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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020

10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Vision
To drive innovative research for tomorrow’s development

Mission
To meet colleagues, experts and friends in the field and to exchange ideas and
those about research development work, concepts and practical ideas in
structural, construction and management

All right reserved.


No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy,
and recording or otherwise, without prior permission of all the conference
chairs.
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Preface

It is with great pleasure that we present the proceedings of the 11th International Conference
on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020. This is the eleventh conference
consecutively organized following a series of International Conferences since 2010, keeping
its tradition of adhering to engineering excellence.

Taking a step forward from the last ten events, the coverage of specialty areas of this
conference has been diversified. This book contains the manuscripts of research work from
many different sub specialties. We expect that all these manuscripts will be presented in
parallel sessions from 10th to 12th December 2020.

We would like to express our appreciation to all keynotes lecturers for their invaluable
contribution for the development of a sustainable world. We are very much grateful to the
authors for contributing research papers of high quality. The research papers of these
manuscripts in this proceeding book have been reviewed by well expertise. The enormous
work carried out by the reviews is gratefully appreciated. We are also pleased to
acknowledge the advice and assistance provided by the members of the international advisory
committee and members of the editorial committee along with many others who volunteered
to assist to make this very significant event a success. Furthermore, we acknowledge the
financial sponsorship provided by many organizations that has been extremely supportive
towards the success of this international conference.

It is the earned wish of the editors that this proceeding book would be used by the research
community and practicing engineers who are directly or indirectly involved in studies related
to Sustainable building.

Editorial Committee

The 11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020


10th December 2020.
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Message from the Chief Guest

Honorable Prime Minister of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri


Lanka

Message for the 11th International Conference on Sustainable Built


Environment (ICSBE) 2020

I am pleased to send this message on the occasion of the 11th International Conference on Sustainable
Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020.

Introducing and maintaining a sustainable environmental policy is one of the key priority areas of the
Government in realizing the vision for a greener and more sustainable Sri Lanka.

The objective of the conference to bring together experts and professionals in the field of sustainable built
environment to aid in creating policies related to atmosphere, biodiversity, marine resources, cities and
settlements is indeed a commendable one. It is the duty of professionals and academics in this field,
especially in these trying times, to disseminating their knowledge and keep abreast with changing trends from
which Sri Lanka can also benefit. The focus on environmental education among the general public is also of
vital importance.

I take this opportunity to congratulate the organizing committee of the conference on pioneering a successful
series of interactional conferences and for organizing it for ten consecutive years. On this 11th conference too,
I am certain that the platform will be provided for both local and international participants to share their
experiences and exchange new knowledge on recent green innovations and developments in the field of
sustainable built environment. I am confident that the participants of this conference would have a fruitful
experience.

I wish the 11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment 2020 the very best.

Mahinda Rajapaksa
Prime Minister of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Message from the Vice Chancellor

University of Peradeniya
I am pleased and privileged to forward this message on the occasion of the 11th International
Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020 to be held on 10th December
2020. I am sure that this conference will create a platform for local and international
participants to share their experiences and exchange new knowledge and the recent
developments in the field of structural engineering and sustainable development.

Pursuing advanced research in this field of study is very essential to create new knowledge as
of environmental friendly, massive and complex structural constructions have become the
choice of the day due to limitations in the availability of space. Further, it is the duty and the
responsibility of the professional associations to enrich their young membership with new
knowledge and necessary skills to face the future challenges and find out human friendly
answers for them.

I understand that the ICSBE – 2020 is a joint venture of a number of professionals,


institutions and specially four Universities namely, University of Peradeniya, University of
Moratuwa, University of Ruhuna and the Open University of Sri Lanka. While congratulating
the Organizing Committee of the ICSBE 2020, I convey my very best wishes for the ICSBE
conference 2020 to be a grand success.
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Message from Conference Co-Chairs


It is a Pleasure for us to welcome all the participants to the 11th International Conference on
Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020. We, the co-chairs would gratefully like to
mention the previous successful conference, which were held for ten consecutive years in
Kandy, Sri Lanka. The theme selected for the conference- Sustainable Built environment- is
extremely relevant for today’s world. With the vision of promoting innovative and
sustainable research for tomorrow’s development, we organize this conference as a meeting
place of talents, knowledge and dedication. Therefore, we trust that the conference will
produce great ideas from a variety of research and exchange the knowledge of experts,
colleagues and friends who are working for the world’s sustainable development.

The conference focuses on the different sub topics in Sustainable built environment: such as
Sustainable construction, Sustainable infrastructure development & planning, Urban green
infrastructure & planning, Sustainable Cites and villages, Waste & waste water management
for enhanced sustainability, Advance water & waste water technology, Rainwater harvesting,
Water conservation, Solar Energy, Bio-energy, Wind and Hydro-power Energy, Alternative
Clean Energy, Green Advanced Computations & Communication, Green Energy Economics,
Policy, Financing & Business Practice, Sustainable Materials, Material flows & Industrial
ecology, High performance concrete, AAC brick, Remove, Recycle, Repair of materials,
Building automation, Indoor environmental quality, Indoor Plants, Impacts of Climate
Change, Climate Change & Reducing Greenhouse Emissions, Carbon Footprint, Impacts of
Sustainable Bio-Fuel, Social Impact & Human Behavior, Climate Risk Management &
Mitigation, Global Climate Model and Landscaping. The proceedings of the conference are
reviewed. The full papers are published in volumes in paper format with a book of abstracts.

We, the conference co-chairs express our sincere thanks to our guests, keynote speakers,
authors, members of the international advisory committee, members of the editorial
committee financial sponsors and many others who others who volunteered to assist to make
this very significant event a success.

Prof. Ranjith Dissanaykae


Prof. S.M.A. Nanayakkara
Prof. Priyan Mendis
Dr. Y.G.S. De Silva
Eng. Shiromal Fernando
Prof. Kolitha Weerasekara
Co-chairs

