Tourism Planning and Development 1

INTRODUCTION Businesses and public organizations are increasingly interested in the economic impacts of tourism at national, state, and local levels. One regularly hears claims that tourism supports X jobs in an area or that a festival or special event generated Y million dollars in sales or income in a community. ³Multiplier effects´ are often cited to capture secondary effects of tourism spending and show the wide range of sectors in a community that may benefit from tourism. Tourism¶s economic benefits are touted by the industry for a variety of reasons. Claims of tourism¶s economic significance give the industry greater respect among the business community, public officials, and the public in general. This often translates into decisions or public policies that are favourable to tourism. Tourism businesses depend extensively on each other as well as on other businesses, government and residents of the local community. Economic benefits and costs of tourism reach virtually everyone in the region in one way or another. Economic impact analysis provide tangible estimates of these economic interdependencies and a better understanding of the role and importance of tourism in a region¶s economy. Tourism activity also involves economic costs, including the direct costs incurred by tourism businesses, government costs for infrastructure to better serve tourists, as well as congestion and related costs borne by individuals in the community. Community decisions over tourism often involve debates between industry proponents touting tourism¶s economic impacts (benefits) and detractors emphasizing tourism¶s costs. Sound decisions rest on a balanced and objective assessment of both benefits and costs and an understanding of who benefits from tourism and who pays for it. Tourism¶s economic impacts are therefore an important consideration in state, regional and community planning and economic development. Economic impacts are also important factors in marketing and management decisions. Communities therefore need to understand the relative importance of tourism to their region, including tourism¶s contribution to economic activity in the area. A variety of methods, ranging from pure guesswork to complex mathematical models, are used to estimate tourism¶s economic impacts. Studies vary extensively in quality and accuracy, as well as which aspects of tourism are included. Technical reports often are filled with economic terms and methods that non-economists do not understand. On the other hand, media coverage of these studies tend to oversimplify and frequently misinterpret the results, leaving decision makers and the general public with a sometimes distorted and incomplete understanding of tourism¶s economic effects.

Simon T. (15108)

$650. and employment in a region resulting from tourism activity. buys goods and services from other businesses in the area. Tourists contribute to sales. translating a high proportion of sales into income and corresponding jobs. and income in an area. Simon T. tax revenues.000 in direct sales might yield $350.4 million in sales. The tourism industry. one could also estimate impacts of construction or government activity associated with tourism. amusements. restaurants. A more complete study might identify which sectors receive the direct and secondary effects and possibly identify differences in spending and impacts of distinct subgroups of tourists (market segments).4 million in total sales. The remaining $700. Through secondary effects.000 in income as wages and salaries to its employees. Instead of focusing on visitor spending. transportation. (15108) . The million dollars in spending would be distributed to lodging.000 in income within tourism industries and support 20 direct tourism jobs. This creates secondary economic effects in the region. The most direct effects occur within the primary tourism sectors --lodging. That¶s $10. tourism affects most sectors of the economy. These secondary sales create additional income and employment. amusement and retail trade sectors in proportion to how the visitor spends the $100. in turn. the numbers used here are fairly typical of what one might find in a tourism economic impact study. resulting in a total impact on the region of $1.000 in income and 35 jobs. While hypothetical. A simple tourism impact scenario illustrates.000 in new spending per day in the area. each spending $100 per day. One can also estimate the tax effects of this spending by applying local tax rates to the appropriate changes in sales or income. Through multiplier effects. income. Perhaps 30% of the million dollars would leak out of the region immediately to cover the costs of goods purchased by tourists that are not made in the local area (only the retail margins for such items should normally be included as direct sales effects).Tourism Planning and Development 2 Tourism has a variety of economic impacts. An economic impact analysis of tourism activity normally focuses on changes in sales. jobs. profits. and pays out most of the $350. the region would accumulate a million dollars in new sales. If sustained over a 100 day season. and retail trade. restaurant. The different types of economic effects have been discussed further. Tourism industries are labour and income intensive. Let¶s say a region attracts an additional 100 tourists. the $700.000 in direct sales produces $1.

