The Question of the Other Author(s): Luce Irigaray and Noah Guynn Source: Yale French Studies, No.
87, Another Look, Another Woman: Retranslations of French Feminism (1995), pp. 7-19 Published by: Yale University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2930321 Accessed: 21/11/2010 02:03
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becamea bitless imperialist. perhapsall philosophy. different his own indeedexisted: from acknowledging identities that for children."workers. defined andofthemselves.indeedthe onlyone capable of governing
? YFS 87. thefundamental the mainedunchanged: one. thepoliticalmodelofthe leader to considered be the best.Others by idea of man.race. reason. subject.culture. centuries.
. Look. mad. The philosophical has beenpaid to thequestionoftheother. less singular to hierarchized withrespect the singular subject. example. 1995byYaleUniversity.anditwasimportant paya bitmore Yet modelofthehumanbeingreto their diversity. adultmale. in in not as moreover. other words.Another Woman.This philosophical modelcorresponds.The observed in of versity thusthought and experienced a hierarchical was manner."savages. Western diparadigmatic capable. to furthermore. everyone was These empirical to attention others and to thesame. henceforth morea sociologicalsubject.singular. a potentially perfect idea. a differin termsofan ideal subjecbut weredefined ent subjectivity.or thatman and womanin particular might differe'nt subjects. been constructed For no thatdifferent around singular a subject. solitary. moreattention Ofcourse. oneimagined be subjectsmightexist. wereonlycopiesofthe themanyalwayssubjugated theone. The model of the subjectthus age. rather and of withrespect thatideal: to tivity as a function their inadequacies and so on. the had not differences to be respected.Theseimperfect copieswere. historically masculine. Huffer.rational. which all the more or less to imperfect copieshadtostruggle equal. remained and the "others"represented ideal examples.LUCE IRIGARAY
The Question ofthe Other
has Western philosophy.Another ed. sincetheendofthenineteenth century.
all comesdowntothesamething: ourtradition has neverreallybeen an otherofthephilosophical subject. significant a In her less regression.she of asks."[Translator's "of and subject.tobe thesameas.as a principle subjectivity. since they imply the negation of an/other [d'un[e] autrel] equal in valueto thatofthesubject. Irigaray's
. secondary of In but as such beunderstooda noun.him. thecultural politicalsubject. theinvalidation and of thepossibility a subjectivity of other thanman's. of as the way.irreducible themasculinesubjectand sharing equivain It there lentdignity. positionentailsa return that to thesingular. myview. thesameway. philosophically evenpolitically. shipsbetween personalist. French. Not wantingto be "second" withrespectto the masculinesubject. Irigaray's woman." I say. as to this man and Italianand English. (woman) The principal focusofmyworkon feminine subjectivity in a is.a theoreticaland practicalerror." "ofanother other.herrefusal consider questionofwomanas to the and "other"represents. historically masculine.in order avoidbeingthatother. rather thanan/other same. subject.8
of citizensmoreorless worthy their identity humanbeings. for other alwaysseenas theother the in theWestern the is of tradition. as moreor less civil. title Speculum) Theother theOther the must (Of Woman.or. alsoinother languages. inverse de Beauvoir's faras the questionoftheotheris "I Insteadof saying.more and of generally. subject[un to autresujet2]. fact. nounis supposed designate
"of "of possible readings: an other. This positionrelativeto the notionof otherness doubtexplains no Simonede Beauvoir's refusal identify to womanwiththe other." a feminine original suggests several 1. claimto be "The questionoftheother beenpoorly has formulated hisequal. Fromthepointofviewofphilosophy. do not want to be the otherof the concerned. thinking historically advanced is thanthat who ponderthe notionofpossiblerelationof certainphilosophers or twoormoresubjects:existential. I to masculinesubject and.theotherofthesubjectitself. to or similarto. their struggles be recognized having in Simonede Beauvoir's positiveassertions represent." is "another subject" "a subject original suggests either 2. politiof cal philosophers. be man'sequal.Ifde Beauvoir's critical workon thedevalorization womanas "secondary" culture of in is valid on one level. is notat theforefrontwomen's In she to as own identity." another Note] or which other.