The 11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020


11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Contents
SUSTAINABLE TALL BUILDING ....................................................................................................... 1
REVIEW ON DEVELOPMENT OF MODULAR ROOF PANELS ................................................................. 2
MEP COORDINATION CHALLENGES IN HIGH-RISE MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENTS ............................... 3
THE BEAVIOR OF FULLY ENCASED COMPOSITE COLUMN SUBJECTED AXIAL LOAD ........................... 4
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF STEEL PLATE COMPOSITE BEAMS FOR SHEAR ......................................... 5
DETERMINING THE DUCTILITY CAPACITIES OF VERTICAL ELEMENTS IN A TALL BUILDING................ 6
REHABILITATION OF HISTORICAL BUILDING- A CASE STUDY .............................................................. 7
WIND DESIGN OF SLENDER TALL BUILDINGS IN SRI LANKAN CONTEXT ............................................. 8
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FOR SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT ........................................... 9
ROLE OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN REBUILDING COMMUNITIES AND ENHANCING THE SOCIAL
COHESION BETWEEN THE DISPLACED AND HOST ............................................................................ 10
THE ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN TROPICAL AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS RESILIENCE; A GLOBAL
PERSPECTIVE ..................................................................................................................................... 11
IMPROVING CLIMATE CHANGE EDUCATION IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS OF
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN ASIA -A CAPACITY BUILDING FRAMEWORK FOR MOOC CURRICULAR
DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE BECK PROJECT ..................................................................................... 12
INCORPARATION OF DISASATER RISK REDUCTION AND DISASATER RESILIENT MECHANISMS INTO
THE BUILDING TOOL OF GREENSL RATING SYSTEM FOR BUILT ENVIRONMENT ............................... 13
INVESTIGATING THE VARIABLES THAT INFLUENCE THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA FOR DISASTER RISK
COMMUNICATION IN SRI LANKA ...................................................................................................... 14
AN INVESTIGATION ON DIFFERENT FACTORS AFFECTING ON THE USAGE OF WHATSAPP AS A RISK
COMMUNICATION TOOL IN A CRISIS ................................................................................................ 15
DEVELOPMENT OF A FRAMEWORK TO EXAMINE THE TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE
RESILIENCE; SRI LANKAN CONTEXT ................................................................................................... 16
DISCHARGE DATA ASSIMILATION TO IMPROVE FLOOD PREDICTION SKILLS IN SRI LANKA ............. 17
DEVELOPMENT OF FLOOD HAZARD MAP FOR ASSESSING SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACT: A CASE
STUDY IN KALUTARA, SRI LANKA ...................................................................................................... 18
POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT SUCCESS: DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURALLY SENSITIVE
STRATEGIES ....................................................................................................................................... 19
TSUNAMI RISK REDUCTION THROUGH SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING
STRATEGIES: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT .............................................................. 20
INVESTIGATING THE PREPAREDNESS OF STAFF MEMBERS IN PRIVATELY OWNED HOSPITALS IN SRI
LANKA AGAINST FIRE HAZARDS ........................................................................................................ 21
TOO TIGHT OR TOO LOOSE? STRINGENCY OF MOBILITY RESTRICTION POLICY RESPONSE BY THE
GOVERNMENT OF SRI LANKA AGAINST COVID-19 ............................................................................ 22
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka
COVID-19 RISK GOVERNANCE: LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE UK, BASED ON A
SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................... 23
REDESIGNING AND REPURPOSING HEALTHCARE FACILITIES FOR THE NEW NORMAL, COVID-19: A
REVIEW ON NEW APPROACHES IN HOSPITAL SYSTEMS ................................................................... 24
MODELLING AND SIMULATION PRACTICES OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES: A REVIEW ................ 25
WATER AND ENVIRONMENT ENGINEERING ................................................................................ 26
CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING WATER RETAINING STRUCTURES ...................................... 27
COMPARISON OF ACID HYDROLYZED CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta) STARCH ON Cr+3 ADSORPTION
IN WASTE WATER.............................................................................................................................. 28
A COMPARISON STUDY OF REMOVING RHODAMINE B FROM WASTEWATER BY NITRIC ACID
FUNCTIONALIZED RICE HUSK, COCONUT HUSK ANDSYNTHETIC POROUS CARBON ........................ 29
CLARIFICATION EFFICIENCY OF PLATE SETTLERS ANALYZED BY CFD MODELLING ........................... 30
SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITES FROM RICE HUSK ASH FOR REMOVAL OF DYES IN WASTEWATER ........... 31
WATER POLLUTION AND CKDU................................................................................................... 32
MODEL FITTING APPROACH FOR BAMBOO WOOD BASED ACTIVATED CARBON FOR MANGANESE
(II) REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SYSTEMS ......................................................................................... 33
INVESTIGATION OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN WET SEASON IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCE
OF SRI LANKA .................................................................................................................................... 34
REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE IN WATER AND WASTEWATER USING ELECTRODIALYSIS/
ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSE PROCESS: A REVIEW ............................................................................. 35
STUDY OF COAGULANT DOSAGE VARIATION ACCORDING TO THE DESIGN G VALUE OF
COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION PROCESSES IN A WATER TREATMENT PLANT........................ 36
EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE IN EXISTING RO DRINKING WATER STATIONS IN NORTH CENTRAL
PROVINCE, SRI LANKA ....................................................................................................................... 37
EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON CKDU USING ZEBRAFISH MODEL ............................... 39
WASO ........................................................................................................................................ 40
DEVELOPING A LANDSAT MODEL TO ARGUMENT INSITU MONITORING OF FRESH WATER LAKES IN
UGANDA .................................................................................................................................... 41
ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF LAND USE AND CLIMATE CHANGES ON HYDROPOWER
RELIABILITY: A CASE STUDY OF MUZIZI, UGANDA ............................................................................ 42
INVESTIGATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MULTI-STACKED FLOATING WETLANDS FOR LEACHATE
TREATMENT IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................. 43
ACCESS TO WATER IN RHINO REFUGEE SETTLEMENT CAMP IN ARUA DISTRICT, UGANDA. ........... 44
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADSORBENT MATERIAL FOR REMOVING NATURAL ORGANIC MATERIALS
FROM WATER.................................................................................................................................... 45
VARIATION OF COPPER ADSORPTION WITH INITIAL PH AND PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE BY SAW
DUST AND PADDY HUSK BIOCHAR MADE IN AN INDUSTRIAL TYPE PYROLIZER ............................... 46
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka
DEVELOPMENT OF A COMBINED ELECTROCOAGULATION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL
OXIDATION REACTOR FOR TREATING SERVICE STATION EFFLUENT ................................................ 47
ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE/LAND COVER (LULC) CHANGES AND URBAN GROWTH DYNAMICS
USING REMOTE SENSING IN DHAKA CITY, BANGLADESH ................................................................. 48
RICE STRAW AS AN EXTERNAL CARBON SOURCE IN HORIZONTAL SUBSURFACE FLOW
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR LANDFILL LEACHATE TREATMENT................................................. 49
MBBR FOR TREATING COMBINED DAIRY WASTEWATER AND LANDFILL LEACHATE ....................... 50
MODIFIED SAWDUST IN ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM TEXTILE EFFLUENT..................... 51
APPLICATION OF GIS AND PIPE NETWORK MODELLING FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ........ 52
THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELLNG OF FLOW IN A STIRRED TANK WITH PITCHED BLADE IMPELLER53
PERFORMANCE OF VERTICAL SUB-SURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR GREYWATER
TREATMENT: IMPACT OF GREENHOUSE TECHNOLOGY ................................................................... 54
REVIEW ON DEVELOPMENT OF MODULAR ROOF PANELS ............................................................... 55
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF FLOW IN A VERTICAL SLOT FISHWAY .................................. 56
TWO – DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF FLOW IN RANTAMBE RESERVOIR FOR SEDIMENT
MANAGEMENT.................................................................................................................................. 57
ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY USING WATER QUALITY INDEX (WQI) AND GIS IN
DHAKA CITY ....................................................................................................................................... 58
REMOVAL OF MERCURY IN WASTEWATER USING BACTERIA ORIGINATED FROM WASTEWATER OF
AN AUTOMOBILE SERVICE STATION ................................................................................................. 59
IDENTIFICATION OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL ZONES OF DHAKA CITY USING GIS ..................... 60
TREATMENT OF RICE MILL WASTEWATER USING MICROALGAE. .................................................... 61
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADSORBENT MATERIAL TO REMOVE FLUORIDE FROM WATER .................. 62
APPLICABILITY OF CHIRPS RAINFALL DATA FOR DATA SCARCE AREAS IN SRI LANKA ...................... 63
A MODEL FOR MANAGEMENT OF SIVALAKULAMA TANK CASCADE SYSTEM .................................. 64
SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING ................................................................................................ 65
MANAGING HOTEL INDUSTRY WASTE THROUGH CIRCULAR ECONOMY CONCEPT......................... 66
EFFECT OF COIR FIBERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER ABSORPTION OF CASSAVA
STARCH COMPOSITE ......................................................................................................................... 67
EFFECT OF NANO-MG(OH)2 ON THE MECHANICAL AND FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES OF NANO
MG(OH)2-RIBBED SMOKED SHEET RUBBER COMPOSITE ................................................................. 68
UTILIZATION OF COAL FLY ASH AND BOTTOM ASH AS RAW MATERIALS IN SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITES
.......................................................................................................................................................... 69
CENTRAL LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS SYSTEM (CLPGS) HUB FOR FREE TRADE ZONES IN SRI
LANKA: A SAFE AND ECONOMIC APPROACH .................................................................................... 70
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka
USE OF DELTA-D TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT AIR POLLUTION DUE TO PADDY STRAW
BURNING AND TO PRODUCE PADDY STRAW POWDER - A LOW COST, RENEWABLE, CARBON
NEUTRAL, ALTERNATIVE FUEL, TO REPLACE COAL IN THERMAL AND ELECTRIC POWER
GENERATION ..................................................................................................................................... 71
SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS ................................................................................. 72
PROPOSING A METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY THE OPTIMUM MIX DESIGN OF AUTOCLAVED AERATED
CONCRETE BLOCKS IN THE CONTEXT OF SRI LANKA .......................................................................... 73
APPLICATION OF BLENDED CEMENT MIX PET FIBER HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE FOR STRUCTURAL
ELEMENTS ......................................................................................................................................... 74
EFFECTS OF CARBON BLACK AND GRAPHENE OXIDE ADDITIONS ON PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY
PORTLAND CEMENT COMPOSITE ..................................................................................................... 75
STABILIZATION OF FINE-GRAINED SOIL USING FLY ASH AND LIME TO USE AS A SUBGRADE AND
EMBAKMENT SOIL MATERIAL IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION IN SRI LANKA ........................................... 76
THE POSSIBILITY OF USING SOIL CONCRETE FOR MODERN ECO-FRIENDLY HOUSING .................... 77
A REVIEW ON THE APPLICATION OF RECYCLED AGGREGATES IN THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH-
STRENGTH CONCRETE ....................................................................................................................... 78
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WASTE TYRE RUBBER
ADDED CONCRETE MEMBERS ........................................................................................................... 79
RESEARCH GAP ANALYSIS OF CFRP/CONCRETE COMPOSITES UNDER PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO
ALKALINE ENVIRONMENT ................................................................................................................. 80
INVESTIGATION ON MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE REPAIR
GROUTS ............................................................................................................................................. 81
ASSESSMENT OF WOOD PROPERTIES IN LESSER-KNOWN SHOREA SPP. IN SRI LANKA ................... 82
USE OF EPS BASED LIGHT-WEIGHT CONCRETE PANELS AS A ROOF INSULATION MATERIAL FOR
NERD SLAB SYSTEM........................................................................................................................... 83
DEVELOPMENT OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE BY USING BOTTOM ASH AS SUPPLEMENTARY
CEMENTIOUS MATERIAL ................................................................................................................... 84
TENSILE CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE BASED NATURAL FIBRE COMPOSITES FROM RICE HUSK AND
LOW DENSITY POLYTHENE WASTE ................................................................................................... 85
MODIFICATION OF A BOTTOM ASH BASED INSULATION MATERIAL USING SAW DUST, EPS AND
AGGREGATE CHIPS ............................................................................................................................ 86
MODIFICATION OF ENGINEERED CEMENTITIOUS COMPOSITE MORTAR TO USE AS AN ADHESIVE
FOR CFRP/CONCRETE BOND ............................................................................................................. 87
A MINI REVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF NANOMATERIALS IN CEMENT COMPOSITES .......................... 88
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON WASTE TYRE STEEL FIBRE CONCRETE.................................................... 89
URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL WELLBEING .................................................................... 90
DEVELOPING A HOME-GROWN SUSTAINABLE CITIES ASSESSMENT TOOL COMPLYING TO SRI
LANKAN CONTEXT ............................................................................................................................. 91
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka
A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING THE CAUSES OF INTUITIVE FEAR
IN URBAN GREEN SPACES ................................................................................................................. 92
A MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF HOUSING PATTERNS IN THE URBAN LANDSCAPE: A STUDY IN
KANDY GRID CITY AREA..................................................................................................................... 93
A CASE STUDY ON TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF THE PAVEMENT THERMAL PERFORMANCE BASED
ON SURFACE TEXTURE FOR URBAN AREAS IN SRI LANKA ................................................................ 94
ASSESSING VISUAL IMPACTS OF STREETSCAPE INSTALLATIONS ON URBAN SAFETY AND COMFORT:
CASE OF GALLE ROAD IN COLOMBO, SRI LANKA .............................................................................. 95
STAKEHOLDER PERCEPTION REGARDING GREEN URBAN PLANNING IN KANDY ............................. 96
CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES OF URBAN PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF KANDY CITY, SRI
LANKA................................................................................................................................................ 97
DETERMINANTS OF THE LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION OF FARMERS IN MEDIUM SCALE IRRIGATION
MANAGEMENT IN TRINCOMALEE DISTRICT ..................................................................................... 98
GREEN APPROACH FOR URBAN MAINTENANCE: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL ...................................... 99
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HOUSEHOLD LEVEL: A STUDY
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KANDY MUNICIPAL COUNCIL IN THE CENTRAL PROVINCE OF SRI
LANKA.............................................................................................................................................. 100
WASTE IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY ....................................................................................... 101
CHARACTERIZATION OF WATER RETENTION AND UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR
RECYCLED ROAD-BASE MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
FOR FINE RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DIMOLITION SITES AND CDW LANDFILLS IN HANOI, VIETNAM
........................................................................................................................................................ 102
DEMOLISHED CEMENT BLOCK AS RECYCLED FINE AGGREGATES IN MORTAR SYSTEMS ............... 104
ASSESSMENT OF HYDROPHOBICITY/OLEOPHILICITY AND HYDROPHILICITY/OLEOPHOBICITY FOR
AUTOCLAVE AERATED CONCRETE GRAINS COATED WITH STEARIC AND OLEIC ACIDS ................. 105
A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW TOWARDS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CRCULAR ECONOMY IN THE
CONTEXT OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE .............................................................. 106
BIM-BASED CONSTRUCTION WASTE MINIMISATION FRAMEWORK FOR THE DESIGN STAGE OF A
CONSTRUCTION PROJECT: THE CASE OF SRI LANKA ....................................................................... 107
GEO-TECHNICAL AND TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING............................................................ 108
COLLAPSIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESIDUAL SOIL IN MATALE DISTRICT, SRI LANKA ........... 109
ASSESSMENT OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL OF COLOMBO PORT CITY PROJECT ......................... 110
A LABORATORY INVESTIGATION ON THE ADVANCEMENT OF RAILWAY BALLAST BEHAVIOR USING
ARTIFICIAL INCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................. 111
INVESTIGATION OF COLLOIDAL TRANSPORT IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA: EXPERIMENTAL AND
NUMERICAL STUDY ......................................................................................................................... 112
NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE EFFECT OF FINE MATERIALS ON SHEAR BEHAVIOR OF FOULED
RAILWAY BALLAST ........................................................................................................................... 113
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka
ASSESSMENT OF SHEAR STRENGTH PARAMETERS OF MARINE DREDGE SAND............................. 114
UTILIZATION OF BOTTOM ASH FOR CLAY MINE REHABILITATION ................................................. 115
SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF WEATHERED METAMORPHIC ROCK-MASSES IN SRI LANKA ......... 116
IMPROVEMENT OF AN ADT ESTIMATION MODEL DEVELOPED FOR A-CLASS ROADS IN SRI LANKA
BY INCORPORATING NATIONAL EXPRESSWAYS AND IMPORTANT B-CLASS LINKS ........................ 117
INFLUENCE OF SWELLING OF CLAY LINER MATERIALS ON HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY ................ 118
OPTIMIZATION OF JUNCTION PERFORMANCE AT PERADENIYA COMPOUND JUNCTION: AN
APPLICATION OF VISSIM ................................................................................................................. 119
A REVIEW ON EXPERIMENTALLY AND THEORETICALLY DETERMINED INFILTRATION ................... 120
HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BALLAST SUBJECTED TO PARTICLE DEGRADATION AND MUD
PUMPING ........................................................................................................................................ 121
THE EFFECT OF FOULING MATERIALS ON PERMEABILITY BEHAVIOUR OF LARGE SIZE GRANULAR
MATERIALS ...................................................................................................................................... 122
POTENTIAL OF WASTE RICE HUSK ASH TO REDUCE PROPAGATION OF GROUND VIBRATION FROM
IMPACT PILING: CHARACTERISTICS OF IN-FILLED TRENCHES ......................................................... 123
CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................... 124
EVALUATION OF CHALLENGES IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED ARAB
EMIRATES ........................................................................................................................................ 125
STRENGTHENING SUSTAINABILITY IN SRI LANKAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY THROUGH
SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: CONTRACTOR’S PERSPECTIVE .............................................. 126
DETERMINANTS OF LABOUR MOTIVATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN SRI LANKA...... 127
REVIEW ON THE READINESS OF SRI LANKAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY TO ENGAGE IN
BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK .......................................................... 128
ASSESSMENT OF THE PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT OF USING CONSTRUCTION TAKE-OFF
SOFTWARE ...................................................................................................................................... 129
RISK MANAGEMENT RESPONSES FOR THE RESHUFFLE OF RISKS DURING THE FEASIBILITY STAGE OF
A BIM-ENABLED CONSTRUCTION PROJECT .................................................................................... 130
CAN RIBA PLAN OF WORK (2013) USE AS A TOOL FOR CONFLICT AVOIDANCE IN CONSTRUCTION
PROJECTS?....................................................................................................................................... 131
GREEN BUILDING AND INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ......................................................... 132
LIFE CYCLE EMBODIED CARBON AND INITIAL AND MAINTENANCE COST ANALYSIS FOR THE ROOF
MATERIALSAVAILABLE IN SRI LANKA .............................................................................................. 133
A STUDY OF GREEN PRACTICES IN HOTELS AND RESORTS IN SRI LANKA ....................................... 134
IMPROVING WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING THROUGH INTRODUCTION OF
GREEN FEATURES ............................................................................................................................ 135
ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN LEAVES DENSITY AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF LIVING WALLS: AN
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY .................................................................................................................... 136
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka
PRIORITY WEIGHT BASED GREEN BUILDING RATING MODEL FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS .............. 137
A STUDY ON CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON COOLING ENERGY DEMAND PATTERNS FOR AN
EXISTING OFFICE BUILDING ............................................................................................................ 138
EPS BLENDED CEMENTITIOUS PLASTER FOR IMPROVED THERMAL COMFORT IN BUILDINGS ...... 139
THE AUTONOMOUS BATTERY-POWERED HOUSE, WHICH ENERGIZED THROUGH A SOLAR POWER
& REUSED HYBRID VEHICLE BATTERIES UNDER EXTRA LOW VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT
INSTALLATION ................................................................................................................................. 140
A DEVICE TO DETERMINE THE PANEL ORIENTATION FOR BEST ANNUAL SOLAR ENERGY
GENERATION AT A SELECTED LOCATION ........................................................................................ 141
INCORPORATING GREEN BUILDING FEATURES TO ENHANCE WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF THE NEW
BUILDING OF LADY RIDGEWAY CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL .................................................................. 142
FORMULATION OF A GUIDELINE TO ASSESS INSTITUTIONAL SUSTAINABILITY IN SRI LANKA ...... 143
INSIGHT TO SUSTAINABLE RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SRI LANKA ..................... 144
STRUCTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES .................................................................. 145
MODIFICATION OF SEQUENTIAL LAW FOR FATIGUE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF STEEL STRUCTURES
BASED ON THE LENGTH OF STRESS/STRAIN LIFE CURVES .............................................................. 146
INVESTIGATION OF THE BEST JOINT TYPE FOR COMBINING OF THE FINGER JOINTED TIMBER
PANEL IN BOARD PRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 147
INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF OFFSET DISTANCE IN CSH ON STEEL PLATES UNDER THREE-POINT
FLEXURAL CYCLIC LOADS IN THE LCF RANGE .................................................................................. 148
INFLUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN CFRP-STEEL BONDING: STATE OF THE ART ........ 149
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SHEAR STRENGTH DEGRADATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
MEMBERS WITH CORROSION ......................................................................................................... 150
THE BEHAVIOUR OF FERROCEMENT JACKETED SQUARE COLUMNS WITH DIFFERENT
ARRANGEMENTS AND ORIENTATION IN STEEL MESH.................................................................... 151
EFFECT OF SALINITY ON CEMENTITIOUS CAPILLARY CRYSTALLINE WATERPROOFING .................. 152
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Sustainable Tall Building