supplying goods and services to tourist businesses. households ± earning income by working in tourism or supporting industries.  Induced effects are the changes in economic activity resulting from household spending of income earned directly or indirectly as a result of tourism spending. For example. taxes. Changes in sales. income. for example. regional economists distinguish direct. income. an increase in the number of tourists staying overnight in hotels would directly yield increased sales in the hotel sector. and government -. food. eventually linking hotels to varying degrees to many other economic sectors in the region. indirect. Indirect and Induced Effects A standard economic impact analysis traces flows of money from tourism spending.through various taxes and charges on tourists. industries supplying products and services to hotels).  Direct effects are production changes associated with the immediate effects of changes in tourism expenditures. and induced effects within a region. The additional hotel sales and associated changes in hotel payments for wages and salaries. transportation. Indirect and induced effects are sometimes collectively called secondary effects. first to businesses and government agencies where tourists spend their money and then to: y y y other businesses -.Tourism Planning and Development 3 Direct. and supplies and services are direct effects of the tourist spending. jobs. and the usual array of household product and service needs. businesses and households Formally. Any of these impacts may be measured as gross output or sales.  Indirect effects are the production changes resulting from various rounds of respending of the hotel industry's receipts in other backward-linked industries (i. spend their income in the local region for housing. The sales. hotel and linen supply employees. or value added. (15108) . and induced economic effects. supported directly or indirectly by tourism. employment. and jobs that result from Simon T.. Businesses supplying products and services to the linen supply industry represent another round of indirect effects. and income in the linen supply industry. indirect. The total economic impact of tourism is the sum of direct. For example. represent indirect effects of changes in hotel sales.e.

Total Economic Impact Total Economic Impact = direct + secondary effects = direct + (indirect + Induced effects) A change in tourist spending can affect virtually every sector of the economy by means of indirect and induced effects. Similar but reversed induced effects are observable when there is a significant increase in regional jobs and household income. Induced effects are easily visible when a large regional plant closes: supporting industries are hurt by the indirect effects. for example. The magnitude of these secondary effects is directly related to the propensity of local businesses and households to purchase from local suppliers. Government spending is also considered as final demand. Final demand is the term used by economists for sales to the final consumers of goods and services. The magnitude of secondary effects depends on the propensity of businesses and households in the region to purchase goods and services from local suppliers. but the entire local economy suffers due to the reduction in household income within the region. to operate and maintain a park or visitor centre. Retail stores close and leakages of money from the region increase as consumers go outside the region for more and more goods and services. but the entire local economy usually suffers due to the reduction in regional household income. or proprietor¶s income are induced effects. In almost all cases. the final consumers of tourism goods and services are households. (15108) . Simon T.Tourism Planning and Development 4 household spending of added wage. thereby increasing leakages as local consumers turn to outside suppliers. Retail stores may close. salary. Induced effects are particularly noticed when a large employer in a region closes a plant. changes in tourist spending can impact virtually every sector of the economy in one way or another. The same methods for estimating impacts of visitor spending can be applied to estimate the economic impacts of government spending. Not only are supporting industries (indirect effects) hurt. Similar effects in the opposite direction are observed when there is a significant increase in jobs and household income. By means of indirect and induced effects.

