect the RMS current in any of the transformer windings.
Magnetics Designer will try to find the wire size. It may be a good candidate for further optimization. all while fulfilling the stated constraints of window fill and temperature rise. While the initial design is satisfactory. in Figure 5. Figure 4) and then select the Apply button. we must first check 67 . For each core. As we have demonstrated in this case. Figure 7. This includes the window fill and temperature rise for each core that has been tried in the selected family. These may include changes to the wire type. You can lock a particular core geometry in order to experiment with a different design improvements. respectively. Magnetics Designer may select a different core geometry. The History of Core Trials screen shows which cores were tried by Magnetics Designer. the powerful algorithms in Magnetics Designer will normally produce a design that meets all stated requirements without any further user input required! Figure 6 shows that the layers are utilized quite well. The Transformer design screen after entering the basic electrical requirements. The History of Core Trials dialog. As shown in Figure 7. low AC/DC resistance. and the Trise and Window fill values are approximately 42. Since we have changed the core geometry. and hints on smaller cores that may. it is best to “lock down” the core geometry (Figure 7). The Transformer screen and resulting design values after Magnetics Designer’s optimization. and make it difficult to optimize a particular design. Magnetics Designer will iterate the design for successively larger cores until the temperature rise constraint is met or a new core can’t be selected. and number of strands required to achieve the specified voltages. displays the results of the optimization process. with some adjustment.38 degrees C and 67%. Figure 6. number of parallel windings. Figure 5 shows that the smaller 22mm x 13mm core almost made the temperature rise. it could be improved. The History of Core Trials dialog provides some recommendations on possibly improving the design. turns.Power Specialist’s When the New option is selected. The resulting transformer performance for the selected core (23mm x 17mm) is then displayed in the Transformer screen. be able to handle the design parameters. depending on the data changed in the Transformer screen. the 22mm x 13mm core is selected and the “Lock Geometry” option is checked. To start the initial calculation and optimization of the transformer design. we first check the New box (bottom right. For instance. Figure 4. Therefore. Figure 5. This geometry change may dramatically affect the overall transformer performance. and optimal layer utilization.
leakage inductance and parasitic capacitance (Figure 10). Let’s try one of the previous suggestions and split winding 1 and 2 (once each) and then perform the New and Apply operations. The split winding information can be shown by scrolling the spreadsheet window. We can set the maximum number of strands per winding via the Max Strands field. With the New and Lock Geometry options checked. You can move the windings around and change the layer configuration by using the << and >> buttons at the bottom of transformer dialog. rather than adding a new winding. Magnetics Designer displays a wealth of calculated data in the spreadsheet (left) and User Data (right) areas. The transformer design after splitting the highest power winding. small formvar. The ID numbers account for the paralleling of the various windings.e. square. we will change Max Strands from 8 to a more manageable 4. Magnetics Designer Has Unique Features Magnetics Designer has two very unique features. The resulting transformer screen then looks like Figure 8. In this case. Figure 10. we will explore how you can derive your own customized output results.Magnetics Design & Modeling New and then select Apply so that Magnetics Designer can update the windings characteristics for the newly selected core. which is above our set constraint. Magnetics Designer will “stir up” the windings using the selected geometry in order to arrive at the best set of characteristics. double square. Figure 9 shows the resulting transformer screen which now meets all of the design goals again. which could be costly to manufacture. Splitting the highest power winding can provide several benefits (i. Magnetics Designer knows that we are splitting a winding. The simple operation of splitting the windings achieves the design goals for this smaller core. this series of buttons and fields provides access to both input variables and output results. Figure 11 shows the SPICE screen 68 . We find that the temperature rise is now 56. Magnetics Designer will recalculate the AC resistance based on the new configuration. The transformer design after setting the maximum number of strands per winding to 4. The first is the ability to produce a SPICE Model of your transformer or inductor design. we are able to see other calculated design data such as the efficiency. or pcb traces (for planar magnetics). Later in this article. Located in the User data section of the Transformer screen. The Apply button alone (without New checked) is primarily used for minor design changes. four of the windings now require 8 strands. and automatically splits the current between the two windings. Magnetics Designer also allows you to change the type of wire for each windings. It should be noted that the AC resistance calculation includes both skin and proximity effects. Figure 8. However. By scrolling down the main spreadsheet window and the User Data button column on the right. Figure 9. foil. better temperature rise for the same core area). litz. You have the choice of heavy formvar. Changes that affect the transformer geometrically should be accompanied by a recycling of the design using the New option.41 degrees.
Parameters such as core area and flux density.2 Tran 1. OrCAD.01 6 R2 . The model includes all the core and copper losses.5K 69 .31M 14 5 11 time 1.57 Tran 1.99 Tran 1.30M time 1. and power electronics devices.03 Tran 1. leakage and magnetizing inductance and winding capacitances. power losses.08U 19.6M Tran 1. and additional equations may be added.30M time 1. and Protel compatible schematic symbols are produced.5 VIND VSEC 26.285 to . and ambient temperature parameters.50M 5.31M Vsec C7 4700P 4 6. power semiconductors. AC/DC resistance. the transformer turns ratio has been changed from . leakage inductance and capacitive parasitics. This allows you to immediately use your new design in a schematic capture program and perform circuit simulations of your entire power system. As an example of this capability. 9.Power Specialist’s which allows you to configure a schematic symbol and save the resulting SPICE 2 compatible subcircuit netlist. thus changing the duty cycle to approximately 25%. When coupled with Magnetics Designer. The second unique feature is the exposure of virtually all of the design variables used in the program.01 VOUT 4.26 @V1[I] 8. Magnetics Designer produces a SPICE model of your transformer or inductor design. Magnetics Designer allows the user to freely create new output measurements and even affect the optimization criteria of the program.50M X4 50WMAG C2 400U D2 SSR8045 R1 . resistance values.30M 756M ISENSE R8 4. Figure 12 shows a SpiceNet schematic and IsSpice4 simulation results of a 50W forward converter using our transformer design.047U Figure 12. and mechanical specifications are all available.8u 4 2 time 1. The leakage inductance is calculated based on a reluctance model while the capacitance values are based on a charge conserving representation.5. core area. IsSpice4 simulation results of a 50W forward converter.31M R10 2. core loss.5 5.01U 18 15 21 IS RT/CT VC OUT V4 13 GND Pulse 0 15 R9 2.7 8 1 6 time 1. Figure 13 shows an example of a new temperature variable which was created using the copper loss.35U Tran 0 VIND time 1.30M time 1. the two make a complete circuit design and analysis system that no other software vendor can match. The transformer design and its SPICE model were generated by Magnetics Designer.31M ISense 15 R5 100 15 D3 DN4150 17 40 L4 10M C4 680P L3 1U R3 10 26 R4 1K RTCT X9 LT1243 VComp COMP REF 7 X12 PSW1 12 26 26 14 FDBK 16 16 3. Figure 11. IsSpice4 includes models for many PWM ICs.80 @L3[I] 372M Tran 1.7 D1 SSR8045 41 30 VOUT X10 MP58121 3 VOUT 251M Tran 0 9 34.13 D4 DN4150 R12 4. Both user input and calculated output parameters are available. 3 1 IVcc 4 14 V1 2 L1 18.59 VCOMP 3.30M 5.30M time 1.5K R11 10K C3 4700P 12 VREF 12 Q1 QN2222A R12x 10 47K 19 R13 1K C9 . thermal conductivity.31M 7. In this particular simulation.31M C8 . SpiceNet.
An example of a user generated equation that was added to the User Data area of the Transformer screen. Magnetics Designer Reports Magnetics Designer produces a complete report of the characteristics of your design in the form of an electrical performance summary and a winding sheet. 70 .Magnetics Design & Modeling Figure 13. The result of the equation will be shown in the User Data field next to the button. The Winding Sheet contains the manufacturing information for your transformer. This feature gives Magnetics Designer extreme flexibility and opens up many design boundaries for exploration. Output from a typical report will appear as follows: Figure 15. and User Data fields. Figure 14. transformer or inductor screens. A summary of the electrical performance of your magnetic design includes all the information found in the core screen.
France Charles Hymowitz. consultant. Analytical Engineering Services 71 . Intusoft Larry Meares.Power Specialist’s Signal Generators Authors Christophe BASSO. Intusoft Steve Sandler. Sinard.
4)} R6 22 26 1k C6 26 0 {DT/(1000*41. This difference between the levels is made through the RC networks R1C1 and R4C5. These logical functions can easily be implemented using INTUSOFT’s IsSpice4 (SanPedro.6V .20)<100MV ? {VHIGH} : {VLOW}. The input clock is TTLCMOS compatible. MOTOROLA Semiconductor.SUBCKT DEADTIME 1 50 51 {DT=500N VHIGH=10V + VLOW=100M RS=10} * Clock_In Q Qbar * Developed by Christophe BASSO (FRANCE) RIN 1 0 1MEG B6 17 0 V=V(1)>2V ? 10 : 0 R3 17 18 1k C3 18 0 {DT/(1000*4.MODEL DISCH D BV=100V CJO=4PF IS=7E09 M=. Toulouse. the generator becomes suitable to drive a synchronous rectifier.8 TT=6E09 VJ=.20)<100MV ? {VLOW} : {VHIGH} RCQB 24 70 100 CCQB 70 0 10P BQB 71 0 V=V(70) RSQB 71 51 {RS} R5 17 25 1k C5 25 0 {DT/(1000*41.Signal Generators IsSpice4 introduces a deadtime in your bridge simulations Christophe BASSO. This pulse will blank the signal delivered to the output and thus generates the required deadtime. This statement is also valid in Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) implementing synchronous rectification. R3 1k C4 10pF A1 XOR 7 A3 XOR Q R1 1k 1 5 C1 100pF A6 Clock R2 1k 3 6 4 8 A5 XOR A4 XOR Q\ A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 S 0 1 1 0 C2 100pF R4 1k C5 10pF Figure 1 The discrete solution to implement a deadtime generator .4)} D3 23 22 DISCH D4 18 17 DISCH B1 22 0 V=V(1)>2V ? 0 : 10 B2 19 0 V=V(17. By changing B5 line to V=V(26. France February 1998 Bridge or halfbridge designs using MOSFETs or IGBTs need some deadtime between the commutations to avoid any crossconduction current spikes. it is not always an easy task to write the stimuli so as to define a deadtime between commutations.14)} B4 21 0 V=V(25. In a simulation environment. The output of the A1A5 gates is then a short pulse whose width is dependent upon the RC constant of its input network. 72 .14)} B5 24 0 V=V(26. The principle uses the truth table of an XOR or XNOR gate which states that its output is at a high or low level when both inputs are at different logical states. as demonstrated by figure 2.45 N=2 + RS=. CA) Analog Behavioral Modeling features as demonstrated by the netlist given below: The subcircuit needs to be fed with the deadtime value as well as the output high and low levels.23)<100MV ? 0 : 10 .ENDS Figure 1 shows the solution built around a few logical XOR gates. especially when either frequency or pulse width are changed during the simulation run.18)<100MV ? 0 : 10 B3 20 0 V=V(22. Classical PULSE or PWL commands are impractical.19)<100MV ? {VLOW} : {VHIGH} RCQ 21 60 100 CCQ 60 0 10P BQ 61 0 V=V(60) RSQ 61 50 {RS} R4 22 23 1k C4 23 0 {DT/(1000*4.
P channel PWM pattern Time Figure 3 This picture clearly shows the absence of overlap between commutations + 7 3 8 QN QN IgQN R4 10m 9 L1 32.Power Specialist’s Vcc Idrivers IgQP 15 X2 SAWTOOTH SAW Clock X1 COMPAR QP pwm Vcc Dead Time QP For synchro Rectification QN X3 DEADDRV 14 QP Clk 2 V1 500m Isupply Bridge Vcc X5 MGSF3441 R1 10k 13 QP Vsupply QN R2 10k PowerIN Figure 2 Application schematic in synchronous rectification Figure 3 details the output signals delivered by the generator that clearly save the MOSFETs from any conducting overlap.4u 11 Vout C3 47uF X4 MGSF3442 D1 MBR120P 10 * R6 2 PowerOut * R3 100m N channel 73 .
then φ is replaced by φ + δ.0174533 * + PHASE)^2).866Vs + .0174533 * PHASE)^2))} G1 20 2 20 3 1M R2 7 0 100MEG R3 1 0 100MEG R4 3 0 100MEG R5 5 0 100MEG . V(φ = 0 Deg.5 * (. USA January 1988 SPICE sine wave sources can be delayed in order to get different phase relationships.0174533 * PHASE)^2))} + {(1+. The phase shifting capacitor is used to form a generator.0174533 * PHASE * + (1 + . the generator needs to be controlled as though it were a piece of laboratory test equipment.0174533 * PHASE * + (1 + . Test equipment that performs these operations is not commonly available. the following equations are used to combine the 2 signals for each of the 3 phases. First.28319K*FREQ)} IC={VGEN} R1 2 20 1E6 I1 20 2 PULSE {VGEN*1U} 0 * MAKES UIC UNNECESSARY E1 5 20 20 2 1 V1 3 20 SIN 0 {VGEN} {FREQ} E2 7 20 POLY(2) 5 20 3 20 0 866. initializes the capacitor at time t = 0.5Vc The sign of the cosine term must be adjusted to account for the lag in the generator. however.866 *(1.5 * (. and the small angle trigonometric series approximation for δ is substituted as follows: SIN(φ+δ) = = SIN(φ)COS(δ) + COS(φ)SIN(δ) SIN(φ)(1 − δ2/2) + COS(φ)(δ − δ3/6) 74 .5Vc V(φ = −120 Deg) = −. In this circuit. The following circuit can be used to get a source that starts three separate phases immediately at the beginning of the simulation. percent to fractions and for the series expansion coefficients. Constants are used in the algebraic expressions for conversion from degrees to radians.5 * . FREQ is used directly in the sine wave generator and algebraically to define the phase shifting capacitor value. VGEN controls the amplitude of the sine wave generator.Signal Generators Three Phase Generator Larry Meares. the power of the SPICE simulator can be applied to help make correct design decisions early.5*(1. I1. IsSpice Subcircuit Netlist: .00M 500.) = Vs V(φ = 120 Deg) = COS(φ)Vs + SIN(φ)Vc = −.866Vs − . the capacitor initial condition must be computed automatically and second. With both sine and cosine components. Intusoft. remain at the initial starting value until the simulation reaches the specified delay. Algebraic expressions using the selected design parameters must be set up to define the various subcircuit element values.SUBCKT GEN3 3 7 1 20 C1 2 20 {1/(6. Vs = VGEN∗SIN(wt). Decisions that may otherwise have been made without adequate technical information.0174533 + * PHASE)^2). This 90 degree lagging signal is then summed with various weighting constants to give the desired waveforms. Vc = VGEN∗COS(wt).01 * MAGERR) * (. The pulse generator.866 * . Notice that the cosine generator must start initially at VGEN. a sinusoidal source starting with zero delay is integrated using a capacitor fed from a current source.166667 * (.166667 * (.00M E3 1 20 POLY(2) 5 20 3 20 0 + {(1 + .ENDS Three Phase Generator Source G1 C1 R1 E1 N EU TR AL K1 SU M 2 K2 E2 VP120 K1 SU M 2 K2 E3 VP0 VP240 When a small phase error is introduced.01*MAGERR)*(. Controlling the phase and magnitude error signals makes it possible to evaluate circuit performance parameters that may not be seen in the laboratory. The delayed sources. In instances like this. Several things must be done to make this a useful element.and turns off at t = 0+.
The IsSpice simulation results. BOT T OM : 5% . The simulation can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of these improvements under the conditions of unbalanced input power.Power Specialist’s The three phase generator source was tested in an application that used auxiliary transformers to make a 12 phase rectifier. This type of rectifier has advantages in improved power factor and reduced output ripple. 25 6 1 11 P H A S E 12 0 4 PHA S E 0 14 8 P H A S E 1 20 2 12 NE U T RA L 10 R1 100 5V/D IV 2M S/D IV 7 3 T OP: BALAN C ED . 2D EG U N BALAN C E 13 5 23 9 5A/D IV 2M S/D IV 75 . illustrates a significant second harmonic ripple in the output. shown next.
The output listing from Bits_Out. The pulse generator. however. Since we will generate 256 bit values this clock is 256 times greater than the output frequency. Using A State Machine To Generate A Sine ROM We could use the circuitry in Figure 6 to generate the pulse codes for other parts of a simulation. The data in the Output column is from Simulating Pulse Code Modulation Steve Sandler. node V(9) in the ISSPICE4 output file. V1. ISSPICE4 includes a state machine model that can store and play back the pulse code data. When repeated this string will possess a Fourier series consisting of a fundamental and some harmonics. is a series of ones and zeros and is the bit pattern representing the sine wave. The circuit in Figure 6 simulates a single bit pulse code representation of a sinewave. Looking at the crossprobed waveforms. The fundamental problem was generating a bit pattern for the sinewave reference. V2 is a sinewave used for a reference. another method is to utilize a string of ones and zeros. The following demonstrates an unusual task for ISSPICE4. it is much more efficient to code the digital output into a ROM. Table 2 shows a partial listing of the state machine input file. as could more values in the data table. Note that more sophisticated filters could produce lower distortion.Signal Generators Simulating Pulse Code Modulation There are applications. Flipflop X1 latches the data between clock pulses. B1 is a behavioral IfThenElse comparator that sets the output bit high if the output is lower than the sinewave reference value. The basis of the conversion is very similar to the conversion of a DC input to a DC output voltage. R1. low distortion sinewave reference. R5. such as uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) that convert a DC input voltage to a sinusoidal AC output voltage. Fortunately. is used as the clock. B2 level shifts the bit values to a zeroone format. While pulse width modulation is a possibility. Excerpts from the August 1995 Intusoft Newsletter #43 76 . The same circuit is easily extended to any number of phases. The goal is to provide a variable frequency and amplitude with low harmonics and a zero DC term. or sets the output bit low if the output is higher than the sinewave reference value. C1 and C2 filter the pulse coded waveform and reconstruct the sinewave. you can force most of the lower harmonics to zero and still provide a variable amplitude output that is both microcontroller friendly and free of a high frequency carrier. One of the more difficult aspects of DC to sinewave conversion is obtaining a regulated. you can see the bit patterns and the sinewave output at each filter stage. By picking all of your ones and zeros correctly.
7K 6D R Q S 2 C1 47N 9 B2 V= V(9) BITS_OUT 1.. The runtime performance of the state machine is far superior to the Figure 6 method (Figure 6: 79.00M V(1) VOUT 7 R5 47K 1 1...66 time 2. The model’s source code is available to those who might wish to expand its functionality and input formats. A 6 stage shift State 0 1 2 3 4 5 .50 seconds. State Machine circuit: 14. 0 > 254 0 > 255 0 > 0 Table 2.00M Figure 6. The Transition determines which state the machine will move to depending on the input.05 Tran V(9) 50.14 0 time 4. the input is held at 0 and the machine simply progresses state by state until state 255 where it then repeats..766u 4.00M 10:8:1 8795 10:8:17 1.68 V(7) FLTR1 V1 PULSE C2 8. The Output is the state machine output at the particular state. For example. Figure 7 uses the state machine to create a model for an 8 bit counter with the 256 bit ROM.. .63 1.. The Tstep value of 9. 0s 1s 1s Transition 0 > 1 0 > 2 0 > 3 0 > 4 0 > 5 0 > 6 .. the ISSPICE4 state machine is a C code model that is separate from the simulator..5 V(3) > 1 ? 1 : 0 1. Figure 6 node 9.5 : 2.00M Tran FLTR1 1.01 Tran FLTR1 8795 10:8:28 1. it could be possible for the state machine to accept ABEL or JEDEC descriptions.766u in the simulation’s .2N Tran OUT 0 time 4.99M) is important since this is the period of the sample. The clock frequency must be 256 times the desired sinewave frequency.99M time 2. . A portion of the sine wave and bit stream has been crossprobed. In addition.15 seconds.18 Tran VOUT 1. Note that by changing the clock frequency we can change the sine wave frequency.01 1. Figure 8 demonstrates a three phase sine wave reference circuit.99M 1. 253 254 255 Output 0s 1s 1s 0s 1s 1s .0M 8795 1. Selecting a different number requires a Tmax value which slows down the simulation. In this case.Tran statement (. Circuit used to generate a sine wave and the 1 bit code representing the sine wave..Tran 9. Three Phase Sine Reference As an extension to the single phase case. Pentium/75) and its improved performance will become significant over the course of many runs.Power Specialist’s 1.00M time 2.21 5 V2 SIN B1 V= (V(5)V(7)) > 0 ? 2.00M X1 FFLOP 4 CLK Q 3 R1 4. The input to the state machine generated by Figure 6 and used in Figure 7. 77 ..
6/95 [2] “SMPS Simulation With SPICE 3”. register is used to generate 3 quasisquare waves which are exactly 120 degrees apart.25 18 250M 5.7K V(5) VOUT 10 R2 47K C2 47N C3 8. #59. forthcoming from Intusoft V(2) CLK X1 FFLOP 2 CLK Q 8 V2 PULSE 5. however.Signal Generators V(8) VI0 8 A D 1 The A/D and D/A translational bridges are shown for clarity In0 4 9 Out0 D A Clock R3 4. This circuit generates the same sine waves shown in Figure 6. Steve Sandler. something that could be investigated with the ISSPICE4 Monte Carlo analysis. Each quasisquare wave is filtered by a second order active low pass filter.00M 15 Tran V(1) 250M 2. 78 . the first significant harmonic is the fifth.00M time 7. The 120 degree quasisquare waveform has the advantage of having no third harmonic content.00M X7 UA741 VCC 837M 2. Don Lancaster. The sinewave output distortion could be further reduced by using a higher order active filter. The taps at the flipflops are used to drive the active filters.00M Figure 8. Portion of the circuit used to generate a 3 phase sine wave.25 2. or replacing the quasisquare waveform with a more sophisticated waveform to eliminate several more harmonics. Only one of the 3 phases is shown.00M V(32) A 32 R5 190K C5 1500P Tran 0 3.25 V(3) Q1 3 5 X2 FFLOP CLK Q D R Q S V(1) Q2 1 6 A X3 FFLOP CLK Q D R Q S 33 X4 FFLOP V(7) Q4 7 CLK Q D R Q S 10 X5 FFLOP V(9) Q5 9 CLK Q D R Q S 11 X6 FFLOP V(13) Q6 CLK Q D R Q S 13 12 D R Q S Tran CLK V(3) Q1 V(1) Q2 R1 380K R2 380K 14 R4 190K C4 2200P C3 1200P 23 16 VEE 250M 2.92 Tran V(3) 5.00M time 7. References [1] “The Quest for magic Sine Waves”. a state machine model could be created to hold the waveform’s pulse codes. Circuit Cellar Ink.00M time 7. Care must be taken in the placement of the filters. The quasisquare waves are created by averaging 2 square waves which are phase shifted by 60 degrees. reducing the corner frequency of the existing filters. here a ROM (state machine) is used to driver the filter. since component tolerances could easily alter the phase angles between phases.00M time 7.2N 5 6 D V2 0 V(2) VCLK Clk Reset 3 2 Zero Figure 7. As in the previous case. Each waveform has a conduction angle of 120 degrees.
Sinard. IL Steve Sandler. Intusoft Larry Meares. France Charles Hymowitz. Analytical Engineering Services 79 . Arlington Heights. Intusoft Slim Petrie. consultant.Power Specialist’s Modeling For Power Electronics Authors Christophe BASSO. consultant.
Arlington Heights. A triac is a bilateral switch that can be triggered into conduction regardless of its polarity. Intusoft SPICE is the most popular program for simulating the behavior of electronic circuits. you can use SpiceMod.. The biggest stumbling block that engineers run into is turning vendor data sheet specifications into SPICE models that emulate real devices and run without convergence problems. like Triacs. and voltage and current characteristics in all four modes of operation. Lillian Ave. RH determines the holding current of the triac. Here is an approach which works well for an TRIAC and derives directly from data book parameters. The following paper describes the FIRST known SPICE subcircuit macro model for a Triac[1]. 7 W. Resistors and zener diodes are used to simulate the breakdown voltages and leakage currents. If adjusting the model parameters for the triac subcircuit seems a little daunting. F. The base of each transistor is connected to the collector of the other. MOSFETs. Models can be generated as fast as data can be entered. These resistors hold the triac off unless triggered by the gate or the holding current from a previous “on” condition. This produces positive feedback. Naturally. This forms a lateral resistor in the base (P) region and is shown as RH in the model. resulting in the required switching action. breakover voltage and current. This RH MT2 QN2 NOUT QP2 POUT QN1 NOUT RH QP1 POUT Gate MT1 Figure 1. Basic Triac structure Figure 2. Entering only the device type and maximum voltage and current ratings will produce a realistic model as all other parameters are scaled from them. Figure 4 shows the full triac subcircuit.Modeling For Power Electronics A Spice Model For TRIACs A. Introduction Berkeley SPICE is the most popular program for simulating the behavior of electronic circuits. where the cost of testing and possibly destroying devices is prohibitive. JFETs. Petrie. This program allows direct conversion of data book information to SPICE models for diodes. The biggest stumbling block most engineers run into is turning company specifications or vendor data sheets into SPICE device models that emulate real devices and run without problems. This is especially true for power devices. the emitter metallization overlaps the base of the NPN transistor. A similar resistor exists at MT1. Figure 5 shows the triac entry screen from SpiceMod. This model and method are used for the TRIAC in the SpiceMod program. Although this configuration has the basic triggering function of the triac. It is modeled by using two NPN/PNP transistor pairs connected backtoback as shown on the left of Figure 4. the more exact the model will be. zeners. SpiceMod is a software program that quickly converts data book parameters into SPICE model parameters. the more data you enter. IL 60004 Charles Hymowitz. Basic Triac subcircuit 80 . At MT2. Dependent sources are used to emulate the various triggering modes and to allow a wider range of trigger data to be entered. SCRs and now Triacs. Independent Consultant. bipolar transistors. it must be enhanced to emulate other important parameters such as off state leakage.