Page | 1
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-168

REVIEW ON DEVELOPMENT OF MODULAR ROOF PANELS

S.S. Bandaranayake1, J.C.P.H. Gamage2

Undergraduate Student, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.


1

Senior Lecturer, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.


2

*Correspondence E-mail: sathsub06@gmail.com, TP: +94774813377

Abstract: Modular panels (sandwich panels) promote optimal solutions to


some major issues prevailing in the construction industry such as increased
energy consumption by building elements, excessive disposal of
constructional waste, unproductive time spent during construction etc. Hence
the inclination towards sandwich elements has been increased vastly
deviating from conventional building construction materials and methods.
However, the potentiality of using locally available natural materials for the
development of sandwich panels is a salient sustainable approach that needs
to be addressed. This study evaluates the current and potential materials used
in modular panels and key properties of sandwich panels including
mechanical properties, thermal insulation properties and sound insulation
properties. Moreover, various test methods followed, and standards specified
to investigate the mechanical, thermal and acoustic insulation properties are
also discussed.

Keywords: Modular panels; Roofing materials; Thermal comfort; Shear;


Sustainable materials

Page | 2
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-183

MEP COORDINATION CHALLENGES IN HIGH-RISE MIXED-USE


DEVELOPMENTS

D. de Alwis1*, T. Samarasinghe1, S. Fernando1


1
Building Services Engineering Consultants (Pvt) Ltd, No.1, 33rd Lane, Bagattale Road,
Colombo 3, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: dasun@bsec.lk, TP: +94778767865

Abstract: High-rise mixed-use developments always pose challenge among


various design disciplines (such as MEP, Structure, Architecture, Façade etc.),
in terms of design coordination, constructability etc. It has been noted that due
to the complex nature of building usage of the mixed-use development which is
based on the type of occupants such as hotel, residential, retail, restaurant, office
etc. MEP system design and coordination need to be done in a diversified way to
manage ever-changing requirements in the high-rise mixed-use developments.
This paper is aimed to focus on high-level design and coordination challenges
related to the MEP services during the design and construction phase, and how
we can minimise MEP coordination issues at the design phase level, thereby
minimizing the construction delays on-site, save additional costs of abortive
works and Compromises rated to MEP design.

Keywords: High-rise; Mixed-Use Development; Coordination; MEP; BIM

Page | 3
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-180

THE BEAVIOR OF FULLY ENCASED COMPOSITE COLUMN


SUBJECTED AXIAL LOAD

L.B. Chathuranga*, S.H.I. Chathurani,* P.A.N. Peiris*, T.L Pradeep*

*Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, the Open University of Sri Lanka
Correspondence Email: tlpra@ou.ac.lk , 094 713243356

ABSTRACT: This paper was conducted to detect the behavior of a fully encased
composite (FEC) column under axial load due to combining the structural steel and
reinforced concrete, the composite columns possess great load-carrying capacity and
stiffness owing to composite action. Here we compared load-deflection behavior of the
fully encased composite column, the steel reinforcing cage column, and the column with
the H section. The behavior of three types of columns were identified by experimentally
and numerically analysis. The numerically analysis was done by OpenSees software.
Theoretical analysis was done only the fully encased composite column with Euro code 04.
Based on the results, it was shown that the fully encased composite column has higher
resistance to ultimate axial load, compared to the other two types of columns. Due to
structural steel in composite columns ultimate axial load resistance has improved. The
axial loads are varied and their effects have been observed with respect to ultimate axial
load with failure mode and overall column load-deformation responses are tabulated and
plotted in the graphs. Finally, we evaluated load factor (K0) for fully encased composite
column with comparing theoretical and experimental results.

Page | 4
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-181

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF STEEL PLATE COMPOSITE BEAMS


FOR SHEAR

A.D. De Alwis1*, W.J.B.S. Fernando1, P. Mendis2, D.S. Hettiarachchi1 and W.P.M.


Weerasinghe1
1
Civil and Structural Engineering Consultants Pvt. Ltd, No. 02, Don Carolis Road,
Jawatte Road, Colombo 05.
2
University of Melbourne, Australia
*Correspondence E-mail: arthur@csec.com.lk, TP: +94 71 9922605

Abstract: Development of tall buildings require innovative use of composite


materials for optimal element sizing while ensuring structural stability. Steel
composite concrete elements have widely been used when element dimensions
are restricted and to ensure the structural performance of the element, where
typically concrete would have imposed material restrictions. Steel I or H
sections have widely been used for concrete encased composite elements and the
use of steel plates have been used for coupling beams under seismic
loading. This study takes into account steel plates used to withstand the induced
shear in transfer beams where shear stresses are limited by the concrete shear
resistance. The study shows the design process carried out for the steel
composite beam element to withstand the action. An advanced finite element
analysis was carried out to verify the load transfer mechanism and to illustrate
the use of steel plate composite elements to transfer shear. The study shares the
design process of the complex structural elements and intends to provide a
guideline in designing similar complex structural elements.

Keywords: Steel composite concrete elements; Steel Plates; Shear in transfer


beams

Page | 5
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-182

DETERMINING THE DUCTILITY CAPACITIES OF VERTICAL


ELEMENTS IN A TALL BUILDING

S.N Thilakarathna1*, S. Fernando1, T.L Pradeep2, P. Mendis3


1
Civil and Structural Engineering Consultants Pvt. Ltd, No. 02, Don Carolis Road,
Jawatte Road, Colombo 05.
2
The Open University of Sri Lanka. 3University of Melbourne, Australia
*Correspondence E-mail: shilpa@csec.com.lk, TP: +94 71 9922981

Abstract: Ductile detailing is an important requirement for the earthquake


resistant design of structures, especially for the high-rise buildings. Ductile
behavior of the complete structure can be obtained by the structural elements
that are also ductile, since the structural elements with high ductility will be able
to maintain their strength after undergoing considerable inelastic deformation
without having any collapse. However, special provisions recommended in
codes with reference to reinforcement detailing of the elements assist the
structure to dissipate energy and experience larger deformations without
reaching ultimate failure or collapse. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating
ductility demand of selected columns and wall sections of 35 story building
located in Colombo, Sri Lanka which is considered a low to moderate seismic
region. Lateral loads that are developed by wind and earthquake loading were
resisted through the reinforced concrete core wall and a special moment
resisting frame. First, the codes requisites were applied to critical areas of RC
primary columns and wall sections and the curvature ductility demands were
evaluated. Eurocode 8 has been used to obtain the relevant ductility detailing
rules for designing longitudinal and transverse reinforcement of primary
component of the structure. Then, moment-curvature analyses were performed
using fiber sections of columns and walls, considering the confinement effects
on concrete core. Next, the detailed seismic performance evaluation was carried
out using the Nonlinear Response History Analysis (NLRHA) procedure and the
true inelastic seismic capacities of the selected column elements were obtained.
Finally, those results were compared with the available curvature ductility
demands.

Keywords: tall buildings; ductility detailing; moment curvature; nonlinear


seismic evaluation

Page | 6
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-184

REHABILITATION OF HISTORICAL BUILDING- A CASE STUDY

W.T.C.M. Chandrasekara , S. Mathangaweera , T. Pradeep , W.J.B.S. Fernando ,


1* 1 1 1

U. Alwis , Y. Kantheepan
1 2

1
Civil and Structural Engineering Consultants Pvt. Ltd, No. 02, Don Carolis Road,
Jawatte Road, Colombo 05.
*Correspondence E-mail: mahinda@csec.com.lk, TP: +94 71 9922760

Abstract: The Transworks house, a building recognized as an archeological


building, was renovated and rehabilitated during the ‘The ONE’ project
development. The paper details on the activities ranging from the condition
survey to the applied finishes. The process undertaken to modify the building
structurally to suite the current use is also discussed. The challenges encountered
to complete the renovation within the specified time frame and the renovation
techniques applied to overcome them are discussed in detail. Finally, some
guidelines are given for similar projects based on gained experience and
literature, adopted for Sri Lankan context.

Keywords: Rehabilitation; Structural Modification; Finishes; Condition


Survey; Restoration

Page | 7
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-185

WIND DESIGN OF SLENDER TALL BUILDINGS IN SRI LANKAN

CONTEXT

B. Kiriparan1*, B. Waduge2, W. J. B. S. Fernando2, P. Mendis3


1
University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka
2
Civil and Structural Engineering Consultants Pvt. Ltd, No. 02, Don Carolis Road,
Jawatte Road, Colombo 05.
3
University of Melbourne, Australia
*Correspondence E-mail: kiriparan@gmail.com, TP: +94 77 5584619

Abstract: Lateral forces due to wind and earthquake loading are two important
phenomenon in design of tall buildings. In the recent decades due to the
development of various technologies, tall buildings are becoming more slender,
flexible, light weight and irregular in shape. Though flexible and lightweight
structures are preferred to minimize the effect earthquake loading, they
becoming more susceptible under wind loading. Wind tunnel testing is adopted
as most precise tool to determine the performance of such slender structures
under wind loading. Determining the performance of the proposed structural
system quite precisely during the preliminary design stage is essential to obtain
an efficient, safe and economical design. Due to the associated cost and time
performing a wind tunnel test in the preliminary design stages may not be
always viable. In such instances preliminary design is carried-out extrapolating
the design provisions available. In Sri Lanka BS 6399-2:1997, BS EN 1991-1-
4:2005, AS/NZS1170.2:2011 standards are generally adopted in wind design of
structures. After withdrawal of British standards, European standards are being
adopted as primary design standards internationally including Sri Lanka. Due to
the complex nature of the wind and its interaction with the dynamically sensitive
slender structures scope of wind design codes to predict the wind effects on
slender tall buildings are limited. This study intends to present the importance of
selecting suitable wind design approaches to predict dynamic wind effects on
tall buildings during the preliminary design stages overcoming the limitations of
existing design provisions. Several case studies authors involving were
presented with the validation of wind tunnel testing to elaborate the wind design
of slender tall buildings in Sri Lankan context.
Keywords: Slender tall buildings; Wind design; Wind tunnel test; Sri Lankan
context

Page | 8
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Disaster Risk Reduction for Sustainable Built


Environment

Page | 9
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-195

ROLE OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN REBUILDING COMMUNITIES AND


ENHANCING THE SOCIAL COHESION BETWEEN THE DISPLACED AND
HOST

Jayakody R.R.J.C.1, Malalgoda C. 1, Amaratunga D. 1, Haigh R. 1, Liyanage C.L2, Witt E. 3,


Hamza M. 4, Fernando N. 5
1
Global Disaster Resilience Centre, University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom.
2
University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
3
Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
4
Lund University, Sweden.
5
University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

ABSTRACT: Following a disaster and conflict-induced mass displacement, as a part of the


resettlement process, the displaced community will be introduced to a new built
environment. Further, this sudden change in the pattern of interaction with the built
environment would have an immediate effect on the stability of the host community as well.
Therefore, both communities; displaced and host, will face the challenge of adapting to a
new built environment. When adapting to a new built environment, the satisfaction level of
both displaced and host communities will be determined by the extent to which built
environment meets their expectations and needs. Therefore, identifying the role of the built
environment in addressing community needs and enhancing social cohesion between the
displaced and host is significantly important within the resettlement process. With the
identification of this research need, the project titled REGARD (REbuild-inG AfteR
Displacement) which is a European Commission funded collaborative research project,
investigated this multifaced role of the built environment in rebuilding communities
following the disaster and conflict-induced mass displacements. Purposive sampling
techniques were used for data collection and analysis. 47 in-depth interviews were
conducted in four partner countries (UK, Sweden, Estonia and Sri Lanka) with officials,
community representatives, social support networks, agency networks, etc. Apart from that,
focus group discussions were conducted with the community members in Sri Lanka
covering both conflict-induced and disaster-induced displacement. Findings revealed that
the built environment has a significant role to play by acting across six perspectives;
constructing physical assets, stimulating economic assets, facilitating institutional assets,
developing human capital assets, nurturing social assets, and protecting natural assets.