Despite downside risk facing global tourism last 4 years. (15108) . In the year 2009.2 billion as of 1998. It is also the second most important source of foreign currency earnings.5% in 1980. It is estimated that such trend may have a significant impact upon host communities in Turkish tourist regions. Over the years. Over the past two decades Turkey has experienced a remarkable growth in tourist numbers with overseas arrivals doubling between 1991 and 1998 and revenues reaching $7. ahead of automotive products.5% in 1970. chemical.6% of GDP in 2006 and reached 10.8% in 1990. additional source of income for households and governments. recession. 4. Turkey hosted 24.7 billion dollars. In parallel.2% in Simon T. in particular terrorism.Tourism Planning and Development 5 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TOURISM : A CASE OF TURKEY Today the importance of tourism as a major source of income is recognised by all countries in the world. often competing with Greece. Spain and Italy. rising oil prices. According to the World Tourism Organisation (WTO) 806. Iraq-USA conflict. The latest figures indicate that the tourism is the most dynamic and fastest growing sector in Turkey. countries engaged in fierce competition to increase their shares in the world tourism since the tourism industry generates substantial economic benefits to host countries. making tourism the world¶s number one export earner. it rapidly increased to 1. Especially for developing countries facing foreign exchange constraint. 2.45 million tourists and earned 20 billion dollars in total. petroleum and food. which in turn increases the availability of those imported inputs that have no domestic substitutes and are crucial for production. it is felt that the attitudes and perceptions of residents towards tourism development and impacts serve as crucially important inputs in identifying the strategic and managerial priorities of tourism. 842 billion people travelled around the world and spent approximately 715 billion dollars in 2006. Given the fact that tourism can flourish in an area only with the support of the area¶s residents. Tourism in Turkey has emerged as an enormous branch of industry with its approximately US$20 billion annual foreign exchange earnings and direct and indirect employment opportunities it provides for more than 3 million people.8 million people travelled to foreign country in 2005 spending more than 682. promoting tourism became a primary policy goal because tourism earnings contribute significantly to the economic performance of the host country by removing the balance of payments deficits. While the share of tourism receipts in GDP was only 0. Turkey has emerged as a popular tourist destination for many Europeans. Other tourism generated benefits involve increasing employment. Tourist arrivals and tourism receipts have been rapidly increased since 1970. Thailand and Maldives tsunami in 2004.

Simon T. Before 1980. While tourism income was US$ 326 million and the number of foreign tourists was 1.972 35.270 16. (15108) .000 in 1980 the figures increased to 23.tursab.876 25.488 5.8% with only about 60. Development of Turkish Tourism by years Years 1980-1983 1984-1987 1988-1991 1992-1995 1996-1999 2000-2003 2004-2007 2008* Incoming Tourists (*1000) 5.884 52.288 10. the share of tourism in total fixed investments was under 1% and its share in domestic product was 0.500. thus largely contributing to the economic growth with increasing investment in the sector.519 49.537 27.org.000 bed space.709 9.258 81.107 Tourist Income (Million US$) 1. In 1985.801 21.977 19.288.000 tourists with a tourism income of US$13.597 17.390 million. *From January to September.Tourism Planning and Development 6 2009.028 33. in line with the implemented program the sector was included among promoted sectors.457 Source: The Association of Turkish Travel Agencies www. In the case of Turkey the main transformation concerning the tourist sector started during the 1980s.

at least on the supply side. and municipal unions) willing and capable of cooperating with the central government. guides. The central government¶s reluctance to share its long-built authority and jealously guarded resources did not diminish immediately and the new players who were happy with their recently gained autonomy were not equipped to handle their independence. Foreign domination and resulting dependency do not seem to be a major problem in Turkey. The interaction between tourism and other sectors gave way to generally positive results. like most of the situations. However. besides providing the required infrastructure. socioeconomic and spatial polarization. additional income and making a contribution to local social capital (new skills.and small-scale establishments) has been undertaken by indigenous capital and entrepreneurs. there has been reluctance both on the part of foreign capital to invest in Turkey and on its own part to accept it. He names some specific issues such as foreign domination and dependency. they gradually gained increased functions. As they proved their capacity to take up more responsibilities. Most parameters of the framework developed by Brohman (1996) to study these problems in Third World countries seem to be appropriate for the Turkish case as well. enhanced organizational capabilities). but the process was not without its restrictions and costs. Set against a generally positive picture. during most of the Republican period. employment. local administrations.Tourism Planning and Development 7 STAGES OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN TURKEY Economic development and other systems in Turkey. with the passage of time. created new ``actors'' (local organizations. concerned mayors. This is probably due to the fact that the country has never been colonized and. (15108) . But this improvement did not mean suppression of regional imbalances. The tourism industry contributed to local development in a land that suffered from serious social and economic differences among regions. particularly in financial terms. there are a number of problems associated with tourism development in Turkey. Nevertheless. and the loss of social control and identity among host communities. because the vast majority of tourism investment (both for large. and in spite of specific efforts to get rid of regional Simon T. in line with the general trend to decentralize and to delegate. enjoyed both by the tourist and local resident. Through the eventual spread of tourism activity to relatively underdeveloped regions of Turkey (particularly central. supportive of a feasible tourism industry open to international competition only came gradually and in stages. southeastern Anatolia and the Black Sea Coast) a new drive was introduced with improvements in the local social and physical infrastructure. environmental destruction. Most professional tourism bodies still promote the continuation of active state involvement. cultural alienation. tourism activity in these regions. voluntary bodies. eastern.