irreducibleto the masculine subject. other. and it is only recentlythatI came to understandthe reason forher silence. not gramatically. the or the Ruler. that nor neither fact. lovefor other. and has leftreligion politicsto an empiricism and whichfundamenIn if lacksethics for is tally insofar respect others concerned. Butwe donot This lack of ask the questionof who or what this otherrepresents. logos. wished showthattheother in is. dans 1'histoire (Paris:Editions J'aimea toi. anxiety of the abouttheother. orthatit is no longer." or "category. a trueother.forher part.it can designate smallestor themostimpoverished: the it children. is no morethan another it more lessthanI. original ITranslator's Note]
. the as is it other not defined to according its actualreality. is onlymoreof thesame: smaller. 4. No doubt I must have offended without wishing to. religion. speaking. Perhaps. theword or and "gender" strictly is.I havetherefore of translated in various it ways to and the wherever wordappears the in according context havenotedparenthetically text. theillusionofa singular absolute. At the time of its publication. equal to me. can thusbe either not or and it can have either more less thanI.""type. politics:we speakoftheexistence the and of etc. it is not. and could no longer recall what was at stake in the problematic of the other in de Beauvoir's work. or self.Withthissecondary to title. sex." "sort"do notnecessarily imply gendered alterity (whether grammatical otherwise). From this point of view. has precision thenotionoftheother's in alterity paralyzed thoughtmethod-in an idealistic dream including dialectical the appropriated in bya single(masculine) subject.hopingforher supportin the difficultiesI encountered. semantically.strangers. 1992). of in philosophy. The word"genre" corresponds theEnglish to word "gender" onlyinthesenseof grammatical gender element theFrench (an of language which cannot translated be into and is obvioustranslation Irigaray's oftheword. I sent her my book in all good faith. the secondary title of Speculum might have seemed offensiveto Simone de Beauvoir: Of the Other Woman. misa translation "genre"as it is used here. Irigaray. fact. what I ask is to be considered as actually an/otherwoman [une autre].LUCE IRIGARAY
I woman.The for use English). both possibleto designate indifferently themasculineand thefeminine This practice current is usingthesameword. neutral. I had read the "Introducher tion" to The Second Sex well beforeI wrote Speculum. there no other words"kind. larger. Esquisse d'une fflicitW Grasset. can name the one whom I in believeto be myequal. Truly there no other all this.3 the other to Instead ofrefusing be the othergender[1autre genre4]. sick.the poor.103-04. Other:God. I never received a response. It can thusrepresent (my) the absolutegreatness (my)absoluteperfection.she didn't understandthat for
and seeks to All are toward the obtaina penis byprocuration.For in your thelittle auto-eroticism onlyas long lasts example.has reducedall otherness to a relationship withhimself-as complement. Let's recall. through mother. and this beingthe case. adolescent boy. projection.the adolescentgirl.or womanin termsof the and of the or sexuality identity thelittleboy.a womancannotbefemalechild.he merely
. of ingofa childhas onlya single goal: theappropriation thepenisorof to the phallus.Thus. in other as she continuesto confuse clitoris as When she thatshehas thesamesexualorgan a boy.As much side. come a goodwife. but. words.thelittlegirl as the toward in to identity order turntoward father.True. of a feminism thatvalorizesdifference. the through Freudian texts through major as philosophical methods of is of ourtradition. a male child is preferable a cannotsucceed. or In my own way."but that sexesorgenders two. pursueda of I problematic closetothatoftheAmerican promoters Neofeminism.barely twenty years back.did not inventmachismo. a marriage untilshe givesherhusbanda male child.in this an sociocultural it merelyreproduces existing notedit.without are beingfirst second. herefforts directed Eventheconceiving engenderand conquestofthemale sexualorgan. the littlegirl. what is at stake in this problematic: the of exploitation womantakesplace in thedifference between genthe mustbe resolved ders[genres] therefore and withindifference rather thanby abolishing In Speculum. man. interpret critiquehow the it. man. instrument. view.historically masculine. wouldmakemanywomen. even and These dayssucha description a fewyears manymen.a bit havenotbecomeas clearas it might Yettoday things ifFreudian is has oflight beenshedon thissubject. flip nature-inside his world. Wherehe goes sense. I and philosophical subject.laugh.briefly. moregenerally idenof tity.10
Yale French Studies
me my sex or my gender [genre] werein no way "second. womandoesn'thavethesame renounces valueofherfeminine the sexualorgan man.his horizons.and in totalignorance theirwork. Thus my critiques Freudall come downto a singleinterpretaof and tion: you (Freud) the onlysee the sexuality. girl's her witha small penis.showhowtheother alwaystheother thesameand I notan actualother.a to our attention our culture'sstaggering mawoman who directed chismowas laughedat andwas notallowedto teachat theuniversity. imagines that her she discovers. seem. order:Freud.Butjust ago. theory macho. morecloselyrelatedto the one cultural revolution May 1968thantode Beauvoir's of egalitarian feminism.