Disclaimer Statement:
The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute
an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information
contained therein

Keywords: Built environment; Conflict-induced displacements; Disaster-induced


displacements; Rebuilding communities; Social Cohesion.

Page | 10
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-192

THE ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN TROPICAL AGRO-


ECOSYSTEMS RESILIENCE; A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

A. De Silva*, D. Amaratunga, R. Haigh


Global Disaster Resilience Center, Department of Biological and Geographical Sciences,
Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
*Correspondence E-mail: asitha.desilva@hud.ac.uk, TP: +447596130294

Abstract: The impact of natural hazards has become eminent in every aspect of
communities where the impact on agro-ecosystems has threatened global food
production and food security. Making agro-ecosystems resilience has become a
key priority among planners and decision-makers to sustain agricultural
production while increasing productivity. As an active contributor, higher
education institutions have the potential to successfully involve in agro-
ecosystems resilience to increase food security and production through
sustainable practices. Therefore, this study aims to understand the role of higher
education in tropical agro-ecosystems resilience. This paper was based on a
systematic literature review conducted among three academic databases of
SCOPUS, science direct, and emerald. There were 88 research papers reviewed
and based on thematic classification the key areas were identified. As
highlighted by the results, the key areas where the higher education system
successfully integrates with agro-ecosystems resilience are; knowledge creation,
knowledge dissemination, capacity, and skills development. Moreover, the
transitioning of the job market, the attitude of youth, lack of funding, and
technical capacities have become key problematic areas in higher education to
promote agro-ecosystems resilience. Several key areas should be improved in
the role of higher education related to agro-ecosystems resilience. These key
areas are sustainable management, entrepreneurship, policy and governance,
resilience mechanisms, climate change, and disaster risk reduction, productivity
management, market orientation, and value addition. With these improvements,
higher education institutions will be able to successfully contribute to the
process of making farmers into agro-businessmen through ecosystem
resilience.

Keywords: Agroecosystems, Agroecosystems Resilience, Higher Education

Page | 11
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-191

IMPROVING CLIMATE CHANGE EDUCATION IN THE


HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
IN ASIA - A CAPACITY BUILDING FRAMEWORK FOR MOOC
CURRICULAR DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE BECK PROJECT

Malith Senevirathne1*, Dilanthi Amaratunga1, Richard Haigh1, Artūras Kaklauskas²,


Dhiman Kumer³
1
Global Disaster Resilience Centre, University of Huddersfield, UK
²Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania
³University of Barisal, Bangladesh
*Correspondence E-mail: malith.senevirathne@hud.ac.uk

Abstract: The climate change education has been identified as a key component for
raising awareness about climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in the
urban development and consumer behaviours. The Sendai Framework for Disaster
Risk Reduction and the Sustainable Development Goals emphasizes the importance
of climate change education and improving climate literacy across various levels in
their priority actions. Amongst these needs, delivering climate change education via
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) in higher education is considered as an
effective method due to high relevance, adaptability and wider engagement on
industry collaboration and research development. The BECK project funded by the
ERASMUS+ Programme is aimed to address the above approach by introducing new
harmonized MOOC modules to the identified 4 European, 5 Russian and 5 Asian
higher education institutions (HEI). The MOOC curricular are designed based on the
cross-institutional capacity needs assessment study (CAPNAP) which was carried
out across all the partner institutions. The project adapted a common framework to
address the 07 key areas of capacity needs identified from the CAPNAP study when
implementing the MOOC. The aim of the framework is to ensure the pedagogical
principles and quality benchmarks are adopted in the MOOC design and
implementation while referring to the climate change education learning objectives.
This framework provides common grounds for BECK MOOC development while
supporting the partner institutions for necessary capacity improvement in teaching
and learning strategies. The BECK project continues to disseminate the MOOC
modules via the virtual interuniversity and support the effective implementation of
the adapted framework followed by performance indicators for effective
implementation and monitoring mechanisms.

Keywords: Climate change; energy efficiency; higher education; MOOC;


capacity building framework

Page | 12
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-178

INCORPARATION OF DISASATER RISK REDUCTION AND DISASATER


RESILIENT MECHANISMS INTO THE BUILDING TOOL OF GREEN SL

RATING SYSTEM FOR BUILT ENVIRONMENT

A.A.S.E. Abeysinghe1*, C.S.A. Siriwardane1, C.S. Bandara2, R. Haigh3,


D. Amarathunga3, P.B.R. Dissanayake2
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Katubedda, Sri Lanka.
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
3
University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.
*Correspondence E-mail: sonali.abeysinghe@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94776608370

Abstract: Disaster risk in Sri Lanka has been increasing mainly due to rapid
unplanned commercialization and development of cities, infrastructure with poor
quality, and the impacts of climate change which has exposed the built environment
severely to natural hazards. Out of all the hazards, floods, landslides, heavy winds
and tsunamis have caused the highest number of damages to buildings and loss of
human lives during the period of 1965 to 2019. Although the Green Building
Council of Sri Lanka (GBCSL) has initiated many resilient measures in energy and
resources usage in buildings, it has not specifically identified the requirement of
integrating Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) mechanisms into their green rating
tools. This research study is focused on identifying structural and non-structural
DRR measures for the three disasters; floods, landslides and high winds,
developing guidelines and finally proposing a new disaster resilient building tool
under the main eight categories of the existing building tool for GREENSL® Rating
System for Built Environment V2.0 with expert committee inputs; followed by
eleven surveys carried out in green certified buildings situated in flood, landslide
and high wind prone areas and less or no hazard prone areas for validation. It is
highly recommended to use new disaster resilient building tool in certifying
buildings situated in flood and landslide prone areas, moderately recommended to
use in high wind areas and finally it is acceptable to use the existing building tool
for GREENSL® Rating System for Built Environment V2.0 for the buildings
situated in less or no hazard prone areas. However, it can be advised to use the new
disaster resilient building tool even for the buildings situated in less or no hazard
prone areas as it addresses the general DRR measures to combat adverse climatic
trends in future.

Keywords: Natural Hazards; Disaster Risk Reduction; Green Rating Systems;


Green Buildings; Disaster Resilient Buildings

Page | 13
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-176

INVESTIGATING THE VARIABLES THAT INFLUENCE THE USE OF


SOCIAL MEDIA FOR DISASTER RISK COMMUNICATION IN SRI
LANKA

H.A.D.G.S. Jayathilaka1*, C.S.A. Siriwardana 1, D. Amaratunga 2, R.P. Haigh2, N.


Dias3
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
2
Global Disaster Resilience Center, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United
Kingdom.
3
Department of Biological and Geographical Sciences, School of Applied Sciences,
University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom.
*Correspondence E-mail: gaindusaranga@gmail.com, TP: +94713013041

Abstract: Sri Lanka has been experiencing various types of hazards which have
turn into disasters over the past years. A considerable amount of human lives
and properties have been impacted due to these disasters. Establishing proper
communication channels for effective dissemination of disaster-related
information is one of the key strategies of reducing and preventing the impact of
disasters. As an emerging communication technology, new attention has been
drawn to use social media as a communication channel during disasters to
disseminate disaster-related information to the general public. It has previously
been identified that there are several variables that affect the use of social media
by the general public during disasters. The primary objective of this study is to
investigate these variables and their variation for the Sri Lankan context. To
conduct this study, an online questionnaire was circulated among the community
and 408 responses were collected. Data were analysed under two phases. In the
first phase, descriptive statistics for the data were obtained to identify the
demography of the respondents. Secondly, binary logistic regression analysis
was conducted to identify the variation of the independent variables (predictors)
associated with the use of social media during disasters. It has been identified
that there is a positive relationship between the respondents’ previous
experiences of disasters and their social media usage during disasters. There is
no meaningful relationship between gender and the use of social media during
disasters. The age group to which the respondents belonged was also identified
as having a significant impact on their use of social media during disasters.
People who belong to the age group of 18-24 are more likely to use social media
during disasters than other age groups. A significant increase in the use of social
media during of disaster can be observed among the adult community in Sri
Lanka.

Keywords: Disasters; Disaster Risk Management; Disaster Risk Communication;


Social Media

Page | 14
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-175

AN INVESTIGATION ON DIFFERENT FACTORS AFFECTING ON


THE USAGE OF WHATSAPP AS A RISK COMMUNICATION
TOOL IN A CRISIS
K K C L Kannangara1*, C S A Siriwardana 1, H A D G S Jayathilaka 1
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa,
Sri Lanka.
*E-mail: chamikakannangara@gmail.com, TP: +94711521692

Abstract: Disaster risk communication is the key component of risk


management process which has moved towards online social media
platforms in the current context. Whatever the mode used; final intention is
the effective communication about the risk for the community. When it
comes to messenger platforms WhatsApp can be considered as one of the
widely used mobile applications in the Sri Lankan context. As it creates an
opportunity to use WhatsApp as a disaster risk communication tool, it is
important to identify the different factors affecting on the usage of
WhatsApp in a crisis and preference of using WhatsApp as a risk
communication tool. The study was conducted in a case study approach
and two WhatsApp groups were created with a title of “Disaster Info SL”
with the purpose of disseminating warnings and disaster related
information regarding the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic in Sri Lanka.
As the group was initiated on early March, which is continuously sharing
information at the moment, a considerable number of participants have left
the group throughout the service. Therefore, a proper investigation was
conducted to identify the factors affected the participants to leave the
groups. Initial investigation revealed a gap of disseminating COVID-19
related information to Tamil speaking community. Therefore, further
investigation was conducted among Tamil speaking community to identify
their perception regarding the use of WhatsApp and other social media
platforms as a risk communication tool. As a conclusion, almost all the
respondent agreed that WhatsApp can be used as a risk communication in
an emergency. Younger generation is relying on social me dia and
messenger platforms like WhatsApp more than traditional media platforms.
WhatsApp service through government authority ensuring the timeliness
dissemination of reliable infor mation can be considered as the finest way
of initiating such service. A clear gap was identified in dissemination of
information to Tamil speaking community within this period. As revealed
in the results, proper mechanism should be implemented to disseminate
information to Tamil speaking community.