Controls reverse holding current RGP 8 3 54.5F BF=5 CJE=235P TF=25.4 2 GNP 51.trigger modes GNN 6 7 9 3 38. MT2. SPICE 2G. In this case.5F) . with RGP controls forward holding current DN 9 2 DIN .triggering modes RN 9 3 27. If the device is really “on”. Due to the fact Figure 4.MODEL NOUT NPN (IS=53.6 . thus the trigger current cannot be the same for both polarities. Because these models use standard SPICE syntax.8M 7 RH 75 6 RP 16. Conducts in G. a PNP transistor. SPICE 2G Triac model generated by the SpiceMod modeling program from manufacturer’s data sheet parameters.1M .4 . Higher drop diode conducts only in . it is necessary to add the “OFF” statement after the transistors in the . Data books may show the same values for all four gate trigger current and voltage modes. you can get an idea of the relationship between which data sheet parameters correspond to which SPICE model parameters.6 RGP 54.5 QN1 NOUT 3 5 DF DZ QN2 NOUT QP1 POUT 11 RF 40MEG 4 RG 26. Controls current in G+.SUBCKT for this same model. In a real triac.2 .8 . Diode to isolate G+.2M V(3) MT1 2N5568 values are shown GNN 38.trigger mode GP 7 6 10 3 26. Diode to isolate G. The gate connections still emulate the feedback to the gate. that there are two stable states (on and off) for the TRIAC. MT2. Forward breakdown diode DR 6 11 DZ . they can be used with any program that adheres to SPICE rules. MT2.7U) .19) . Along with the “Affects” column in Figure 5.ENDS Table 1. Figure 4 shows the SPICE subcircuit that was developed to solve these problems. so the OFF command has no effect on the .MODEL DIN D (IS=53. G+ with MT2.8M .modes . an NPN transistor.2M .1M DR DZ QP2 POUT 8 DN DIN RN 27. MT2. “OFF” keyword for Q devices QP1 6 11 3 POUT QP2 4 5 7 POUT DF 4 5 DZ .trigger mode RP 10 3 16.Power Specialist’s 1 V(1) MT2 MT1 RT2 52. Controls fwd holding current and trigger current RG 2 8 26. MT2.2 10 DP DIP V(2) GATE GP 26.8 9 RS 52. is connected to MT2 and QN1 in a positive feedback mode. the values are different in all four modes.SUBCKT model or SPICE may never evaluate the off condition or may hang due to the uncertainty.5F BF=20 CJE=235P CJC=46.mode . MT2+ trigger voltages DP 2 10 DIP . it is only necessary to enter the first mode gate voltage and current and let the program estimate the others for the most realistic model. QN1. 81 . G+. the gate must supply enough current to drive the shunting resistance to twice the gate voltage. when the gate is driven with the opposite polarity from the MT2 terminal.MODEL DZ D (IS=53. Controls current in G. Controls G+. Replacing the trigger transistors with diodes and voltage controlled current sources reduces the number of SPICE parameters needed and provides some isolation between the four modes of operation.MODEL POUT PNP (IS=53. regardless of what the data book limits say.9P TF=1. Controls “on” resistance RH 7 6 75 .8M .always requires more gate drive than other modes. Reverse breakdown diode RF 4 6 40MEG .5 IBV=10U BV=400) . with RGP controls VGT RS 8 4 52. Forward leakage current (controls IDRM). 400V 10A QN1 5 4 3 NOUT .trigger voltage .5F N=1. there is no stable “off” state. Limit devices can be modeled by entering limit device data.5 . SpiceMod guards against entering grossly unrealistic data and will attempt to produce the closest realistic model in these situations. However.5F N=1.8M makes it easy to generate models for custom or “house” devices. has a forward beta of 20 and is connected to the gate at its base. The OFF command causes SPICE to start the calculations assuming the off condition.MODEL DIP D (IS=53. Table 1 lists the .5U) . Controls G.trigger voltages GNP 4 5 9 3 51. Output Transistors QN2 11 6 7 NOUT .SUBCKT 2N5568 1 2 3 * TERMINALS: MT2 G MT1 Mot. The SPICE 2G compatible netlist for the triac is shown in Table 1 (next page).6 compatible Triac subcircuit. RT2 1 7 52. QP2. Controls G.
0M Figure 6. To do this you can issue the “OFF” keyword on the subcircuit transistor lines. Their superior simulation speed and idealized response can make them useful for investigating triac control circuitry. with power devices such as the triac. Fortunately. Figure 7 is a plot of MT2 voltage verses gate current using a 12 volt supply and a 100 ohm load resistor. The first mode gate current and voltage are controlled by RG and RGP. you will normally need models that exhibit 2nd order effects as well. Figure 6 shows the low current region of a Motorola 2N5568 triac with no input applied to the gate. The subcircuit parameters affected by each entered parameter are shown to right.0M 5.20K V(1) GATEV X4 2N5568 2 1 15. To make a new model. The gate negative mode makes use of diode DN. There are four gate trigger modes that must be modeled. and transconductance generator GN in the subcircuit to turn on transistors QP1 or QP2. For convenience. accuracy of the result. Simplified behavioral triac models are included with IsSpice4. Several FREE models are posted on the Intusoft Web Site.0M 0 25.) Triacs have two stable states. The more data that is entered. This curve was generated by holding the current to the gate at zero and sweeping the MT2 current from 50mA to +50mA. resistor RN. 1 1 800M 400 600M 0 400M 400 2 V(6) ANODEV 200M 800 6 2 IT2 1 0 1.Modeling For Power Electronics Figure 5. 82 . As they are entered the subcircuit values are calculated. Intusoft does. Table 2 lists the SPICE file used to generate this curve. The fourth mode gate current and voltage are controlled by resistor RE and the forward beta (BF) of QPG. Note that the device turns on at the specified 11 mA when MT2 is positive and at 31 mA of gate current when MT2 is negative. RN and GN in the model. Data sheet parameters (above left) used to create the SPICE Triac subcircuit (Table 1). this is combined with the fourth mode where the gate is also positive and MT2 is negative. Without them you can’t run realistic simulations. the OFF or ON command must be used to obtain the correct state. Therefore. The maximum voltage swings in the off state are determined by the VDRM specification. The trigger points (+6 and 10mA) are determined by the holding current. (Hint: any time SPICE is used to evaluate a bistable device.00M IT2 in Amps IG 15. DC analysis of the Motorola 2N5568 triac.00M 5. However. the more accurate the final model will be. Note that an NPN transistor could have been used in place of DN. Most other SPICE vendors do not offer such sophisticated power semiconductor models. GN is used to adjust the gate sensitivity when MT2 is negative and BF of QP2 is used to adjust the gate sensitivity when MT2 is positive. but a transistor model is more complex and the control parameters more difficult to calculate. data sheet values are entered into the SpiceMod entry screen. especially when you want to start a simulation with the triac in the off state. The slope of the curve at the zero axis is determined by the IDRM specification. it may be necessary to tell SPICE which state to use. The first mode is similar to an SCR with MT2 positive and the gate also positive. This method allows adjustment of gate sensitivity with minimum interaction.
R. or 12V * ^Set for the proper biasing if using transient RL 3 1 100 * ^Adjust for device. Jfets.PRINT TRAN V(1) V(2) *ALIAS V(1)=MT2 VOLTAGE *ALIAS V(2)=GATE VOLTAGE *ALIAS IT2=MT2 CURRENT *ALIAS IG=GATE CURRENT *INCLUDE TRIAC. 1991. With a keen appreciation for the problems of the working engineer.CIR used to test the DC and transient Triac performance.00 2. causing a discontinuity in the output. SpiceMod is compatible with all SPICE simulators and is available from Intusoft A.OPTIONS RELTOL=. F. REV3. thus the trigger current cannot be the same for both polarities. Lillian Ave.01 ITL1=500 ITL2=1500 *. regardless of what the data book limits say. the SpiceMod program will not allow grossly unrealistic values to be entered.TRAN 1u 1m UIC . 1988. F. Sidactors. This is far more desirable than receiving a “no convergence” message. To help SPICE converge. when the gate is driven with the opposite polarity from the MT2 terminal. 2. References: 1.. He can be reached at 7 W. Avant.05 0 1M X1 1 2 0 T435800 . where he was a Principal Staff Engineer and Dan Noble Fellow.05 . Mosfets. TRIACGT. The values are just made high enough to cover all devices and polarities.00 100. IEEE. Power Mos. Semiconductor Device Modeling with SPICE. Chen. 1981.TRIAC GATE TRIGGER CURVES . Lee. the device usually switches on or off. IGBTs.01 ITL1=500 ITL2=200 The increased iterations only occur when needed and the reduced accuracy is adequate for a switching circuit.2 GATE vs. In a real Triac. and Darlington BJTs and now models zeners and triacs. TIME in Secs 83 .LIB * ^ Use your library path and name.00 1. “Thyristor Device Data.Power Specialist’s SPICE Problems: When running a SPICE analysis using a bistable device like a TRIAC. IL 60004.PRINT DC V(1) V(2) . C. Sidac.” Motorola Inc.DC IG 0 . 2N5568 * ^ Change to desired device. SpiceMod models diodes. DL131. L. 2. a plot of MT2 voltage versus gate current using a 12 volt supply and a 100 ohm load resistor.CIR . Arlington Heights. the following OPTIONS statement is recommended: . where he welcomes your comments. and D. it doesn’t like discontinuities. McGrawHill. July. VCC 3 0 12V . IG 0 2 0 pulse 0 .. “Slim” Petrie is retired from Motorola Inc. Since SPICE makes new calculations starting with the previous values.00 10.0005 VCC 12 12 24 * ^ Gate Trigger Curve * Note: for some triac models the DC analysis will * not converge. A Practical SCR Model for Computer Aided Analysis of AC Resonant Charging Circuits.. he continues to develop tools to make that job easier.0 3. Power BJTs.00 2 2 14.00 Figure 7. For this reason. He develops both hardware and software and holds 24 U S Patents. The Transient analysis may be substituted . the gate must supply enough current to drive the shunting resistance to twice the gate voltage.00 1.00 0 6. 3. Bjts. The switching circuit TRIACGT. His “Circuit Analysis” program was sold through Apple Computer in the early 1980s.END Table 2. . Paolo Antognetti and Giuseppe Massobrio. SCRs. 1 2. Y.OPTIONS RELTOL=. I made mention earlier of the unrealistic data found in manufacturer’s data books.0U 300U 500U 700U 900U WFM.
THETA (Mobility Modulation Parameter) is used to reduce the gain at high gate voltages which is normally exponential.025 71 1 V(72) GATE Q1 QOUT DBE DE 85 72 M1 MFIN 73 V(73) EMITTER V(72) GATE EGD 1 M1 MFIN 72 RG 10 CGE 325P 73 82 DSD DO 81 Q1 QOUT 83 V(73) EMITTER RE 2. Figure 1 shows a simplified schematic of an IGBT. rise time and fall tail. The subcircuit is generic in nature. F. Although this model is capable of producing the basic function of an IGBT. VMAX (Maximum Drift Velocity) controls the collector (drain) curves in the saturation region. Let’s discuss the subcircuit one component at a time: Q1 is a PNP transistor which functions as an emitterfollower to increase the current handling ability of the IGBT. but you would feel a lot better if you KNEW the circuit would work well with all the devices that the vendor will supply in production. You found a model in a library. active output impedance. SPICE 2G. switching loses. BF (Forward Beta) is determined by the step in the turnoff tail which indicates the portion of the current handled by the PNP. The biggest stumbling block that engineers run into is turning vendor data sheet specifications into SPICE models that emulate real devices and run without convergence problems. The following paper describes the FIRST known SPICE subcircuit macro model for IGBTs[1]. and hence the VCE(on) voltage. nonlinear capacitance effects. collector curves including mobility modulation. onvoltage. Intusoft SPICE is the most popular program for simulating the behavior of electronic circuits. What we have is a MOSFET driving an emitter follower. The model accurately simulates.6 compatible subcircuit netlist for an International Rectifier IRGBC40U device [2]. This creates a parasitic transistor driven by the MOSFET and permits increased current flow in the same die area. turnon/turnoff delay. Note that what is called the “collector” is really the emitter of the parasitic PNP.MODEL MFIN statement in order to better model modern device characteristics. The OFF control parameter can be added to aid DC convergence by starting DC calculations with Q1 turned off. that component values in the subcircuit can be easily recalculated to emu71 V(71) COLLECTR 91 late different IGBT devices. Petrie.1M Figure 1. 7 W. where the cost of testing and possibly destroying devices is prohibitive.6 compatible IGBT subcircuit 84 . refinements are required for more accurate modeling and to emulate the nonlinear capacitance and breakdown effects. Basic IGBT subcircuit Figure 2. forward/reverse breakdown.Modeling For Power Electronics A Spice Model For IGBTs A. Lillian Ave. Expanded IGBT Model Figure 2 shows the complete subcircuit. 4]. The following paragraphs will try to clarify the relationship between data book specifications and a new Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) subcircuit SPICE model. Independent Consultant. IL 60004 Charles Hymowitz. meaning. ETA (Static Feedback) is similar to the “Early effect” in bipolar transistors and is used to 95 DLV DR R2 1 MLV SW RLV 1 96 94 DHV DR ESD POLY(1) D2 DLIM D1 DLIM CGD 1N 92 93 V(71) COLLECTR R1 1 VFB 0 FFB VFB CGC 1P RC . like IGBTs. Arlington Heights. but you are not sure what specifications from the data book apply to that model. The sacrifice is an additional diode drop due to the extra junction and turnoff delays while carriers are swept out of this junction. TF (Forward Transit Time) controls the turnoff tail time. Table 1 shows the corresponding SPICE 2G. Introduction You’ve finally tested a version of your design that seems to work well. The Berkeley SPICE Level=3 model is used in the . Modeling An IGBT An IGBT is really just a power MOSFET with an added junction in series with the drain. MOSFET M1 emulates the input MOSFET [3. This is especially true for power devices..
LE emulates the emitter lead inductance.48N + TF=24. the BE diode of the output transistor. 4 nH (2 wires).12) . KP (Intrinsic Transconductance) is related to the test parameter gfe (Forward Transconductance) but must be adjusted for VTO.42N CGC 82 71 1P EGD 91 0 82 81 1 VFB 93 0 0 FFB 82 81 VFB 1 CGD 92 93 1.5 nH [6]. The most unique feature of SpiceMod is its estimation capability.5 nH . IS is made small and N large to avoid shunting the junction in the forward direction. the GatetoEmitter capacitor.7) .SUBCKT IRGBC40U 71 72 74 * TERMINALS: C G E * 600 Volt 40 Amp 6.1M ETA=2M + VTO=5. FFB is a current controlled current source used to inject the feedback current back into M1. SpiceMod will never leave a key SPICE parameter at its default value. 85 .1 CJE=3. TO204 (TO3) (metal): 12. If some of the data sheet parameters are not available. and the rise and fall times. represents the resistive part of VCE(on). and ETA. VFB is a voltage generator used to monitor the current in the feedback capacitance emulation subcircuit for FFB. the GatetoCollector capacitor. There are nine parts that replace the CGDO capacitor to more accurately model the change in capacitance with gate and drain voltage [5]. R1 and D1 limit its operation to the region where the gate voltage exceeds the drain voltage.1M RE 83 73 2.3 N=2) .MODEL DE D (IS=37. They also permit ground connections in the subcircuit. VJ and M have been adjusted to better emulate the (Coes) capacitance curve.Power Specialist’s Table 1. MLV is used as a switch to disconnect DLV from the feedback at higher voltages.MODEL DO D (IS=37. CGE.41N R1 92 0 1 D1 91 92 DLIM DHV 94 93 DR R2 91 94 1 D2 94 0 DLIM DLV 94 95 DR 13 RLV 95 0 1 ESD 96 93 POLY(1) 83 81 19 1 MLV 95 96 93 93 SW LE 73 74 7.1) used is determined by the size of the capacitance step needed. DBE. DLV is a diode which emulates the gatetodrain capacitance variation with drain voltages (variable part of Cres) below the transition voltage. The multiplier (=C1/ C2 . TO218 (plastic): 8 nH (1 bond wire). RG.3N XTB=1. RLV shunts its current to ground at higher voltages. improving convergence and accuracy.ENDS control the slope of the collector curves in the active region and hence the output impedance. R2 and D2 limit its operation to the region where the drain voltage exceeds the gate voltage.82) .11M RG 72 82 25. The total lead inductance Le is an important high speed limit parameter and should include all external lead inductance through which output current flows before it reaches the common ground with the drive circuit. ESD is a voltage controlled voltage source that senses sourcetodrain voltage and drives MLV. the collector resistance. 7.6 CGE 82 83 1.MODEL DLIM D (IS=100N) . This diode includes breakdown voltage and capacitor CBD as CJO. CGD is the fixed part of the gatetodrain capacitor. Typical internal inductances are: TO220 (plastic): 7. RC controls the VCE(on) voltage. combines with the gate capacities in the subcircuit to help emulate the turnon and turnoff delays. THETA. equals Cies minus Cres. VMAX. SpiceMod derives SPICE parameters from generally available data book information.7F BV=14.04NS NChannel IGBT Q1 83 81 85 QOUT M1 81 82 83 83 MFIN L=1U W=1U DSD 83 81 DO DBE 85 81 DE RC 85 71 21.5 nanohenries represents the lead inductance of a TO220 plastic package. VTO (Threshold Voltage) is directly proportional to Gate Threshold Voltage VGE(th).2 KP=2. or 18 nH per inch for any PCB traces or wires. the emitter ohmic resistance. EGD. The inductance of the drain and gate leads have little effect on simulations but could be easily added to the subcircuit.7F BV=600 CJO=2.MODEL SW NMOS (LEVEL=3 VTO=0 KP=5) .07N VJ=1 M=. DHV is a diode which emulates the gatetodrain capacitor at high voltages. RE. provides the feedback between emitter current and gate voltage. Thus. a general purpose SPICE modeling program that supports IGBT model development. EGD is a voltage generator equal to M1’s gatetodrain voltage which is used to supply voltage to the feedback capacitance emulating subcircuit. IRGBC40U IGBT Subcircuit . emulates the reverse breakdown of the PNP baseemitter junction (and of the IGBT). the gate resistance. SpiceMod will provide estimates for data not entered based on the data that is entered. however. You may. CGC.2 BF=5. emulating the drastic reduction in feedback capacitance with voltage found in most modern IGBTs.5N .MODEL QOUT PNP (IS=377F NF=1. and FFB provide the necessary power to drive the feedback components in parallel without loading M1. and forward breakdown voltage. its capacitance. The POLY form is used so that the proper offset voltage can be inserted without an additional element. want to add in 7 nH per cm.3) .MODEL MFIN NMOS (LEVEL=3 VMAX=400K THETA=36. RC. DSD emulates the sourcedrain (substrate) diode. you can take the easy way out and generate your IGBT subcircuit using SpiceMod. Software Solution To Modeling Headaches If entering and adjusting all of these parameters seems a little too complex and timeconsuming. With the BE diode.MODEL DR D (IS=37.7F CJO=100P VJ=1 M=. is a fixed capacitor representing package capacitances which are important at high voltages where Cres is small. VFB.
the more data entered.Modeling For Power Electronics used in switching power supplies. This is the downfall of many modeling programs and can cause the resulting SPICE model to be invalid. controlled by ETA. The values are well within the data sheet tolerances without any need for optimization.0 100. and SCRs [7]. Because IGBTs are frequently Note that all capacitance tests are made with the IGBT in a nonconducting mode. zeners. SpiceMod is so intelligent that a reasonable first order device model can be obtained by simply entering the voltage and current ratings of the device. data sheet values are entered into the SpiceMod entry screen.00 7. In addition to IGBTs. Data sheet (waveform 2. when the waveforms are calculated by IsSpice4 the simulated waveforms can be crossprobed directly on the schematic as shown in Figure 7. Although not normally operated in these modes.00 VCE (27 Degrees) in Volts 9. Of course. Note the twoinput voltage controlled current source that is added to multiply the IGBT voltage and current to compute power (measured across the oneohm resistor). Darlington transistors. The Xaxis is collectortogate voltage. Data sheet parameters (above left) used to create the SPICE IGBT subcircuit (Table 1). The model exhibits forward and reverse breakdown effects.00 3.00 5. However. a native mixed mode SPICE 3F based simulator.00 Figure 4. Excess energy in reverse breakdown was a frequent killer of early IGBTs. The circuit in Figure 7 (TSWITCH. The current generator available in IsSpice4 replaces the inductor and two other switching devices normally used for this test. It should be noted that the data sheet values for switching characteristics can be greatly affected by the test circuit and test load used. In normal operation the capacitive feedback current is multiplied by (BF+1) at the output. Figure 5 shows the capacitance variations verses gate and collector voltages for the model. IGBT Testing Figure 4 shows the output characteristics of the IRGBC40U as simulated by IsSpice4. The more data that is entered. The multiplication and integration could have just as easily been done in a SPICE postprocessing program. it is easy to see that with the simple circuits provided here. so the left part with negative voltages actually represents positive gate voltage while the right part represents positive collector voltages. power MOSFETs.0 100. 86 . The slight slope of the curves. The subcircuit parameters affected by each entered parameter. As they are entered the subcircuit values are calculated.CIR) is used to simulate various switching effects. inductive flyback effects can easily drive an IGBT into one or both of these regions. BJTs. the more accurate the final model. Figure 3 shows the input parameters from the data book and the SPICE parameters that are primarily affected by each input for the device in Table 1. represents the output impedance. This power (current) is then integrated by the capacitor CE to get energy (as voltage). SpiceMod also produces models for diodes. Figure 3. JFETs and MOSFETs. However. it is quite easy to tweak the model performance for a given situation. Note the offset from zero caused by the baseemitter diode of the PNP. solid) output characteristics for the IRGBC40U.0 0 0 100. so BF is an important parameter. this is not an unusual occurrence. All of the models are Berkeley SPICE 2G compatible and can be used with any SPICE program on any computer platform. dots) and simulated (waveform 1. and subcircuit macromodels for power transistors. This is not surprising given the possible variation in the device’s gfe. To make a new model. Detailed next are the DC and Transient performance characteristics of the outlined IGBT model. Care should be given to properly constructing the test circuit based 300 300 2 IC (Data sheet) in Amps IC (Simulation) in Amps 1 200 200 100.0 1. the more accurate the final model will be.
Figure 9 shows the instantaneous power and cumulative energy curves which match the curves in Figure 8. Note that the voltage does not begin to fall until the current reaches maximum and that the current does not begin to fall until the voltage reaches maximum. respectively.01 GPWR 0 5 POLY(2) 3 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 100 * MULTIPLIES VOLTAGE AND CURRENT TO YIELD POWER AS V(5.CIR (below) used to test the transient IGBT performance.0 0 time 1.Device Switching Characteristics . Note that the scale is millijoules. The control circuitry has been simplified so as not to unneces Tran V(3) 121594 13:54:14 21.01 for SPICE 2.IC V(6)=0 .15 0 time 1. Figure 6.00U 3 Tran I(VC) 121594 13:54:15 5 A*B RPWR 1 CEN 1 6 V(6) ESW REN 1E6 1.6) V(6) I(VC) . as well as the IGBT switching waveforms.SET TEST CURRENT RL 3 4 . The IGBT model allows examination of both circuit and IGBT related design issues.END Figure 5.PRINT TRAN V(3) V(4. otherwise the simulation results may not be comparable with the actual performance. For the inverter circuit. so the final value is 1.001) * ^ SET TEST VOLTAGE REN 6 0 1E6 .01 for SPICE 3). Example Usage: 3 Phase IGBT Inverter As a practical example. a 3 phase inverter with simplified motor load was simulated (Figure 10).55M 25. 87 . Note the long tail on the current waveform due to the PNP (controlled by TF).REPLACE WITH YOUR DEVICE NAME VC 3 30 IL 0 4 20 .MODEL RMOD R TC1=. but others are not well emulated. Re sistive shifts with temperature can be approximated by adding a temperature coefficient to RC (RC 85 71 21. Temperature Effects Diode voltage shifts due to temperature are properly modeled by SPICE.5U 0 time 1. Figure 10 shows the lineline and lineneutral quantities.01 GPWR 0 4 IL 20 D2 DZEN 2 X1 DUT VIN PULSE Figure 7. Switching losses are calculated by multiplying the IGBT current and voltage waveforms during the switching period (figure 8).CIR .TRAN 2N 1000N *ALIAS V(6)=ESW *ALIAS V(3)=VOUT RIN 1 2 10 .0 504 Tran ESW 121594 13:54:12 1.00U V(1) VIN RIN 10 1 V(30) VOUT VC 30 RL .6) RPWR 5 6 1 CEN 6 0 1 .SET TEST R(GEN) X1 30 2 0 IRGBC40U .Power Specialist’s TSWITCH.Cir) used to simulate switching losses. Temperature effects can best be handled by entering data book parameters at temperature into the subcircuit for an accurate high temperature model. The crossprobed waveforms V(3) and I(VC) represent the IGBT votlage and current. The switching circuit TSWITCH.00U 72.3) V(5. This was not included in the subcircuit because it can cause error messages due to differences in SPICE implementations from some vendors.5 millijoules. ESW represents the switching energy. or RC 85 71 21.INTEGRATES POWER TO GIVE ENERGY/PULSE AS V(6) D2 0 4 DZEN . on the data sheet information.MODEL DZEN D(BV=480 IBV=.PROVIDES DC PATH TO GROUND VIN 1 0 PULSE 0 15 0 1N 1N 200N 1000N .1M RC TC=. Simulated capacitance characteristics for the IRGBC40U. In Figure 11. LB.1M RMOD & . Test circuit (Tswitch. and LC) is displayed. All waveforms are scaled the same. the effect of varying the load inductances (LA.
Switching losses are calculated by multiplying the current and voltage waveforms during the switching period.00K 0 1 2 1. CA 90731 0 8.57 Tran IIGBT1 18 V(15) VC 15 10394 10:21:17 6.voltages.01H LB . on a 90MHz Pentium the 166 element inverter circuit runs in 28.0N 300N 500N 700N WFM.0 Tran VGE 10394 10:21:54 6. A 3 phase inverter circuit.01 0 102 Tran VCE time 50. The instantaneous power (waveform 1) and cumulative energy (waveform 2) curves which match the curves in figure 8.Modeling For Power Electronics 1 45.6 0 105 Tran VAB time 50. 88 . The model finally gives power engineers the ability to simulate all types of IGBT based circuits [9].0 200 25. El Segundo. Intusoft. CA 94720 [4] Paolo Antognetti and Giuseppe Massobrio.1 VOUT vs. Intusoft. San Pedro.0M 19 5 7 16 69. Hymowitz. University of California.66 0 time 50.73 0 time 50.01H LC .00K Switching Energy in Joules 2.00M 8.05 seconds. Application Note AN1043. References [1] Charles E. Intusoft Newsletter. An antiparallel diode has been included in the IGBT subcircuit used in this simulation by adding a diode from nodes 74 to 71. 1989 [6] Lawrence G.53 0 time 50. 4. “Semiconductor Device Modelling with SPICE”.0M Diode is included in the subcircuit 16.00K [3] Andrei Vladimirescu and Sally Liu. It models the DC collector family and on. On a 275MHz Digital Alpha AXP PC) it runs in under 6 seconds!! Issues such as parallel IGBT operation.0 VOUT in Volts A SPICE IGBT subcircuit has been developed that relates well to data book information. It uses half the number of elements and allows alternate capacitance responses. An intelligent modeling program has been introduced that quickly generates custom SPICE subcircuits from data supplied by the user and estimates reasonable values for any missing data by scaling from the supplied data.6 Tran VAN 10394 10:21:35 69. and switching characteristics.00M 4.0M 10394 10:21:59 5. TIME in Secs 900N 2 Figure 8. the phase A current.00K 2 1 100.0N 300N 500N 700N TIME in Secs 900N Figure 9. “The Simulation of MOS Integrated Circuits Using SPICE”. An enhanced method using the SPICE 3 B element is described in [8]. Berkeley.00M 4. CA 90731 [2] “Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Designer’s Manual”. San Pedro. 1988 [5] CharlesEdouard Cordonnier. 3 14 6 8 Tran I(LA) 6. “Intusoft Modeling Corner”. “Spice Model for TMOS Power MOSFETs”. June 1992. such as a sigmoidal response. McGrawHill.0M 51.0 400 Collector Current in Amps 35. CA 90245 0 15.0M LA . Conclusions and Future Work There are a number of ways to better model the nonlinear gatedrain capacitance.5 0 time 50. For those of you who think that such simulation are beyond the capability of PC. overcurrent/short circuit protection circuitry.00 400 2 1 100. Hymowitz. Meares and Charles E.00M IGBT Power in Watts 3. International Rectifier. “Simulating with SPICE”.72 2 V(18) VB V10 48 V(20) VA I(V12) IIGBT1 6. nonlinear capacitance effects. sarily complicate the simulation.0M Figure 10. More importantly. Motorola Inc. Forward and reverse breakdown characteristics are also included. to be constructed.3 V(11) VNEUTRAL Tran VNEUTRAL 10394 10:21:24 19.01H 25 9 27 RA 10 RB 10 RC 10 11 20 V11 48 1 I(V13) IIGBT4 10394 10:21:5 3. UCB/ERL M80/7. [9] describes a new AHDL (Analog Hardware Description Language) based on ‘C’ that will allow much more accurate and efficient IGBT models to be developed. Crossprobed waveforms show the lineline and linephase voltages.0 200 5. and the IGBT switching waveforms. and various snubber configurations can also be explored with the model.0M 10394 10:21:49 105 0 time 50.