is. whichis historione phy. is To get out from underthisall-powerful model ofthe one and the we many. certain partof are Levinas'sworkin whichtheseprivileges perhaps moremoraland thanphilosophical). example. constituted theprivilege the by of current reversal overtheone. Man andwoman.children culture signifies children theidea.and. its in a certain of sense. At best. thesame In singular subject overideal singularity way.privileging concrete singularity does not allow us to challenge privilege a universal the of validfor all category menandall women. doesnotrecognize other is as other.notablywithinthe republic. all conform a masculine Evenin thereversal notionoftruth. albeit in different ways. the one remainsthemodelwhich.butmadeup oftwowhicharetruly of different. but of Now. many even in theprivilege theother of of overthesubject.theybothproposethatman remainthe singular modelofthe subject.Man. only a minimumof universality required. paradigm thetwolies in sexual The
. but nature also culture. theone and the same.LUCE IRIGARAY
he the wrong in his cures:likede Beauvoir. callymasculine. eachconcrete cannot decreean singularity ideal valid forall men and all women.we can'tlaughtoo soon. goodcopyofa perfect ofyourself Heretoo.an image. but moreorless openly.These that mimic.for mustfirst we the ponder still of current pertinence sucha conception theworld: arechildren of we of theflesh also oftheword.a very often calleddemocracy.we in to to likechildren. of controls hierarchy multiplicity: singular the the is uniqueand/but is ideal. imitate areall Platonic and to and waysofbeing doing. justendup witha stand-in the we theological for modelofthe one and the many. whichwomanmusttry to equal.this singular model would allow fora balancingact betweenthe one and the many.a twowhichis nota of and replication thesame.to theideal model. This ideal conforms thatoftraditional to philosowhichseeksa singular modelofsubjectivity. Concrete singularity onlya copyofthe ideal. to ensurecohabitation betweensubjects.in whicha of inflects meaning one rather thananother. order liveup to thismodel. theyouovertheI (I am for of worksbyBuberand a certain thinking. youareonlya relatively idea situated outsideofyourself. through quitedifferent strategies.and.In fact.The Platonicviewoftheworld. whichwe perceive be ideal. notionoftruth. musttherefore becomealike. mustmoveon to themodelofthetwo.noronelarge theother small.singular a but truth.incarnations conform.Often. of that more orless.theinverse day-to-day empirical reality: youbelievethatyouarea reality.