Keywords: Disaster communication; Social media; COVID-19; WhatsApp;

Tamil speaking community

Page | 15
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-169

DEVELOPMENT OF A FRAMEWORK TO EXAMINE THE


TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE RESILIENCE; SRI LANKAN
CONTEXT
P.L.A.I. Shehara1*, C.S.A. Siriwardana 1, D. Amaratunga 2 and R. Haigh
2 1
University of Moratuwa, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
2
University of Huddersfiled, United Kingdom.
*Correspondence E-mail: ishanishehara@gmail.com, TP: +94714304458

Abstract: Critical Infrastructures can be considered as backbones in the societal


and economic well-being of the countries. In many of the countries, natural
hazards turning to disasters have become a massive threat in reducing the
continuous functionality and delivery of the service. Due to the systematic
behaviour of these Critical Infrastructures, the failure or disruption of one infra
structure system disturbs the functioning of the whole infrastructure system
network. This induces with the cascading effects triggering on one infrastructure
system, impacting the other infrastructure systems in the long run. For this to
mitigate, the focus on integrating Disaster Risk Reduction strategies towards
reducing the disaster damages on Critical Infrastructure emerged with time. In the
Sri Lankan context, each year, the disaster damages to Critical Infrastructures are
rapidly increasing making a huge impact on the country’s economic development.
Among them, there seems a rise in disaster damage to the transportation
infrastructure sector, in which the highest damage was incurred from the 2004
Indian Ocean Tsunami incident. Here, the damage occurred on Peraliya railway
infrastructure recorded as the largest single rail disaster in the world history with
loss of nearly 1700 people lives and about million cost of damage to the railway
assets. Based on these background aspects, the research study outlines the
development of the transportation infrastructure management framework with a
focus on climate resilience aspects in Sri Lanka. The impact of each of the
determinant aspects of infrastructure resilience which are inter linked with the
community and organizational resilience aspects were examined with the review of
the literature and as well as the questionnaire survey analysis. A field survey was
conducted to examine the community resilience aspects and a telephone interview
survey was conducted to examine the organizational resilience aspects from the Sri
Lankan perspective. From the 323 responses obtained from the community field
survey and 1004 responses obtained from the tele phone interviewing, the extent of
perception for each defined resilience parameters were examined. From these
survey results and the review of similar framework studies, the identified
parameters were outlined into a framework. This developed framework is
suggested to further verify and define weightages for each parameters in the future
studies.

Keywords: Critical Infrastructure (CI); resilience; natural hazards; transport


infrastructure; Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)

Page | 16
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-039

DISCHARGE DATA ASSIMILATION TO IMPROVE FLOOD


PREDICTION SKILLS IN SRI LANKA

W. H. M. Y. D. Bandara1*, K. H. S. Dinelka1 and N. G. P. B. Neluwala1

1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: yasirudineth123@gmail.com, TP: +94719469997

Abstract: Flood is one of the most threatening disasters affect the people
not only in Sri Lanka but also in the world. Data assimilation is a state-of-
the-art technique which can provide accurate analysis in modern day.
Accurate flood prediction is essential to reduce damages which are caused
by floods. No studies have been carried out on flood prediction using Data
Assimilation in Sri Lanka. Ensemble Kalman Filter is a popular Data
assimilation method widely used to incorporate observation data to model
forecast. Most of the work in this area is done by using MIKE 11
application. Kelani River is one of the major rivers that get frequent flood
causing damages to the people and properties in past few decades. This
study is focused from Glen course to Hanwella of Kelani River. This
research found that discharge observations assimilation is very effective to
updating the entire model to improve flood hydrograph at Hanwella by
using MIKE 11 and real data of flood events. Calibration was done using
flood in May of 2016. Then to demonstrate the Data Assimilation system,
multiple 1D simulations with different scenarios were carried out. Final
results show the discharge observation assimilation is very effective to
improve flood prediction skills.

Keywords: Data Assimilation; Ensemble Kalman Filter; MIKE 11;


Kelani River

Page | 17
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-063

DEVELOPMENT OF FLOOD HAZARD MAP FOR ASSESSING


SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACT: A CASE STUDY IN
KALUTARA, SRI LANKA

Ashvin Wickramasooriya *, Lalithya Walpita


1 2

1
Department of Geography, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
2
Divisional Secretariate Office, Horana, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: awickramasooriya@gmail.com, ashvin@pdn.ac.lk, TP:
+94812392674

Abstract: Flood is the major disaster experienced in Kalutara district specially


during Southwest monsoonal period. As a result many socioeconomic issues arose in
the past in Kalutara district. Even though previous studies mainly focused on to
demarcate flood inundated areas, less focus has paid to recognize the socioeconomic
impacts can be arose with flood risk in the areas. This study was focused to
demarcate the flood risk areas and to identify the different socioeconomic issues can
be expected within Kalutara district. To achieve this task flood risk map has been
introduced using geospatial technology. Initially, a flood hazard map has introduced
for the Kalutara district using digital thematic maps considering the most causative
factors influence to create floods. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method
and weighted overlay method had applied to introduce the flood hazard map for the
area. Using similar methods, the flood vulnerability map has been introduced
considering most important flood vulnerability factors in the study area. Finally,
flood risk map of the Kalutara district has been introduced using created flood
hazard map and the flood vulnerability map. Then created flood risk map has been
validated using 2003 and 2017 flood information in Kalutara district. According to
the validation process, it was observed that the created flood risk map has about
92% accuracy and therefore, this map can be accepted to analyze the socioeconomic
impact due to floods in the area. When analyzing socioeconomic impacts due to
flood risk in the area, impact for the road network including Sothern highway,
Colombo–Galle main road and Colombo-Matara railway track, damage of dwelling,
schools and other buildings, destroy paddy and tea lands can be identified as major
flood impacts in very high and high flood risk areas while there are many indirect
socioeconomic issues can be recognized due to floods within the Kalutara district.

Keywords: impact, socioeconomic; hazard; risk

Page | 18
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-142

POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT SUCCESS:


DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURALLY SENSITIVE STRATEGIES

S.D.R. Siriwardhana1*, U. Kulatunga 2, A. Samaraweera 2


1
Department of Building Economics, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
2
Department of Building Economics, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
*senudisara@gmail.com, TP: +94712358773

Abstract: Post- Disaster Reconstruction (PDR) is the most important and


cost consuming process in disaster management, which brings
opportunities to enrich the resilience and living conditions of the affected
community having long-term impacts on changing their lives and cultural
backgrounds. Therefore, the successful performance of a PDR project
depends on, how well they address the cultural needs of the disaster
affected community. PDR of developing countries like Sri Lanka, are
definitely not at a sufficient level. The same mistakes are repeated over and
over again and most of them arise due to low level of consideration given
to social-cultural dimensions while undertaking PDR. Hence, there is a
necessity of highlighting the issues and challenges of the PDR projects in
community cultural perspective and find concrete culturally sensitive
strategies to overcome the complexity and uncertainties. Since Sri Lanka
has unique cultural dimensions, the strategies for the successful PDR
implementation should be specifically identified, prioritised and revised
relevance to Sri Lankan context. Therefore, the broad objective of
this research is to identify the culturally sensitive strategies for the
successful PDR implementation, which are applicable to the Sri Lankan
context. Survey research strategy was adopted to proceed with the study
following the quantitative research approach. Questionnaire survey was
employed as the primary data collection technique and data analysis was
conducted by Relative Important Index (RII). Findings revealed that,
recruitment of local manpower, choosing traditional construction methods,
formulating culture based legislations are the most practicable strategies
for PDR project success in Sri Lankan context. Hence, it is suggested from
the study to improve the future PDR project success through applying
identified culturally sensitive strategies to Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Post-Disaster Reconstruction; Community Culture;


Culturally Sensitive Strategies

Page | 19
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-108

TSUNAMI RISK REDUCTION THROUGH SUSTAINABLE URBAN


PLANNING AND DEVELOPING STRATEGIES: CONCEPTUAL
FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT

U Gunarathna1*, CS Bandara2, PBR Dissanayake2


1
Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya
*Correspondence E-mail: udari.gunaratne@gmail.com, TP: +94770835533

Abstract: Sustainable urban planning and developing involves many


disciplines, including architecture, engineering, environmental science,
materials science, technology, economic development, disaster management
and many other aspects. This kind of planning also develops innovative and
practical approaches to land use and its impact on natural resources. In the
process of urban planning and developing, disaster risk reduction measures
are highly concerns as the geo graphical situation, peoples’ unawareness and
lack of preparedness in developing countries are leading the community to
suffer more severely from the effects of all kinds of disasters. Among theses,
tsunami is a rapid-onset coastal hazard that can be considered as an ever-
present threat to lives, infrastructure and properties along the coasts.
Consequently, safety measures against the tsunami risk are considered as the
main aspect of post disaster reconstructions. Even though a tsunami is one of
the rare natural hazards that occur at a low frequency, they have a strong
impact and can be extremely destructive. Hence, there is a need to reverse
the trend of increasing world-wide vulnerability, by the use of strategic
urban planning and developing techniques that leads to tsunami risk
reduction from various aspects like land use planning, site planning, building
design and construction, renewal and development; and infrastructure and
facility implementation. With that intention, this research intends to
emphasize tsunami risk reduction through sustainable urban planning and
development and what type of guidelines can be used by sustainable urban
planners and related stakeholders to enhance the proficiency of tsunami risk
reduction. To undertake the study, a comprehensive literature survey is
carried out and based on the findings, a conceptual framework has been
proposed to simulate tsunami risk reduction through urban planning
and development which can lead to a sustainable construction practice.

Keywords: Tsunami; Risk Reduction; Urban Planning and Development;

Sustainability

Page | 20
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-156

INVESTIGATING THE PREPAREDNESS OF STAFF MEMBERS IN


PRIVATELY OWNED HOSPITALS IN SRI LANKA AGAINST
FIRE HAZARDS

W.D.M. Kularatne , H.H.H. Hasalanka , C.S.A. Siriwardana


1* 1 1

1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Katubedda, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: devmini.kularatne@gmail.com, TP: +94773067767

Abstract: Hospitals have a high potential for fire hazards due to reasons such as
the presence of volatile chemicals, large electrical networks, and high waste
generation. In addition to taking steps to prevent fire, preparation of staff to face
a fire hazard should also be done. This study looks at the current level of fire
safety training and preparedness of staff members in privately owned hospitals
in Sri Lanka. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess fire safety
training and preparedness of hospital staff members. This was used to interview
sixty-six staff members of multiple major private hospitals. The staff consisted
of various positions ranging from medical staff to security and maintenance
staff. The study revealed that over 70% of the staff had training in basic fire
management and more responsibility in emergency response had been given to
the maintenance and security staff in the hospitals. Overall, the staff in private
hospitals were suitably prepared for fire hazards, with each institution holding
fire training programs annually. It is recommended that staff preparedness can
be increased through actions such as carrying out regular fire safety training and
drills, developing a fire action plan for the hospital, and designating a fire safety
officer for the hospital.

Keywords: safe hospitals; disaster risk reduction; fire safety training; staff
preparedness; patient evacuation

Page | 21
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-177

TOO TIGHT OR TOO LOOSE? STRINGENCY OF MOBILITY RESTRICTION


POLICY RESPONSE BY THE GOVERNMENT OF SRI LANKA AGAINST
COVID-19

N.W.A.N.Y Wijesekara1*, H.D.B.Herath1, K.A.L.C Kodithuwakku1, B.A.M.P. Bulathsinghe1


1
Disaster Preparedness and Response Division, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence Email: novil.wijesekara@gmail.com, TP: +94718951089

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic has demanded governments to respond through policy measures on
health systems, restriction of community mobility, and economic recovery. Policy measures
on mobility included international and local travel restrictions, closure of schools and
workplaces, work from home, cancellation or restriction of public gatherings, close of
public transport, and stay at home orders. Sri Lanka too has embraced several policy
measures restricting community mobility to curtail the outbreak. This paper analyzes the
trend of stringency of Covid-19 mobility restriction policy response by the Government of
Sri Lanka concerning its epidemiological trend, and with the same patterns observed in
selected countries of the world. The Government Response Stringency Index (GRSI), a
composite indicator developed by the Oxford Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT)
group consisting of nine indicators based on publicly available data was used to track the
stringency of policy measures related to mobility restrictions in Sri Lanka and the selected
other countries. Besides, the daily number of Covid-19 cases in the same countries was
analyzed. The results show that Sri Lanka was able to achieve 100% in the GRSI at the early
stages of the outbreak, and most clusters it faced were curtailed under considerable high
GRSI levels. GRSI values dropped to 26.85% just before the onset of the largest ever
Minuwangoda Cluster, after which it was raised to 50%. Comparing GRSI values and
epidemiological pattern of Sri Lanka with three purposefully selected blocks of countries
showed that its stringency to be comparatively lower than most of the countries studied, as
per the end of the study period. It could be seen that the current GRSI values about the
policy measures adopted by the government of Sri Lanka are suboptimal, compared to the
level of risk based on the case trend that the country is exposed to, as of 30th November
2020. These findings provide evidence towards implementation of more stringent mobility
control measures on an urgent basis, at least until the case number starts to fall.