0M Figure 11.0M 35.0 3. June 1990. “3 Phase IGBT Inverter” & “New AHDL Based On 'C'”. The waveforms show the phase A current for three different simulations where the load inductances LA. The SpiceMod program is available from Intusoft. Intusoft. and .0M 25.001µH 6.00M 15. San Pedro. Hymowitz.001H) in Amps Phase A Current (L=.00 21. San Pedro. June 1992. Intusoft.01µH 6. Hymowitz.00 18.Power Specialist’s All Waveforms Yscale . Library 21 (Go CADDVEN at any ! prompt) for Compuserve users and an ftp site (ftp.001µH). Intusoft Newsletter.br.iee.00 15.00 9.3A/Div 3 3.0 Phase A Current (L=. “New Technique Improves Power Models”. .1H) in Amps L=. and LC were varied (.0M TIME in Secs 45. Intusoft Newsletter. October 1994.0 0 2 L=. CA 90731 Sample models for several IGBT devices are available free of charge on the Compuserve CADD/CAM/CAE Vendor forum. LB. San Pedro. CA 90731 [8] Charles E.00 L=. CA 90731 [9] Charles E. [7] SpiceMod User’s Guide.1µH.01µH.ufrgs. 89 .) for Internet users.1µH 12.0 1 3 1 5.
This is the point of maximum power dissipation into Rmin. The crossover occurs at: Rmin/V = V/P > V2 = RminP > V2/Rmin = P when the power dissipated in Rmin equals the desired power. For example. when the power supplies are close to 0. 1996 90 . References [1] “Load simulator maintains constant power”. Analog Devices. particularly when you want to compare the performance of different battery chemistries. For example: B1 N1 N2 I={Power_Load}/V(N1. it is also not a good model of a real constant power load for low voltages. USA. I=V/Rmin.V2) + + V(N1. For higher voltages the current falls and most of the power is dissipated by Rvar. the power is equal to V*I which is equal to V(N1. IsSpice4 relies on the assumption that. Santa Clara. email: charles@intusoft. Monitoring discharge time using a simple resistor or a constantcurrent sink as a load yields an inaccurate result. Battery energy density (watts/hour) is normally found by measuring the total output power (W=V×I) over time. CA. 1996 [2] Microsim. you must adjust the discharge current to compensate for batteryvoltage variation during discharge.N2)*(Power_Load/V(N1. for batteryenergy measurements using a simple resistor as a load is unacceptable for applications that require you to accurately monitor generated or consumed power. Distributed power systems that include a large percentage of constantpower loads and contain energy storage devices may be susceptible to potentially destabilizing interactions of these elements. In any case.N2) = 0. For low voltages. As the battery voltage drops. The Design Center.V2) + + V(N1. Khy Vijeh.Modeling For Power Electronics SPICE 3 Models Constant Power Loads Charles Hymowitz. To maintain constant power. a series connection of two resistances can be used with one fixed and one variable.N2) For this expression. For certain types of loads. A realistic constant power load can only consume power over a limited range of applied voltage. we can use the Berkeley SPICE arbitrary dependent source B element. EDN Design Idea April 11.N2)/{PLOAD}) where val1 and val2 are numbers or expressions. The problem with this approximation is that it undefined near V(N1. When calculating the small signal bias point or initial transient solution for a circuit. The corresponding IsSpice4 statement is: B1 N1 N2 I=1 / (RMIN/V(N1. Constantpower loads can exhibit a negative incremental input resistance within the regulation bandwidth of the power converter.PARAM RMIN=val1 PLOAD=val2 B1 N1 N2 I=1 / ({RMIN}/V(N1. When the voltage drops below this range. load current must increase to maintain a constant V×I. The various battery types have many dischargevoltage characteristics. Application Notes. The B1 statement violates this assumption. This task is relatively simple if you use an automated system to take frequent and periodic measurements of the discharge current and battery voltage while keeping track of time. for high voltages. all devices in the circuit are turned off. To model such a load for simulation purposes. and power output varies as the output voltage changes. P. This can be written as: Rtotal = Rmin + Rvar = Rmin + V2/P > I = V/Rtotal = V/(Rmin+V2/P) = 1/(Rmin/V+V/P).N2)/PLOAD) where RMIN and PLOAD must be defined before simulation. The RMIN and PLOAD values can be passed to B1 by using the following syntax: . I=P/V. IsSpice4 scales back the GMIN and independent source values.com October 1996 In power supply design and testing a load that draws constant power is often needed.N2)) = Power_Load as desired. Intusoft. the load’s impedance stops falling.
reverse breakdown characteristics and dv/dt turnon. The two center layers are common to both transistors. Excerpts from the February 1992 Intusoft Newsletter #24 91 . simulates efficiently. containing new SCR. SPICE modeling spreadsheet program. This article explains the model. The base of each transistor is connected to the opposite collector forming positive feedback as soon as both baseemitter junctions become forward biased. A new SCR model. The Basic SCR Model Figure 1 shows the design of a typical planar “shorted emitter” SCR and the classical two transistor combination used to model the positive feedback effects of the four semiconductor layers. A P+ G K N N+ N P+ P N P GATE QP POUT 4 1 QN NOUT RGK 5 CATHODE Anode The cathode (emitter) metallization overlaps the gate (base) of the NPN transistor. and Zener models will be announced in the next newsletter. Simulating Circuits With SCRs Slim Petrie.SUBCKT netlist from the PRESPICE libraries. Charles Hymowitz. SPICEMOD Improves The SCR Model Figure 2 shows the additions to the basic model. Although this model has the triggering function of an SCR. the best model is one that accurately emulates the real part. and is easy to create. implemented in the forth coming version of the SPICEMOD. converges well.2] and four transistor Intusoft model [3]. forming a leakage path to carry leakage currents around the gate until the gate is triggered from an external source. For Intusoft Newsletter subscribers. several additional new SCR models have been included on the enclosed floppy disk.Power Specialist’s Simulating Circuits With SCRs When modeling devices for simulation. IGBT. Cathode Gate ANODE 3 Figure 1. which is based on the two transistor [1. and provides an example of its use. The NPN transistor models the three layers at the cathode end and the PNP transistor models the three layers at the anode end. is just such a model. it must be enhanced to emulate other parameters such as off state leakage. Cross section of a planar shorted emitter SCR and its basic equivalent representation using NPN and PNP transistors. This is shown as RGK in the model. The availability of the new SPICEMOD program. breakover voltage and current. Table 1 lists a sample .
The resistor RF emulates the forward leakage current when the SCR is “off” (QN is off. Reverse Gate Voltage VGT = Gate Trigger Voltage IH = Holding Current VRRM = Max. QP. Forward Breakover/Reverse Characteristics The following parameters are used to calculate various forward and reverse characteristics. has a forward beta of one to emulate the (lower gain) high voltage junction near the anode. the PNP transistor. RF = (BFp + 1) ∗ VDRM / IDRM where BFp = BF of QP (set at 1) for DF: BV = VDRM IBV = IDRM / 10 RS = RF / 10 (2) (3) (4) (1) Resistor RR emulates the leakage when the SCR is reverse biased. The zener diode. but its breakdown voltage is set between five to seven volts (VGR). Forward Voltage IDRM = Leakage Current @ VDRM VRGM = Max. The baseemitter junction of QP sees most of the voltage in this mode. DR. has a forward beta of 100 and contains the gate at its base. Parameters not available will be estimated by SPICEMOD based on the data that is entered insuring a realistic model. Internal series resistance. Zener diode DF sets the breakdown voltage in the forward direction.Modeling For Power Electronics ANODE 1 RR DR QP POUT GATE 2 4 RF RG DF 6 DGK RGK QN NOUT 5 RK 3 CATHODE Figure 2. Parameters For Forward BreakOver and Reverse Characteristics VDRM = Max. but QP is on). SPICEMOD takes the data sheet parameters shown above and generates an ISSPICE . the NPN transistor. sets the reverse breakdown point. RS. 92 . Diode DGK serves a similar function for QN. is added to this diode to produce a rounded peak. Reverse Voltage IRRM = Leakage Current at VRRM IT = RMS Forward Current IGT = Gate Trigger Current QN. Only parameters that are generally available in data sheets are used because this is normally the only data that engineers have access to.SUBCKT model (schematic on left) for the SCR.
their IS (leakage current) is made 1000 times smaller than the IS of the transistors to minimize their effect on these junctions. not the fall time.Power Specialist’s Forward /Reverse Characteristics con't RR = VRRM / IRRM for DR: IS = .VD) / ITM RK = .179 ∗ t(on) TR = 1.7 ∗ t(off) (16) (17) 93 . RK serves this function. Note that TF is the forward transit time. eliminating the need for an additional external part.VD) / IGM) .8 ∗ R(sat) RG = ( (VGM . Dynamic Characteristics Switching time limits are modeled using NPN/PNP charge storage model parameters. not the rise time. R(sat) = (VTM . The rest of the “on” voltage is simulated with model parameter RC in QN. has been added to properly simulate the resistance found when overdriving the gate. It is also important not to use any base or emitter resistance (RB.RK where VD = BE diode drop (approx. robbing current from the transistors. convergence is improved over other models. RG.2 ∗ R(sat) RC = . TF = .001 ∗ ISp BV = VRRM IBV = IRRM / 10 IS = . VGT) (12) (13) (14) (15) Because this model has separate resistors shunting each junction. RE) in these transistors as they would cause voltage drops that would forward bias the diodes.001 ∗ ISn BV = VRGM IBV = IDRM / 10 (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) for DGK: Because these diodes shunt the baseemitter junctions. Gate Characteristics Parameters Used For Gate Characteristics IGM = Peak Gate Current VTM = Forward (on) Voltage VGM = Peak Gate Voltage ITM = Forward (on) Current It is necessary to add a cathode resistance to emulate the increase in gate voltage with cathode current. A gate resistor. and TR is the reverse transit time.
Without the R/C network.ENDS Table 1.MODEL ZF D (IS=94F IBV=2M BV=100 RS=1.5K) . In order to achieve a steady state response at the beginning of the simulation.MODEL ZR D (IS=94F IBV=2M BV=133) . its value must be adjusted to the average value of the current flow in the inductor.SUBCKT C180 1 2 3 * TERMINALS: A G K * Powerex 100 Volt 150 Amp SCR QP 6 4 1 POUT OFF QN 4 6 3 NOUT OFF RF 6 4 10K RR 1 4 6. Of note is the fact that the damping network across diode D1 is needed to reduce ringing at the cathode which might turn the SCR on. The effective collector capacitance (CJC) can be calculated using the dv/dt specifications: COE = IH /dv/dt CJC = COE (adjusted for test voltages) = COE ∗ (1+VD/VJE)^MJE (18) (19) (20) where VJE=. The SCR is controlled by the pulsed current source. which is seldom given in data books. The L1/C2 combination has a resonant frequency of 4kHz.01. may cause convergence problems due to various cascading 94 .OPTIONS parameters RELTOL is relaxed to .56N TF=337N TR=170U) .75 and MJE=. I2. the SPICE simulation may abort unless the . It emulates both the forward and reverse characteristics while avoiding convergence problems.33 (ISSPICE default). models a constant load. ISSPICE subcircuit listing for the Powerex C180 phase control SCR with VDRM=100V and IT(avg)=150A. The constant current source I1. the breakdown behavior. (Philips BTW38) a simple resonant buck regulator (Figure 3) was constructed.8N CJC=7. However. emulated in this and other models. The input capacitance.66K RG 6 3 10 RGS 2 6 4.8N TF=337N TR=170U) .MODEL NOUT NPN (IS=94P BF=100 RE=233U RC=233U + CJE=37. is estimated at five times the collector capacitance: CJE = 5 ∗ CJC . Conclusions A SPICE SCR subcircuit has been developed that relates well to data book parameters.MODEL POUT PNP (IS=94P BF=1 CJE=37.Modeling For Power Electronics Parameters Used For Dynamic Characteristics t(on).MODEL ZG D (IS=94F IBV=2M BV=5) . tq = turnoff Time dv/dt = Forward Voltage Application Rate The dv/dt limit is reached in an SCR when a change in the anode voltage flowing through the output capacitance (COE) causes sufficient current to flow in the gate circuit to turn the SCR on. td+tr = turnon Time t(off).66M DF 6 4 ZF (21) DR 1 4 ZR DG 6 3 ZG . Simulating A Resonant Regulator Using a model for an SCR.
he continues to develop tools to make that job easier. F. A great deal of thanks goes to the author of this article and developer of SPICEMOD. can also be modeled by putting in the proper Peak gate current and voltage. 1988.. [3] “PRESPICE User's Guide”.1ms 17 R4 100 C3 .200us/Div. REV3. IL 60004. Lillian Ave.01U 1 D1 MUR860 X4 BTW38 2 V4 6 15 L1 325UH 5 I(V3) IL1 7 V(7) VOUT V3 I2 PULSE C2 5UF V1 200V R3 10 I1 D2 MUR860 5. Arlington Heights. Mr. GTOs. He develops both hardware and software and holds 24 U. 1981. [5] “Bipolar Power Transistor and Thyristor Data”. aborted simulation results should be checked to see if the device ratings were exceeded. Paolo Antognetti and Giuseppe Massobrio. Master Thesis. thus allowing the addition of an external resistor.Y.1A Figure 3. IEEE.L. Department of E & CS. Chen.. 1979. [2] “A SPICE Model for the SCR”.. F. UC Berkeley. Ki. Petrie is retired from Motorola Inc. and D. Patents. Avant.200V Xscale . Therefore. Waiman. 1984. Using the new SCR model.S. DL111. 95 . especially near the end of the simulation. Dec.C. Xzero .. Sensitive gate SCR devices can be modeled because the internal RGK will generally have a large value. A. McGrawHill. which are similar to SCRs except for a smaller gate resistor.Power Specialist’s Yscale . Intusoft. Yzero . His “Circuit Analysis” program was sold through Apple computer in the early 1980s. He can be reached at 7 W. With a keen appreciation for the problems of the working engineer. the SPICE modeling Spreadsheet. F. where he was a Principal Staff Engineer and Dan Noble Fellow. July. References and Biography [1] “A Practical SCR Model for Computer Aided Analysis of AC Resonant Charging Circuits”. Motorola Inc. a resonant buck regulator circuit can be simulated. [4] “Semiconductor Device Modelling with SPICE”. nonlinearities. “Slim” Petrie. R. 1991.50V/Div. Lee. where he welcomes your comments.
6 based programs. However. in the case of power Schottky rectifiers. The values for saturation current temperature exponent. is normally set close to 1.69. Figure 2 shows the subcircuit schematic of the new power Schottky rectifier.Modeling For Power Electronics Power Schottky/Soft Recovery Diodes Schottky rectifiers are widely used in switched mode converters due to their inherently lower forward voltage characteristics and superior recovery time. IS. Such a source would have been considerably more difficult to construct with SPICE 2G. its larger junction capacitance. EG=0. Therefore. A Schottky diode is a majority carrier device whose reverse recovery time is zero. The emission coefficient. are set based on the values expected for Schottky barrier diodes. and energy gap. However. In comparison to the manufacturer's reverse current data. two effects must be accounted for that are not part of the builtin SPICE model. Figure 2. an exponential nonlinear current source. XTI =2. The voltage sensitive effects are produced by BDIO. CJO. DIO. is typically much higher (two orders of magnitude) than for pn diodes. The first is the conductivity modulation in the forward conductance and the second is the reverse leakage current which is an exponential function of both temperature and reverse voltage. will produce a similar effect. The saturation current value. ISSPICE3 contains the functions necessary to construct a reasonable power Schottky model that adds these enhancements. accounts for most of the traditional Schottky behavior. The diode. With the inline equation feature of ISSPICE3. LPKG 8N RS 13MOHM CPAR 23P DCAP DMOD2 DIO DMOD1 Cathode RB 105MOHM Anode RFR 1K BDIO I= CFR 10P MFR BULK See Table 1 on page 8 for the subcircuit listing Power Schottky and Soft Recovery Diodes Charles Hymowitz Excerpts from the September 1993 Intusoft Newsletter #32 96 . is left at its default value of 0. the high temperature leakage appears to be slightly overstated by these values. TT. but within likely product variations. Schottky diodes can normally be modeled using the builtin SPICE diode. the minority carrier storage time parameter. The power Schottky rectifier subcircuit models the forward and reverse response better than a standard SPICE diode. N.
00 45.000 TEMP = 175˚C 125˚C 25˚C 1.00M 300. Graph of the reverse leakage current vs.500 0 WFM.00 Figure 3. IF response in the forward and reverse directions over temperature.0M 500.0M 700.00 75. VF at different temperatures. All waveforms from BOTH graphs were obtained in one simulation pass using the simulation scripting features of ISSPICE3.500 10. 3 3 IDiode (WFM.0M 10.500 2 1 IDiode (WFM. As Reverse Current (Log Scale. Figures 3 and 4 show the VF vs. Several other models are enclosed on the subscription floppy disk. Alternate scaling for waveform 4 reveals the nonlinear response of the new model. Graph of IF vs.1. is modeled by the time constant of RFR and CFR. temperature shows that the current is an exponential function of both temperature and voltage.Power Specialist’s 4 4. voltage spikes. By properly choosing the optimum diode recovery characteristic. The netlist for the IR10CTQ150 (10A 150V) part used here is listed in Table 1 on page 8.0 Reverse Voltage in Volts 135.500 30. Amps) 10M 1M 100U 10U 1U 100N 10N TEMP = 175˚C 150˚C 125˚C 100˚C 75˚C 50˚C 25˚C 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 1 15. Deleting CFR and shorting RFR makes the forward recovery instantaneous.1 500.00 2. The forward recovery of the diode. 4 = WFM. 97 .0M this function becomes trivial. 2. 3) in Amps 20. not readily verifiable because of the lack of data. Modeling Soft Recovery Modeling of the transient behavior of power diodes is extremely important for power electronics. the designer can significantly reduce switching losses.000 4 1 100.0 Figure 4.00 105.4) in Amps 3.0M Forward Voltage in Volts 900. RFI and EMI.
With the help of ISSPICE3 we will look at how to rectify the situation by enhancing the builtin model.00K 100. instantaneous power (Dpower).0U 8. Tb is caused by the charge storage in the bulk semiconductor material. consists of two components Ta and Tb.0 3 0 0 400. it will suddenly snap off. the default diode model exhibits an abrupt “snappy” reverse recovery. A variety of approximating models are possible for improving the accuracy of simulation without resorting to the use of Ccode subroutines or other proprietary modeling languages. though somewhat less efficiently.0N 250. 800.00N 150. The i layer is still charged as the reverse voltage rapidly increases. the diode will remain on until all the charge is removed. When the diode is commutated.00K 0 Diode Power Dissipation in Watts Enhanced Diode Voltage in Volts Forward Recovery 1 Diode Energy in Joules 600. The reverse recovery time. Trr.0U 4. 98 . and energy (integral of Dpower) curves as the new diode subcircuit is turned off and on. This continues until the charge is removed from one of the junctions adjacent to the i layer.0N 3 2 1 Figure 5. Irrm.000K 300.0U 16. Both of these approaches suffer from a myriad of syntax.0N Time in Secs 450. In addition.00 400.0 200. One such model has been proposed in [1]. Ta is caused by the charge storage in the depletion region of the junction and represents the time between the zero current crossing and the peak reverse current. compatibility and logistical hurdles. Curves showing the diode voltage. after which.Modeling For Power Electronics discussed earlier. This model can easily be implemented with ISSPICE3 or even SPICE 2. the builtin diode model in SPICE does not exhibit forward recovery.0U 12.0 2 50.0N 350.000K 200. The subcircuit presented here is based on a simplified physical model for a high voltage pin structure operating in high level injection as is typical for most power diodes. Turn off proceeds with an ultimate reversal of the biasing current and the junction remaining forward biased (charged). Reverse Recovery SPICE’s internal recovery model of a diode only models charge storage as a function of the diode current.
but not for power diodes which are typically formed with a lightly doped layer between the pn junctions to withstand high reverse voltages. shown in the BE element’s equation (2∗VTA). High diode power dissipation often occurs during the final current tail interval as evidenced by the power dissipation and 4.000U 100.0N Time in Secs 450. The parameter IS1 is similar to the IS diode model parameter.0N Figure 6. Qrr is shown as waveform 3. but it can often refuse to converge.00N 150.Power Specialist’s Such behavior is appropriate for small signal lowvoltage diodes.000U Integral of Diode Current in Coulombs 60. The standard diode behavior and reverse/forward recovery effects are added using the inline equation feature (B element) of ISSPICE3. spurious oscillations are seen in SPICE simulations that attempt to use the standard diode model with nonzero values of TT. Tm (transit time) and Tau (carrier lifetime) are determined from a diode turnoff current waveform. stored charge is removed more slowly from the base region. As TM increases. Other characteristics are removed by making RS and TT=0 and IS small.1 & 2) reveal the softer turn off and lower Irrm response of the enhanced diode. Adding to the confusion is the fact that the oscillation amplitude and duration can vary depending on the . No additional diode state variables are available in SPICE to represent the physical charge storage in the lightly doped internal regions of such a pin structure.0N 250. As a consequence. The enhanced diode subcircuit. RMO controls the forward recovery. The diode DMODEL models the space charge capacitance. is set to 2 for high level injection behavior.00 3 0 20.00 2.00 2 Qrr = ∫ I(DBehav) SPICE Diode 4. Not only can the simulation be inaccurate.0N 350. but can be set to 1 to function as a lowvoltage pn junction diode. DBEHAV. ISE and the RS device value are chosen for the best high current performance. N.00 3 1 2 50.000U 60.00 1 I(DBehav) Diode Current in Amps 2.TRAN TSTEP and RELTOL values chosen.000U 20. is shown in Table 1. This has the effect of making Ta longer and Irrm larger. The diode current curves (WFM. 99 .
the voltage across the i region soon decreases to a normal steady state diode forward drop. the IGBT is turned on to generate current flow in inductor. The power was then integrated in INTUSCOPE to get the energy. Forward Recovery During the turnon transient. Gear integration tends to find a stable time domain solution more quickly than the default trapezoidal method for many types of circuits. The resulting diode turn off is shown in Figure 8.000 4. The power dissipation curve was created by the ISSPICE3 Print Expression “alias dpower (v(3) v(2)) ∗ i(vsense)”. This results in a simulation that spends less time in high frequency calculations and is less prone to artificial numerical oscillations. SPICE simulators that do not have Gear integra 100 . As shown in Figure 6. As the injected carrier concentration increases. WFM. then turned off to cause current to flow into the diode (DBEHAV).000 Simulating an IGBT Chopper Circuit Figure 7 contains a simple IGBT chopper circuit using the new diode model. L1. to change to the Gear method of integration. is 10. This effect gives rise to the initial voltage overshoot in the turnon forward voltage as 1 2 2 the i region must become flooded with current carriers for its full conductivity to be effective. To study the diode behavior.MODEL DMOD D IS=20F RS=4M N=1 CJO=100P M=. 12.00 Enhanced Diode Voltage in Volts 8. soft recovery diodes exhibit a faster recovery time and a lower value of Irrm than conventional diodes. The Qrr charge curve from the new diode is shown as waveform 3.Modeling For Power Electronics Reverse Recovery continued energy curves in Figure 5. as shown to the left and in Figure 5. 400.0N Waveform 2 shows the standard SPICE forward recovery.0N 410. Figure 6 shows the diode current for the subcircuit diode (WFM. The forward voltage peak.1) and for a comparable SPICE diode . the gate drive circuitry has been replaced by a piecewise linear voltage source.5 TT=100N.model statement (. V4. To simplify the circuit. then back on again to snap the diode off.197V.000 0 4.2). a high forward voltage builds up across the diode because of the low conductivity in the i region. Gear Integration Speeds Power Simulations ISSPICE3 includes a very valuable option. preferred by power engineers.
shows the different recovery and superior performance of Gear integration.00 8. IGBT chopper circuit using the enhanced diode model along with an Intusoft V(5) IGBT model. Macro modeling gives the user several advantages over other proposed methods.5U 112. V(9) VINPUT V4 PWL SPICE = AHDL Lauritzen and Ma incorrectly state in their paper [1] that macro models are normally valid only over a very narrow range of circuit operating conditions.9U 112. with predefined blocks whose convergence and behavior is well established and well understood by the user.Power Specialist’s Figure 7. SPICE macromodels are the AHDL of the past and future. in the IGBT chopper circuit.000 Modified Diode in Amps 4. the new behavioral modeling (IfThenElse and inline equations) features of ISSPICE3 are easy to incorporate into a model and contain virtually all of the AHDL elements often used by socalled “mathematical simulators”. Clearly.000 SPICE Diode Gear SPICE Diode Trapezoidal 111. devices can be put together in a hierarchical manner. Figure 8 shows the diode response using the Gear and trapezoidal integration methods. 101 .000 2 1 Figure 8. Dbehav. The variety of models and verified simulation results presented in past newsletters is evidence that macro models are far more practical and robust than indicated.000 3 1 New Diode . These features allow the user to bridge the gap between modeling with detailed physical based equations and predefined macro blocks in order to have the best of both modeling worlds. And when the Berkeley syntax is adhered to. the models are portable between any vendor’s SPICE simulator.000 2 SPICE Diode in Amps 8.7U 4. such as in the case of all Intusoft models. Powerex IGBT 1000V 25A 12.Trapezoidal 4.1U 112. Turnoff response for the diode.000 0 0 4. L1 1M R1 .3U TIME in Secs 112.1 4 R3 1 VIGBT 6 V1 500 3 XD1 DBEHAV 2 9 R2 10 5 7 X3 ID221KA2 1 tion can be more prone to convergence problems and often simulate more slowly than ISSPICE3 for switching power circuits.000 8.
ENDS .ENDS . P.7) CPAR 5 2 23P . Minneapolis.SUBCKT IR10CTQ150 1 2 AC ∗CONNECTIONS LPKG 1 3 8N RS 3 4 13MOHM RB 4 5 105MOHM RFR 3 6 1K CFR 5 6 10PF MFR 5 6 4 5 BULK .O.19 KP=320) DIO 5 7 DMOD1 VDIO 7 2 . “SPICE32 Rect(n) Functions”. “Semiconductor Databook and Application Notes”. V(5)=QE.2) / (2∗{VTA})) .6) / {TM} + {ISE} ∗ (E^(V(1. “Power Modules Designer's Handbook”. Lead Inductance . Lauritzen and C. Forward Recovery .5)) DCAP 5 2 DMOD2 .MODEL DMOD2 D(CJO=420P M=. 1991 [2] Gerald Stanley. Ma. 150V 10A Power Schottky Diode . V(6)=QM ∗RM 6 0 1E6 . 2 Apr. McGrawHill. “A simple SPICE3 Model for Schottky Power Diodes”. 1992 [5] International Rectifier. Forward Recovery .2) / {VTA}) .MODEL DCAP D (IS=1E21 RS=0 TT=0 CJO={CAP}) . D. 1992 [7] Unitrode.MODEL BULK NMOS (VTO=.69) BDIO 5 2 I= I(VDIO) ∗ EXP (. M/VJ can also be added BD 1 2 I=V(5.013 ∗ V(2. and Education”. private correspondence [4] Ned. QE = Junction charge BM 6 0 V=(V(5) / {TM} . N = 2 in (2∗ {VTA}) ∗RE 5 0 1E6 . Massobrio. Crown International.Modeling For Power Electronics Table 1. AN989. Mohan. QM = Charge in the base region BDM 7 0 V=V(6) VSENSE1 7 8 . MN 55414. 992. EG=.6 VJ=. The enhanced SPICE diode with forward/reverse recovery and the power Schottky rectifier model. “The Hexfred™ Ultrafast Diode in Power Switching Circuits”. M.. Antognetti and G. Khersonsky. “Semiconductor Device Modeling with SPICE”. Gutierrez.9 XTI=2 EG=. .0259 CAP=100P ISE=1E30} ∗ Connections AC ∗ Following components include for space charge capacitance DMODEL 1 2 DCAP . “Power Electronics: Computer Simulation. Voltage Sensitive Reverse Current Effect References [1] P. Box 14503.O. 1991 [6] Y. Robinson. Minnesota Power Electronics Research & Education. Schottky Settings XTI=2. Analysis.1) . International Rectifier. 992. 6.SUBCKT DBEHAV 1 9 {IS1=1E6 TM=100N TAU=100N RMO=1 VTA=.L. 1989 [8] P.1) . private correspondence [3] Gerald Stanley. I(Vsense1)=dQM/dt CDM 8 0 1 RDM 8 0 1E9 ∗ Models high current effects and forward recovery RS 2 3 4E3 BMO 3 4 V=2∗{VTA} ∗ {RMO} ∗ {TM} ∗ I(VSENSE2) / ((V(6) ∗ {RMO}) + ({VTA} ∗ {TM})) VSENSE2 4 9 . 1993 102 . Crown International. 2nd Ed.69 . “A simple diode model with forward and reverse recovery”. Vol.MODEL DMOD1 D(IS=50NA N=. Diode conductive currents ∗ Following components model reverse recovery BE 5 0 V={IS1} ∗ {TAU} ∗ (E^(V(1. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. No.I(VSENSE1)) ∗ ({TM} ∗ {TAU} / ({TM} + {TAU})) .