success only meant increasing both the number of tourists and the revenue derived from this activity. (15108) . This required a balanced evaluation of both the possible benefits and costs of tourism. forests. Simon T. `outsiders'. this became a much-debated issue. Comparable to similar attitudes elsewhere. in the later stages. most of the complaints are centred around incompatibility of values as reflected by behaviour patterns of tourists. But this emphasis on mass tourism began to shift. rising prices and cost of living. and foreigners. and was instrumental in the formation of an adaptancy platform. to responsible tourism (Baratalõ 1992. increased crime. During the advocacy period in tourism. a pronounced spatial dichotomy has evolved in Turkish tourism between a ``privileged'' space along the coast and an ``underprivileged'' space in the interior of the country. when emphasis was on benefits of tourism. Turizm BakanlõgÏõ 1995. who exhibit different degrees of resentment. benefits could be maximized and shared in a relatively democratic manner. investing multinational enterprise representatives or foreign managers of local facilities (Poirier 1997a). or even hostility. through planned efforts. as Brohman suggests ``contact with the indigenous culture tends to be packaged rather than spontaneous. as Jafari calls it. and that spaces that were previously freely available [the coast. A number of studies conducted on the social aspects and consequences of tourism activity in Turkey (Iyidiker 1990. this problem did not catch attention. picnic and recreational areas are not now accessible''. advocating diversification of the Turkish tourism product by type and region.Tourism Planning and Development 8 imbalances. contrived rather than original (also in Turkey) resulting in a sense of alienation (in the host community) rooted in feelings of a loss of social control and cultural identity'' (1996:50). negative demonstration effect on local youth due to gambling. and sexual behaviour. bearing in mind that. costs could be minimized. scientific approach to tourism. During the advocacy stage. However. have a more favourable attitude. But during the subsequent cautionary stage when costs became apparent. Var. Põnar 1990. Furthermore. O È zdemir 1992. and a knowledge-based platform (Jafari 1992) started promoting a holistic. Usal 1990. drug addiction. compared with the ``losers''. In parts of Turkey there is additional resentment due to the belief that benefits of tourism add only to big capital. due care was required to adjust general planning principles to local socio cultural and economic conditions (Timothy 1999). Kendall and TarakcõogÏlu 1985) indicate that segments of the host community which seem to benefit from tourism. Sonat 1992). vandalism.