thesingular the etc. phyitself vanquished alongwithother things by in of theuse oftechniques that. without norms mediations. to escapefrom single figure of genealogical to power. easierand quickervictory womanno longer an if the maintains pole ofnaturestanding oppositeto masculinetechne. theconstruction thelogos. without sucha gesture nor we cannotspeakofwomen's liberation.for fear thatit might succumbonceagainto a lack ofdifferenthatit might onceagainbe subjugated thesingular tiation. otherfrom same. one god.butbyinventing myself an autonomous as and different subject. phipatriarchal. It involved making the otherstandout from same.refusing be reducedto theotherof the to thesame. as such. monosexualized. ofdemocracy. the two from many. by subject. from To accomplish thisgoal.thefeminine subjecthad to be freed a scandal:thesubject theworld man to makewayfor philosophical of is not one. calls intoquestionour entiretheoretical Clearlythisgesture and but practical tradition. or outlines edges. suspending authority theOne: ofman.and thatgenealogical authority belongsbothto man and to
. maintainthat "I was bornof man and of woman. sucha gesture. and neededtobe lacking mappedout.undermine manessubjectivity. and I to somecharacteristics of losophy culture. thusattempted define to characteristics whichwerenecessary affirm it thefeminine subject. particularly Platonism.notbybecoming him orbecoming likehim.totheother of (manorwoman) theone. its whilegranting respect their to differences.thisfeminine subject. theleader.thefather. in orderto nourishher and ensureher becoming[son After critical this to devenir]. thatcan bring of is the The existence twosubjects probably onlything and thisthanksto woman's themasculinesubjectback to his being. My first theoretical gesture thusto extricate twofrom was the the one. there? Why Becauseit is there thattwosubjectsexistwho shouldnotbe placedin a hierarchical and relationship. becausethese twosubjectssharethecommongoal ofpreserving humanspecies the and developing culture. justbarely defined. and to do so the the the the of horizontally. truth. ofan ethicalbehavior with nor to Without respect theother.noris it singular. the of dimension assisting becoming thefeminine of One important a and was subject. philosorisksitsowndemise. thusmyownbecoming. Nextand at thesame time. access to herownbeing. phasein myworkthatwas addressed a and phallocratic monosubjective.12
As I havewritten elsewhere.evenon a religious level. GillianC.These juridical wereviewedwithmarked proposals interest and a certain mistrust: on thepartofnonspecialist. the of
5. Several thesebooksexistin English of editions: language Speculum theOther of trans. is myopinionthat women'sliberation cannot progress without taking thisstep.ofcourse. to return thereality thetwo. (Translator's
. to withgenealogy. Genealogies.LUCE IRIGARAY
to feminine from woman. so on.ThisSexWhich Not One. trans.Butit'struethatit takestimeto locate to of and restore thistwo. to withrespect thebody to to with to (toage. In these works. de Pour 1993). Nous: Tbward Culture Difference. much as on thelevelofsocial recognition on thelevelofindividual as growth and communalrelationships. GillianC. requires subjective a becoming I is As far work concerned.showthatsocioeconomic as justicedoesnot a consistofmerely putting ruleintopractice-"equal workforequal and womenin terms pay"-but consistsalso ofrespecting valorizing ofchoicein theendsand meansofproduction. Notel Frangaise.and it cannotbe theworkofone womanonly. temps la difference. professional qualificain of and social recognition work. for is ples:I attempt showthatlife's to unfolding different womanthan it is forman. women. betweenwomenand betweenwomen and men.godbeingthephilosophion cal subject's I great accomplice. a of trans. and."It was thusimportant retrieve genealogies of in oblivion. Cornell University Is Press. respect Two examto to work.Sexes and (Ithaca:CornellUniversity trans.I also began to speak of the necessityof rights to it specific women. ofvirginity. Aside from return and reconcilation the with are feminine genealogies-which stilla longwayoff-woman. Tuz. images. world-a worlddifferent I discusstheparticularities thefeminine of from thatofman-with respect language. temps la difference. beauty.Catherine Porter Press. 1993). Gill(Ithaca: Woman.since it consistsforwomenofmuchmorepronounced and loss physicalstages(puberty. Gill (NewYork: Columbia University Press. 1985). maternity.1985). maternity). withrespect natureand theworldofculture.relationships theworkplace. Je. tions. interest nonfeminist womenwho understood importance what was at stake.5In thoseworks. unerevolution Le pacifique (Paris: Librairie Generale 1989)doesnotexistin English.to health. begantowork thisin Speculumand the in Ce sexe qui n'en estpas un andcontinued project notably Sexes etparentes. menopause) whichis far morecomplex thanman's.andle. whichsuitedthem neededa language. Le de and tu. nous. a kindofreversal cherished previous but by philosophical methods.and representations on a cultural level. torepress existence thefather not the pureandsimple. AlisonMartin (NewYork:Routledge.