If the current still increases. Once the striking voltage is attained. spark gaps can also be used repetitively in ignitiontype circuits. 1997 Tel. All Rights Reserved Spark Gap Modeling Spark gaps or Electrical Surge Arrestors (ESAs) are highly nonlinear devices whose function is to stop transient surges on DC or AC powersupply lines. If the voltage applied to the ESA is below its striking voltage (or avalanche potential). Such transients can be caused by lightning strikes. the ESA stays conductive until its current falls below a sustaining value in a manner similar to a thyristor. Since the striking is usually brief. The switch is lead inductance operated using an IsSpice4 IfThenElse expression. In other cases. 2]. If V_ESA > Vstrikes Then ON. A spark gap is made of two electrodes that face each other across a short distance. The gap is fill with air or an inert gas like argon or neon. A table model is used to add variations with applied dV/dt. Else OFF. Spark Gap Modeling Christophe Basso Excerpts from the September 1997 Intusoft Newsletter #50 Lead Inductance Leakage Resistance Arc Voltage Arc Capacitance Resistance once struck Capacitive loading 103 . Modeling such a component with SPICE can be done in several ways [1. the voltage across the ESA suddenly collapses to a value called the glow voltage. it is best to set the . where it stays until the surge passes. For the sake of efficiency. the ESA voltage decreases further to a level called the arc voltage. (310) 8330710 Fax (310) 8339658 Copyright © Intusoft. etc. motor starts.Power Specialist’s Intusoft Newsletter Personal Computer Circuit & System Design Tools Issue #50 Sept. Figure 8 depicts the general ESA model we have adopted.OPTIONS TRTOL variable (overestimation of the transient truncation error) to 1 in order to “capture” the fast switching events. If I_ESA > ISUS Then ON. Flux losses Figure 8. we have used a macromodeling technique. It consists of assembling SPICE primitives in a group to describe a complex electrical function. the current flowing through the ESA is close to zero. At this point. The structure of the associated with the spark gap model.
the switch is immediately driven ON and the network made of the backtoback zener diodes and the series resistance is applied across the ESA terminals. the glow transition is not taken into account. in Table 1 below) which performs the arcing action. the voltage collapses to the arc value and the current starts to rise. The curve generally appears parabolic when the x axis uses a log scaling. usually in nanoHenries ∗ RPL = FLUX LOSS ASSOCIATED WITH LPL. . In the second model. The PWL values in the PWL_001 model are extracted from an ignition voltage versus the applied dV/dt curve. The switch stays OFF until the voltage across the ESA rises up to the striking voltage.5 LPL=130N + RPL=2.5K CPAR=1P CARC=3P} ∗ Subcircuit parameters: ∗ VTHRES = VOLTAGE AT WHICH THE SPARKGAP STRIKES ∗ VARC = VOLTAGE ACROSS THE SPARKGAP ONCE STRUCK ∗ ISUS = CURRENT UNDER WHICH THE ARC IS STOPPED ∗ RNEG = NEGATIVE RESISTANCE ONCE STRUCK ∗ LPL = LEAD INDUCTANCE. The netlist uses standard SPICE3 elements combined with an IsSpice4 IfThenElse behavioral element (BARC. X1 16 2 13 SWITCH BARC 15 0 V=ABS(V(1. The VDUM 1 10 operation does not depend on the LPL 10 11 {LPL} applied dv/dt. when multiplied by VTHRES.ENDS 104 . When the surge passes. V(33) increases VTHRES by a ratio defined by the manufacturer’s curves. the voltagecontrolled switch is open and only a leakage current circulates in the ESA. it is strongly advised CPAR 1 2 {CPAR} that you set TRTOL variable in RLEAK 1 2 10MEG the .. (Table 2). The effect is modeled by the source BARC 15 0 V=ABS(V(1. Since the striking is RPL 10 11 {RPL} very fast.Modeling For Power Electronics In the OFF state.OPTIONS TRTOL=1). the ESA current decays until the sustaining value is reached and the switch opens.2)) > {VTHRES} ? 10V : The userdefined parameters in + ABS(I(VDUM)) > {ISUS} ? 10V : 10N the model are described at the RDEL 15 13 10 top in bold. usually in kohms ∗ CPAR = GAP CAPACITANCE ∗ CARC = ARC CAPACITANCE Table 1. will increase the final BARC level. The PWL table converts the absolute value of the applied slope in coefficients that. In the first model in Table 1.SUBCKT SPARK 1 2 {VTHRES=90 VARC=10 ISUS=500M RNEG=0. This will DSRK2 12 16 DCLAMP force SPICE to be more vigilant in CARC 1 16 {CARC} the vicinity of transitions. CDEL 13 0 10P . RNEG 11 17 {RNEG} DTRK1 12 17 DCLAMP (. At this point. a behavioral piecewise linear table function is used to account for the dV/dt applied to the device.OPTION statement to 1.2)) > {VTHRES} + {VTHRES} ∗ V(33) ?. At this point..MODEL DCLAMP D BV={VARC} . The IsSpice4 netlist for a ∗ surge arrestor model. and neither is the dV/dt applied to the ESA.
0M 100. the threshold voltage of the spark gap is 230V. The selfrelaxing circuit configuration used to investigate the V(4) VSPARK transient behavior of the new spark X1 gap model.0 217.MODEL DCLAMP D BV={VARC} . the curve gives a threshold of 350V: ABS(230350/230)=521M —> 10. The RLEAK 1 2 10G parameters shown are for the DTRK1 12 11 DCLAMP SIEMENS A81A230X ESA.68UF 3 C2 4.SUBCKT A81A230X 1 2 {VTHRES=230 VARC=10 ISUS=500M LPL=130N RPL=2. up to 10mV/us.0M 1.4P CARC=3P} VDUM 1 10 Table 2.0K 1. The third point on the curve is for 10E6V/s or 1V/us.7UF 1 R1 100K I(V2) ISPARK 4 R2 10 2 Figure 9. 217M. The IsSpice4 netlist for a LPL 10 11 {LPL} RPL 10 11 {RPL} spark gap model with the dV/dt CPAR 1 2 {CPAR} variation effect added.6] INPUT_DOMAIN=10M FRACTION=TRUE) . SPARKGAP Generic models and models for specific part numbers are available from Intusoft.0 956. The curve is flat up to 10kV/s or 10mV/us. For 10E7V/s or 10V/us. At this point. DSRK2 12 16 DCLAMP CARC 1 16 {CARC} X1 16 2 13 SWITCH BARC 15 0 V=ABS(V(1. you only need to enter a few parameters (variables in curly braces) found in the manufacturer’s technical specifications.2)) > {VTHRES} + {VTHRES} ∗ V(33) ? 11V : + ABS(I(VDUM)) > {ISUS} ? 11V : 10N RDEL 15 13 10 CDEL 13 0 10P A1 35 33 PWL_001 RA1 33 0 10MEG *** INPUT SLOPE CALCULATION V/us *** BDIFF 40 0 V=V(1. between 1mV and zero.2) EDIFF 30 0 0 31 100MEG RDIFF 30 31 1MEG CDIFF 40 31 1UF ECONV 32 0 30 0 1U BABS 35 0 V=ABS(V(32)) < 10M ? 10M : ABS(V(32)) > 1K ? 1K : ABS(V(32)) .ENDS Obtaining the PWL points is easy.0.MODEL PWL_001 PWL(XY_ARRAY=[10. 521M and so on.0M 1.217.0M 100. V(1) VRELAX 5 D1 DN4007 V1 SIN C1 0.0M 1.0 521. The coefficient is simply: ABS(230280)/230=0.5K + CPAR=1. or in the PWL table format: 1. the first coefficient will be very low. To adapt the model to a particular spark gap device.0M + 10. 105 .Power Specialist’s .0M 86. For shallow slopes. For the Siemens A81A230x. the threshold voltage is 280V.
The laboratory results for the selfrelaxing circuit in figure 9 using the Siemens A81C90x ESA. Thanks to IntuScope. The power mains supply a device protected by an Top: 20V/div Bot: 500m/div X: 50us/div Figure 10b. Spark Gap Current The arc is stopped here The first IsSpice4 test is made using a selfrelaxing configuration as depicted by Figure 9. you will need to view the raw noninterpolated SPICE data (internal calculated data points) simulated by IsSpice4 and not the interpolated (.Modeling For Power Electronics Spark Gap Voltages 20V/div Arc Voltage Figure 10a.PRINT) data specified by the TSTEP parameter in the . you can easily explore both types of data. Results of the selfrelaxing spark gap circuit in figure 9 show excellent correlation with actual measurements.TRAN statement. ICAP’s waveform analysis tool. Since the phenomena are very fast. A second test is run using the spark gap as a real surge arrestor. 106 . Figure 10b shows an oscilloscope hardcopy of the actual tested circuit. Figure 10a depicts the results given by IsSpice4.
1991 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting.30M 27. The results simulated by IsSpice4 are shown on Figure 11.300M 9.30M Time References [1] An Electrical Surge Arrestor (ESA) Model For Electromagnetic Pulse Analysis.301m 0) has been added to the sinusoidal (SIN 0 320 50) supply voltage in order to trigger the ESA. In the next Intusoft Newsletter we will explore such a model and give examples. Vol. Surge Surge Mainsline Mains line Voltage across the ESA Voltage across the ESA Current in the ESA Current in the ESA 3. December 1977 [2] A SPICE model for simulating Arc Discharge load.001m 600 13. More details on the Mechatronics library will be available in the next newsletter.3ms 600 13. Volume II. 1997. The simulated response of the Siemens A81A350x to a transient pulse riding on top of a sinusoidal supply voltage. No 6. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science.30M 21.Power Specialist’s ESA. A premade set of surge arrestor models for various manufacturer’s devices is available as part of the new Mechatronics model library. NARUI.300M 15. it is still a simplification of the complex phenomenon associated with spark gap ignition and arcing. Although the model accounts for several nonlinear effects. The model presented here runs fast and converges without difficulties. A 1µs transient (PWL source: PWL 0 0 13ms 0 13. Rockwell International Electronics Operations. NS24. M. The price of the library is $1500 and will be available November 3. Note that a warm or cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL/HCFL) lamp could be easily derived from this model. 107 . Figure 11.
but the parameter extraction from the manufacturer’s data curves is invariably a complicated process. In contrast. the voltage across the tube will decrease as the current grows. All Rights Reserved SPICE Simulates A Fluorescent Lamp A Hot Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (HCFL) is a device in which a gaseous mixture flows between two tungsten electrodes or filaments. A practical value for the cold striking voltage for a 5 foot lamp (58W) is near the kV range with the corresponding arc voltage around 110Vrms. due to the negative impedance characteristics of the conducting gas. e. 1997 Tel. An HCFL can be operated at low or high frequencies.g. This technique consists of assembling SPICE primitives to describe a complex electrical function. but at a voltage lower than its cold value because of the temperature. the filaments increase the electron population in the tube. Fitting the I/V characteristics with a polynomial equation represents an elegant solution. a second effect can be noticed. This value is called the arc voltage. Every time the polarity of the mains changes. Figure 7 depicts the general model we have adopted. Once the lamp is struck. At low frequency. above a few kHz. At this slow operating rate. a preheating period is necessary in order to bring the electrodes to a sufficient temperature before the tube avalanches to its on state. the mixture is made of mercury vapor and a small quantity of inert gas (krypton or argon). The SPICE modeling for a fluorescent tube can be generated in several ways [1]. At higher frequencies. the conducting gas reacts faster than the AC line. in a 60 or 50Hz ballast application. During this emissive period. SPICE Simulates A Fluorescent Lamp Christophe Basso Excerpts from the November 1997 Intusoft Newsletter #51 108 . It then has to restrike with the opposite polarity. these effects are smoothed out and we can represent the tube using resistive and weakly capacitive behavior. (310) 8330710 Fax (310) 8339658 Copyright © Intusoft. the SPICE macromodeling technique offers a simplified and efficient method for model generation. the lamp current cancels and the tube halts its conduction process. To lengthen the filament lifetime. it maintains a quasiconstant voltage across its end points. The warmup is performed by supplying the filaments with a DC or AC current during the first few hundred milliseconds. and consequently decrease the avalanche potential resulting in a lower striking voltage for the lamp. The role of the inert gas is to vaporize the mercury during the turnon phase.Modeling For Power Electronics Intusoft Newsletter Personal Computer Circuit & System Design Tools Issue #51 Nov. In domestic applications.
The switch is controlled by the following IfThenElse function: If V_Tube > V_Strike Then If I_Tub > I_Sus Then On Else Off. you should include the UIC (Use Initial Conditions) keyword in the transient SPICE statement (. This is especially true for highfrequency systems. no current will circulate except in the leakage elements. preheating the filaments decreases the striking voltage. An example tube model is available from the Intusoft Web site at Filament 1 Arc Voltage CPAR RLEAK www.TRAN tstep tstop UIC).The subcircuit topology for the fluorescent tube.g. The netlist is written for the IsSpice4 simulator and uses standard SPICE 3 elements combined with one of the IsSpice4’s SPICE extensions. At this point. The model accounts for this specific behavior and monitors the RMS current flowing through the filaments prior to the first cold strike. The tube will stay conductive until the current falls below the sustaining value.Power Specialist’s Figure 7 . A low frequency AC test using the tube model in a classical 50Hz application is shown in Figure 9.com Filament 2 Resistance Once Struck Switch The model works as follows: if the voltage applied to the tube is lower than its cold striking value. electronic ballasts. The BDIFF element (see the netlist posted on the Intusoft web site) models this effect in a simplistic way. where the negative effects are clearly depicted. the switch opens and the tube needs to be restruck. the thermal effects ensure a restrike voltage close to the arc value. Figure 8 shows the I/V characteristics of the IsSpice4 fluorescent tube model. To take advantage of this feature. In AC applications. an IfThenElse behavioral element. The voltage then collapses to the arc value and a current flows inside the tube. Figure 10 109 . the voltagecontrolled switch closes and the backtoback zener network is connected across the tube. If the voltage is further increased and the striking voltage is reached. e.intusoft. where the frequency of operation is fast enough. As previously stated.
two MOSFETs are driven by a saturable current transformer.0 400. V1 is a sinusoidal waveform.Modeling For Power Electronics 8. For a 36W tube.000 Arcvalue Arc Value Tube Current Figure 8 The DC I/V characteristics for the fluorescent tube model. A typical application for a selfoscillating ballast is shown in Figure 11.000 Cold Strike Coldstrike Tube current 0 0 4. using the IsSpice4’s nonlinear magnetic core model. The startup is driven by R17&C12 which forces X21 to enter the conduction mode a few milliseconds after the mains are applied. the resulting load changes V(6) VMAINS R1 35 6 V1 SIN X1 TUBE S1 SMOD 9 L1 0. you can simply remove the “∗” comment symbol in front of the RSTK element in the netlist and place one in front of RNEG.000 8. RSTK = 103/.0 reveals the simulation results. C13 also ensures preheating of the filaments.0 400.43 = 240W. Once the tube is struck.000 4.0 200. In this second example.0 Lamp voltage Lamp Voltage 200. 8 I(V3) IFIL 3 4 V4 PWL 110 . DSTK1 and DSTK2 elements.75H I(V2) ILAMP 7 1 2 Figure 9 .000 400.000 4.Tube simulation in a classical 50Hz application.0 200.000 8. A piecewise linear waveform is used to control the switch. RSTK can be calculated from the RMS lamp operating parameters: RSTK = VARC/INOM. To operate the tube model at higher frequencies.000 8. 4.0 400.0 200. Square waves are delivered to the nondamped L1C13 network and a high voltage appears across the tube ends.
0M 320.0M 340. 0400us and 200us300us. Two views of the results can be seen. 2. I I lamp 0. operating parameters can be easily adapted to various lamp types. Application note BR480/D Figure 11 .0M 260.The transient response of the selfoscillating ballast circuit.Power Specialist’s Figure 10 .0M 300. The The lampstrikes here lamp strikes here 260. V lamp when struck V lamp when struk 80V/Div. Andrei VLADIMIRESCU.5A/Div. Thanks to its macromodeling structure.5A/Div. MOTOROLA.0M 280. Figure 11 shows the IsSpice4 simulation results crossprobed on the schematic. lamp 0. 111 . The SPICE book.The simulation results for a low frequency AC test using the tube model in a classical 50Hz application. References 1. The model presented here runs fast and converges without difficulties in low and high frequency applications. Reference 2 gives further insight into the selfoscillating ballast technique.0M 300.0M the operating frequency of the ballast. The lamp is struck when the PWL source causes the switch to close. 0471609269 Energy Efficient Semiconductors for Lighting.0M 340.0M 280.0M 320. John WILEY & Sons. 80V/Div.
The chief causes of SPICE convergence problems are due to abrupt changes in a circuit’s impedance. The subcircuit topology and an example netlist are shown in Figure 17. Sidactors are often used as overvoltage protection devices with clamping voltages from 20 to over 500 volts. resulting in the required switching action. Because these devices have two stable states.6 format and is compatible with all commercial SPICEbased simulators. To aid IsSpice4 in converging during the abrupt sidactor switching. This produces positive feedback. It can be triggered into conduction regardless of polarity. Sidactor Modeling Slim Petrie Excerpts from the November 1997 Intusoft Newsletter #51 The latest version of the powerful SpiceMod (v2.Modeling For Power Electronics Sidactor Modeling A SIDACTOR is a bilateral switch. Conduction will continue until the current is interrupted or drops below the minimum holding current. The program takes the data sheet parameters and converts them to the appropriate SPICE model parameters. The netlist uses a SPICE 2G. Upon application of a voltage exceeding the breakdown voltage. similar to a triac.005. when a mild convergence problem is encountered. without a gate connection. but only by an overvoltage pulse. Resistors and zener diodes are used to simulate the breakdown voltages and leakage currents. The base of each transistor is connected to the collector of the other.4. you may need to tell SPICE which state to use. The sidactor is as fast as a zener diode. while offering a much lower impedance (leakage current <5ua) during conduction.3) modeling program allows you to create SPICE models for sidactors from data sheet parameters. The sidactor is modeled by using two NPN/PNP transistor pairs. the sidactor switches on through a negative or positive resistance region to a low onstate voltage. The sidactor can offer longer life and faster response (nanoseconds) than other types of protection and is able to respond without voltage overshoot. This is accomplished by including the “OFF” parameter on the subcircuit transistors.OPTIONS ITL1=400 ITL4=500 RELTOL=. the following OPTIONS statement is recommended “. included in ICAP/4 version 8. It should be noted that these are the options chosen by the Convergence Wizard feature. 112 . This will set up an initial starting condition in the normal starting state.
Inc.5 90. 8 QP1 ∗K1100E70.2 V(10) VCE Tran VCE Tran VIN 225 4. This determines the turnon and turnoff time Figure 18 shows a sample application where a sidactor is added to protect a transistor during inductive load switching. OFF. OFF RR RH 7 QP1 6 8 2 POUT. circuits.5 IBV=10N BV=118) .5 . controls reverse holding current . is a manufacturer of semiconductor devices. The parameters for a Teccor K1100E70 118Volt 1Amp device are shown.teccor.SUBCKT K1100E70 1 2 DR ∗ TERMINALS: MT2 MT1 QN2 3 6 QN1 5 4 2 NOUT. Reverse breakdown DF RF 4 3 1. The sidactor eliminates a reverse breakdown of the transistor in inductive switching 660M V1 PULSE RBB2 100 Tran ICOLL 92. and TF = Ideal Forward Transit Time (not fall time). OFF DF 4 3 DZ. CJC = (with RS + RGP) controls the maximum forward voltage application rate (dv/dt) before triggering occurs. controls IBO 4 RR 6 3 1. OFF QP2 4 5 7 POUT. 113 .0M time 140M V2 10 RS .0M time 140M L1 100MH 17.755 .MODEL POUT PNP (IS=321F BF=10 CJE=134N TF=25.ENDS RT2 1 V(1) PIN1 V(2) PIN2 The following NPN/PNP parameters control the performance of the sidactor at high speeds (high dv/dt): CJE = Controls the high speed triggering.5 .MODEL DZ D (IS=321F RS=100 N=1. Forward breakdown 5 QP2 DR 6 3 DZ.MODEL NOUT NPN (IS=321F BF=20 CJE=134N CJC=26.0M time 140M MT1 MT2 X2 K2200F1 V(1) VIN R1 50 X4 TIP36 R2 50 RBB1 150 X3 TIP47 V3 20 Figure 18. controls “on” resistance RH2 2 RH 7 6 11. 10. OFF.75 90. OFF QN2 8 6 7 NOUT.com.8N TF=1. Several sidactor models are included on the newsletter floppy disk and are posted on Teccor’s web site at www.18E+10 . controls VDRM .TECCOR.5U) .9M 90.K1100E70.Sidacs.1 Teccor Electronics. 118V 1A . controls holding current RH2 4 2 11. The sidactor rating is chosen so that the breakover voltage (Vbo) is just below the Vceo rating of the transistor.7U) . The IsSpice4 netlist for a sidactor.18E+10 QN1 RF RT2 1 7 0.Power Specialist’s Figure 17.
Modeling For Power Electronics
Transformer and Saturable Core Modeling
Larry Meares and Charles Hymowitz, Intusoft
Transformer Models The usual method of simulating a transformer using IsSpice is by specifying the open circuit inductance seen at each winding and then adding the coupling coefficients to a pair of coupled inductors. This technique tends to loose the physical meaning associated with leakage and magnetizing inductance and does not allow the insertion of a nonlinear core. It does, however, provide a transformer that is simple to create and simulates efficiently. The coupled inductor type of transformer, its related equations and relationship to an ideal transformer with added leakage and magnetizing inductance is shown in Figure 1.
K
V1 V2
Figure 2, and has a unity coupling coefficient and infinite magnetizing inductance. The ideal transformer, unlike a real transformer, will operate at DC. This property is useful for modeling the operation of DCDC converters. The coupling coefficient of a transformer wound on a magnetic core is nearly unity when the core is not saturated and depends on the winding topology when the core is saturated. The work of Hsu, Middlebrook and Cuk [3] develops the relationship of leakage inductance, showing that relatively simple measurements of input inductance with shorted outputs yield the necessary model information. The IsSpice equivalent circuit for an ideal transformer is shown in Figure 3 and implements the following equations:
LE
LE
1:N
L1
L2
≅
V1
LM
V2
V1 ∗ RATIO = V2
I1 = I2 ∗ RATIO
V1 = L1 di1 + M di2 dt dt V2 = M di1 + L2 di2 dt dt
M = K L ∗ L 2 1
If K ≅ 1 L1 = LM L2 = N2∗ L1 K = 1  LE/LM
RP and RS are used to prevent singularities in applications where terminals 1 and 2 are open circuited or terminals 3 and 4 are connected to a voltage source. RATIO is the turns ratio from winding 3,4 (secondary) to winding 1,2 (primary). Polarity “dots” are on terminals 1 and 3 as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 1, The coupled inductor transformer, left, is computationally efficient, but it cannot provide access to LE and LM or be used as a building block. The ideal transformer with discrete inductances and their relationship to the coupling coefficient is shown on the right.
RS 1u
3
In order to make a transformer model that more closely represents the physical processes, it is necessary to construct an ideal transformer and model the magnetizing and leakage inductances separately. The ideal transformer is one that preserves the voltage and current relationships, shown in
N1 N2 + I1 I2 V2 4 3
F
VM
6
Rp 1meg
2 5
E
1
1
4
+ V1 2
.SUBCKT XFMR 1 2 3 4 E 5 4 1 2 {RATIO} F 1 2 VM {RATIO} VM 5 6 RP 1 2 1MEG RS 6 3 1U .ENDS Figure 3, The IsSpice ideal transformer model allows operation at DC and the addition of magnetizing and leakage inductances, as well as a saturable core to make a complete transformer model. Parameter passing allows the transformer to simulate any turns ratio.
V2 = V1 ∗ N2 / N1 I1 = I2 ∗ N2 / N1
Figure 2, Symbol of an ideal transformer with the voltage to current relationships.
114
Power Specialist’s The saturable reactor cannot be modeled using a single SPICE primitive element. Therefore, a saturable core “macro IsSpice Subcircuit Definition model”, utilizing the IsSpice subcircuit V2 V1 .SUBCKT XFMRTAP 1 2 3 4 5 feature, must be created. The saturable core E1 7 8 1 2 {RATIO} V2 model is capable of simulating nonlinear 2 4 F1 1 2 VM1 {RATIO} RP 1 2 1MEG V1 transformer behavior including saturation, RS 6 3 1U hysteresis, and eddy current losses. To make VM1 7 6 the model even more useful it has been F2 1 2 VM2 {RATIO} V3 V3 parameterized. This is a technique which E2 9 5 1 2 {RATIO} R5 8 4 1U allows the characteristics of the core to be 5 VM2 9 8 determined just by the specification of a few .ENDS key parameters. At the time of the simulation, IsSpice Symbol Actual Topology IsSpice Netlist the specified parameters are passed into the subcircuit. The equations in the subcircuit Figure 4, Multiple winding transformers may be built out of combinations of the (inside the curly braces) are then evaluated ideal transformer. RATIO equals V2/V1. The transformer is center tapped and V2 will equal V3. and replaced with a value making the equation based subcircuit compatible with any SPICE program. Multiwinding topologies can also be simulated by
IsSpice Subcircuit Call X1 1 2 3 4 5 XFMR {RATIO=xxx }
1 3
using combinations of this 2 port representation. Now that the ideal transformer has been constructed, magnetizing inductance can be added using a separate saturable core model described next. Saturable Reactor Model A saturable reactor is a magnetic circuit element consisting of a single coil wound around a magnetic core. The presence of a magnetic core drastically alters the behavior of the coil by increasing the magnetic flux and confining most of the flux to the core. The magnetic flux density, B, is a function of the applied MMF, which is proportional to ampere turns. The core consists of a number of tiny magnetic domains made up of magnetic dipoles. These domains set up a magnetic flux that adds to or subtracts from the flux set up by the magnetizing current. After overcoming initial friction, the domains rotate like small DC motors, to become aligned with the applied field. As the MMF is increased, the domains rotate one by one until they are all in alignment and the core saturates. Eddy currents are induced as the flux changes, causing added loss.
The parameters that must be passed to the subcircuit include:
x x x x x
Flux Capacity in VoltSec (VSEC) Initial Flux Capacity in VoltSec (IVSEC) Magnetizing Inductance in Henries (LMAG) Saturation Inductance in Henries (LSAT) Eddy current critical frequency in HZ (FEDDY).