has increased from 1. arrivals increased by 1. improving touristic infrastructure and its tradition of hospitality.5%. enacted in 1982. welcoming more than 30 million tourists (26 million international and 4 million domestic). unique historical and archaeological sites. The tourism industry has been one of the most important drivers behind Turkey¶s economic development over recent decades by reducing unemployment.4% and 22.2% of total employment).2% in 1990 to 2.1% in 1990 to 2. Turkey enjoyed its best year ever. together forming approximately 36% of the total international arrivals. In 2009. likewise. The growth in Turkish tourism industry has been faster than that of the globe. resulting in an average receipt of US$708 per arrival. the Ukraine and Italy have shown the most rapid advances in visitor numbers to Turkey in the last three years with CAGR¶s of 24. These two cities account for approximately 60% of all arrivals.Tourism Planning and Development 9 General Overview Turkey has become one of the world¶s most popular tourism destinations thanks to its natural attractions. was the crossroad for many ancient civilisations. except for 2006. which made Turkey a very popular destination especially for Western Europe. In the city of Istanbul. Simon T. The country is surrounded by 3 different seas with long summers which make it a popular summer destination. respectively. despite the worsened conditions observed globally.3% in 2008.0%. the industry generated TL 95. 23. The share of tourism receipts in the global tourism GDP.6% and 18.7 million people (7. In terms of growth.2% of Turkey¶s GDP) with an employment of approximately 1.Tourist arrivals and tourism receipts grew by 13. (15108) . Since 2000. respectively. The tourism encouragement law (no: 2634). The share of Turkish tourist arrivals in the world has increased from 1. when the World Cup in Germany affected the normal travel patterns globally. raising national GDP and improving the country¶s balance of payments.7% in 2008. provided strong momentum for the industry¶s growth.22. Antalya and Istanbul are the most popular destinations. Georgia. International tourist arrivals and tourism receipts have been growing rapidly over recent decades. In 2008.5% but receipts decreased by 7%.3 billion of economic activity (approximately 10. two suspension bridges over the Bosphorus link Asia and Europe. called Asia Minor by the Romans.0%. the United Kingdom and the Russian Federation took the top three places in terms of number of visitors. resulting in an average receipt of $647 per arrival Germany.0%. Israel. The Asian part of the country. this growth has been continuing until present. combined with the travel sector. In the first three quarters of 2009. the Russian Federation.

However. together with the popular holiday destinations. Hotels account for 83% of the operational bed capacity. Currently. The CAGR in bed capacity between 1998 and 2008 has been 6. Five. Antalya.1%.2% between 2002 and 2008. at present. Mu la and Ayd n dominate the hotel market in Turkey. Apart hotels. there are many hotels under construction with an additional capacity of 258. Most of the international hotel chains have entered the Turkish market since the 1970¶s. which is likely to be renewable at expiry. on the other hand. The Mediterranean region has the largest bed capacity. Currently. there are 5 airline operators owning a total of 270 aircrafts. Ankara and zmir. Employment of Foreign Staff: Certified tourism establishments may employ qualified foreign personnel and experts with the approval of the Ministry of Tourism and the y Simon T. 31% and 19% of the operational bed capacity. various steps were taken aiming to liberalise the market.Tourism Planning and Development 10  Hotel Market Turkey¶s 3 big cities. the number of international passengers grew with a CAGR of 8.470 beds. Compared to the monopolistic situation in 2002 where Turkish Airlines owned 150 aircraft. the market was not yet open to competition. the capacity in the Aegean region is developing rapidly and is expected to grow by 67% with new investments.5%. In the same period. (15108) . are gaining popularity as the figures indicate that the capacity under construction a bigger than the currently operational capacity.287 beds. Until 2002. which resulted in a rapid increase in the number of domestic passengers. Istanbul is also very significant. The Best Western International has 15 hotels in Turkey.  Government Incentives There are various investment incentives offered within the Law of for the Encouragement of Tourism (Law no: 2634). four and three star hotels account for 38%. Many hotels and other touristic facilities in Turkey are on land owned by the Turkish Treasury. followed by holiday villages with 10%. hotels in Turkey have a capacity of 567. recording a CAGR of 25. being a monopoly for the national operator Turkish Airlines. stanbul. followed by the IHG Group with 8 hotels. nine of the world¶s top 10 hotel chains are operating in Turkey.  Aviation Market The aviation market in Turkey has demonstrated considerable growth in the last decade. In addition. After 2002. respectively. and are leased out for a 49 year period. Below is a summary of these incentives: y Land Allocation for Tourism Investment: Public land can be allocated to tourism facilities up to 49 years with relatively economic prices. based on 2008 figures.