Keywords: Covid-19, Government Response Stringency Index, Stringency Fatigues,


Mobility, Policy Response

Page | 22
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-194

COVID-19 RISK GOVERNANCE: LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE UK, BASED


ON A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW

Ms Kinkini Hemachandra, Prof Dilanthi Amaratunga, Prof Richard Haigh


Global Disaster Resilience Centre, School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, UK

Abstract
Covid-19 has changed the global operations in the 21st century. The first two cases were
identified on 31st January 2020 in the UK. Since then, the country was opened until the
national wide lockdown declared on 23rd March 2020. Coronavirus has made a substantial
negative impact on the economy and the lives of its residents. Having access to free health
care facilities to its residents, the country is suffering from an unprecedented level of deaths
and morbidities caused by the novel disease. Most of the countries have focused on response
masseurs by overlooking preparedness measures. Therefore, this study was conducted as a
preliminary study of a project aimed at integrating epidemic and pandemic preparedness
into disaster risk reduction. This piece of work is aiming at identifying the key stakeholders
engaged in epidemic and pandemic preparedness strategy in the UK. Furthermore, the study
explores early warning communication system during the outbreak in the UK. A systematic
literature review was conducted using three databases, Science Direct, Emerald and Google
Scholar, and with a literature review protocol explaining the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Accordingly, 51 research papers were used in conducting the literature survey. The study
identified the Central government, Local Authorities, National Health Service, Public
Health England, Clinical Commission Group, Civil Contingencies Secretariat, Chief
Medical Officers, Cabinet Office Briefing Room, Scientific Advisory Group for
Emergencies and National Security Council as the key stakeholders involved in pandemic
preparedness strategy in the UK. The UK’s early warning communication was based on a
traffic light system with a 5-tiered colour code. In addition, information sharing and risk
assessments have been identified within the legislative system. However, the study
highlighted several challenges and lessons within the epidemic and pandemic preparedness
system and early warning communication system in the UK.

Page | 23
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-163

REDESIGNING AND REPURPOSING HEALTHCARE FACILITIES


FOR THE NEW NORMAL, COVID-19: A REVIEW ON NEW
APPROACHES IN HOSPITAL SYSTEMS

J.H.P.R.U Jayasekara 1, C.S.A. Siriwardana*1, D. Amaratunga 2, R. Haigh 2


1
University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
2
Global Disaster Resilience Centre, University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
*Correspondence E-mail: chandanasiriwardana@gmail.com, TP: +94777555655

Abstract:

Without any doubt, the outbreak of novel coronavirus; mostly known as


COVID-19 has divided the recent timeline of world into three periods namely,
before COVID-19, during COVID-19 and after COVID-19. The devastating
impacts that occurred during COVID-19 have already been a wake-up call
towards how the existing systems should be strengthened for the period after
COVID-19 to mitigate the risk of future pandemics. During the pandemic,
functionality of healthcare facilities started to fail in a cascading manner
highlighting the need for addressing the systemic nature of risks with novel
approaches. Architects, engineers, healthcare professionals, and policymakers
have started to plan on how the future healthcare facilities have to be altered for
the new normal, COVID-19. This paper delves into the challenges rendered on
the healthcare facilities during COVID-19, immediate actions taken to mitigate
the impacts, and new approaches suggested for the period after COVID-19. The
study has drawn on a review of recently published scholarly articles, reports,
international and national policy and frameworks, news items, magazine articles,
etc. pertaining to the behavior of healthcare facilities during the crisis and future
hospital designs. Apart from the challenges and immediate actions in mitigating
the negative impacts, this paper has summarized new approaches for future
hospital designs under two categories namely, hospital design and built
environment, and hospital management and operation. It is evident that
pandemic has highlighted the paramount importance of sustainable Disaster
Risk Reduction (DRR) strategies towards more resilient healthcare facilities in
the future. But still, these new approaches have to be further validated through
multi-sectoral approaches since the crisis is not still over.

Keywords: COVID-19, hospitals, Disaster Risk Reduction, Systemic Risks

Page | 24
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-159

MODELLING AND SIMULATION PRACTICES OF CRITICAL


INFRASTRUCTURES: A REVIEW

Bawantha Sandaruwan1*, Dr. Chandana Siriwardana 1, Prof. Dilanthi


Amaratunga2,
Prof. Richard Haigh 2
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
2
Global Disaster Resilience Center,University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK
*Correspondence E-mail: bawanthasr@gmail.com, TP: +94716902324

Abstract: With the advent of the technology, Critical Infrastructure system


(CIs) has become key drivers of the fundamental of the societal well-being by
means of providing essential services that support economic wealth, governance,
and quality life. These systems prefer to synergize and connect their subsystem
to each other through a hierarchical process and thereby enhancing their overall
performance. However, the past devasting series of the disasters such as
hurricanes, floods, wildfires, cyclones, earthquakes, tsunamis have demonstrated
the underline interdependencies and interconnectivities among the CIs. This
nature of the CIs has amplified the impact to the built environment and humans
from the large- and small-scale failure of CIs through the cascading failures. To
better understand CIs to support planning, maintenance and emergency decision
making, modelling and simulation of interdependencies across the CIs have
been implemented enabling risk-informed decision making and planning. This
paper contains a comprehensive review carried out on the literature on CI
modelling and simulation practices. Mainly this paper reviews the five famous
modelling and simulation approaches out of six categories of modelling and
simulation approaches: empirical approaches, agent-based approaches, system
dynamic based approaches, economic theory-based approaches, network-based
approaches and other. Furthermore, these approaches are compared according to
the several criteria such as complexity of computation, input data for the
simulation, simulation time, accessibility to input data.

Keywords: Critical Infrastructure systems (CIs); Interdependency; Network-


based approaches; System Dynamics (SD); Agent-based modelling (ABM)

Page | 25
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Water and Environment Engineering

Page | 26
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-113

CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING WATER RETAINING


STRUCTURES

R.K.W.K. Ranasinghe1* and Sudhira De Silva2.


1
Chief Engineer, National Water Supply and Drainage Board, Sri Lanka.
2
Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ruhuna,
Galle, Sri Lanka,
*Correspondence E-mail: kalum1974@hotmail.com, TP: +94777800152

Abstract: Corrosion of reinforcement is the most significant cause of premature


deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Many of the concrete structures,
which have been exposed to aggressive environments, suffer from durability
problems and fail to fulfill their design service life requirements. Chloride induced
corrosion is considered to be one of the major deterioration mechanism in reducing
the service life of reinforced concrete structure which is subjected to aggressive
environment. The condition assessment of structures over a period of time is
mandatory with routine monitoring. The majority of water supply systems have
some form of water storage tanks, most often con structed from reinforced concrete.
These tanks are an integral part of the potable water distribution network but are
often taken for granted from a maintenance and condition assessment point of view.
To ensure the durability and sustainability they should be adequately inspected
and maintained, a condition assessment system must be used. The objective of this
study was to proposed a system for performed a condition assessment of existing
reinforced concrete water retaining structures and to identify the deterioration
process of the structures. The visual inspection and Non-destructive test data were
carried out at the lo cations of water retaining structures identified in Galle, Matara
and Hambanthota districts in Sri Lanka. Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to
evaluate the condition state of the water retaining structures.

Keywords: Aggressive environments; Chloride induced corrosion;


Condition assessment; Non destructive test; Visual inspections; Analytical
hierarchy process

Page | 27
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020- 34
COMPARISON OF ACID HYDROLYZED CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta)
STARCH ON Cr+3 ADSORPTION IN WASTE WATER

D. G.N. L. Sirinayake*1, A. P. S. M. Amaraweera2, C. A. Gunathilake1


1
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of
Peradeniya,
Sri Lanka Department of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
2

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka


*E-mail: nadeeshanisirinayake@gmail.com, TP: +94703752308

Abstract: Contamination of water from heavy metals cause serious health issues,
hence it is quite necessary to treat industrial effluent containing heavy metals.
Modified cassava starch has a great potential for efficient removal of heavy
metals in industrial effluent which consist heavy metals. In this study, cassava
starch was modified in two different methods. In the first method, Starch was
treated with hydrochloric acid and in the second method starch was treated with
hydrochloric acid, TEOS, Pluronic P123 and Tris 3- (trimethoxy silyl) propyl
Isocyanurate. The prepared modified starch was tested with Fourier Transform
Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis) and X Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis to
compare the crystallinity changes and functional groups of modified starch.
Adsorption capacities of both types of starch were tested for chromium ions (Cr+3)
through equilibrium and kinetic studies. Results shows that both types can be used
as effective adsorbents to remove heavy metals in waste water. This study can be
extended to obtain the best material which has a greater adsorption capacity by
adjusting synthesis conditions.

Keywords: Cassava Starch; Starch modification; Adsorption; Isotherm; kinetics

Page | 28
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-149

A COMPARISON STUDY OF REMOVING RHODAMINE B FROM


WASTEWATER BY NITRIC ACID FUNCTIONALIZED RICE HUSK,
COCONUT HUSK ANDSYNTHETIC POROUS CARBON

Charitha Thambiliyagodage1 *, Sulakshini Ranchagoda2, Shanitha


Mirihana1
1
Faculty of Humanities and Sciences, Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology, Malabe, Sri
Lanka Institute of Chemistry Ceylon, Adamantane House, 341/22, Kotte Road, Rajagiriya, Sri
2

Lanka Charitha Thambiliyagodage and Sulakshini Ranchagoda contributed equally


*Corresponding author: charitha.t@sliit.lk; Tel: 0094773191815

Abstract: The present comparison study describes the effectiveness of different


carbon based adsorbents for the successful removal of Rhodamine B (RhB) from
wastewater. Selected adsorbents are rice husk (RH) and coconut husk (CH) as
the agricultural waste products and porous carbon synthesized by resorcinol
formaldehyde polymerization via sol gel method (SC). Such porous materials
were functionalized using nitric acid. Morphology of the materials were exam
ined by the Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the surface functionalities
were determined by FT-IR spectroscopy. Adsorption of all functionalized and
raw porous materials was determined by varying parameters such as pH of the
medium, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration and con tact time. Generally, all
the selected adsorbents were capable of removing RhB and functionalized
adsorbents were much effective than the untreated adsorbents. Among all the
adsorbents selected for the comparison, functionalized rice husk (FRH) showed
highest activity compared to other adsorbents as it consists of both carbon and
silica, while others have only carbon. Interestingly adsorbents prepared by
natural waste materials were more effective than the synthetic carbon suggesting
that these tested materials could be used in novel water purification systems to
decontaminate waste and drinking water.

Keywords: Rice Husk; Coconut husk; Resorcinol-Formaldehyde;


Nitric acid; Rhodamine B; Wastewater

Page | 29
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-102

CLARIFICATION EFFICIENCY OF PLATE SETTLERS


ANALYZED BY CFD MODELLING

W.M.L.K. Abeyratne1*, S.B. Weerakoon1, N.G.P.B. Neluwala1


1
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
*
Correspondence E-mail: abeyratnelka@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94718939061

Abstract: Sedimentation is a crucial process of water treatment facilities, where the


gravity settling of suspended solids occur. The sedimentation tanks in conventional
water treatment plants occupy a large area and consume up to 30% of the total
construction cost. The use of plate settlers is an economical technology which
increase the efficiency and capacity of sedimentation tanks. This study investigated
the effectiveness of plate settlers compared to the plain settlers using the rectangular
tanks in a water treatment plant. The ANSYS CRX 17.2 software was used as
the CFD tool for meshing and calculating the results. Four cases including a plain
settler and three plate settlers with plates installed at 3 m, 1 m and 0.5 m spacing
were analyzed in this study for the comparison of performances. The length,
thickness and inclination angle of plates were kept constant. Installing plates
reduced the large vortex zones and created a more up-flow distribution of
streamlines allowing particles to settle easily compared to the plain settling tank.
The efficiency of sedimentation was improved by increasing the number of plates in
plate settlers. This is due to the increasing effective settling area of tanks. The
inclined plates had different effects on the suspended solid removal efficiency in
solids with different diameters, which might be difficult to characterize by
experimental studies. The sedimentation efficiency of the particles with large
diameters have higher efficiency than the small diameter particles. The
Computational Fluid Dynamics modelling can be used to accurately predict the
suspended particle removal efficiency in plain settling and plate settling tanks, and
therefore can be used to optimize their design.