The saturable core may be added to the model of the ideal transformer to create a more complete transformer model. To use the saturable core model just place the core across the transformer's input terminals and evaluate the equations in curly braces. A special subcircuit test point has been provided to allow the monitoring of the core flux. Since there are two connections in the subcircuit, no connection need be made at the top subcircuit level other than the dummy node number. How The Core Model Works Modeling the physical process performed by a saturable core is most easily accomplished by developing an analog of the magnetic flux. This is done by integrating
A call to the saturable core subcircuit using IsSpice would look like the following: X1 2 0 3 CORE {VSEC=50U IVSEC=25U LMAG=10MHY LSAT=20UHY FEDDY=20KHZ}
Top (+) Flux Test Point Bottom () .SUBCKT CORE 1 2 3 F1 1 2 VM1 1 G2 2 3 1 2 1 E1 4 2 3 2 1 VM1 4 5 RX 3 2 1E12 CB 3 2 {VSEC/500} + IC={IVSEC/VSEC*500} RB 5 2 {LMAG*500/VSEC} RS 5 6 {LSAT*500/VSEC} VP 7 2 250 D1 6 7 DCLAMP VN 2 8 250 D2 8 6 DCLAMP .MODEL DCLAMP D(CJO={3*VSEC/ + (6.28*FEDDY*500*LMAG)} VJ=25) .ENDS
Figure 5, To make the netlist for the saturable core subcircuit SPICE compatible, just replace all the equations in the curly braces with numerical values. The key parameters are shown in bold.
115
Modeling For Power Electronics
B µ sat, Lsat
Figure 6, A simple BH loop model detailing some core parameters that will be used for later calculations.
Bm H
µmag,Lmag
the voltage across the core and then shaping the flux analog with nonlinear elements to cause a current to flow proportional to the desired function. This gives good results when there is no hysteresis as illustrated in Figure 6. The input voltage, V(2), is integrated using the voltage controlled current source, G, and the capacitor CB. An initial condition across the capacitor allows the core to have an initial flux. The output current from F is shaped as a function of flux using the voltage sources VN and VP and diodes D1 and D2. The inductance in the high permeability region is proportional to RB, while the inductance in the saturated region is proportional to RS. Voltage VP and VN represent the saturation flux. Core losses can be simulated by adding resistance across the input terminals; however, another equivalent method is to add capacitance across resistor RB in the simulation. Current in this capacitive element is differentiated in the model to produce the effect of resistance at the terminals. The capacitance can be made a nonlinear function of voltage which results in a loss term that is a function of flux. A simple but effective way of adding the nonlinear capacitance is to give the diode parameter, CJO, a value, as is done here. The other option is to use a nonlinear capacitor across nodes 2 and 6, however, the capacitor's polynomial coefficients are a function of saturation flux, causing their recomputation if VP and VN are changed.
Losses will increase linearly with frequency simulating high frequency core behavior. A noticeable increase in MMF occurs when the core comes out of saturation, an effect that is more pronounced for square wave excitation than for sinusoidal excitation as shown in Figure 8. These model properties agree closely with observed behavior [2]. The model is set up for orthonol and steel core materials which have a sharp transition from the saturated to the unsaturated region. For permalloy cores the transition out of saturation is less pronounced. To account for the different response the capacitance value in the diode model (CJO in DCLAMP), which affects core losses, should be scaled down. Also, scaling the voltage sources VN and VP down will soften the transition. The DC BH loop hysteresis, usually unnecessary for most applications, is not modeled because of the extra model complexity, causing a prediction of lower loss at low frequencies. The hysteresis, however, does appear as a frequency dependent function, as seen on the previous page, providing reasonable results for most applications, including magnetic amplifiers. The model shown in Figure 7 simulates the core characteristics and takes into account the high frequency losses associated with eddy currents and transient widening of the BH loop caused by magnetic domain angular momentum. Losses will increase linearly with frequency, simulating high frequency core behavior. Calculating Core Parameters The saturable core model is setup to be described in electrical terms, thus allowing the engineer to design the circuitry first without knowledge of the core's physical makeup. After the design is completed, the final electrical parameters can then be used to calculate the necessary core magnetic/size values. The core model could be altered to take as its input magnetic and size parameters. The core could then be described in terms of N, Ac, Ml, µ, and Bm and would be more useful for studying previously designed circuits. But the electrical based model is better suited to
VM RS
7 9
2
3
4
G
1
E CB
3
RB Rx
2
V vs. I Shaping
INTEGRATION
VP F VN
1 11 10
D1
D2
1
8 5
Flux
3
12
X1 CORE
6
Figure 7, The novel saturable reactor subcircuit configuration. The symbol below the schematic displays the core's connectivity and flux test point.
2
116
To use the IVSEC option you must put the UIC keyword in the IsSpice ". From equations 5. 117 . 2 200.44 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ F ∗ N ∗ 108 and E = 4.00M Flux vs. N is the number of turns and ϕ is the flux of the core in maxwells. 1 Flux 0 where E is the desired voltage. The saturable core model is capable of being used with both sine (below) and square (above) wave excitation as shown in these IsSpice simulations. and Ml is the magnetic path length in cm. The core's magnetic/size values can be easily calculated from the following equations which utilize cgs units. 6 200. Ac is the effective core cross sectional area in cm2. The total flux may also be written as: ϕT = 2 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac Eq. 4 400. from 1& 2.00M 20. 8 Eq.0 1 Then.4 ∗ π ∗ 108 ∗ Ac / Ml Eq. Equation 3 is for sinusoidal conditions while equation 4 is for a square wave input.4 ∗ π ∗ N ∗ i / Ml Eq. sat) = µ(mag.00M 40. 9 The values for LMAG and LSAT can be determined by using the proper value of µ in Eq.0 Flux 0 200. 6.00M Flux vs. one value in the linear region where the permeability will be maximum and one value in the saturated region.0 where Bm is the flux density of the material in Gauss.0 1 400.0 E = N dϕ/dt * 108 200. 3 Eq. The saturable core model's behavior is defined by the set of electrical parameters. 5 also from E = L di/dt we have.0 Eq.TRAN" statement. and F is the design frequency. I(VM) Figure 8. which defines the relationship between flux and voltage is: 400. 9.0 80. 400. The relationship between the magnetizing force and current is defined by Ampere's law as H = .Power Specialist’s Faraday's law. Parameters Passed To Model VSEC Core Capacity in VoltSec IVSEC Initial Condition in VoltSec LMAG Magnetizing Inductance in Henries LSAT Saturation Inductance in Henries FEDDY Frequency when LMAG Reactance = Loss Resistance in Hz Equation Variables Bm Maximum Flux Density in Gauss H Magnetic Field Strength in Oersteds Ac Area of the Core in cm2 N Number of Turns Ml Magnetic Path Length in cm µ Permeability where H is the magnetizing force in oersteds. Then. sat) ∗ N2 ∗ . shown in Figure 6 and Figure 9. E = 4. I(VM) The initial flux in the core is described by the parameter IVSEC. The values of permeability can be found by looking at the B .00M 40. 7 the natural design process. i is the current through N turns.H curve and choosing two values for the magnetic flux. and 7 we have L = N2 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ (. The parameter VSEC can then be determined by integrating the input voltage resulting in: ∫ e dt = NϕT = N ∗ 2 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ 108 = VSEC Eq.4 ∗ π ∗ 108) / H ∗ MI with µ = B/H we have L(mag.00M 20.0 ∗ Bm ∗ Ac ∗ F ∗ N ∗ 108 Eq. ∫ e dt = Li Eq.00M 40.00M 80.0 40.
3 and 4 to get an idea of the region will have to be an average value over the range of voltage levels necessary to saturate the core.Modeling For Power Electronics µ. default one for use with TURNS model An example set of parameters for Permalloy Tape Wound 80 would be BR=6K FEDDY=600K UMAX=180K USAT=10K BI=0 N=1 where ACORE and LPATH would depend on the geometry chosen. insulators. After the approximate 3 db point for µ. can be determined from a graph of permeability frequency specified by the V2 source.0U 2. time 50. 0U where the passed physical parameters are ACORE Magnetic cross section area in cm 2 LPATH Magnetic path length in cm FEDDY Frequency when Lmag Reactance=Loss resistance UMAX Maximum Permeability. Frequency Figure 9. The .625*N*UMAG)} VJ=25) .PRINT TRAN V(3) V(5) I(VM1) V(4) R1 4 2 100 R2 3 0 50 X1 1 0 5 CORE {VSEC=25U IVSEC=25U + LMAG=10MHY LSAT=20UHY FEDDY=25KHZ} X2 2 0 3 0 XFMR {RATIO=. dB/dH BR Flux density in gauss at H = 0 for saturated BH loop BI Initial Flux density. braces into the saturable core subcircuit and adjust the voltage levels in the "V2 4 0 from a curve of permeability versus magnetic flux. By choosing the must remain reasonable or the simulation may fail.LIB *ALIAS V(3)=VOUT *ALIAS V(5)=FLUX *ALIAS V(4)=VIN . the components are the Test Circuit Figure 11.625*N*UMAG/(LPATH * BR)*500} RS 5 6 {. made up of a number of components.END 118 . the proper PULSE" or "V2 4 0 SIN" statements to insure that the core values of µ may be chosen. Permeability The Feddy value can be selected at various points depending on the core gap. Saturable core test circuit schematic and IsSpice simulation results. 50 VIN 5. Pass the core parameters in the curly Figure 10. vs.TRAN . The value of µ in the saturated will saturate.3} VM1 2 1 V2 4 0 PULSE 5 5 0US 0NS 0NS +25US *Use the Pulse statement for square wave excitation *V2 4 0 SIN 0 5 40K *Use the Sin statement for sine wave excitation *Adjust voltage levels to insure core saturation . You can use Eq. fasteners and connection points. The permeability versus frequency graph is used to determine the value for FEDDY. the eddy current critical statement may also need adjustment depending on the frequency. RX 3 2 1E12 CB 3 2 {N*2*BR*ACORE*1E8/500} IC={BI/BR*500} F1 1 2 VM1 1 G2 2 3 1 2 1 E1 4 2 3 2 1 VM1 4 5 RB 5 2 {. Current through the core) will result in a BH plot. For example: .SUBCKT COREX 1 2 3 {BI=0 N=1} * Core Defaults shown in { } * Defaults for parameters that are unlikely to change over *the core family may be placed on the .MODEL DCLAMP D(CJO={3*LPATH * + BR/(6. 5. The value of FEDDY.TRAN interest.SUBCKT line. The core parameters versus frequency.1US 50US test circuit.625*N*USAT/(LPATH * BR)*500} VP 7 2 250 D1 6 7 DCLAMP VN 2 8 250 D2 8 6 DCLAMP * MULTIPLIER 3 AND VJ=25 GO TOGETHER . dB/dH USAT Saturation Permeability.28 Tran 0 6 time 50. Use the approximate 3 db point on the curve for FEDDY value. shown in Figure 4.28 VOUT tim e 50. *INCLUDE DEVICE. various encapsulates. X1 CORE It should be noted that a similar core model can be constructed using generic physical parameters as opposed to generic electrical design parameters.50 T ran 0 298 FLUX 298 T ran 0 2.ENDS A Complete Transformer Model A transformer is a subassembly. plotting V(5) versus I(VM1) (Flux can be determined. The actual hardware consists of a core with a number of turns. default = 0 N Turns.28*FEDDY*500*. Electrically.0U Vin 5 2 R1 100 V1 Pulse 3 Vout VM Flux 1 X2 XFMR R2 50 Using And Testing The Saturable Core The test circuit shown in Figure 10 can be used to evaluate the saturable core model. Equivalent IsSpice *SPICE_NET netlist for the saturable core . the corresponding frequency simulation is complete.
Components Div. (c) IEEE. The windings have special decoupled faster than others. causing some windings to be core and each of the windings. pg. ERLM520. is shown in Figure 13. Middlebrook and Slobodan Cuk.G.. Power conversion International. Electronics Research Laboratory. These leakage inductances are independent of the core characteristic shown by ref [3]. incorporating the CORE and XFMR subcircuits along with the leakage inductance and winding resistance is shown in Figure 12. 1982 [4] Advances in SwitchedMode Power Conversion Slobodan Cuk and R. Magnetics. Applications like this can frequently be series resistance. experience saturation in a small region of the core. The leakage inductances are measured by finding the short circuit input inductance at each winding and then solving for the individual inductance. as most simulations. invalidating the model. The saturable core may be combined with the ideal transformer. A more complete transformer model showing geometrically defined parasitics and an equivalent schematic symbol. Butler PA 16001 [3] Transformer Modeling and Design for Leakage Control Shi Ping Hsu.D. XFMR. Magnetics Designer tool. including geometrically defined parasitics. vol. Modeling the core (in Figure 12) as a single element referred to one of the windings 8 7 works in most cases. Coupling coefficients are inserted in the model by adding the series leakage inductance for each winding as shown in Figure 12.. The final model. College of Engineering. 1986. R. Berkeley. 3 L1 5 WINDING CORE FLUX OUTPUT 16 C7 C8 C1 10 1 2 15 X1 TURNS COREG 10 R2 12 3 12 6 L2 7 WINDING C6 C2 C9 C5 14 X3 TURNS 3 2 4 2 GEOMETRICALLY DEFINED ELEMENTS WINDING 1 4 C10 5 C3 R3 L3 8 9 X4 TURNS 2 13 13 5 A TRANSFORMER MODEL AND ITS SYMBOL Figure 13. Applied Power Electronics Conference. does not represent all cases. Box 391. however. Middlebrook. 119 . A computer Program to Simulate Semiconductor Circuits Laurence W. copyright 1981 [5] NEW SIMULATION TECHNIQUES USING SPICE L. A more complete transformer representation. and some leakage some applications may inductance and series resistance to create a transformer representation. Saturable Core Ideal Transformer The magnetizing inductance is added by using the saturable reactor model across any one of the windings of the ideal transformer. University of California. CA 94720 [2] Design Manual featuring tape wound cores. interlimitation of this model is for topologies with magnetic shunts and intrawinding capacitance and leakage inductance. Memorandum No. Figure 12.Power Specialist’s Leakage Inductance 5 1 2 3 Series Resistance 4 6 This model. 9 May 1975. Meares. leakage inductance and capacitance are solved by replacing the single magnetic structure with an generally ballpark estimates with the actual values established equivalent structure using several transformers. 2. Feb. Nagel. Another geometrical properties that result in series resistance.D. R1 11 1 11 4 References [1] SPICE2. SPICE models cannot represent all possible behavior because of the limits of computer memory and run time. 68. each using by prototype measurements or by software such as the the model presented here. The or multiple cores. Inc. AprilMay.
Steve Sandler Excerpts from the June 1995 Intusoft Newsletter #42 120 . See page 2 for more details. Nonlinear magnetic elements can be simulated in a number of ways in ISSPICE. All Rights Reserved #42 June 1995 Issue (310) 8330710 Fax (310) 8339658 0RGHOLQJ 0DJQHWLFV A series of BH Loops using Intusoft magnetics models 10 9 8 7 2 3 4 11 1 6 Figure 1. Charles Hymowitz. Modeling Nonlinear Magnetics Larry Meares.Modeling For Power Electronics Intusoft Newsletter Personal Computer Circuit Design Tools Copyright © Intusoft.
which is proportional to ampere turns. Invariably. direct coding methods in order to determine at what point an AHDL implementation is appropriate. the Intusoft model is much easier to use and accepts commonly available electrical or physical data sheet parameters. Modeling the physical process performed by a saturable core is most easily accomplished by developing an electrical analog of the magnetic flux. The core consists of a number of tiny magnetic domains made up of magnetic dipoles. is a function of the applied MMF. the domains rotate one by one until they are all in alignment and the core saturates. While a good description of core behavior. Intusoft has created a SPICE 2 compatible subcircuit model that accurately simulates nonlinear core behavior including saturation. let’s take a look at two subcircuit based magnetic core models that use SPICE 2G and SPICE 3 behavioral modeling. to become aligned with the applied field. its important to understand what SPICE behavioral modeling can offer vs. thermal energy. used in some SPICE programs. A saturable reactor is a magnetic circuit element consisting of a single coil wound around a magnetic core. The popular JilesAtherton magnetics model. hysteresis. and domain flexing value. As an example. Some have been added to SPICE as builtin models while others use a subcircuit approach. including flexing and translation [4]. The presence of a magnetic core drastically alters the behavior of the coil by increasing the magnetic flux and confining most of the flux to the core. however. causing added loss. and eddy current losses [2. In terms of modeling. As the MMF is increased. if you know how.Power Specialist’s Modeling Nonlinear Magnetics Many models for magnetic cores exist [1]. B. the Jiles Atherton model is difficult to use unless you have access to parameters like the pinning energy per volume. the model can only be constructed by trial simulations and tweaking of the model parameters. The magnetic flux density. interdomain coupling. Eddy currents are induced as the flux changes. These domains set up a magnetic flux that adds to or subtracts from the flux set up by the magnetizing current. After overcoming initial friction. 121 . In contrast. Behavioral constructs in SPICE today are plentiful and powerful. This is done by integrating the voltage across the core and then shaping the flux analog with nonlinear elements to cause a current to flow proportional to the desired function. 3]. is based on existing ideas of domain wall motion. the domains rotate like small DC motors.
SUBCKT CORE 1 2 3 DH1 1 9 DHYST DH2 2 9 DHYST IH1 9 1 {IHYST} IH2 9 2 {IHYST} F1 1 2 VM 1 G1 2 3 1 2 1 E1 4 2 3 2 1 VM 4 5 C1 3 2 {SVSEC/250} IC={IVSEC/SVSEC∗250} RB 5 2 {LMAG∗250/SVSEC} RS 5 6 {LSAT∗250/SVSEC} VP 7 2 250 D1 6 7 DCLAMP VN 2 8 250 D2 8 6 DCLAMP E2 10 0 3 2 {SVSEC/250} . For a gapped core. SVSEC Voltsec at Saturation = BSAT • AE • N IVSEC Voltsec Initial Condition = B • AE • N LMAG Unsaturated Inductance = µO µR • N2 • AE / LM LSAT Saturated Inductance = µO • N2 • AE / LM IHYST Magnetizing I @ 0 Flux = H • LM / N REDDY Eddy Current Loss Resistance Svsec and Ivsec are based on peak flux values. The original Intusoft model had one shortcoming.MODEL DCLAMP D(CJO={3∗SVSEC/(250∗REDDY)} + VJ=25) . it did not include low frequency hysteresis. Simulating Nonlinear Inductors The Magnetics molypermalloy powder (MPP) core is widely used in power conversion circuits. It provides excellent results for most applications. Reddy: Equals Lmag reactance when permeability vs freq. shown in Figure 2. including magnetic amplifiers. m2. These cores are ideal for use 122 . the appropriate diode starts to block and its current sink becomes active [3]. The SPICENET symbol below the schematic reveals the core’s connectivity and subcircuit flux test point. solves this with the addition of 4 elements to the input. L = LM .Modeling For Power Electronics 2 G1 IH2 DH2 INTEGRATION C1 3 E1 VM 5 RS RB 6 2 VS1 DH1 IH1 1 F1 V VS. With no voltage across terminals 1 and 2. is 3dB down. Table 1. AE = core area. I SHAPING DS1 VS2 DS2 . these currents circulate through their respective diodes. Description of the model parameters for the modified Intusoft saturable core subcircuit shown in Figure 1. Magnetizing current associated with low frequency hysteresis is provided by current sinks IH1/IH2.MODEL DHYST D . µR = 1. L = gap length. Table 1) caused by magnetic domain angular momentum. Lsat: Use core dimensions but with µR = 1. (total path around core). When voltage is applied. The model takes into account frequency dependent losses associated with eddy currents and transient widening of the BH loop (Figure 1. and the net terminal current is zero. A modified version. The modified Intusoft saturable reactor model and netlist. Lmag: For an ungapped core.ENDS 2 E2 3 10 2 3 X1 CORE 0 V(9) FLUX Figure 2.
The 55xxx series has a maximum flux density of 7000 gauss and the 58xxx series has a maximum flux density of 15000 gauss. both of which are significantly higher than ferrite.Power Specialist’s V/%µ 7 G1 1 B3 V= V(4.01 IC=0} R1 1 4 {DCR} V1 3 2 G2 4 3 8 2 1 G1 2 8 7 2 1 C1 8 9 {N^2*62*1n} IC={IC} . the incremental inductance.ENDS Figure 4. . The models uses the mathematical equation feature of SPICE 3.2)*{N^2*62*1n} .02) .77*E^(300*V(5. 123 . permeability) B4 10 0 V=V(6.256 * NI/L. For the model to be useful.19M DCR V1 Core Loss 5 6 G2 1 8 2 B1 H B2 %µ B1 V= ABS(1.02) R1 .256*{N}*I(V1)/0.0002))(.00052)) B3 7 2 V=V(4.3)/(V(6.0002))(. Core loss of both materials are significantly higher than ferrite.11) B2 V= (1.SUBCKT MP55135 1 2 10 {N=1 DCR=.77*E^(60*V(5)*.2)+. 300 in B2 is the U(avg. The MPP material provides a fairly “soft” BH loop which is ideal for applications where it is desirable to create a swinging inductance that allows a significant decrease in inductance as a function of the inductor current. {} = N^2*AL = L R2 9 2 {48.04 1 4 3 Figure 3. and IC is an optional initial condition. N is the number of turns.2)*. Schematic of a nonlinear inductor model using SPICE 3 behavioral elements. SPICE 3 subcircuit listing for the nonlinear inductor model. Inductance Test Point . 9 Integration C1 15. This can be beneficial in applications where optimum transient response is required or to minimize the preload current of a switching power supply. .256*21*I(V1)/4.4U R2 1.77*E^(300*V(5.2)*.451/(62. 1.3)/(V(6. The cores are available in several types. which represents the inductance under a DC biased condition. it must correctly represent the initial inductance. The most popular are currently the 55xxx and 58xxx series. and the core loss.2)+.00052)) in power inductors and for flyback power transformers.*N^2)} B1 5 2 V=ABS(1.817) .2M*300^1.77*E^(60*V(5)*.817=LM B2 6 2 V=(1. and the 58xxx material has a much greater core loss than the 55xxx series. DCR is the series resistance.
3E9∗e1. Example .Inrush Current A simple circuit was created to compare the results of a generic inductor and the Magnetics 55xxx and 58xxx models. 55xxx material: f = 3. Initial Inductance. Core Loss.0002µH .451. The magnetizing force is used by B2 to calculate the percentage of initial inductance.0001µH . In rush current for an inductor and the MPP 58121 and 55121 cores from Magnetics. long term reliability degra 124 . 58xxx material: f = 3.09.25e0. G2 generates the inductor current. B1 uses this current to calculate the magnetizing force of the inductor in Oersteds. AL (inductance/1000 turns). 58121 Generic 55121 Figure 3 shows the core subcircuit while Figure 4 shows a sample netlist and key core parameters. The DC bias inductance and frequency response are provided by the manufacturer in the form of graphs for each permeability available in each of the MPP materials.77e0. For 55xxx material: %Ui = 1.0.25e0. The results of the simulation. In many applications this could cause concern over additional stress on the capacitors.Modeling For Power Electronics Figure 5. V1 senses the current through the inductor. A continuous function was also derived for the loss as a function of the initial permeability Ui. in Figure 5.005µH For 58xxx material: %Ui = 1. R2 adds a zero at the 3dB frequency of the MPP material to model the core loss.3E8∗e1.005µH. & Model Operation The initial inductance is simplified by a core parameter. DC Bias.0. show that the inrush current is 25% greater with a 58121 MPP core versus the generic inductor model and 50% greater with a 55121 MPP core. and some trial and error. The inductance in microhenries is simply computed as N2 ∗ AL.77e0. a continuous function (difference of two exponentials) was derived which correctly calculates the % of initial permeability as a function of the DC bias in Oersteds and the initial permeability Ui. G1 along with C1 (=N2 ∗ AL=L) and B3 perform an integration whose result is passed to G2. Using linear least squares.
APEC Conference Proceedings 1995 [2] “Improved Spice model simulates transformer’s physical processes”. Similar results can be seen in characteristics such as output ripple and EMI filter attenuation.0U V(7) VF 7 I(V4) IB Tran IB 97..40 6. The resulting structure.C.7 3. Atherton. 1993 [3] “An Electrical Circuit Model for magnetic Cores”. (Core and Inductance test point 2 NS1 X5 TURNS 2 V(2) BDRIVE NS3 Many engineers have asked Intusoft technical support if SPICE can support nonlinear magnetics. created from Figure 7. Margarita Takach. Peter Lauritzen. Unitrode Corp. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Lloyd Dixon. EDN. The preceding work should give the user a good indication of some of what SPICE and behavioral modeling techniques can accomplish.78 Tran COLL1 51. is symbol used in the Royer oscillator circuit. Analytical Engineering Services (602) 9179727 for his contributions to this article and for the creation of the nonlinear inductor model.36K 0 time 100. The Point transformer posed an interesting NS2 simulation challenge.81 0 time 100. Thanks to Steve Sandler.11 V(17) VOUT Tran VOUT 3.24 0 time 100.L. relay contacts and connector pins which could be damaged by these currents.36K C2 10P 12 3. L.60 0 time 100. 1986 125 . 5 X4 TURNS As a typical example.0U I(V3) 5 R7 . the MPP core was used in a Royer oscillaTest tor circuit shown in Figure 6. V(4) 2PRI 4 X2 TURNS 9 NP1 V(1) IN 1 X3 TURNS MPP Core 7 X6 TURNS V(7) OUT NP2 1 dation. A royer oscillator using the MPP core model.3M 0 time 100. Meares. References [1] Survey of Magnetic Core Models. Transformer topology and individual transformers [2].0U NP1 2. Jiles and D.0U 6.0U Figure 6.2M 74. Charles E Hymowitz. Oct 1994 [4] “Theory of ferromagnetic hysteresis”.0U NP2 11 Q1 QN5886 3 9 V(4) BASE2 4 R1 75 NS1 D3 DN5811 2 R3 1000 NS2 6 17 1 NS3 R4 8MEG R6 200MEG Tran VF 1. August 19.1 13 Tran BASE2 7. D.G. shown in Fig 7.74 0 time 100.Power Specialist’s V(8) COLL1 8 Tran I(V3) 4.