(15108) . The employment of personnel aged fewer than 21 at certified tourism establishments and covered by Law no 2559 concerning the Duties and Powers of the Police shall be subject to the prior permission of the highest civil authority of the local area. Simon T. However the total number of foreign personnel employed may not be higher than 10% of the total number of employees. Istanbul 2010 is expected to bring many benefits and a significant income to the industry. The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one calendar year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development.Tourism Planning and Development 11 Ministry of Interior. This ratio may be increased up to 20% by the Ministry of Tourism. Such foreign staff may start working at the establishment 3 months prior to the commencement of commercial operations. y y  Sector Outlook Despite the start of the global economic downturn. Note: A draft law has been prepared in order to decrease rates of utility prices for the tourism establishments. The outlook also appears very strong and the industry is expected to support Turkey¶s future GDP growth by creating new jobs and improving the country¶s balance of payments. y Istanbul 2010 Istanbul is a European Capital of Culture 2010 along with Peç (Hungary) and Essen (Germany). Provisions of the Law concerning the Trades and Services to be performed in Turkey by Turkish Citizens are not applicable to such personnel. those earning foreign exchange in the amounts that are specified annually by the Ministry for this purpose are considered as exporters. Favourable Treatment as Exporters: Of the certified tourism establishments. Tourism Loan: The Tourism Bank Inc. the Turkish tourism industry managed to grow in 2008 and record its best ever year. of the Republic of Turkey may obtain foreign currency loans from foreign sources for allocation to certified investments in tourism areas and tourism centres. y Communication Facilities: All procedures and allocations in connection with requests of certified tourism investments and establishments for telephone and telex facilities are carried out on a priority basis.

Health & Thermal Tourism The following four regions of Turkey are suitable for health and thermal tourism: y y y y South Marmara: Bal kesir. Eski ehir. (15108) . Sea Tourism A single authority will be responsible for all entry procedures for foreign flagged yachts. Çanakkale. and with respect to tourism projects. a good deal of this potential is not yet utilised. mountain climbing. winter sports. the Ministry of Culture & Tourism has issued Turkey¶s 2023 Tourism Strategy with the intention of guiding the tourism industry in production management and implementation phases. conference and expo tourism. Nev ehir. However. Golf Tourism Suitable areas suitable for golfing shall be identified and new golf courses will be developed by the Turkish Golf Federation and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. etc. cruise ships and yachting. Manisa. Ankara. and zmir. golfing. Winter Tourism Winter tourism facilities will better function with better access by means of roads or lifts. South Aegean region: Ayd n. those investors who are considering investing in the sector will be supported by the government in terms of planning. Turkey has several unique opportunities for different types of tourism such as health and thermal resources. Ski runs will be brought in line with internationally accepted standards. and Yozgat. The characteristics and shapes of such incentives will be determined on an annual basis. Winter sports competitions and events will be supported. In order to establish a framework for utilising these alternatives. and Kütahya. New accommodation facilities are planned for additional capacity. K r ehir. Ni de. Fairs will be funded and the development of yacht Simon T. Denizli. land allocation. by creating a roadmap for the sector. Central Anatolia: Aksaray. All income generated from the operation of yacht tourism will be invested back into infrastructure development for the sector. In addition to coastal tourism. Phrygian region: Afyon. With this framework.Tourism Planning and Development 12 y Tourism Strategy for Turkey ± 2023 Coastal tourism is currently the most popular type of tourism in Turkey. and Yalova. U ak.