Keywords: Sedimentation; Plate settlers; Clarification efficiency;


Computational Fluid Dynamics

Page | 30
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-129

SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITES FROM RICE HUSK ASH FOR


REMOVAL OF DYES IN WASTEWATER

M.C. Welagedara*1, D.G.G.P. Karunarathne1, A. Manipura1


Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of
1

Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka


*Correspondence E-mail: markswelagedara@gmail.com, TP:+94719650611

Abstract: Rice husk is an agricultural waste which contains high amount


of silica. This silica can be extracted from rice husk by burning at higher
temperatures. Therefore, rice husk ash (RHA) can be used as the silica
source when synthesizing zeolites. Zeolites are three-dimensional mi
croporous aluminosilicate which are widely used in industrial applications.
In this study, potential of using zeolites synthesized from RHA for the
adsorption of dye in polluted water was tested. RHA was obtained by
burning rice husk at 700 oC and zeolites were synthesized by using
RHA and sodium aluminate in alkali media. Synthesized zeolites were
yielded as 75.4 % (w/w) and classified as Zeolite A (LTA) based on the
XRD analysis. Adsorption capacity and adsorption rate of synthesized
zeolites were tested for Methylene Blue (MB) solution through equilibrium
and kinetic studies. The adsorption of MB onto RHA was also studied for
comparison. Langmuir model and Pseudo second order kinetic model were
well fitted with the experimental data with higher coefficient of
determination. The monolayer adsorption capacities of the synthesized zeo
lites and RHA were 16.89 mg/g, 17.42 mg/g and 12.19 mg/g respectively.
Synthesized zeolites show higher adsorption capacity than the RHA
revealing that Zeolite A synthesized using RHA can use to adsorb dye in
polluted water. This study also can be extended to obtain the best zeolite
which has a greater adsorption capacity by adjusting synthesis conditions.

Keywords: Rice husk ash; Adsorption; Zeolites; Equilibrium study;


Kinetic study: Dye removal

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Water pollution and CKDu

Page | 32
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-187

MODEL FITTING APPROACH FOR BAMBOO WOOD BASED ACTIVATED


CARBON FOR MANGANESE (II) REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SYSTEMS

I.S. Pathirathne1, D.C Herath2, N.P. Liyanage4., S.K. Weargoda2,3*, D.T. Udagedara1
1.
Department of Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Uva Wellassa University,
Badulla, Sri Lanka
2
. China Sri Lanka Research Grant Project, Ministry of City Planning, Water Supply and Higher
Education, Sri Lanka
3.
Water Safety Plan Advisory Unit, National Water Supply and Drainage Board, Sri Lanka
4.
China Sri Lanka Joint research & demonstration center for water technology (JRDC)
*Correspondence E-mail: Skwera7@gmail.com, TP: +94770102852

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the Mn (II) removal ability by Bamboo
Wood based activated carbon since remediation of metal contaminated water with a least
cost is a growing concern nowadays. The preparation of Bamboo wood Activated Carbon
(BAC) was done with chemical activation by impregnation with potassium hydroxide
(KOH) at 1:1 ratio followed by pyrolysis at 800 0C for 2 hours. Commercially available
Activated Carbon (CAC) was used as a reference for the study. FTIR and XRD was carried
out to confirm that prepared samples do not contain contaminants. Optimum contact time (5
hours), adsorbent dose (g/L) and optimum pH (6-7) for BAC was investigated through batch
adsorption studies. The adsorption data were analyzed and interpreted using Freudlich and
Langmuir isotherm models. BAC data were well presented with Langmuir model
(R2=0.9960) than Freundlich model (R2=0.9740) while CAC shows a better fit with
Freundlich model (R2=0.9815) than Langmuir model (R2 = 0.9720). The Langmuir constant
(KL) and adsorption capacity (Qm) were calculated with graphical data. KL is 0.2940 mg−1
for BAC and 0.7740 mg−1 for CAC, which implies BAC has higher affinity than CAC
between adsorbent and adsorbate. Qm was 0.9620 mg g−1 for BAC and 2.259 mg g−1 for
CAC. For Freundlich model experimental data, the Freundlich constant (KF) and adsorption
intensity (1/n) was calculated and it results KF of 0.5350 mg g−1 for BAC and 2.929 mg g−1
for CAC. The 1/n values are 0.4358 and 1.162 for BAC and CAC respectively which BAC
indicates a more favorable adsorption than CAC. Mn (II) is found to adsorb strongly on the
surface of activated carbon and adsorption behavior is described by a monolayer,
homogeneous Langmuir type isotherm. The present investigation showed that BAC
demonstrates a preferable adsorption towards Mn (II) and bamboo waste can be effectively
used as a raw material for the preparation of activated carbon with modifications.

Keywords: Bamboo; Activated carbon; Isotherm; Manganese; Adsorption

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
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ICSBE2020-188

INVESTIGATION OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN WET SEASON


IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCE OF SRI LANKA

D.Z. Hu 1, 2, S. Indika1, 2, Y.S. Wei1, 2, 6, *, T. Cooray3, K.B.S.N. Jinadasa5, S.K.


Weragoda4, R. Weerasooriya6
1
Laboratory of Water Pollution Control Technology, Research Center for Eco-
Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China.
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.
3
Department of Applied Earth Sciences, Uva Wellassa University, Badulla 90000, Sri
Lanka.
4
National Water Supply and Drainage Board, Katugastota 20800, Sri Lanka.
5
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya,
Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka.
6
National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Rd, Kandy 20000, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: yswei@rcees.ac.cn, TP: +86-10-62849690

Abstract: Groundwater in North Central Province (NCP), Sri Lanka is the major
water supply for the most residents. However, high concentrations of hardness
and fluoride of groundwater may pose great threats to the health of local people.
In this study, the groundwater quality in north central Sri Lanka was investigated
in the wet season (2019.12). The groundwater in the Chronic kidney disease of
unknown etiology (CKDu) affected area is mainly from shallow regolith
aquifers of the metamorphic terrain and predominantly exists in the HCO3- type,
whose chemical compositions are primarily influenced by rock weathering and
evaporation. The TOC concentrations in the groundwater of most regions were
higher than 6 mg·L-1. The main components of DOC were determined to be non-
degradable fulvic acid, tryptophan and tryptophan via 3D-EEM analysis.
Correlation analysis of water pollutants showed that alkalinity was significantly
correlated with DOC(p<0.01), DOC correlated with SO42−(p<0.01), and
hardness significantly correlated with DOC(p<0.01). This work systematically
analyzed the chemical characteristics and DOM composition of the groundwater
in CKDu region in Sri Lanka, which can provide a fundamental support to
research and develop cost-effective groundwater treatment technologies for safe
drinking water in the CKDu prevalence areas of Sri Lanka.

Keywords: North Central Province; groundwater; HCO3- type; hardness; fluoride

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-116

REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE IN WATER AND WASTEWATER USING


ELECTRODIALYSIS/ ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSE PROCESS:
A REVIEW

T.P. Malalagama *, T. Binghui , K.B.S.N. Jinadasa , D.R. Samaraweera , F. Yang


1 2 3 3 2

Chinese Academy of Sciences, 52 Sanlihe Rd, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.


1,2

University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka


3

*Correspondence E-mail: malalagama.theekshana@gmail.com, TP: +94717741135

Abstract: Fluoride enriched water has a profound effect on human health.


Therefore, maximum allowable fluoride concentration in drinking water is
limited to 1.5 mg/L in World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Not only
drinking water, but also several types of wastewater are contaminated with
fluoride. Therefore, untreated fluoride enriched wastewater can be created
serious issues on environmental health and aquatic lives. Many methods have
been used to remove excessive fluoride present in water and wastewater such
as Adsorption, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, electrodialysis,
electrocoagulation, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration etc. Many organizations and
industries focused on their interest on electrodialysis process to remove
excessive fluoride in water due to simplicity and low operational cost of the
process. Whilst there are a number of reviews that have attempted to optimize
ED performance for fluoride removal from water/wastewater, ED technology
still has limitations involving scaling, membrane fouling, and permselectivity. In
this paper, an extensive review of current studies on the process, principles, and
setups of ED technology on fluoride removal is given to deliver a
comprehensive collection of all the main findings published so far. Finally
economic feasibility also described.

Keywords: Electrodialysis; Electrodialysis reverse; Fluoride removal; water


treatment; wastewater treatment

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-082

STUDY OF COAGULANT DOSAGE VARIATION ACCORDING TO


THE DESIGN G VALUE OF COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION
PROCESSES IN A WATER TREATMENT PLANT

RMMC Dassanayake , NS Jayasinghe , APK Wickramage , KBKDK Kandeyaya ,


1 2 2 2

WBMLI Weerasekara , SK Weragoda 2 2

1
Faculty of Engineering /University of Peradeniya
2
China Sri Lanka Research Grant Project, 90/3, Pahalakondadeniya, Katugasthota
*Correspondence E-mail: Skwere7@gmail.com, TP: +94770102852

Abstract: There are several treatment processes in conventional water treatment


plants (WTP). The coagulation and flocculation processes (CFP) are conducted
to remove the turbidity of raw water (RW). CFP has become critical in the water
treatment process due to impacts from overdosing and underdosing of coagulant
on the public health and treatment efficiency. Most of the WTPs in Sri Lanka
perform the jar test considering only the RW pH and turbidity in order to
determine the optimum coagulant dose. However, there is no concern over the
velocity gradient (G) value in WTP design when conducting the jar test.
Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the optimum coagulant doses
obtained from a general jar test method (M1) and a WTP design G value
considered method (M2) for the same RW sample. The rapid mixing, slow
mixing speeds, and settling times for M1; 2 min in 150 rpm, 20 min in 30 rpm,
and 30 min respectively. The rapid mixing, slow mixing speeds, and settling
times for M2; 3 min in 71 rpm, 30 min in 40 rpm, and 30 min respectively. Two
trials were carried out for each method using Poly aluminium chloride as the
coagulant (PAC). The optimum coagulant dose of M1 is 0.62 mg/L in trial one
and 3.95 mg/L in trial two. The optimum coagulant dose of M2 is 0.70 mg/L in
trial one and 4.05 mg/L in trial two. Hence the optimum coagulant dose of M1 is
greater than that of M2. Therefore, it is recommended to consider the design G
value of the WTP to obtain a more accurate optimum coagulant dose.

Keywords: Coagulation; flocculation; velocity gradient; rapid mixing; slow


mixing. Optimum coagulant dose

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-186

EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE IN EXISTING RO DRINKING


WATER STATIONS IN NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCE, SRI LANKA

S. Indika1, 2, Y.S. Wei1, 2, 8, *, J. Ketharani3, D.Z. Hu1, 2, M. Makehelwala4, T. Ritigala1,


2
, M.A.C.K. Hansima5, T. Cooray6, K.B.S.N. Jinadasa3, S.K. Weragoda4, 7, R.
Weerasooriya8
1
Laboratory of Water Pollution Control Technology, Research Center for
Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China.
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya,
Peradeniya, 20400, Sri Lanka.
4
China-Sri Lanka Joint Research and Demonstration Center for Water Technology,
Ministry of Water Supply, Sri Lanka.
5
Post Graduate Institute of Science (PGIS), University of Peradeniya,
Peradeniya, 20400, Sri Lanka.
6
Department of Applied Earth Sciences, Uva Wellassa University,
Badulla, 90000, Sri Lanka.
7
National Water Supply and Drainage Board, Katugastota, 20800, Sri Lanka.
8
National Centre for Water Quality Research, National Institute of Fundamental Studies,
Kandy, 20000, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: yswei@rcees.ac.cn, TP: +86-10-62849690

Abstract: To provide the safe drinking water for the Chronic Kidney Disease of
Unknown (CKDu) Etiology prevailing areas in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, Reverse
Osmosis (RO) drinking water facilities has been introduced since last decade. In this
investigation, community-based organizations (CBO) established 101 RO drinking water
stations were examined. The water samples were collected from source, permeate and
concentrated in each RO system to determine the water quality and performance.
Furthermore, RO systems operators were interviewed to evaluate the operational and
maintenance practices to identify the major issues related to the RO systems. Source
water/groundwater electrical conductivity (EC) was varied from 232 µS/cm to 2430
µS/cm; pH varied from 7.1 to 8.3 and EC exceeded (>98% samples) the world health
organization’s (WHO) maximum allowable limits (MALs) at 400 µS/cm. Source water
cation analysis results showed that Ca2+ (3%), Mg2+ (34%), Ba2+ (1%) and Pb2+ (48.4%)
content exceeded the SLS and WHOs MALs for drinking water at 100 mg/L, 30 mg/L,
1300 µg/L, 10 µg/L, respectively. Permeate water quality showed all the metal ions
content bellow the MALs. The majority (> 80%) RO systems were having high salt
rejection (> 95%) while water recovery varied from 19.4% to 64%. Hardness and
alkalinity removal efficiency of the RO systems was averaged with removal rates 95.8%
and 86.6% respectively. Major cations such as Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Ba2+, Sr2+ and
Silicon (Si) were shown higher rejections and averaged 93.5%, 97.4%, 86.6%, 90.8%,
95.4%, 96.3% and 94.8%, respectively, trace elements concentration was low in feed
water and showed lower rejections. Low recovery rates and membrane fouling were
identified as main challenges, and lack of knowledge in operating and maintenance
practice shortened the lifetime of RO system and its accessories. Further, reject water
from the RO systems showed sodium absorption ratio (SAR) from 0.17 to 16.1, and 11%

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka
of the samples lied within the medium-risk sodium hazard category. There is a
possibility to use reject water as irrigation source water with proper SAR and salinity
control to avoid salinity accumulation in the soil with long-term.