Yetcivilrights individto for ual personsrepresent. in or in keeping mindthecontext ofmulticultural wheretraditional marriages. property. and for ians. subservient the State. wouldhaveto be completed civilcodesand constitutions Existing by and rights for defined to including rights women according women's in for spirit[genie].they between and the and of individuals theState. otherwords.beyondsexual specificity. by belongof ings-rightswhichmake up the majority masculinecivil codes. theydo but not payattention thefactthatwomenare forced make specific to to choicesin their relationships withmen. work sexuality. I can onlyhope thatwomenunderstand promote and what is at bothbecause theserights essentialto stakein individual are rights. because as feminine themand to affirm and protect to in are to subjects. of also leads me backto The unique character feminine spirit [genie] in thequestionoftheother thisfinalsectionofmyessay. lack ofspecialrights womendoes for not allow themto move from stateof natureto a civilizedstate: a the majority remainnature-bodies.
.theyare ready struggle to againstdiscrimination.theyagreethatequal rights for withmen mustbe obtained. myview. than in rights determined assets-possessions.and thatthe choicescannot remainindividual private mustbe guaranteed law: thefreeor but by domofchoicein reproduction. particularly women'sliberation. raising the of minors cases ofdivorce separation. wouldbe supported people'sindividual by rights.guarantee on a thatcitizenscan maintain tension a of opposethepower theStateas such. citizens (bothmen and women)as people. patterns. father husband. Women in favor egalitarianism not understand necessity special of do the of rights women.to the to to and without access to the statusofcivilChurch. they thelaw as requiring servitude theState.responsible themselves thecommunity. spousalrights differ beIn the tweencultures. they moreready takean interest rights having do and withtheindividual withrelationships between rather individuals. can evenensure evolution a statecontrolled whose democraticcharacter societyinto a civil society. and in camefrom Resistance womenoftwodifferent persuasions.14
interest onthepart feminists certain also of in countries whohavelong beenconcerned withthenecessary mediation thelaw in theliberaof tionofhumankind. theiridentity. whoaremoresensitive a culture politicsofdifference or Women to of the to also contest necessity civilrights for fear specific women. the contrary.
In thisrespect.including ability givebirth. theposition having in of relationships withtwo subjects. girls. I research into Rather. mother gives little theyou the boy whichthelittlegirlhas givenher. On thistopic. two [a"deux]. "Pick up some milk on yourway home from to school. as soonas sheis born.Interestingly.This would also explainhertastefordolls onto whichshe
6.andsheproposes of nothing thatthey as the mightdo together. bornofwoman. who addresses daughter usingwordslike these: "You'll have to put yourthingsawayif you want to watchTV". situateherself identity allows herto paymuchmoreattention the dimension to of in alterity the processof subjective becoming devenir [le subjectif].6
. will pass on to you resultsobtainedfrom and adolescent thewayin whichlittlegirls. In a way. Whydoes thelittlegirllike dialogueso much?Doubtlessbecause as a woman. littlegirlfinds the herself. to She addressesherself the other-in my researchsample." The mother without givesorders thedaughter respecting to theright bothsubjects speak. already he speakslikea littleleader:"I wanttoplaywiththe " the ball". nor to the corresponding imperative hate whichseemsto me to be its complementary principle. I certainly notbecomean accomplice thiskindofimperative to will of on the subjectof love. of Tradition thatwomanis theguardian loveandhas imposed dictates and the of on hertheduty loving. is nowwoman'sturn to and the specificity her of with respectto the other. I comb " the the your hair? In suchstatements. myJ'aime toi. littlegirlmight the her men and women. womenspeak.Moreover. see a
language. ofloving of despite misfortunes love. mother speaks with of differently a boy.including mother.to the an for will do mother-asking heragreement concerning activity they can together: "Mommy.she is morerespectful his identity: "Do you wantme to come to yourroomand kiss you goodnight?" forthe As littleboy. "Mommy. will you playwithme?". of she suggests an activity is whichinvolvesthe participation both the serveas a modelforall subjects. without explaining whyshe mustperform sucha task.LUCE IRIGARAY
Havingbecomean autonomous it subject. the to what tenceoftwosubjects. "I wanta toycar.and of of will propose an interpretation the characteristics feminine is the The language mostawareoftheother thatofthelittlegirl. withthequalitiesandcharacteristics a of to the woman. littlegirlalwaysrespects exiseach having right speak.