01 Vout +  1 7.0M 52. If uses an IfThenElse syntax borrowed from the C programming language. With traditional SPICE 2 elements there is no simple way to generate the proper response. * ILimit Current limit in Amps for 1/2 output voltage. A complete subcircuit netlist for the current limited power supply is illustrated in Figure 2. allows you to create a piecewise linear response in which each region can be characterized by a nonlinear function. Function variables. however. Figure 1. This is in contrast to a “table model” in which each region can only be represented by a linear response.({(1delta/2) * ILim it}))/({ILim it* delta})) ) 4. i_load inAm ps .1 vout vs.14159*(I(V1) . are show in curly braces.01} * Smooth cosine limiting with variable sharpness * Parameters: * Voltage Voltage Output in Volts. B1 3 2 V=I(V1) < {(1delta/2) * ILim it } ? + {Voltage} : I(V1) > {(1+ delta/2) * ILim it } ? 0 : + {Voltage * . set by the user on the schematic.80K 4. such a feature must be added separately. The B element IfThenElse statement used in the model is also shown.00 800 0 1 2 Deriaitive of vout 3. However. A simple test schematic for the current limited power supply is shown below. Intusoft Current limited power supplies are required to test circuits. Using a cosine taper function allows a smooth and controlled transition for the power supply. first derivative (middle waveform) and the second derivative (bottom waveform) are shown in the IntuScope graph. therefore.({(1delta/2) * ILimit}))/({ILimit* delta})) ) .0M 50.20K vout in Volts 4. the threshold and low current voltage are also parameters.ENDS Figure 2.14159*(I(V1) .0 2) * ILim it } ? + delta/2) * ILim it } ? 0 : 46. * Rmin Minimum resistance in Ohms * delta Fraction of Ilimit used from start of limit to 0 volts R1 4 1 {Rmin} V1 3 4 B1 3 2 V=I(V1) < {(1delta/2) * ILimit } ? + {Voltage} : I(V1) > {(1+ delta/2) * ILimit } ? 0 : + {Voltage * .Modeling For Power Electronics Current Limited Power Supply Larry Meares.2K 12. as illustrated in Figure 1.0M 48. 126 . It uses a cosine taper to create a smooth and continuous transfer function.5}*( 1+cos(3.SUBCKT PWRSPLY 1 2 {Voltage=5 ILimit =1 Rmin=1u delta=. The IsSpice4 B element.0M WFM.0M 54.00 X5 PWRSPLY Voltage = 5 ILimit = 50m delta = . The output voltage (top waveform).00 3 I_LOAD R2 10k 11. the independent sources in SPICE do not have inherent current limiting capabilities. A current limiting function can be subject to convergence problems if a continuous voltage is not generated by the power supply during the current limiting operation. The IsSpice4 subcircuit netlist for the generic current limited power supply. One such B element expression is shown in Figure 1. The sharpness of the transition is controlled by delta.5}*( 1+cos (3.20K 8.
rectify the AC. U. smooth back to DC and deliver at its output terminals. hence macro modelling of this function is almost mandatory. you apply say 5V DC at the input and 5V DC appears at the output. The resultant macro model provides output characteristics under DC simulation conditions as well as AC noise characteristics which are shown to closely match measured device performance. avoiding simulation pitfalls of non convergence and speeding up the simulation time due to the simple macro model construction. The simpler macro model would be very quick to simulate and containing only simple formulae and primitive elements should not suffer convergence problems. The Isolated Hybrid DCDC Converter The hybrid DCDC converter has similar problems to the amplifier circuits described above. However. Component models also suffer from problems of convergence. A model using simple voltage sources and a multiplier may suffice for the resistor gain characteristic and a feedback capacitor say to limit frequency. Containing an oscillator and an inductively coupled transformer results in very long simulation times and many possible convergence problems. inductors. Taking the amplifier circuit again for example. Therefore the user has to always bear in mind that with a macro model you are trading accuracy for speed of simulation and simplicity. the silicon may contain over 300 transistors to provide the circuit. These are considered fair trades in the electronics business and most silicon suppliers would only release a macro model and not the full component level version of their analogue IC’s. Any seasoned SPICE user may see an immediate problem for the DCDC converter. The advantages of the component level model over the macro model are that the component level model will be appropriate for all users. The models in a circuit simulator represent the real life behaviour of components or circuits in a mathematical form (e. hence for a 5V DC input there would be no output for a full component model of the DCDC converter under DC simulation. if one amplifier user is interested in the power supply rejection ratio and not gain. However. however. it contains some form of oscillator to produce AC. transfer the power via a transformer. at its terminals the device looks simple. all the user may really interested in is simulating how the gain and frequency response will change with external resistors for example. At the lowest level we have component models such as the ohmic resistor. V=IR for a simple ohmic resistor). oscillators will have no output. possibly with quite straight forward mathematics.e. hence the component level model should always be more accurate. take a long time to simulate). A typical example of a macro model would be an operational amplifier. then in the amplifier model previously described the macro model will not reflect the reality of the circuit in this application. Modelling Circuits by Computer The circuit simulation program SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) has become the most popular method of designing and simulating analogue circuits by computer. In SPICE. The accuracy of these models depends on the amount of characterised behaviour available and how well the mathematics reflect the true operation of the device being modelled. this is when the simulator is having problems resolving the actual voltage at a node due to numerical uncertainties or local computational oscillations. hence this approach has been discarded as impractical even for fast processors. 127 . internally the device has to convert the input DC to AC. Newport Components Limited. Also since the device is a basic power supply building block.Power Specialist’s Macro Modeling Low Power DCDC Converters by Martin O’Hara. The model uses primitive circuit elements to model the transfer characteristic of the device rather than a full component model. Component models are relatively complex for active devices such as transistors (the bipolar transistor has a 38 parameter model in SPICE) and are consequently computationally intensive (i.g. Originally developed on a mini computer this is now within the means and capability of desk top PC’s and available from many different software vendors. this is where a circuit or component is described in less detail and its operation at the terminals of the device is described. The next level up from the component model is the macro model. like any simulator it is only as good as the models it contains. capacitors and transistors. The DCDC converter therefore has to be examined as a macro model. Abstract Presented here is a macro model for low power DCDC converters that allows fast simulation times without convergence worries. if this takes a long time to simulate it will slow down the simulation of the whole circuit.K. if you look at circuits under DC conditions (a DC operating point for example).
25US 0.5US 5US CISOL 1 3 24PF . losses are usually modelled in SPICE as resistors. The switching waveform is square from the oscillator and to model this a fast rise/fall pulse waveform is used. The loss resistor (R )is a simple calculation based on the L known zero load power consumption (P ) or quiescent current z (I )and using the devices nominal input voltage (V ). this can be used to monitor the output current drain and feed this back to an input current demand. other factors that need consideration at this stage are the zero load power consumption (the converter will consume some power with no load attached). Isolation capacitance is in reality a measure of the capacitive coupling across the transformer. this has to represent the actual diode arrangement (full or half bridge) as well as junction type (pn or Schottky). Any winding and track resistance should be included to reduce the number of elements in the finished macro model. The most difficult element to determine accurately is the diode model. The ripple can be applied to the output as an additional voltage source.5UF E1 6 4 1 2 1.25 RNL 2 1 250 CIN 2 1 0.25US 4.e.MODEL NCLD105 D (IS=1E7 N=2. high at the output with a DC block due to the internal rectifiers.Modeling For Power Electronics The Macro Model The first thing to consider when looking at producing a macro model is the overall function of the device (its transfer function). The hybrid DCDC converter is a good circuit for a case study as its function is relatively simple to understand. then how the device appears at its terminals (i.68 0. However. The model was determined by starting with the supplied diode model from the diode manufacturer and adjusting various parameters until the model fitted the measured response. where this is not available an estimate can be gained from the voltage conversion ratio plus an additional factor for the diode drop. low impedance. In fact this is virtually directly available in SPICE as a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS). Finally the input. The characteristic switching noise from the oscillator is present on the DC levels at both input and output and should be included to allow users to estimate the effect this may have on their target circuit. There are also capacitors internally at input and output and these need modelling if the circuit is to simulate the effect of line filtering to and from the device. DC blocking etc) and finally add in any additional features that need to be considered.11 XTI=3 BV=50 IBV=25. A schematic of the subcircuit is shown below.ENDS NME0505 ****************************************************** Vin RNL Voltage Transfer Model Efficiency Model DOUT CISOL +Vout CIN VRPL COUT Vout +Vin Primitive Elements in SPICE The voltage controlled voltage source can be used to represent the internal transformer this should enable line regulation properties to be modelled. These are the core properties that require modelling. ****************************************************** *** NEWPORT COMPONENTS LIMITED *** NME0505S DCDC CONVERTER MODEL *** 1W ISOLATED SINGLE OUTPUT DEVICE ****************************************************** *** NODE DESCRIPTION: VIN GND +VOUT 0V . values needed to be determined for all of the elements and modelling terms. DC output blocking and load regulation can both be modelled using a diode model at the output. The basic diode model parameters were 128 . The transfer ratio of the voltage controlled voltage source should be the same as the transformer ratio. this is a very low value compared to most discrete capacitors (CISOL=24pF).02 0 0.25 F1 1 2 VRPL 1.5UF VRPL 5 6 DC 0 PULSE 0. hence a small positive and negative excursion is modelled.8 + EG=1. load regulation (efficiency and output voltage vary with load demand) and of course noise or ripple due to the oscillator.SUBCKT NME0505 1 2 3 4 DOUT 5 3 NCLD105 . The ripple frequency was chosen at twice the nominal switching frequency since full wave rectification is used in the actual device being modelled. you apply a given DC voltage at two terminals and a second isolated DC voltage appears at two other terminals. This data is not always explicitly stated by the manufacturer. q nom RL = V nom = Vsub nom Iq Pz 2 The AC ripple voltage was chosen to give a zero DC bias effect so as not to offset the output voltage bias levels during AC simulations. output and isolation capacitance can be added to provide suitable filter and coupling components. Model Element Values Deciding the elements is only half way to completing the model. The input and output capacitors were chosen from the known input and output capacitor values (COUT=CIN=1uF in the example being used here). The terminals of a DCDC converter are low impedance at the input. the efficiency curve. high impedance. but can be determined from application notes on appropriate filter values if these are given. At zero load a loss occurs due to the operation of the oscillator even without an output load.3 RS=2.9E3 TT=2E9 ) COUT 3 4 0.
These were measured under DC conditions. and the resistance parameter increased to include estimated track and wire resistances. also results in a feedback of this noise to the input. plus the input and output noise is synchronised as occurs in the actual device. Originally this was done to prevent the ripple source overcoming the diode block at zero input. The largest discrepancies occur when the device sees a load demand exceeding its normal limit. and the output voltage falls much more rapidly than the simulator suggests. hence no further noise source is required. This is primarily due to the operation of the real circuit and the model.Line Regulation 8 7 6 Output Voltage (V) 5 4 3 2 1 Simulation Measured 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Simulation Against Measured Performance Once the model was developed several aspects of measured performance against simulated performance were made. The two of most interest were the load regulation and the efficiency curves. Input Voltage (V) Limitations of the Macro Model The macro model is a useful tool for giving the circuit designer an indication of how the DCDC converter will work under various load and line conditions over the devices normal operating region. Both efficiency and load regulation curves were almost exact fits over the operating range of the device. unlike the oscillator version. hence it is Other examined parameters such as line regulation (the variation of output voltage with input voltage) is well modelled as is the noise characteristic. The ripple from a DCDC converter under full load was measured on a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) and compared with the simulated result. in the real circuit the oscillator will fail to supply the current as it is current limited itself. Again both showed very close agreement. NME0505 Macro Model . The use of the noise source as the current measurement element. The ripple source model was designed to add no DC offset under simulation by having it swing between a small positive and negative value. hence it was interesting to see that the model worked well. up to 50% above its nominal output at zero load. The transfer ratio of the transformer can again be used for the current feedback.Power Specialist’s slightly changed for the load regulation characteristic. In the model the limit to the output voltage excursion at zero load is still the diode model regulation characteristic. with the noise value is that this has to be examined in an AC or transient signal simulation which is more difficult to measure than the DC parameters. but has also helped in preventing the output suffering a DC offset under transient simulation. even the DC offset value is within 50mV. Below its quoted minimum load (10%) the device can have a relatively large excursion of output voltage. The main limitations are when the device is being driven outside of its normal operating region. The model only predicts a slight increase at zero load. The oscillator in the real circuit continues to charge up the capacitors at a very low charge rate until a quiescent point is achieved between the very low charge and the leakage of the output circuit. The only problem 129 . typically in the 20% above nominal region. and simulated quickly. Using a current controlled current source for the feedback of load current demand also provides the method for modelling the efficiency curve.
The net effect is that the load regulation begins to fall dramatically after around 125% load and the ripple increases significantly. This is not a major problem as the effect of temperature on the operation of the DCDC converter is relatively small. [3] Power Supply Design Seminar. McGrawHill. SEM1000. The other limitation in the macro model is lack of modelling temperature effects. 1991. Despite this difference the model is still useful below this minimum load level as it remains in a defined state. These small temperature dependant effects could be included quite easily at a later date into the primitive element models. Summary The model works well over the normal operating region of the DCDC converters examined. This does need to be borne in mind if the simulation of the load circuit causes the DCDC converter to be overloaded. Milton Keynes.Modeling For Power Electronics lower than the trickle charge capacitor effect. especially where an oscillator is being replaced by a DC operated circuit. Although there are some limitations. 1994. Unitrode. At high loads (>100%) the oscillator is current limited by design and the charge available from the output capacitors drops as the load demands increases over 100%. Blakelands North. 4 Tanners Drive. load regulation. 1994. Pressman.I. the resultant DC supply levels are unlikely to reflect the true situation. Newport Components Limited. Intusoft. The model simply continues to predict a gradual fall of the output along the same regulation curve with constant ripple. At loads exceed the recommended full load of the DCDC converter the model again fails to accurately describe the action of the real circuit. The macro model is simple to construct from either design or specification data and provides fast simulation of the DCDC converter circuit without convergence problems. efficiency and noise are all accurately simulated in both DC and transient signal analyses. The characteristics of line regulation. [1] Switching Power Supply Design. The limitations are very minor over the normal operating range of the DCDC converter and are certainly worth the price for a macro model that simulates operation under DC conditions. MK14 5NA Tel: 01908 615232 Fax: 01908 617545 130 . A. this is to be expected of a macro model. [2] IsSPICE User’s Guide.
Inductance Under DC Current Bias 1mH Toroidal Inductor 110 100 Inductance (% of nominal) 90 80 70 60 50 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 DC Current (% of IDC) Figure 2 Under DC current bias there is a loss of inductance due to magnetic saturation. 100000 10000 Impedance (Ohms) 1000 100 10 1 0. In both later cases the modelling of the nonideal behaviour of the inductor is important for accurate predictions of circuit performance. they can be considered separately.K.5 times the recommended dc current limit. At high frequency the inductor goes though a resonance peak and the impedance then falls and a voltage phase shift of 90° is observed.Power Specialist’s Modeling NonIdeal Inductors in SPICE Martin O’Hara Technical Manager. This is partly because SPICE was developed primarily for IC design where inductive elements are usually parasitic and very small. November 8 1993 Abstract The nonideal inductor exhibits both resonance and nonlinear current characteristics. These effects can be modelled in SPICE by adding only 3 additional elements to model the real inductor characteristics of dc resistance. U. wire capacitance and magnetic core loss. Since these essentially act in different analyses in SPICE (i. however. The phase of signal across the ideal inductor would always be +90° out of Inductor Impedance Curve 1mH Toroidal Inductor 1000000 phase with the applied voltage and there would be no effect of DC current bias on the behaviour of an ideal inductor. More recent applications employing inductive elements are electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters.e.e. Modelling NonIdeal Behaviour There are essentially two nonideal characteristics1 that are encountered when using an inductor. Introduction Modelling of inductors and inductive elements in SPICE has always been of low importance to analogue designers. in which the resonances across a very wide range of frequencies needs to be examined. If we compare the measured frequency response for the impedance of a real inductor to the ideal model we can see two distinct differences at either end of the frequency spectrum (figure 1). Real Inductor Behaviour In an ideal inductor the impedance (Z) is purely reactive and proportional to the inductance (L) only. Newport Components. The resulting model gives accurate impedance and phase simulations over a wide frequency range and over the peak resonance frequency. it can be stated that near ideal behaviour does occur over the majority of the inductors operating region. although combined into a single model.1 Ideal Measured 0. indicative of capacitive dominance. The widespread use of SPICE for discrete analogue circuit design has seen the program being used to analyze switching power supplies and filters in which the behaviour of the inductive element is critical to the accuracy of the simulation. At the low frequency (near DC) there is a dominant resistive element. one is the resonance of the inductor and the other is magnetic saturation. Likewise employing inductors in dc supply filters can put the inductor near its dc saturation region. The dc current saturation characteristics is modelled by a simple 2nd order polynomial that gives a close simulation to measured performance over 2.01 10 100 1000 10000 frequency (Hz) 100000 1000000 10000000 Figure 1 131 . AC or DC analyses). relatively low frequency and well below the saturation current limit). In general these circuits operate using ideal inductors reasonably well since the current and frequency of operation are in the ideal operating region of the inductors used (i. The frequency response is therefore observed to be nonideal. Comparisons of measured inductor performance and simulation results are given to illustrate the proximity of the models to real inductor behaviour. The values for these model parameters can all be obtained from standard data sheet parameters via a few simple calculations. This is observed as a fall in inductance as the DC current through the inductor is increased. observed in the constant impedance value and loss of the phase shift.
Hence the dc current through the inductor had to be manually changed and the circuit resimulated to get a simulation of impedance over a range of dc current (the inductance was calculated from the simulated impedance characteristic from SPICE and read directly from the WK3245). The polynomial is specified by the equation..1 Lo I 2 dc (4) Note that the first order coefficient will have to be specified as zero. The effect of dc current saturation proved long winded to simulate.. Figure 3: Basic Inductor Model The additional parasitics that cause the behaviour of an inductor to be nonideal over the frequency range can be easily visualised and characterised. the equation becomes. 0. XL 1 2 POLYL Lo L1 L2 L3 ..Modeling For Power Electronics CP RDC LO In SPICE 3E2 the polynomial inductor is no longer available and a more complex method of modelling this effect is required using the nonlinear element B and a zero value voltage source to measure the current through the inductor. . the dc resistance of the wire and its self capacitance (figure 3).. The series resistance is obtained simply from the quoted dc resistance of the inductor (Rdc). 132 . Hence the capacitance can be expressed as. or directly from the maximum DC current value. The complete polynomial inductor of SPICE 2G6 can be written as a subcircuit in SPICE 3E2. using a second order approximation.SUBCKT POLYL 1 2 V1 1 3 DC 0 LO 3 2 Lo B1 2 3 I=I(V1)^3*L3E2 . Hence.1 (5) 3 Lo 30 I 2 dc (1) The polynomial subcircuit can hence be rewritten.ENDS It should be noted that this subcircuit only replicates the polynomial equation from version 2G6. dc current characteristic was determined on a WayneKerr (WK) 3245 Precision Impedance Analyzer and 3220 Bias Unit. Impedance and phase were determined on a HewlettPackard HP4192A Low Frequency Impedance Analyzer. just a few simple calculations. 2 n L I = Lo + L1 I + L2 I + . In SPICE 2G6 this was available directly in the standard polynomial inductor model by using the POLY key word after the node description. hence additional measurement by the circuit designer should not be required. since at this frequency the reactance of the wire capacitance (XC) and the reactance of the inductance (XL) are equal. Where fo is the self resonant frequency. The reason for this is that an AC analysis cannot be performed concurrently with a DC sweep.ENDS Here we are only interested in modelling the second order polynomial.. . These two additional parameters can usually be easily obtained from the specification for the inductor. . The effect of dc current causing magnetic saturation can be modelled as a simple second order polynomial.. An inductor specification usually gives the dc current (Idc) at which the inductance falls to 90% of its nominal value (Lo). hence only the L2 term is of interest. the additional model elements also need to be added. L3E2 = Cp= 1 2 (2π f o ) Lo L2 = .9 Lo = Lo + L 2 I 2 dc (3) Yielding a second order coefficient of. The parallel capacitance(Cp) can be obtained from the self resonant frequency of the inductor.SUBCKT POLYL 1 2 V1 1 3 DC 0 LO 3 2 Lo B1 2 3 I=I(V1)^2*L1/(2*Lo)+I(V1)^3* + L2/(3*Lo)+I(V1)^4*L3/(4*Lo)+. + Ln I (2) where n≤20. This can be determined from the SPICE 2G6 coefficients. There are essentially two additional parameters that contribute. Simulation and Test Results A radial leaded bobbin inductor (14 105 40) was measured for the nonideal characteristics described above.. L2 =  0..
This can be expected in that there is no provision is this simple model for the finite loss in the magnetic material.05mH) and it can be observed that the characteristic is more likely a 3rd order polynomial expression. however.Power Specialist’s 3 Element Model Simulation 1mH Toroidal Inductor 1000000 not required. In simulation it is important that the measuring instrument is modelled as closely as possible so that any effects this may load onto the component is determined.1 10 100 1000 10000 frequency (Hz) 100000 1000000 10000000 10000 Figure 2: Impedance Analysis Discussion Impedance results proved to be exceptionally well matched. using a 1MO impedance gave an accurate simulated match to the measurement characteristic (the simulated impedance response was the same with either source impedance). the only discrepancy being a slight difference in the resonant frequency. The value can again be calculated from data sheet parameters. Figure 3: DC Current Analysis The simulated dc current characteristic looks dissimilar to the measured result. In a parallel RLC3 circuit the relationship between the quality factor and inductance is given by. Peak Resonance Phase Plot 1mH Toroidal Inductor 100 80 3 Element Model 60 40 Phase (degrees) 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 frequency (Hz) 800000 900000 1000000 1100000 4 Element Model Measured Figure 5: Peak Resonance Phase Analysis The magnetic loss can be modelled reasonably well as a parallel resistor (Rp) across the existing model. using the quality factor (Q). whereas the sample used was resonant at 696kHz. The difference in resonant frequency is purely a production variation.5 times the parts recommended operating current shown and using the 2nd order polynomial rather than a 3rd means that additional measurements are Q= Rp (6) 2π f o Lo The data sheet value for the 14 105 40 inductor used here is Q=49. If a 50O oscillator source to load impedance is used (as suggested in the HP manual) a poor simulated phase response is observed due to the loading of the source. Newport inductors are always specified conservatively). 133 . The shape of the characteristic is reasonably close over 2. Inductance under DC Current Bias 1mH Toroidal Inductor 110 100 90 80 Inductance (% of nominal) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 DC Current (% of IDC) SPICE Measured 1000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 frequency (Hz) 800000 900000 1000000 1100000 Figure 4: Peak Resonance Impedance Analysis Peak Resonance If the peak resonance is more closely examined it is observed that there is some disparity between simulation2 and measurement for both the peak impedance result (figure 4) and rate of phase change (figure 5). The initial inductance is higher for the measured part (1. What the simulation implies is that it results in the worse case characteristic for the least effort. Peak Resonance Impedance Plot 1mH Toroidal Inductor 10000000 100000 10000 Impedance (ohms) 1000 3 Element Model 100 1000000 4 Element Model Measured Impedance (Ohms) 10 1 SPICE Measured 100000 0. the model is centred on the typical value of 800kHz. This indicates the method for determining Rp is a reasonable approximation from a circuit designers point of view. the simulation is reasonably close and estimates a worse case (particularly since the Idc current value for the sample used was nearer 5A. hence a parallel resistance of 246kO is calculated (225kO using the actual values for the sample part). However. The problem of the measurement system model is clearly illustrated in the phase results. The resulting simulations for impedance and phase now match the measured results exceptionally well.
ENDS L14105 References [1] SPICE Version 2G1 User’s Guide. even the core manufacturers do not usually specify tolerances of the loss parameters of the core. Butterworths. Edminster. M.173 CP 1 2 39. Newport Components Limited. even with machine wound products. Blakelands North. Again a ±20% tolerance is predicted to be sufficient to allow a MonteCarlo analysis to accurately predict worse cases. Idc=4. In the SPICE 3E2 subcircuit this can be compensated for by putting in an IF. 4 Tanners Drive. the value is so small that slight variations in winding cause noticeable changes in the capacitance. Milton Keynes. Newton. . Rdc=0. Limitations The above model is now quite sophisticated for an inductive element. it could be expected that ±20% variation in the value of Cp would be observed.6E12 RP 1 2 250K . The resulting model gives accurate inductor simulations over a wide range of operating conditions with a minimal increase in computation time (only one extra node is introduced) and no additional measurements are required. In the cases of Rdc and Idc these are worse case values and no other tolerance is required. which means that the model can be derived from the component specification. Negative inductance values can be obtained when the dc current exceeds approximately 3. Q=49 and fo=800kHz.6E12 RP 1 2 250K .. SPICE 2G6 Example The following example is a model for a Newport Components 1400 series 1mH inductor (14 105 40) where Lo=1mH.16 times the IDC value1 . [3] Soft Ferrites. Summary It is possible to simulate several complex aspects of inductor operation in SPICE using only 3 extra passive elements (figure 6) and a simple polynomial expression. UCB. The tolerance in the Rp value is also difficult to determine. A. it is therefore advisable to have a some measure of the dc current in the circuit element if it is suspected that the dc current is greater than 2.ENDS SPICE 3E2 Example The following example is a model for a Newport Components 1400 series 1mH inductor (14 105 40) where Lo=1mH.C.SUBCKT L14105 1 2 LO 1 4 1E3 V1 4 3 DC 0 B1 4 1 I=I(V1)^3*2.O.A. 1988. 1983. Idc=4. this can either set the value of the inductor to zero.173O. Technology Sources Ltd.25E6 RDC 1 3 0. D. undated).5 times the IDC value. As an estimate. .173 CP 1 2 39.Modeling For Power Electronics The above simulation results suggest the model gives a reasonably good approximation to the real behaviour of the inductor over a wide frequency and current range.. Rdc=0. The tolerance of the wire capacitance is difficult to estimate accurately since. at low values of these parameters this may be adequate as these will tend to be swamped by the rest of the circuit.SUBCKT IND14105 1 2 LO 3 2 POLY 1E3 0 6. A. November 1993. Penberth.THEN conditional statement. E. Snelling. 1993. 1992 [5] Private communication. Figure 6: Completed Inductor Model Newport Components Limited. 2nd ed. McGrawHill. Q=49 and fo=800kHz. J. or some specified value. [6] Inductor Databook. 2nd ed. The model assumes that there is no variance of resistance and capacitance with dc current. Intusoft. The improvement has also been gained for no additional measurements. Pederson.R. 1980 (+2G6 upgrade.. few of the other parameters have a tolerance figure. however. Vladimirescu. The tolerance of the self resonant frequency is related to the inductance value and wire capacitance. Parameter Tolerances The tolerance for inductance is usually specified in the data sheet (±10% for the sample used).173O. [2] Electric Circuits. MK14 5NA Tel: 01908 615232 Fax: 01908 617545 134 .08E3 RDC 3 2 0. In SPICE 2G6 this facility is not available.0A. however. Schaum’s Outline Series. [4] IsSPICE 3 User’s Guide.0A. there are still limitations and this should be borne in mind.
Intusoft 135 .K. U.Power Specialist’s Motor and Relay Modeling Authors Mike Penberth. Technology Sources. Charles Hymowitz.
The Magnetic Circuit & Force The reluctance of the magnetic circuit has two series components. When performing a simulation. we initially assume B squared times the plunger face area. The acceleration can be double integrated to obtain position with respect to time. in turn. but this implies differentiating the flux in the magnetic circuit. Friction is calculated from velocity via a high gain limiter. From the ampereturns we have the current flow in the coil from nodes 1 to 12. Arcing The solenoid plunger is connected to the relay contacts. V(14). we integrate the voltage across the coil (less the resistive drop) to obtain the flux at node 7. V3. is the square of the flux divided by the area. Intusoft Excerpts from the March 1997 Intusoft Newsletter #49 136 . V(17). For a simple solenoid plunger with little fringing. The Moving Air Gap The plunger acceleration is the result of the sum of the forces which are acting upon it. is fed back into the magnetic circuit to control the air gap reluctance. integration is always preferable to differentiation. that of the fixed iron and air path and that of the changing solenoid air gap. Flux flows through the series combination of the reluctances to give a “potential” which is the ampereturns. We might usually think in terms of using a voltage source in the coil circuit to develop the back emf. this gives a constant force whose sign is dependent upon the direction of movement.e. In this article we’ll look at how IsSpice4 can be used to model a relay in detail. static friction. The gap position. i. For simplicity. A limiter Modeling A Relay Mike Penberth. The magnetic force on a body is the integral of the square of the normal component of B over the surface. The contact gap closes before the plunger hits the end stop.Motor and Relay Modeling Modeling A Relay by Mike Penberth.K. The other forces acting on the plunger are friction and the hard stop. Figure 12 shows the full model which is split into the following parts: The Coil and Drive The transistor drives the coil which is represented by the components between the collector and supply. The characteristic of the stop is obtained from a table model which gives a high spring rate for negative gap. Charles Hymowitz. In this model.K. Technology Sources. Technology Sources. U. This.. and the LAPLACE function provides a very fast and simple integrator. U. we initially assume no fringing and a linear relation between gap and reluctance.
or the table model to introduce data obtained from a field modelling package. plunger stop elasticity. Arcing will occur when the electric field strength across the gap exceeds a certain value.1*I(V2) Q1 QN2222 V2 16 19 23 V4 PULSE V=I(V2)*(1.Power Specialist’s V=V(1.spring force at stop 3 Arcing V=ABS(V(19)/(V(18))) R3 1K 20 19 21 V= (I(V2)*3E4)^2V(15) Electric field strength C1 1N 23 V7 50 Magnetic Force R4 1 Figure 12. and arcing. IsSpice4 model of a relay. Results The plot of Figure 13 shows the plunger bouncing off the end stop following coil energization and the rise of current in the coil. plunger friction. By calculating the field strength and applying it to a switch at node 20. Test circuitry is shown in white. plunger position. node 19. Comments The constants in this example are purely arbitrary and do not represent any real device. it would be relatively easy to introduce some second order effects such as nonlinear reluctance change with air gap by using either the equation facilities in the B source. node 18. 137 . The model includes the effects of coil impedance.12) 6 Coil/Drive RCOIL 100 8 Laplace 7 V(7) FLUX V3 12 1 I=V(17) Integral of coil voltage gives flux Coil current proportional to H 2 Flux drives through reluctances 17 V(17) NI Fixed reluctance V1 1 12 11 12 I=V(7) R2 100 10 5 V=.1V(14)) Symbol Sum of forces V=V(3)V(4) 9 Laplace Table element Velocity 13 Laplace Air gap reluctance Position 14 Force at stop 15 Magnetic Circuit Table Contact gap Air Gap Friction 4 18 Limiter Damping force Magnetic force . back emf. function is used to generate the contact gap from the plunger position. we can short the relay contacts to simulate arcing. and the contact gap. When modelling a real device. An example IsSpice4 netlist is shown in Table 2. Figure 14 shows some detail of arcing at the contacts. nonlinear air gapreluctance relationship.
