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1. Based on the Klippel’s Heading: a. My own learning of English based on Klippel would be in the 1st heading which focuses on Language and culture. English is a foreign language (FL) when the first time I learnt it. Since the English is the third language I have to learn after Bahasa and Acehnese, the approach that it used is EFL (English Foreign Language) where the instruction is made for the people who never really used English. The type of language learning is explicit who are taught by the English teacher. The time frame in learning English is a long term period from primary level and upwards. And the material that is used is an authentic materials and language textbook. b. Teaching of math and science in English in Aceh particularly in East Aceh would be suitable on the 1st heading of Klippel. Student even still struggle with Indonesian language as they still used the Acehnese language in everyday life. The focus is on language and culture. English is never been used in the society and it is a “very” foreign language (FL) in this area. It uses EFL (English Foreign Language) model/approach. The language learning is using the explicit one and taught by the language teacher as a subject. The time frame is a long time period from lower secondary level and upwards. And it uses authentic material and language textbook.
4. The Positive sides of CLIL a. The learning situation As the education in East Aceh is not base on CLIL or any bilingual approach, I cannot really explain about the learning situation. This approach is not ready to implement in this area. Fortunately, in the capital city of Aceh, there are some schools who already implement this. By using CLIL as mentioned by Klippel (2010), student will be able to reduce the gap between language uses inside-for learning language- and outside-for preparing situation- the classroom. They also could construct language unconsciously since it is a contextualize input. And the most important thing is, it reduces the anxiety and hesitation of the learner because they will not worry about language form but more focus on the content. b. The yield Klippel (2010) argued that by implementing CLIL, student will know more about language and culture from experience a different and wider range of study skill and learning strategies. Hence, they will used the second language effectively to communicate. Furthermore, it will develop
CALP (cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) which will create a deeper understanding of language. (Jones, 1996)
c. The Learner In Aceh Condition, many students want to learn English as they and parents already understand the importance of English as it is a international language. And when the bilingual schools arise in town, many students are motivated to be able to studying there which used English as the medium of learning. With a good attitude and motivated student like that, they would perform better both in subject matter and language. d. Educational Framework First, there is a two aim will be reached –saving budget and programs- without spending more money, so it is very tempting solution for the government to achieve national education program which want to have a graduate student who able to perform well in subject matter and language, without actually learning language. Second, when the government wants the student to be proficient in English, it would have more space in curriculum and timetable. And this cannot simply happen by adding extra time to learn language. So, CLIL is the best solution. (Klippel, 2010) Actually, in Indonesia, the government already makes a policy to make an International Standard School (as we called SBI) with the newest and internationally standard curriculum. But this policy only happens in the city. Aceh has a different context to apply this approach and still have a lot of challenge to really implement it. Fortunately, in some part of Aceh, they already start to introduce the English as medium in learning math and science through bilingual school. And it is quite success in introducing this kind of school to face the globalization era.
5. The negative side of CLIL a. Learning Situation As already mentioned by Klippel (2010), with CLIL, student learn subject matter and also learn language in the same time. But the fact is we do not know in detail how this is happen. By using CLIL approach in science, e.g in natural science subject, it will not provide enough opportunity to experience emotive and argumentation languages. Another hindrance is when teacher is not proficient enough to teach in English. And that would make the teacher rely more on textbook and at the end might result the less interaction between teacher and student and even with the
peers themselves. This is not good for the learning situation (both to subject matter and language). In Aceh, it is almost impossible to implement this approach (CLIL). But for some school who declare the school to be International standard School, they have implemented this. But since both of teacher and student are not fluent in English, it affects the learning process. It becomes more passive because students are afraid that they will talk in wrong English. Thus the teacher usually will do a code switching (back to mother tongue). This code switching could be reformulation or translation the English. (Lim & Presmeg, 2010) b. The Yield CLIL in secondary school is appropriate to be implemented if only student already have basic interpersonal communication skill (BICS) and sufficiently develop their cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) (Jones, 1996). If this condition is not fulfilled, the result on their performance will be worse. This condition is the major problem in Aceh. Firstly, student will not understand any content as they do not understand the language. This will make their performance in school getting worse. Secondly, the learning situation in the classroom is far different from everyday communication. It just cannot be expected that if the student taught in English, they could master all the English communication. Lastly, CLIL might be increase English orally but does not encourage the writing skills and accuracy. (Klippel, 2010) c. The learner In Aceh, particularly in East Aceh, there is a condition where some student is not motivated at all. They cannot see why English is important to use as medium of learning. Thus, they getting lazier to study and finally they will drop out. Since they are not very good in English they do not confident to understand the subject matter and at the end they just do not really care about their studies. d. The educational Framework To implement CLIL seriously, especially in Aceh, government needs huge money to train the teacher, material development and all kind of Assessment. The first thing to do is to renew the policy especially in the curriculum. Government also need to find out what is the best age/level to start CLIL, as we know to use English as medium of learning in secondary is harder compare if we already start in the primary. Starting a foreign language in young student will be a lot easier. (Jones, 1996) Another threat of learning through English medium is that we still afraid that we will lose our own identity and culture for example like the traditional language.
In Indonesia, even though we start to implement CLIL, but the national examination still in Indonesian Language, thus the government needs to synchronize about this assessment to change it into English.
6. Conclusion. Overall, CLIL is a good way in developing both content and language at the same time. Learner is highly motivated through contextualize input in which finally could communicate effectively. Learner also could develop their metacognition through practice a deeper processing. Consequently, government has to provide a great amount of money for teacher training. Moreover, government also have to think which age and subject is should be taught in English in order to achieve a better outcome.
References Jones, G. M. (1996). Bilingual education and syllabus design: Towards a workable blueprint. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 17(2-4), 280-293 Klippel, F. (2003). New prospect or imminent danger?: The impact of English medium instruction education in Germany. Prospect, 18(1), 68-81. Retrieved September 28,2010, from Publisher site database. Lim, C. S., & Presmeg, N. (2010, 13th August). Teaching mathematics in two language: A teaching dilemma of Malaysian Chinese primary schools. International Journal of science and Mathematics Education, Online First. Retrieved September 28, 2010, from SpringerLink database.