Johansen¶s cointegration technique has been applied. the parameters which were tested using Wald test. Congress and Expo Tourism The Ministry of Culture and Tourism will organise meetings to shape the required framework for congress and expo tourism for seven priority cities: Istanbul. The main issue is the impact of tourist arrivals on GDP in Turkey during the period 1990Q1±2008Q3. especially after the 1980s. Employing Granger causality. Ankara. in his report. (15108) . focussed on investigating the contribution of the rapidly developing tourism sector. Steps will be implemented to organise the training of workers for the yacht tourism sector. Legislation will be rearranged so that sail-powered yachts will pay less tax than engine powered yachts. Moreover. There is a unidirectional causality between variables. Moreover. from tourist arrivals to economic growth. Antalya. the parameters which were tested using Wald test were discovered to be significant by 1%. the information on cointegration in variables is taken into consideration in specifying the correct model. cointegration and causality tests to ascertain the direction of causality between the growth of GDP. The data pertaining to 1990Q1 and 2008Q3 periods were used in the study and the relationship between the expansion in tourism and economic growth was investigated using Granger Causality Test Based on VECM and it was discovered that a unidirectional causality from tourism development to economic development exists between the two variables. Ecotourism and Plateau Tourism Locals will be trained and local museums and peripheral requirements will be supported.Tourism Planning and Development 13 clubs will be encouraged. Moreover. zmir. Simon T. Technical standards will be developed for the processing of bilge water and solid waste disposal. we found a unidirectional positive causal relation from tourist arrivals to GDP. to the economic growth. This study had investigated a series of unit root. Using quarterly data over the 1990Q1 ± 2008Q3 period and since the variables in this article are non stationary and present a unit root. This methodology has allowed for obtaining of a cointegrating relationship among these variables. The main conclusion of this study was that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and tourist arrivals (TOAR). Bursa. Mahmut Zortuk. Konya and Mersin. tourist arrivals and exchange rate in Turkey.

The tourism industry in Turkey has contributed to 10. respectively.000 tourists with a tourism income of US$13. Turkey enjoyed its best year ever. facilities.7 million people which is 7. it can be established that the tourism receipts can be regarded as a stable source of foreign currency in Turkey and the payoff of economic policies directed to develop tourism will be higher in the long-run. or destinations.Tourism Planning and Development 14 CONCLUSION Economic impact analysis is a broad category of analytic methods including some of the most common tools for travel and tourism planning. events. indicate that the threshold level in tourism has been exceeded and the tourism industry contributes substantially to the economic performance in Turkey.390 million. economic impact analysis seeks to estimate changes in regional spending. While tourism income was US$ 326 million and the number of foreign tourists was 1. output. and/or employment associated with tourist policy.Tourist arrivals and tourism receipts grew by 13. In 2008. economic impact analysis tracks and aggregates monetary payments as they move through a regional economy² measuring the transfer of payments from one group or sector to others.5%. In its most common travel and tourism applications.2% of the GDP in 2009 and given jobs to 1.288. income. (15108) .000 in 1980 the figures increased to 23. resulting in an average receipt of US$708 per arrival. welcoming more than 30 million tourists (26 million international and 4 million domestic). As mentioned above the appropriate data for all the pre requisites of an economic impact analysis have been mentioned.6% and 18. by Mahmut Zortuk. In simple terms. The findings of the study used in this report.2% of total employment. In this sense.500. Simon T.

Economic impacts of tourism Stynes D. Kaplan M. 4. International Journal of Finance and Economics. Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry. y y y y y Simon T. (15108) . The International Journal of Applied Economics and Finance. Erdal F. J (1997) Economic Impacts o Tourism. Illinois Bereau of Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research.com/locate/atoures Turkish tourism industry report (2010) invest. A Handbook for Tourism Professionals. No. Prof. www. Stynes. Tourism Research Laboratory. Tatoglu E (2002) Resident Perceptions of the Impact of Tourism. Zortuk M (2009) Economic Impact of Tourism on Turkey¶s Economy: Evidence from Cointegration Tests. Department of Economics. Prof.gov.elsevier.Tourism Planning and Development 15 BIBLIOGRAPHY y y Daniel J. Celik T (2008) The Impact of Tourism on Economic Performance: The Case of Turkey. Beykent University. Vol 27.tr. Goymen K (2000) Tourism and Governance in Turkey. Department of Management.