Men and womenthus occupydifferent subjectiveconfigurations and different worlds. prefer they beingwith. He." Male subjects instead respond: came "I withmymotorcycle".in thelearning a culture whichthesubjectis alwaysstill of in masculine-he. was in (Theresearch conducted a variety of and cultures. plural pronomial as as substantive within group. relationships a relationship withtheobject. when asked to givea sentenceusingthe preposition "with" or the adverb femaleadolescents students. "together. the onlythrough between relationships one and themany.herfirst. but transposition. The original of phrase suggests notion "being together person" and thatthenature "being"itself of involves Notel ITranslator's (existence) duality. concreteenvironment.True.16
Yale French Studies
projects nostalgia dialoguewhichwas notalwayssatisfied the a for by mother. Forall that. a thepronoun designates few onemaleoronemasculine or substantives-unless pronoun the an however of large. or"We'llalwayslivetogether." are Thisdifference between statements female malesubjects the of and is expressed one way or anotherthroughout majority rein the of sponsesto a seriesofquestionswhichseek to definethe sexualized of characteristics language. ils7]-whetherit is a linguistic category[genrelinguistique]in the strictsense or various metaphors which supposedly represent human identity and its becoming[son devenir].Thus.men. Romanceand Anglo-Saxon.prefer past tense. feminine partner diain logue. relations basedon difference.on the otherhand. females feminine designates Notel feminine exclusively category.
.Ii. (Translator's the withanother 8.contiguity. In theFrench masculine-evenif language.or"Me and myguitar goodtogether. neither young northeadolescent renounces the girl girl herrelationship withtheother: theyalmostalwaysprefer relationa shipwiththe otherovera relationship withthe object. abstract betweenlikes [semblables]. characteristics difference: of thereare other important womenprefer a the presentand future tenses.) languages mostly Besides the alternation betweena masculine choice of subjectchoice of subject-subject object relationsand a feminine relations." and and will respond withstatements such as: "I'll go out withhimtonight". Yet the littlegirlwill lose this.And it's not just a questionof sociohistorical or alienationofthefeminine whichcouldbe determination a certain it done awaywithbymaking equal to themasculine.beingtwo[l'etre the (a) deux8]. manyadultwomen. wrote "I thissentence withmypencil". they[ii.women's
is the form always 7.metaphor.
it also pointsto various other Woman aspectsofthefeminine knowstheother subject.but have we come to the pointthatwe recognize otheras the other that address and himorheraccordingly? really. that whichis something themasculine does subject not do.Herrelationship the of transcendence theother consequently. No including reproduction. himwithin gender [1autre better thanmandoes: shebegets her.tastefor a intersubjectivity. a sharing lives whichrespectsthe of other other as all absolutely.LUCE IRIGARAY
language does pointto various kindsofalienation passivity. herwishes. particular.is alwaysinscribed withthemystery ambivalence theorigin. she alwaysremains to exterior him.
I havetried showhowto movetoward construction thetranto a of
. is. of and or whether maternal to paternal. thesame timethereis a for that desire an I-yourelationship doesn'talwaysrecognize who just theyouis and whathis orherowndesires be. Woman's to relationship manis linked moreclosely shared to to flesh. sensations. an immanent lived experience [un vecu immanent]. might The feminine thusfavors relationship a subject withtheother gender['autregenre]. genre] him from she mothers her birth. of whichitwouldbe a shametoabandon favor men'smoreinaccessiin ble subject-object relations. extending beyond intuitions.she feedshim from own body.we as women.Butshe mustconstruct transcendence to this withinhorizontality in itself.I as to To woman. knowledge dialoguecould endup making other other the as intoa reductive gesture shedoesnotconstruct transcendence theother such. while the wordsofadolescentgirlsand womenshow a definite at leaningtoward relationships withothers.Her tastefor experiences. or whichshe mayhave ofhim. it and but also demonstrates inherent an richnesswhichleaves nothing be to in desired from men'slanguage. Not In we not fact. a sensual experience.as if the of as with to irreducibility respect her:through fusion.have a nostalgia dialogueand forrelationfor ships. yet. empathy. different thatexperifrom encedbyman. This preference a masculinesubjectas partner-in-dialogue for but demonstrates theone handcultural on alienation.she him to experiences insideofherin theactoflove.