0M 0 2.Motor and Relay Modeling As the air gap widens.50 20.0M 500M Plunger Position 40. Rgap 16 0 R=(1. For example by changing B10 to read: V=V(3) .00M 3.50 1 Coil Current in Amps 60. or added as a nonlinear behavioral resistor. 60.0M 40.0001 80.00M TIME in Secs 9.00M Figure 13. The plunger bouncing off the end stop can clearly be seen from this graph of the plunger position and the energizing coil current. The relay model includes the effects of arcing as shown by this plot of the relay contact voltage as the contact gap is closed.1V(14))^2 As presented previously.0M 2 20.0 30.09M TIME in Secs 4.00M 5.10M Figure 14.0 10. energy loss in the stop can be added by subtracting another force computed from the stop force times plunger velocity.1V(14))+(1.50 2 1 1. 138 .V(4) . the stop is perfectly elastic. fringing increases and the effective magnetic path length becomes longer than the gap.0 Contact Arc in Volts Contact Gap 0 1 20.08M 4.0M 2 1 4.07M 4.0M 1.0M 0 20. This can be introduced as a second order term in the B source.00M 7.0 10.06M 4.0M 500M 2 1.V(13) ∗ V(15) ∗ .
The models are first order and support only coil inductance.1V(14)) + + (1.0U fraction=FALSE) A6 14 18 LIM_001 .0 0] + denorm_freq=1.0Meg] + input_domain=10.8 + gain=1 out_lower_limit=10K + out_upper_limit=1U limit_range=1U) B7 1 2 I=V(17) B8 17 5 I=V(7) V2 5 0 B12 17 16 V=.0 + num_coeff=[1. mechanical or arcing effects are included in their models. you will see that there are significant shortcomings for which numbers of parts are not a substitute.ENDS Table 2.MODEL LIM_002 Limit(in_offset=0 gain=1K + out_lower_limit=10 out_upper_limit=10 + limit_range=1. Coil Representation (top) Vsrc V= 4abs(V(6)V(7)) Switch Contacts (bottom) V= abs(V(6)V(7)) Current controlled (Vsrc) switches Figure 15.1V(14))+(1.V(12) A1 8 7 S_001 .5 . IsSpice4 relay netlist.0 + num_coeff=[1.0) A2 9 13 S_002 .0 0] out_ic=0 + denorm_freq=1.0 + num_coeff=[1.V(15) ∗ 3E4 Plunger area .0Meg 1.0 0] out_ic=0 + denorm_freq=1. Use Rgap for ∗ nonlinear air gap effects ∗ Rgap 16 0 R=(1. added for ∗ Imperfect plunger stop B11 3 0 V=(I(V2) ∗ 3E4)^2 .0) A3 13 14 S_003 .MODEL S_003 s_xfer(in_offset=0 gain=1.2 200.1V(14)) ∗ .1 100.0 + 0 1. turnon current. Relay Model Comparison Many analog simulation tool vendors claim to have a large number of SPICE models in their libraries.SUBCKT RELAY 1 12 19 23 ∗Connections Crtl+ Crtl.0] den_coeff=[1. No nonlinear inductive.MODEL S_002 s_xfer(in_offset=0 gain=1.1 ∗ I(V2) B4 16 0 V=I(V2) ∗ (ABS(1.Power Specialist’s . 139 .0] den_coeff=[1.V(4) + V(13)∗V(15)∗0. the relay we just reviewed. The relay models found in Electronic Workbench and CircuitMaker are shown in Figure 15.MODEL SW1 SW RON=10M ROFF=10G + VT=3K VH=1K B13 20 0 V=ABS(V(19) / (V(18))) B5 8 0 V=V(1) . The relays use only the ideal SPICE (twostate) switch to model the relay.MODEL LIM_001 Limit(in_offset=0.MODEL S_001 s_xfer(in_offset=0 gain=1. Take.0M fraction=TRUE) A5 13 4 LIM_002 . and coil resistance.1V(14))^2 B10 9 0 V=V(3) .0005 .0) A4 14 15 PWL_001 .0] den_coeff=[1. for example. But when you look more deeply into their offerings.MODEL PWL_001 Pwl(xy_array=[0 0 1. The relay models from CircuitMaker (left) and Electronic Workbench (right) don’t include key features found in the real devices. holding current.Out+ OutV1 2 12 S1 19 23 20 0 SW1 .
Good models are CRITICAL to a successful simulation. Tel: +4401 223 516 469. Fax: +4401 223 729916. especially for system level simulations. The quality of a model library should not be judged by how many models are included. and they don’t come cheap. the models in these products are simplistic and only model “first order” phenomenon.K. First order models have their place in the simulation process.com.www. 140 . The number of models simply doesn’t tell the whole story. Web . and Intusoft includes them in ICAP/4. They are quite useful.softsim. U. For further information on this article. you will find that you really get what you pay for when it comes to model features and performance.Motor and Relay Modeling By comparison. contact Mike Penberth at: Technology Sources Ltd. However. while these software products can be less expensive. but by the effects that the models emulate.
In a real motor we could calculate the capacitance at a number of angles using field modelling software with a parameter extractor. Nanotechnology is increasingly featured in the science pages of serious newspapers as well as the technical journals. We can use this fractional part as the argument in a nonperiodic function to give a repeating capacitance variation with angular position. New SPICE Features Aid Motor Simulation 141 . Figure 1 Our simple geometry suggests a triangular wave variation of capacitance with position. U.K. The torque can be calculated from the equivalence in the work done in moving through a small angle δθ and the change in electrical stored energy due to the change in capacitance across the small angle. If a voltage V is applied across the stator plates a torque T will be developed in a sense that will seek to maximise the capacitance. What is a capacitance motor and what are its characteristics? This article explores capacitance motors using SPICE as a simulation tool and taking advantage of some new features added to IntuSoft’s latest version of this popular simulator. maximum at 0 & 180 degrees. “New SPICE Features Aid Motor Simulation”. IntuSoft have introduced a number of extensions to the arbitrary V=EXP( 1. The capacitance seen across the stator pair varies with angle reaching a maximum twice per revolution. Copyright Technology Sources. if the rotor position in radians divided by 1 2 3 2π is the argument of the FRAC function the output will be the fractional part of the total number of revolutions. Many types of motor consist of a number of actuators set with an angular spacing so that by switching the drive from actuator to actuator a continuous torque can be produced.½ C2V2 = ½ δCV2 giving: T = V2 dC/dθ Note: The V2 dependence shows the torque direction is independent of the polarity of applied voltage. Take the simple geometry of Fig 1.1416 ) In the SPICE circuit of Fig 2 I have chosen to use a Figure 2 gaussian function to represent the change of capacitance with angle. There is now an easier way. Tδθ = ½ C1V 2 . It is at this point that we come across our first simulation problem. zero at 90 & 270 degrees. Field fringing and construction details will modify this ideal into a more complex function.1416 / 2 )^2 ) V=TIME source syntax one of which is a fractional function. Here a pair of rotor electrodes can vary in angular alignment with a pair of stator electrodes. U.K. The developments in this field are often demonstrated by the construction of a capacitance motor built to dimensions to which few of us can relate. Since there are two maxima per revolution the angular position is divided by π not 2π.5*(V(2)3. For our purposes. This presents no problem if our curve fit is to a periodic function such as a sine wave and we could make other functions periodic by expanding them as a Fourier series. In looking at the motor dynamics we will want to simulate across several revolutions of the motor.Power Specialist’s New SPICE features aid motor simulation Mike Penberth. Capacitance motors are in this class. V=3. If this torque changes sign as a function of shaft angle the device is usually referred to as an actuator. Technology Sources. The primary feature of a motor is that it produces torque.1416*FRAC( V(1) / 3. Using this data we could then curve fit to a function.
1416 ) 2.0000 3.1416 /2)*V(5)*V(4)^2 Fractional Position 3.01+1*ABS(I(R1)) INERTIA 3 4 R1 L2 POSITION OUT C3 1 V=1e6*V(2) Motor position is the double integral of the torque/ inertia ratio.5000 1 1.0000 Figure 4 1.1 A vs. TIME in Secs Figure 5 2 DAMPING R=.0000 5.1416 /2)^2)) 0 A in Volts 0 3 1.Motor and Relay Modeling The resulting capacitance against angle plot is shown in Fig 3.0000 1 C =EXP( (1.0000 9.00M 2 5.5*(V(2).0000 500.0000 2. Figure 6 142 . The next step is to use the torque/rotation characteristic to simulate the dynamics of the motor.0000 9. An additional input allows us to rotate the torque characteristic through an offset angle.0000 4 VOLTAGE INPUT 1.0000 ANGULAR POSITION IN RADIANS Figure 3 A typical motor might consist of three of these actuators disposed at 120 degree angles.3. The LC node is a virtual earth point.1416*FRAC( V(1) / 3.0000 1.0000 WFM.00M 1.5000 1. the current in the inductor then represents angular velocity with the output voltage representing angular position.0000 2. For the Gaussian function chosen this has the analytic form : θ2 2θe The circuit of Fig 2 is extended in Fig 4 to generate the torque output from the drive voltage input.0000 2. The torque / rotation curves are then as shown in Fig 5 and we can see that we can always energise at least one of the actuators to produce a positive or negative torque.3.0000 1.0000 3. A compact way of producing the double integral is using an L and C combination around a gain stage as in Fig 6. 5 POSITION OFFSET TORQUE3 1 POSITION INPUT 2 V=3.5*(V(2).0000 Torque 1.0000 3. The capacitor across the input drive voltage represents the actuator input capacitance and uses another new feature of IntuSoft’s SPICE that allows capacitor ( and L & R ) values to be written as functions of circuit voltages and currents. 3.0000 7.0000 2 2.5000 V=2*1.0000 500.0000 7.0000 5. The expression for torque includes the derivative of capacitance with respect to angle. since Vout = ∫ ∫ Vin/LC L is equivalent to inertia while C scales the output.
4000 2 4.8000 600.2000 3. viscous friction.0000 1 1. the importance of friction in damping the ringing and the effects of more complicated drive strategies such as microstepping.200 19.g. windage ) increase with the square of velocity.Power Specialist’s Any practical motor contains and drives some form of friction. phase posn torque The completed simulation model can now be drive used to investigate such features as the maximum stepping rates achievable. 5. Here we can use the ability to write expressions for resistance values to make the resistance proportional to velocity.e. does not include voltage breakdown. more torque can always be obtained by increasing the drive voltage.8000 1. Fig 7 shows a complete three phase capacitance stepper motor. Some simulation packages provide such “ready wrapped” models but it is important for designers to understand the workings of these models in order to account for their limitations.2000 4.4000 ANGULAR POSITION IN RADIANS 5. The motor model can be made a single subcircuit and represented by a symbol.00M 7.200 TIME in Secs Figure 8 Full details of the SPICE circuits used in this model can be obtained from Mike Penberth at: Technology Sources Ltd Phone: +441638561460 Fax: +441638561721 Email: info@softsim. The clk A res B lower frequency ringing on half steps is a u/d C h/step result of the reduced slope of the torque/ Figure 7 position characteristic with two phases energised. the phase posn torque total torque is summed into the integrator of drive Fig 6 and the output angle is fed back to the actuators.0000 3. The actuator drive voltages are provided from a state machine (see next page) programmable for full step or half step drive Fig 8 shows the results obtained when phase driving the motor in full step and half step posn torque drive mode respectively. each actuator is represented by a subcircuit symbol. The model developed here. for example.200 23. The ringing following each step is a consequence of the spring like characteristic of the torque curve.com 143 . D A A D D D D A A A One Zero Variable reluctance motors can be treated in a similar way though inductance in such motors is a function of both rotor position and excitation due to the nonlinearities of the magnetic core. friction absorbs torque that would otherwise accelerate the motor and is related to angular velocity. Some losses ( e.00M 600.200 15.2000 11. A resistor in series with the inductor effectively absorbs an amount of torque proportional to velocity i.
NC Lloyd Pitzen. Phoenix. Consultant. Intusoft Harry Dill.Test Program Development and Failure Analysis Test Program Development and Failure Analysis for SMPS Authors Larry Meares. CCI Incorporated. AZ Charles Hymowitz. Chris Sparr. Arlington VA 144 . Intusoft Kyle Bratton. MCAS Cherry Point. Naval Aviation Depot.
Abstracting subassembly failure modes to the next higher assembly is a common error. Introduction Historically. which were originally developed for the aerospace industry. Once eliminated. Production engineers should be able to substitute parts based on cost and availability. Again. At the next higher assembly. Monte Carlo analysis will show the robustness of the design when we compare the resulting performance predictions with the product specification.com Abstract A method of performing analog/mixed signal test will be described based on the assumption that: 1. we can usually describe these failure modes in terms of catastrophic events at the device or assembly interface. short or stuck failure modes for each interface connection. Defining failure modes: Failures are well characterized by a finite number of catastrophic failure modes. they are very rare. The US Navy characterizes the catastrophic failures for many common parts for its Consolidated Automated Support System [3] and are the default failure modes used by several EDA vendors. or minimize the effort that is required in order to demonstrate faultfree performance. for example. The majority of failures are described by catastrophic faults [13]. Actually. or stuck at logic zero. Defining Faults What is a failure? A good design can accept part tolerances that are far wider than the tolerance of the individual components. It is now possible to use widely available Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools to provide the specification for additional tests at a reasonable cost. it is unusual to find a PNP transistor die in an NPN JANTXV package. the outputs may be stuck at logic one. This paper will illustrate. a new set of failure modes at the next production level is required. All failure modes do not have to be defined. an open resistor could actually pass a test which is based upon functional requirements. to define faults and sequence measurements in order to produce an optimal test sequence. Although these things do happen. open.g. that is. these parametric failures are part of the tolerance distribution of the parts which we are using. San Pedro California USA email info@intusoft. consider the case of an IC opamp. Film and composition resistors are characterized by open circuit failures. or environmental stress in manufacturing. we want to accept the outoftolerance part in order to take advantage of the increased yield which is provided by a robust design. product acceptance testing has stopped at specification compliance testing. Meares. Most tests require the design engineer to establish pass/fail limits.Power Specialist’s Automating Analog Test Design Lawrence G. failures may be caused by electrical stress due to static electricity. a comprehensive method will be presented that results in identifying a test suite that can serve either as a product acceptance test or a field test for fault isolation and repair. correlated process faults and traditional IC defects are folded into the test methodology. you might want to consider additional failures.com. 2. but accept products which may contain parametric “failures” that do not affect functional performance.intusoft. It’s reasonable to conclude that we want to detect and reject products which contain catastrophic component failures. Then a method will be described to establish optimal test sequences that will either maximize the likelihood of fault isolation. While quality and safety considerations suggest that more testing is required. For example. The ubiquitous desktop computer has relentlessly driven down the cost of design and test. Failures detected and rejected by the opamp foundry are primarily caused by silicon defects. these defects won’t reappear. Methods are discussed to set these limits and to create tests that are robust. using existing EDA technology. Working forward from these assumptions. The resulting test suites are characterized by their percent fault coverage and number of replaceable components required for repair. You may define failure modes using common sense experience. IC bridging or interconnect failures which result in shorts between devices. tests which aren’t likely to give incorrect pass/fail indications. you may wish to simulate high resistance “finger print shorts” which are caused by improper handling of sensitive components. a 2k pullup resistor may work just as well as the specified 1k resistor. historical data or physical analysis. For digital circuits. In the pullup resistor example. Unusual failure modes are infrequent: Unusual failure modes get a lot of attention. there are 2 failure modes. If ac 145 . For example. In a PWB design. Clearly. e. The role of tolerance faults. Intusoft. http://www. Therefore. product cost has driven the testing toward a minimal solution. and fail in the next higher assembly when the noise environment increases. operator error in component testing. how it is possible to apply longestablished techniques. For example. Depending on your application.
When this is a consideration. It is recommended that power and/or current limits are set to the manufacturer’s limit before part failure mode simulations are performed. In most cases. Since these conditions are caused by special circuit states. we also want to eliminate or detect safety hazards. the movement from pass to fail can be eliminated. expand the measurement tolerances so that the UUT passes all of the above tests with a liberal margin (5 sigma or higher). based upon resolving stress alarms and simulation failures. there are product safety issues such as firing an airbag or launching a rocket. When a part fails. Product performance tests should not be used for fault detection because the tolerances are not set with failure modes in mind. environment and test equipment can migrate these results across the test limit. e. or cause an undesired circuit condition. it is frequently possible to overstress other parts. Organizing a Test Sequence Some test ordering has been described. By setting test limits suitably wide. For many products. the process parameters are monitored separately. thereby invalidating the test conclusion. leading to false conclusions if the test is used for diagnosing those nearby faults. Using EDA tools for simulation is an ideal method for understanding circuit operation and specifying the new test limits. the measurement value for a given test may be near the test limit. Therefore. there isn’t a product requirement which sets each test limit. the unit is rejected before the acceptance test is performed. Tests which use the same setup are grouped together. Here are a few tricks we use: * * * Include a liberal input voltage tolerance for power sources Perform a Monte Carlo analysis. laboratory testing and instrumentation capability. acceptance testing does not need to account for multiple parametric failure modes. Figure 1 shows why this happens when failed parts are included in the Unit Under Test. not only do we want to prevent unnecessary damage during an acceptance test. Increasing the limit accounts for unforeseen conditions.20 degrees celsius After subjecting the circuit to these simulation environments. builtin test and product quality begins to blur as we consider safety issues. as is usually the case for Ic’s.g. Detecting process faults: Process faults could cause the shift of many parameters simultaneously. Setting Test Limits Test limits are established using information from the product specification. In many instances. Variations in circuit parameters. For example. analysis. When parts fail or age. simulation or lab testing. the increased quality guarantees that products with undetected failures will not be delivered to the customer. Safetostart tests are among the tests which can reveal potentially damaging failure modes.. . test limits are determined via analysis. Tests can be sequenced in a manner which reveals these destructive failure modes early on. test equipment or environment will ALWAYS necessitate a larger test limit. these events must be prevented. they should only lead to a pass or outoftolerance conclusion. The line between acceptance testing. Tests which validate product performance are performed after eliminating the overstories failure modes. Resolving Alarms Part failure modes which cause stress alarms should be detected as soon as possible. from fail to pass are handled by rejecting tests that could fail in this manner.. shorts from power nodes to ground. you must devise measurements in order to catch these problems and group them with the stress alarms. Failed parts can result in measurements that are near the measurement limits for normal operation. then the quality of the product increases 100 fold after these tests are performed. and therefore avoid the possibility of damage to any other circuit parts. UUT. include test set tolerances Vary ambient temperature +. Simple and inexpensive tests are performed first. simulation. 146 Typical result mean for various fault modes Hi Limit Mean Distribution w/o any failures LoLimit Faults that could give spurious results Figure 1.Test Program Development and Failure Analysis ceptance testing detects only 99% of all failed parts. After performing the tests which detect destructive failure modes. tests that could otherwise cause damage (if one of the destructive failure modes were present) can then be run. Seting Alarm Conditions Another kind of simulation limit is the stress limit or alarm condition which is produced by some EDA tools [6]. Movement of nearby failures across the limit. The next level of ordering is by test difficulty or cost. . Remember: any lack of knowledge about component models. If the process fails.
some goals regarding replaceable group size and distribution.0 for each default failure mode. The pass and fail outcomes. After selecting a test. all of a parts properties are implicitly included. The test itself is capable of detecting a number of failure modes. there exists an input ambiguity group that contains all of the failure modes we will consider. The no fault weight will tend to reduce the number of tests needed to arrive at the expected conclusion. although consuming excessive resources.4. and the test performs the logic which is necessary in order to classify the outcome as pass or fail. more observable information and more elaborate test capability. or if all else fails . An initial production test should have a high yield so we use a high no fault weight. the no fault weight depends on the accumulated failure rate. When a new test configuration is selected. We will develop these concepts in considerable detail. If the product is returned from the field. these modes are grouped into a set called the Test Ambiguity Group.5]. Since the world of simulation has more resources. several concepts are required to understand the synthesis procedure. Each test has an associated ambiguity group.Power Specialist’s Building a Test FaultTree Tests are used to detect faults using the logic which is illustrated in Figure 2. The most important for this discussion is the failure weight. in the product life cycle. it’s expected to be faulty so that the no fault weigh is low. Test Definition What’s a test? In order to compare one test with another there must be a precise definition of a test. measurements and test points until the overall test objectives are met. the no fault probability. The input contains a list of failure modes. you need to devise more tests. The failure weight will be used to grade a test. it may be possible to further isolate failure modes by expanding the tree from each node that has more than one fault. if the objectives weren’t met. it’s the fault universe for the UUT. successive tests are placed on the pass and fail nodes of the tree until no more useful information is gained. it is set to 1.[4]. that is. The no fault probability will change depending on where. each ambiguity group can be assigned a probability which is the sum of all failure weights. It turns out that the no fault weight will change the grade for tests in the “go” line. Using these weights. the job is generally acceptable at this point. We can gradually eliminate the most expensive test configurations. the product acceptance test list. No Fault Weight : When we begin a test. Ambiguity Group: An ambiguity group is simply a list of failure modes. then carry a set of failure modes that are the result of logical operations carried out between the Input Ambiguity Group and the Test Ambiguity Group such that: Fail Ambiguity Group = Input Ambiguity Group AND Test Ambiguity Group Pass Ambiguity Group = Input Ambiguity Group MINUS Fail Ambiguity Group Figure 2: Test definition showing the logic used to sequence tests. the test is being performed. 147 . Test Synthesis Next.change the objectives. Since the failure mode references a part. At the beginning of the test. A selection procedure will be developed that favors tests that split these cumulative weights equally between their pass and fail outcomes. there isa set of failure modes that have not been tested. Each outcome has a list of failure modes that can be passedon to successive tests. It is useful to add a dummy failure to this universe. Before proceeding. The process of selecting the best test in each ordered group results in a binary fault tree. we lay out a method for test synthesis that is based on standards developed for the aerospace industry [1. For builtin tests. these are defined by the Input Ambiguity Group. The resultant value can be the combination of one or more measurements and calculations. Of course. A test consists of a comparison of a resultant value against limits that classify the UUT as good (pass) or bad (fail). These objectives are generally stated as a percent fault detection and if fault isolation is required. Failure Weight: The failure weight of a part failure mode is an arbitrary number proportional to the failure rate. that is. Each test has one input and 2 outputs [2].
the smallest ambiguity group using the least number of tests. The fail or pass outcomes can then be the input for further tests. Then if “no fault” is present. computer model accuracy. with all remaining faults being the ones that are undetectable. then a fault tree is created which isolates faults for failed products. The Best Test Without performing an exhaustive search. that is. that is. Several heuristic approaches are possible [5]. If further tests are only connected to the pass output. The least number of tests is actually the smallest mean number of tests to reach the terminal nodes of the diagnostic fault tree. Test Strategy The strategy used to select test and test sequences is as follows: To arrive at a conclusion. the test design will have been completed. Robust Tests Tolerances can cause measurement results to migrate across the test limit boundary. making the best product acceptance test. For each test candidate. in a binary tree. Selecting the best test: A terminal conclusion is defined as the pass or fail conclusion for which no more tests can be found. the summation of the pass and fail probabilities must be unity. we can give each failure mode a failure weight that is proportional to the failure rate. The general solution to this problem using an exhaustive search technique expands too rapidly to find a solution during the lifetime of our universe[4]. To avoid looking up failure rates.0. Borrowing from information theory. If. having a tendency to isolate faults with fewer tests. Variations on the exhaustive search technique. When no tests can be selected to further reduce these ambiguity group sizes. 148 . Then the test tree would be different. a condition of an efficient and profitable business. Since no fault can only be in the pass group. For the case when failure weights are defaulted to unity. Entropy = q ∗ log(q) . We select the best test as the test having the highest entropy. such as looking ahead one test. If tests are connected to both the pass and fail outcomes. we want to test a product that is broken. a high no fault weight will steer the tests through the pass leg fastest. If we take the idea of failure modes one step further. The rationale for a high no fault probability is the expectation that most units will pass the production acceptance test. illustrated here. The fault tree is made by interconnecting the tests. we can compute the test entropy using the following equations [4]. As a result. since we really aren’t interested in a universe that’s greater than the union of the Input and Test groups. this method will tend to divide the number of input failures into 2 equal groups. one of which follows. then it is the product acceptance test result. test set noise and fault prediction accuracy. and some time later fill in a more precise number.p ∗ log(p) where p and q are the pass and fail probabilities and: p = Σ pass weights / (Σ pass weights + Σ fail weights) q = Σ fail weights / (Σ pass weights + Σ fail weights) The highest entropy test contains the most information. then a product acceptance test is created. In general. we would give the no fault probability a lower value. In either case.[5]]. measurement tolerances. Tolerances include: UUT part tolerances. the UUT either passes or fails a particular test. our goal is to reach the terminal passfail conclusions by performing the fewest numbers of tests to reach each conclusion. the object of each test is to reduce the size of output ambiguity groups. and MINUS removes the elements of one group from the other. we can compute the probability of a pass outcome and a fail outcome.Test Program Development and Failure Analysis where AND represent the intersection of the lists. a fault could be classified as good or a good part could be classified as a failure. the best test tends to be the test with the highest entropy. Using MINUS here is a convenient way of avoiding the definition of NOT (Input…). rarely produce better results. we can default these weights to 1. From a local point of view. UUT noise. Otherwise the parts in the resulting Ambiguity Group would be replaced to repair the UUT. Exhaustive search has been shown to consume computational resources so rapidly that it is not a viable method. Figure 2 illustrates this logic. on the other hand.