mime. doubtshe experiences thealterity theother of through strange his behavior. be sure. resistance his to herdreams. contiguity. withme-be brought How thencanthefeminine subject-starting to cultivatea sharedexperience withthe otherwithoutalienation? The gesture thatmustbe made is the same gesture made in SpecI ulum: we mustbe careful treatthe otheras other.
imply. 9. two. (their) in in withtheother: language will intervene all relationships negative
of course (hence "j'aime a toi"). Through of into my subsuming thatexteriority myself. respects other.are. a resultofthisaspectoftheirsubof and the they jectivity.thesimilar. in is negative appliedyetagainto me. they liberation. from one. can expand horizons theone. as the that recognize other their moreover. for and imposea twowhichis not a second.and in particular As a relationship withthe other. Irigaray's Note] object. same.singular the subjectto theexismovement This historic and of seemsto me to tenceoftwosubjects equal worth equal dignity and the be rightly taskofwomen.without a giving up from naturalidentity a cultural Fromnow on. towardaffirming Moreover.but it is also a necessarystep appropriate the of theirautonomy.on botha philosophical a political as I havealready out. order move on to a higher mustengageselfand selfin a of soi-meme] becoming theself[devenir in not twosubjects.
a the here modification ofje t'aime(I loveyou)transforms "you"from 10. levelin the processofthe in to typically. relation. and moreethical in naturein relationto culture a truer rearticulate in ourspiritual becoming that thusrising abovetheessential flaw way.Women. deployment the thistaskallowsthemto move to whichis required complete negative to and civilone. order shouldinsteadengage dialecticaloperation.despointed level. the otherto the but becoming.Recognizing manis other singular ethical task forwomen.in an intersubjective between mustfirst all be appliedtotherelationship of This gesture is [es sincegender alterity realand enablesus to thegenders genres]. belong nature.the to a gender sincethey [genre].By struggling jet autre].18
in scendenceoftheother J'aimea toi and Esseredue (theItalianlanwhich of out I guageedition9). otherwise constitutes an that clearly subject.[Translator's direct objectintoan indirect
. they the will onlyclose thecirclethatsurrounds for they other. to of tinedto a relationship two[la relation'a deux]. in whenhe speaksoftheexileanddeathofAntigone Hegeldenounces of The Phenomenology Spirit.in mysubjective to to of thiscase it serves marktheirreducibility theother me andnot thisgesture. Of coursethe to reducethe two to the one.morethanman. Essere due (Turin: Bollati Boringhieri. even that in so doingaffirm theyarean other subject[suand ofthemany. the the It the subjectgivesup beingone and singular.'1 but also in perception througheyes
1994).pointed thattheoperation thenegative.
religion.age. the To succeedin thisrevolutionary movefrom affirmation selfas of that other therecognition manas other a gesture also allowsus to of is to promote recognition all forms others the of of without hierarchy. whichgivesup a sinun to gularor pluralbeing[1e'tre ou pluriel]in order become a dual for Thisis thenecessary foundation a newontology.LUCE IRIGARAY
a and ears. or it in privilege.I try define new to wayto approach other.and eventhrough touch. -Translated byNoah Guynn
. being[1'etre deux].and a new politics. or thus the a Replacing one bythetwoin sexualdifference constitutes and one decisivephilosophical politicalgesture.In Esseredue. orat bestmyequal. over culture.in whichthe otheris recognized as or other notas thesame:bigger smaller and thanI. the including through caress. authority them:whether be differences race. a new ethics.