you should be aware that there usually isn’t sufficient information to have a complete knowledge of the statistics of a measurement result. Guard Band (the fudge factor) A test measurement for a good UUT has a range of values that define acceptable performance which we call a tolerance band.F4. from the test B hi limit to F1. Normalizing all measurements using their tolerance band allows us to compare guard bands of different tests. Failure modes are identified as NoFault. tests with large guard bands should be performed first because they are less likely to be wrong. The statistics of failed measurements are even less certain because the failure mode and the failed circuit states are less accurately predicted. Assuming that failures mechanisms are reasonably well known. Figure 4 shows how this works. Connecting test B to the test A pass outcome eliminates F1 from the test B failure input and the guard band for test B extends from the hi limit to F4. (NoFault. We can then modify the entropy selection method to reject tests with small guard bands. We will do this by a unique test selection procedure. In this example we have 2 operating point tests. The test limit can be safely placed in the guard band as long as no other faults have results in this band. and test B is performed on the pass group of test A as shown in figure 5. If test B were done first the guard band would be smaller.F6) Figure 4. We call this value a guard band. It is therefore necessary to increase the tolerance band as much as possible. We avoided saying exactly where in the guard band the measurement limit should be placed because it’s a judgment call. Moreover. Adjusting a test sequence achieves a robust test. …F6. While a model of the statistical distribution was shown in figure 4. In particular the mean is frequently offset because of model errors..F1. Assume test A is performed first.F5. depending on how much the tolerance band was widened and on the quality of the fault predication.F2.F2.F!. Tests with small guard bands simply shouldn’t be used.F3) .F3) Test A.F6) and a fail group containing (F1. An incorrect test outcome will invalidate subsequent test decisions.F3. we showed that avoiding false test conclusions for tolerance failures requires setting the test limits as wide as possible. Operating point for node 7 F4 F6 Test B Fail (F4. The measure of test robustness with respect to a failure mode is then the distance between the failed measurement result and the nearest test limit divided by the tolerance band.Power Specialist’s Previously.F5) 149 . we need to define a measure of test robustness. to compare one test with another. All of these procedures can be closely integrated in existing EDA tools to provide a cost effective method for test design [6].F5.F4. a circuit that is operating from different power supply voltages than was expected. Pass (NoFault.F6) F1 F2 F3 Test A Fail (F1. Operating point for node 11 mean hi limit F1 Test B. a method to recognize the existence of a single fault and further diagnose which part was responsible was developed. In order to be right most often.F5. Now we will show how to set the limits as far away from expected failed results as possible. for example. Test A divides the failures into a pass group containing (F4.F2.F6) Tol Guard band mean hi limit Pass Fail Pass (NoFault. F2. Methods for establishing test tolerances for circuits without failed parts were presented. Summary We have shown how to use EDA tools with various test configurations to describe normal and failed circuit behavior. But first. tests which were previously rejected may turn out to be excellent tests later in the sequence (as illustrated in the example).
when a simulation fails because the simulator cannot converge. Frequency measurement includes the specification of the number of events to be included so precise timing “gate” can be set in order to eliminate quantizing effects. Sheppard. Moreover. These differences will influence the way you map the simulation tests and measurements into real world test sets and measurement equipment. one for which their model does not apply. vol.W. These tests are run without the power supplies and can be used to find shorted or opened power components. Isolation of open or shorted bypass capacitors can be done in this manner using an AC multimeter. You may also use this notation for parameter input. pp 351359 [6] Test Designer. The simulator will work just fine at offsets of thousands of volts and your virtual instrument will not be overloaded. You automatically get IEEE double precision results. March 1993 [5] Sharon Goodal. “Application of Analog & Mixed Signal Simulation Techniques to the Synthesis and Sequencing of Diagnostic Tests”. Visual Tests: For items returned from the field. Accuracy limitations occur because of model accuracy. 1977 Autotestcon Proceedings. To mitigate these problems. You can always subtract the average value.R. al. The following summary describes the most important differences: Transient Simulation Accuracy: Simulation accuracy is frequently no better than 1% to 3%. numerical errors and the user defined topology description. current limited power supplies should be used in the simulation. 11 [4] W. Simulation measurements vs. “Efficient Testability Design Methodologies for Analog/Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits”. There is no simulation range limitation. for example 1.. most parasitic elements have no important effects on a design.23e9 volts will be shown as 1. 1 SRA/SRU Fault Accountability Matrix Table. about what you expect from an oscilloscope. Real world test equipment There are fundamental differences between simulation measurement and test equipment measurements in accuracy. Coupling: There is no need to worry about AC coupling when making measurements.Test Program Development and Failure Analysis References [1] ChengPing Wand and ChinLong Wey. Interconnect imperfections and parasitic coupling are assumed absent. some component failures could have caused catastrophic damage that can be identified by visual inspection. In fact the stdDev function does just that. Fig. Simpson and J. Units: Units are always converted to standard engineering postfix notation. You must explicitly include these effects. 1. Remember to let the circuit settle to its steady state condition before making measurements that assume the circuit has be running awhile. 1997. Measurement Time: Simulation time is a valuable resource. 1998. 10 No. 1994 AutoTestCon Proceedings. pp425434 [3] CASS Red Team Package data item DIATTS80285B. pp 6874 [2] H. It will be necessary 150 . IEEE D&T.3rd International Mixed Signal Testing Workshop. “Fault Isolation in an Integrated Diagnostic Environment. capability and measurement strategy. Voltage: Current and voltage are properties of the quantity being measured. Dill et. Measurement of period and frequency can be done on a much smaller data sample since there is no noise. Part failures will often place other components in an abnormal operating condition. A software program from Intusoft. Fortunately. The implicit topology description is probably the largest source of error. There is no need to select a current or voltage meter in the simulation. Model Range: Component models are made to be accurate in the neighborhood of a components expected useful operating point. Current vs. Don’t test a smoked board! Multimeter Tests: Consider running “dead” circuit tests to isolate failures that result in simulation convergence failures. the trick is to identify and model the “important” ones.23n volts. it should be a warning that the failure mode cannot be studied with that particular test. Measurement Range: You don’t need to set the range or limits. to isolate the failure before running that particular test so that the failure mode does not need to be addressed anymore. “Analog/Mixed Signal Fault Diagnosis Algorithm and Review”. pg. The designer usually adds these models sparingly because they are difficult to describe and may adversely impact the simulation.
Power Specialist’s AC Simulation Accuracy: Frequency domain measurements made from AC analysis data are frequently more accurate than can be achieved with test equipment. the test mode (binary. It is therefore convenient to lump all of these simulation measurements together when designing a fault tree. This allows measurements to be made accurately without averaging them over many cycles. the lock time of a phase locked loop. The difficulty in acquiring data for the simulator. The reason for this is that there is no noise to corrupt measurement accuracy and the numerical equations are solved exactly. otherwise it is absent. if you need to separate these measurement groups. representing the UUT state under some setup condition. Numerical Artifacts: Numerical artifacts are sometimes encountered in the Transient Simulation. where a test is a measured value compared to some set of limits. These states then become a number of conventional tests. and probably for the hardware test are equivalent for each test. Noise: Thermal noise must be explicitly modeled. You will have to pay attention to simulation settings such as RELTOL and integration METHOD in the simulation setup that have no counterpart in real world test equipment. These would then map into counter/timer based measurements for the automated test. There is generally no benefit to adding noise unless the noise influences the value of the parameter you want to measure. Fault Tree Design: Simulators accumulate large chunks of data for each simulation run. rather than using the iteration procedure used in the transient simulation. 151 . …) and either manually or automatically completing the fault tree using the selected groups and mode. Test sequencing is then performed by selecting the groups for a sequence. for example. For example. These datum can be thought of as a state vector. highly accurate estimates of oscillator frequency can be made through phase measurements. tertiary. you can name them differently and separate test vectors between these new measurement groups.
Box 710. and breakdown of components[6].O. San Pedro CA 907330710. First. a supplier’s product will evolve or the supplier will be changed. L. Test Description OLE/ActiveX Communication SPICE 3/XSPICE Simulation Engine ICL (SPICE 3) Script Commands Simulation Output Processing Fault Tree Generation Test Synthesis & Sequencing Failure Results Reporting & Database PassFail Tolerance Setting Monte Carlo. Either case would improve the quality of the product. Test Entropy Rankings. provides the aforementioned benefits and includes a complete system capable of design entry. Another important aspect is the tracking of component quality during the production lifetime.com Abstract . The schematic entry program is specially enhanced to hold the entire design database including part and model values and tolerances. A block diagram of the software system implemented to provide automated failure analysis and test program set development. B. of course. This product. Schematic Entry improved safety and reliability through Design Database Schematic Configurations the analysis of difficult to test failures. The software can add benefits in 2 other ways. rather. Frequently. recording of simulation based measurements. definition of test strategies. but the software also allows you to track the nearby failures. if it can identify failure modes that aren’t tested. 152 . and all part failure modes. diagnosis. called Test Designer. Using Object linking and embedding (OLE) communication. UL standards for various types of supplies require that tests be developed for overload protection circuitry. startTest Measurement Simulation up failures. aren’t really failures in the sense that the product can’t be shipped. some tests can even be bypassed.E. they are component quality indicators. you will have found either unnecessary parts or a flaw in the acceptance test. outlined in Figure 1. Yet little dedicated software currently exists to help streamline and organize analog and mixedsignal circuit test procedures. short circuit tests. These. In some Reports & Documentation PseudoLogic Sequence. the schematic builds the required netlist for IsSpice4. identification of early production faults. FET gate overvoltage. diagnostics were developed for a moderately complex analog and mixed signal switched mode power supply. creation of fault trees and sequencing tests are all discussed. and isolation of failures in analog and mixedsignal circuits including switched mode power supplies. The motivations for improving the analog and mixedsignal test set design and failure analysis process are plentiful and well documented [15].This paper describes new software techniques to perform analysis. The software. INTRODUCTION In late 1996. provides an effective. a SPICE 3/XSPICE based I. the SPICE simulation tool manufacturer Intusoft initiated development of a new product. Hymowitz. a number of unique techniques were developed to solve key parts of the FMEA (failure mode effects analysis) and test program set design process.Test Program Development and Failure Analysis New Techniques for Fault Diagnosis and Isolation of Switched Mode Power Supplies C. It also contains a description of the various test configurations and measurements for each test. analysis. For instance. A discussion of some of the drawbacks of sensitivity based failure analysis techniques is also included. Halal Intusoft P. cases. interactive design environment for the synthesis of diagnostic tests. Meares. Most testing is done to assure product performance standards. Unique methods and algorithms for schematic entry. info@intusoft. simulation. including parametric failures. tailored to the unique and demanding needs of the test engineer. Failure Modes investigation of power supply failure Definition mechanisms such as power switch overPart Tolerances and Models current. Expandtopass Alarm Reporting Figure 1.G. generation of fault dictionaries and the building of diagnostic fault trees. This drift itself is observable from the acceptance test results. and test synthesis and fault tree sequencing. To ensure a realistic test of the new software techniques. setting of failure characteristics. and excessive component Definition Settings stress could all benefit from improved simulation software. UserDefined. Since the category of analog and mixedsignal test synthesis and sequencing software is relatively new. when circuit analysis indicates that no other component or portion of the circuit is seriously overloaded as a result of the assumed open circuiting or short circuiting of another component. and the product’s performance will drift away from its design center.
CONFIGURABLE SCHEMATICS A longstanding problem in electrical and mechanical circuit design has been the conflict between the needs of the designer and the needs of production and manufacturing. The circuit configuration is defined during the schematic entry process. 153 . voltage and current stimuli and instrumentation connections at specific points on the Unit Under Test (UUT). etc. stimuli and failure modes Simulation Directives AC. the steps are: • Design Entry including: Schematic Layers setup. Test Configuration definition Measurement definition PassFail tolerance setting Fault simulation Results reporting Failure states and sequencing and data. described in detail below. the test setup circuitry must be included as part of the circuit. A test setup provides loads. This process is continued automatically until all of the faults are simulated. Min Prop delay. Modeling electrical behavior often results in different representations for different test configurations. The simulation output data is processed using the Berkeley SPICE Interactive Command Language (ICL) in order to extract the desired measurements. mainly with circuit simulation. the best approach has been to hide these special configurations in subcircuits. DC. The setup/UUT combination is called a “circuit configuration”.01u VEE VCC Vee 5 VC C R3 10k 4 VEE R12 10k C3 . In chronological order. A topdown design methodology. Simulation and measurement directives are then added to create multiple tests descriptions. In order to be effective. where different levels of abstraction are inserted for different components. The main method of conveying the designer’s creation is the circuit schematic which is used to describe the behavior of the circuit as well as the details of how production will build the hardware. A six step process. The designer must build multiple test configurations. or dealing with multiple simulation scenarios. The designer must have a way to connect various stimuli and loads to core circuitry and to group the desired SPICE analyses and test measurements with each schematic configuration. This is done chiefly through various EDA tools but.Power Specialist’s analog and mixed signal simulator. for simulation purposes. SPICE Statements Simulation Netlist Measurement Directives ICL Scripts (Max.01u X5 LM741N VEE Circuit Description Design Database: Part values. for example a resistor’s parasitic capacitance could be included in a subcircuit. When viewed in a broader context. In general. The system described by Figure 2 addresses the multiple test setup problem with a unique solution. and even include system elements in the simulation. tolerances. While this approach works for hierarchical schematic entry and extending individual component models. An active layer can be thought of as a transparency that over • • • • • II. the combination of the test setup circuitry and the UUT can be considered to be a circuit configuration in and of itself. different stimulus inputs. the schematic becomes so cluttered with circuitry Layer # Sample Circuit VCC Vcc 5 R6 1k Q3 vin C1 . Schematic Configurations setup. It allows the user to assign each setup/UUT combination a different configuration name and simulates all of the standalone configurations in a batch operation. Finally. greatly raising the probability of a transcription error. Tran. Until now. add parasitic components and stimuli. is utilized for the development of fault diagnostics.01u Vin R5 470 R9 470 R10 27 R11 330 R14 100 Y8 R4 390 R7 820 vq3e vq4e Q2 2N2222 2N2222 X4 HL7801E Q4 2N2222 vpd R13 5k 1 2 3 Layers combined into a configuration Schematic Configuration Combination of Layers 1&3 C2 . Failure modes characteristics definition. is commonplace. The measurements are then parsed into various report forms which contain the passfail tolerances. Simulation Directives setup. A unique reconfigurable schematic program allows different schematic layers to be combined in order to create various circuit configurations. that it must be redrawn for production.) Figure 2. etc. Every circuit configuration is composed of one or more schematic layers. This increases the simulation burden by requiring a separate schematic for every test setup. the simulation process can not become burdened with the bookkeeping intricacies of multiple schematic variations and analysis specifications. it doesn’t solve the problem of adding test equipment. The designer is concerned with creating a circuit that meets specifications. the tests are sequenced into a fault tree. The need for a reconfigurable schematic capability becomes even more mandatory when we analyze the needs of the failure analysis and test program development engineer. Indeed. Most Test Program Sets (TPSs) implement multiple setups during the testing sequence.
This is the first known graphical entry method which is capable of solving the Test .MODEL Q1_Fail NPN AF=1 BF=10 BR=4 CJC=15. The software uses the IsSpice4 simulation engine to perform the failure analysis.2 L2 3 0 62U Rstuck_3 3_Stuck 3 10.) as well as subcircuit macromodelbased elements. All of the failure mode definitions are carried out in a graphical manner.1 R3 17_open 0 10K Ropen_17 17_open 17 100Meg Q1 12 19 24 Q1_Fail . or stuck. a frequency response can be run with a long transient analysis. parts include the failure modes as defined in the Navy’s CASS (Consolidated Automated Support System) Red Team Package[7].Test Program Development and Failure Analysis lays other transparencies such that as you view them. Circuit nodes on the top layer connect with nodes on underlying layers as if the drawing were created on a single page. It should be noted that the software builds the B element expressions and SPICE models. an operating point analysis can be specified to run along with a brief transient analysis. the simulator. Failure modes can be setup for primitive (resistor. or Boolean logic [10]. the former was chosen and implemented using ICL which is available in SPICE 3 and Nutmeg. and generates the SPICE netlist automatically. Behavioral expressions can contain mathematical equations.2P CJE=29. SIMULATION DIRECTIVES The system also allows different sets of SPICE analysis statements to be grouped and stored (Figure 2). transistor. Therefore. No script writing or programming is necessary in order to define or simulate a fault. must be included to extract and record information from each desired test point waveform. opened.MODEL QN2222 NPN AF=1 BF=105 BR=4 CJC=15. Users can edit the predefined failure modes or add their own catastrophic or parametric failure modes.9]. MEASUREMENT DEFINITION In order to create a “test”. elements. or documentation can be placed on any layer.00000 Bstuck_3 3_Stuck 0 V= Time > 10n ? 0 : V(3) 154 . FAILURE DEFINITION Each component is defined by a set of nominal device and model parameter attributes. Failure modes are simulated by programmatically generating the proper SPICE 3 syntax to describe the failure.Simulation bridge using a reconfigurable layered schematic approach. Use of a layered concept in itself is not unique.00000 Bstuck_6 6_Stuck 0 V= Vcc. IsSpice4 includes and expands upon the standard Berkeley SPICE 3 Table 1. Initially. The characteristics (open/short/stuck resistance) of each failure mode can be defined by the user (Figure 3). It is generally used as a drawing management feature to remove complexity from the user’s visual field. In another group. IsSpice4 is an enhanced version of Berkeley SPICE 3 [9] and XSPICE [11.12]. The expressions can refer to other quantities in the design such as nodes and currents. IV. IfThenElse directives. SPICE Syntax for Various Failure Modes Fault Before Insertion Shorted Base Emitter Q1 12 19 24 QN2222A Open Resistor Low Beta Parametric fault Resistor Stuck 2V below Vcc Timed Dependent Inductor Fault R3 17 0 10K Q1 12 19 24 QN2222 . A series of examples are shown in Table 1. For example.5P… R1 6 0 1K L2 3 0 62U After Fault Insertion Q1 12 19 24 QN2222A Rshort_19 19 24 . inserts the required elements. V. The user can then pair any set of SPICE simulation directives with any circuit configuration to create a unique “Test Configuration”. Each component also has a set of associated failure modes. a configurable schematic has not been implemented (to the best of our knowledge). rather than making a multiplicity of configurations. thus creating an unlimited fashion in which to “stuck” a node. For the Test Designer software. the user must combine a circuit configuration with a set of SPICE simulation directives and a desired measurement which will be made on the resulting data. The schematic allows mixing and matching of layers to form the required circuit configurations. III. or some type of data postprocessing program.2P CJE=29. Any circuitry. Any node on a part can be shorted to any other node. For instance. you see the complete circuit configuration schematic. etc. as well as parametric tolerances. a single circuit configuration can be assigned multiple types of simulation analyses in order to define multiple test configurations. There is no need for the user to write or know the required SPICE syntax (examples are shown in table 1). While PCB layout software has had a similar feature for quite some time. The B element is the Berkeley SPICE 3 arbitrary dependent source which is capable of analog behavioral modeling[8.5P… R1 6 0 1K Rstuck_6 6_Stuck 6 10. The stuck condition allows the user to attach a B element expression.
A variety of functions are available for setting the cursor positions and for measuring the data in between the cursors. The measurements were determined after looking at the nature of the waveforms and estimating which tests would best be able to detect significant differences when a fault is inserted. operating current into VCC. we can grade the usefulness of each measurement. can be run interactively or in a batch mode. IsSpice4 contains new ICL commands which allow SPICE 3 plots. or sets of vectors (i. waveforms) to be scanned and measured with cursors. While not all vectors can normally be probed on a circuit card. the SMPS was simulated in full startup mode for 1. we can examine such detailed phenomenon as the Mosfet’s switching characteristics. The simulation runtime was 184.Power Specialist’s VI .Vsignal. over a 100us interval. The 50us measurement can be used as a comparative measurement of startup performance. a nominal transient analysis of . all of the available vectors (circuit test points including voltage current and power dissipation) were recorded. and the final value at .Vsignal. As shown in figure 2.Vsignal. This makes ICL scripts perfect for describing test procedures. it is important to gather all of the possible data. Because the circuit uses a full nonlinear switch level PWM IC model and an accurate power Mosfet model. ICL commands are performed in order. In contrast to traditional SPICE “dot” statements. The maximum value will be useful for oscillating waveforms.3ms in length was selected. and discuss the failure diagnostic and test sequencing process. The startup transient waveform (V(5). while the final value will be useful for filtered and slowchanging waveforms. which look and act like Visual Basic scripts. a Cursor Wizard is employed to position one or more imaginary cursors on a waveform or set of waveforms. A “Wizard” approach is taken in order to alleviate the syntax headaches associated with script development. An example of the dialog which is used to define the failure mode characteristics. This is best done through an example. we can show how the software performs the simulation. For example.Fmax) MoveCursorRight(1. when the test sequencing is performed. these measurement scripts are combined with traditional SPICE analysis directives and a test configuration description to form a simulatable IsSpice4 netlist. Example Wizard generated ICL scripts used to automate measurements of the failure analysis. ICL. 155 . For each of the three measurements. A Measurement Script Wizard is used to manipulate the data derived from the cursors in order to produce a single measurement. top right) is shown.3ms. and propagation delay. EXAMPLE Now that we have defined how a design is setup.theMax3) Measurement Script groupDelay = mean(theDelay) Reset cursor to waveform endpoints Use dB values Use phase values Differentiate the phase waveform Find the maximum Move the left cursor to the maximum Store the frequency Move the right cursor to the maximum Move the right cursor to the upper 3dB point Move the left cursor to the lower 3dB point Store the measurement Table 2. while X axis cursors are positioned with respect to an entire set of vectors. the maximum value. we eliminate the need to perform subsequent simulations. Initially.90s.e. It was decided that a shorter transient run could yield enough useful tests to detect the majority of the faults and be simulated more quickly. one at a time. By measuring all possible test points up front.2ms. Y axis cursors are positioned with respect to a single waveform or vector. For the first failure analysis. The selected measurements were the value at 50us. ICL is a set of commands that can direct SPICE to perform various operations such as running a particular analysis or changing a component value. the power supplies V1 and V4 were ramped from zero to their final value. The commands. under voltage lockout threshold. Group Delay Measurement Cursor Script HomeCursors Vsignal = db(???) Vphase = PhaseExtend(ph(???)) theDelay = differentiate(Vphase)/360 theMax = max(Vsignal) MoveCursorRight(0. The ??? fields are replaced with the desired vectors which will be processed. Two example scripts are shown in Table 2. To simulate the startup of the circuit. Figure 3.theMax3) MoveCursorLeft(0. along with a closeup view of the output ripple.theMax) Fmax = GetCursorX(0) SetCursor(1. The circuit shown in Figure 4 is a forward converter which uses the Unitrode UC1843 PWM and Magnetics MPP5812 core models from the Intusoft Power Supply Designer’s Library. Later.
and shows the minimum. Expand to Figure 5. and maximum values. The test point in the center of X10 shows the inductance value as a function of time. SETTING PASSFAIL TOLERANCES A variety of methods are available for setting tolerances including hard limits. VII. Figure 6 shows the results after applying default tolerances of ±100uV for voltages and ±1mA for currents. A special histogram bar icon is used to provide a quick visual indication of the test status. The results of an initial simulation before the default tolerances are applied to the measurements.Test Program Development and Failure Analysis Figure 4. shown in Figure 5. Note the use of the nonlinear core (MPP) model. The results of an initial simulation after the default tolerances are applied to the measurements. The Results dialog shows the passfail status through the use of a unique histogram indicator (left side). 156 . Figure 6. This allows tolerances to be set through different simulation scenarios such as high and low temperature. indicate that all of the tests fail. An SMPS forward converter example using the UC1843 PWM controller. The results report shows the simulated (Measured column) value. or high and low power supply voltage. Monte Carlo analysis. and a unique “Expand to Pass” method (as shown in Figure 7). whether the test passed or failed. The initial results. pass moves the min and max tolerance bands outward until the measurement is within the pass band. nominal. since no passfail tolerances have been applied.
for 1 or more test configurations. They can then be sequenced so that the failure mode test does not destroy functioning parts. and OpenG. analysis of a SMPS in the transient domain using faultbyfault simulation is clearly possible. Measurements alarms can be set in order to flag failure modes which overstress Figure 8. all failure modes are individually simulated for a ramped power supplies configuration. For each failure mode. All of the fault modes individually inserted. The five considered power Mosfet failure modes were: (D=Drain. Test set tolerances and variations can cause measurements to fail. tolerances can also be set manually on individual measurements or groups of measurements. With the proper application of the these items and control of the simulator options. Figure 8 shows the results dialog for the FinalValue measurement after increasing and decreasing the power supply values by 5% and using the Expand to Pass feature. Of particular interest were the PWM and power Mosfet faults. 157 .14] implies that simulation runtime is a major inhibitor to this methodology. Therefore. as the indicated by the following results: Monte Carlo analysis can also be used to set the measurement tolerances. Past work [13. a convenient way to account for this is to expand the tolerances by increasing and decreasing the power source values and then using the Expand to Pass feature. A combination of the two methods can also be used. The three considered PWM IC failure modes were: Output shorted to VCC. One fault mode is inserted at a time for several test configurations. In this example. The Results dialog after using the Expand to Pass feature to set tolerances for ± 5% power supply variations. separate tests can be added to find them. in succession. parts. these remarks tend to ignore recent developments in the area of model optimization and behavioral modeling. Figure 7. G=Gate. a failure analysis is run. shortedDS. FAULT SIMULATION At this point. Failure mode simulation can proceed in one of several ways: • • • One fault mode is inserted at a time for 1 test configuration. shortedGD. S=Source) shortedGS. and adjusting the limits on lessthanreliable tests in order to improve their detection characteristics. Monte Carlo results tend to yield tolerances that are too tight. Of course.Power Specialist’s Setting test limits is an iterative process of selecting highly reliable tests with regard to detection characteristics. However. VIII. and stateoftheart simulator and computer performance. The results are reported in a special dialog which is shown in Figure 9. OpenDS. the software records the value of every userdefined measurement. The dialog which is used to set measurement tolerances. and Output open. Analog Hardware Description Language (AHDL) modeling. running a short transient analysis. However. Output shorted to ground. The fault universe for the SMPS consisted of 51 failure modes. Once these failure modes are detected.
The results dialog after simulating all of the fault modes. Shows all of the faults for the final value measurement of V(5) using a histogram sorting technique.90s 49. This version shows all of the fault modes results for the final value measurement of the output V(5). The rest of the faults are grouped into bins where T is the pass bandwidth (maxmin). Failed tests are on the left. 158 .18s 23. The list of measurements for R2:Open are shown. Figure 11. Figure 10. Figure 9.Test Program Development and Failure Analysis Type of Run Single Simulation Single Simulation Monte Carlo (30 Cases) Failure Modes (51) Analyses Full Transient Short Transient Short Transient Short Transient Circuit Configuration Ramped Supplies Ramped Supplies Ramped Supplies Ramped Supplies Time 184.5minutes 47minutes All simulations were performed on a 200Mhz Pentium® processor with 32MB RAM.
the simulation setups which are used under that configuration. a DMM instrument. The common production circuitry is carried across all configurations. The input probability must be 1.0. XI. The first layer. and X16:ShortGD were not be detected. a very high probability of failure detection). or in the case of the impedance measurement. one that shows all of the failure results for each test. C3:Open. then we can assign a probability of detection to the pass group. made by exhaustive search. Then p + q = 1. reaching each conclusion. If the component failure rate is used to weight each fault in the ambiguity group. It should be noted that each of the configurations is a standalone design. ADDING MORE TESTS Using the test sequencing techniques which are described below. A somewhat more complex procedure has also been proposed. free from errors. D1:Short. C2:Open. and then summing the resultant probabilities for each conclusion. Note that a general solution. The last step. contains all circuitry for the SMPS. It is generally accepted that the best fault tree is one that arrives at the highest probability failure conclusion with the least amount of work. Folded out from the analysis type are the various measurements that have been defined. What is really determined is the probability that a test will pass (p) and the probability that a test will fail (q). involves the sequencing of the tests into a fault tree. There are two other display types. X. this greatly helps minimize transcription errors. A long bar on the left or right of the meter center indicates that the associated failure mode moves the measured value outside of the pass/ fail limits by more than 3 times the difference between the upper and lower pass/fail limits (e. multiplying the probabilities of each successive outcome. L2:Open Q1:shortCE. q. then the work is the summation of the probabilities of Measurement Resistance Peakpeak Maximum Description DMM resistance check PWM IC output short to Vcc Main power supply off PWM supply ramped on slowly Faults Detected C3:Open X13:OuttoVCC C2:Open. Some faults were not be detected from the test data. and the individual analyses for each setup. A tree list.0. we must select tests which produce high probability outcomes. The figure o