Keywords: Reverse Osmosis; Drinking Water; Water Recovery; Ion Rejection; CKDu

Page | 38
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-189

EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON CKDU USING


ZEBRAFISH MODEL

Pan-Pan Jia, De-Sheng Pei*


Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Chongqing, 400714, China.
*Correspondence E-mail: peids@cigit.ac.cn

Abstract: The prevalent morbidity of chronic kidney disease with uncertain etiology
(CKDu) in Sri Lanka has attracted much attention. However, how environmental factors
potentially induce tissue damages in CKDu patients is still elusive. In this study, we
investigated the acute and chronic effects of several important environmental factors on
CKDu development using zebrafish model. For acute exposure experiments, the
environmental levels of hardness water and fluoride (HF: Hardness of Ca and Mg 800
mg/L and Fluoride 10 mg/L), heavy metals (HM: Al 600 μg/L and Cd 60 μg/L), and
MC-LR (20 μg/L), and the combined exposure groups (HFMM: HF+HM+MC-LR)
influenced the kidney development in Na, K-ATPase alpha1A4:GFP transgenic
zebrafish line. Moreover, chronic exposure (28 days) to adult zebrafish induced serious
kidney damages detected by the histopathology sections of kidney tissues. The
metabolic analysis, gene expression, and gut microbiota were also significantly altered
in female and male fish. Notably, the HF and combined exposure groups (HFMM)
induced more severe effects on zebrafish kidney damages and metabolic disruptions,
which may affect the kidney functions and development at adult stage, indicating that
the hardness and high fluoride in drinking water were the critical environmental risk
factors related to CKDu, and the combined effects of HF with other factors including
HM and MC-LR will increase the comprehensive toxicity to organisms, even after
chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (ERCs). Thus, we
suggested that the risk assessment of multiple environmental factors including F and Ca
in drinking water should be highly considered to avoid the potential health risks for
CKDu.

Keywords: CKDu; Environmental factors; Fluoride; Water hardness; Zebrafish

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

WaSo

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-204

DEVELOPING A LANDSAT MODEL TO ARGUMENT INSITU MONITORING OF


FRESH WATER LAKES IN UGANDA

E.K.Namakulaa, A.Gidudub RPD.Semyaloc,F.M. D’ujangad


a
Department of Physics, Makerere University- Uganda
b
Department of Geomatics and Land Management, Makerere University-Uganda
c
Department of Zoology, Entomology and Fisheries Sciences, Makerere University- Uganda
d
Department of Physics, Makerere University-Uganda
*
Correspondence Email.anthonygidudu@gmail.com Telephone: +256782017541

Abstract: The Lake Victoria basin supports a population of over 35 million with one of the
highest population growth rates (3.2%) in the world. The water quality of the Lake is
affected negatively by anthropogenic activities. Traditional insitu techniques are used to
provide accurate measurements on water quality changes, however it is not always possible
to make immediate observations over a large region due to high costs, labor-intensiveness
and environmental conditions. This paper investigated the use of Landsat 8 OLI sensor in
monitoring water quality in Lake Victoria. 39 stations were sampled for Chlorophyll-a and
lake surface temperature parameters of both in situ and Landsat8 OLI data on 12th -13th
March 2015 and 15th March 2015 respectively. OLI digital image corrected atmospherically
by QUAC obtained the first five bands for Chl-a and the 10 and 11 thermal bands for
temperature. Different models were used to estimate the parameters in the Lake from the
satellite after which band rationing was used to get the best bands to model Chl-a. The best
model had R2=0.696 and using the band ratios, a model was generated yielding a correlation
coefficient R2 of 0.806. The developed model was validated producing an R2 of 0.601 with a
RMSE of 1.8 µg/l. Band 10 among the thermal bands showed a better correlation of R 2 =
0.646 with a RMSE of 2.84 with the in-situ temperature. A standard model for temperature
using band 10 yielded R2 of 0.683 and on validation, the developed model had a coefficient
of determination of 0.617 and a RMSE of 0.003 0C. Conclusively, the research gives a good
correlation between the satellite data and in situ data making the use of Landsat imagery
possible in monitoring the water quality of Lake Victoria. More studies should be done to
investigate the applicability and consistency of the developed models for estimating the Chl-
a and lake surface temperature even on other water bodies.
Key words: Chlorophyll-a, Lake surface Temperature, Lake Victoria, Landsat8, Water
Quality

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-201

ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF LAND USE AND CLIMATE


CHANGES ON HYDROPOWER RELIABILITY: A CASE STUDY OF MUZIZI,
UGANDA

Hilary Keneth Bahati1*, Jotham Ivan Sempewo1, *


1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, P.O Box 7062,
Kampala, Uganda.
*Corresponding authors. E-mail: bken856@gmail.com/jsempewo@cedat.mak.ac.ug

ABSTRACT: Ugandan rivers are being tapped as a resource for generation of hydropower
in addition to other uses. Studies on the reliability of these hydropower plants due to climate
and land use/land cover changes on the hydrology of these rivers is scanty. Therefore, is
study aims at modelling the impact of the changing climate and land use/cover on
hydropower reliability to aid proper planning and management. The hydropower reliability
of River Muzizi catchment was determined from its past (1998 – 2010) and mid-century
(2042 – 2070) discharge at 75% and 90% exceedance probability under Representative
Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of 4.5 and 8.5 respectively. The past and projected
hydropower were compared to determine how future climate and land use changes will
impact the discharge and hydropower reliability of River Muzizi catchment. The mid-
century discharge was obtained by incorporating projected land use/cover (2070) and
projected climate (2042 – 2070) of the catchment in a calibrated and validated Soil and
Water Assessment Tool model (SWAT). The future land use/cover (2070) of the catchment
was obtained based on the Markov chain model in TerrSet software. Future climate was
downscaled from 29 Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase Five models following
the Agricultural Inter-comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) protocol for RCP 4.5
and 8.5 using the delta method. The results highlight that the generated energy at River
Muzizi will be less in 90% exceedance probabilities for all models as compared to 75% for
both RCPs in different ensembled models, for combined future effect of climate and land
use/cover changes. Energy utilities need to put in place mechanisms to effectively manage,
operate and maintain the hydropower plant amidst climate and land use change impacts, to
ensure reliability at all times.

Keywords: RCP, SWAT model, SWAT-Cup Sufi-2, Stream Flow, Flow Duration Curves,
hydro power potential.

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-220

INVESTIGATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MULTI-STACKED


FLOATING WETLANDS FOR LEACHATE TREATMENT IN A
CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT

M. A. I. A. Moragoda1, K. D. A. N. Kumarage 1, G. M. P. R. Weerakoon 1* and


M. I. M. Mowjood 2*
1
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya.
2
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya.
*Correspondence E-mail: prabhaw@eng.pdn.ac..lk, TP: +9471849467

Abstract: Leachate releasing from solid waste dump sites or sanitary landfills,
is rich in organic pollutants and heavy metals, contributes heavily in
contamination of water bodies. Therefore, it is necessary to treat the landfill
leachate appropriately up to the effluent standards, before releasing them in to
the environment. Constructed wetlands have been identified as an appropriate
technology for wastewater treatment in tropical developing countries. However,
despite many advantages the large land area requirement and the impacts of
outdoor environmental conditions have been identified as major limitations for
application of this technology at many places. Therefore, this study has been
focused on reducing the land area requirement by designing a multi-stacked
floating wetland system. The experimental set-up had three multi-stacked
wetland systems, each containing 3 units of 32 cm x 52 cm x 28 cm (length:
width: height) in size stacked one over the other and planted with Eichhornia
Crassipes (common water hyacinth). Two of them were placed inside a
greenhouse, while the remaining system was kept outside the greenhouse in
open environment. One of the system kept inside the greenhouse was set with a
supplementary lighting arrangement. All three units were fed with synthetic
leachate to achieve a 60 cm/day hydraulic loading rate (HLR). Results showed
that the wetland system kept inside the greenhouse with supplementary lighting
had a significant positive impact in removing BOD5, COD, TOC, Pb, Cu and Zn
with average removal efficiencies of 77.4%, 79.1%, 97.9%, 89%, 89.3% and
87.7%, respectively.

Keywords: Artificial red lights; floating constructed wetlands; heavy metals;


greenhouse conditions; leachate treatment

Page | 43
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-215

ACCESS TO WATER IN RHINO REFUGEE SETTLEMENT CAMP IN


ARUA DISTRICT, UGANDA.

DKZ Gubeka, RPD Semyalo*, b, R Nalwangab, GO On’gamoc, DW Bategad,


J Okot-Okumua
a
Department of Environmental Management, Makerere University- Uganda.
b
Department of Zoology, Entomology and Fisheries Sciences, Makerere University-
Uganda.
c
School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi- Kenya.
d
Department of Sociology, Makerere University- Uganda.
*
Correspondence Email. ronald.semyalo@gmail.com, Telephone: +256701601797

Abstract: Water supplies must be both safe and acceptable, although quantity
may take precedent over quality in terms of delivering extensive health benefits,
including those linked to hygiene. This study aimed to assess the community
accessibility of domestic water in the camp. Secondary data was reviewed, Key
informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted, 199 refugee
households were randomly interviewed using structured questionnaires;
parameters (pH, temp, turbidity, EC, TDS, Hardness, phosphates, sulphates,
nitrates, iron, enterococcus, total and thermo tolerant coliforms) from different
water sources were tested. Results showed sources were spatially distributed
around the densely populated (>280 people/source) communities. Tank 54% and
21% were the available sources; and 52% and 33% responded available drinking
water source in Ofua and Tika. Average household size is 8 people/household
accessing 2(20L) jerry can/household/day. Per capita consumption is 10.1
liters/person/day. Household’s contaminations (58.35 TC, 50% TTC and 46%
enterococcus) and tanks (80% TC, 60% TTC and enterococcus). 2 boreholes in
Tika showed TDS levels (926 and 806 NTU) and EC (1850 and 1629 µs/cm);
one borehole showed turbidity (8 mg/l) higher than WHO and UNBS
permissible levels. In conclusions, Tanks being source used have no water
throughout the day due to influx; Tanks, boreholes and household storages
presented high microbial contaminations. Increased awareness and continuous
monitoring of the sources needed; hence ensure safe supply of water for all.

Keywords: drinking water; water source quality; refugees; microbial


contaminations

Page | 44
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-124

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADSORBENT MATERIAL FOR REMOVING


NATURAL ORGANIC MATERIALS FROM WATER
H. K. T. M. Herath1*, M. K. D. D. S. Meegoda1 , K. G. N. Nanayakkara1,
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka * E-mail:tmherath95@gmail.com, TP: +94719697711

Abstract: Humic acid (HA) is the most prevailing component of Humic


substances in total organic carbon (TOC) which is the main fraction of
natural organic matter (NOM) in water sources. Studies in many regions
of Sri Lanka showed that the TOC levels are higher than the desirable level
of 2 mg/l. Even though the presence of NOM higher than the tolerable
level may affect the quality of water, there is no treatment procedure
carried out other than the conventional treatment process. Due to the low
efficiency of conventional treatment processes in removing NOM, ad
sorption is proposed as a cost-effective, efficient, and simple technique that
overcomes the draw backs of other techniques. Chitosan is an excellent
natural, biodegradable, and abundant adsorbent material. In this research,
raw chitosan beads and chitosan/hydroxyapatite (Hap) composite beads
made with chitosan powder, eggshells, and poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG),
were used to investigate and compare the removal efficiencies of the
adsorbent and performance in removing HA. A zero-point charge (pHzpc)
study was conducted to characterize the adsorbent materials. Further, the
behaviour of the materials with humic acid at neutral pH was investigated
using the effect of the contact time, the adsorbent dosage on the removal
efficiencies of raw and modified chitosan adsorbents. Moreover, Kinetic
studies and isotherm studies were conducted for adsorbents by using a
synthetic wastewater sample at neutral pH. A removal efficiency of 74%,
60%, and removal capacity of 1.37mg/g, 1.11mg/g was achieved for raw
and modified chitosan mate rials, respectively.

Keywords: Adsorption; Chitosan; Humic Acid; Hydroxyapatite

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-212

VARIATION OF COPPER ADSORPTION WITH INITIAL PH AND


PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE BY SAW DUST AND PADDY HUSK
BIOCHAR MADE IN AN INDUSTRIAL TYPE PYROLIZER

H. M. P. Wijeyawardana1, 2, Biplob Pramanik1, A.K. Karunarathne3, Chamila


Gunasekara1, David Law1, K. G. N. Nanayakkara2, *
1
School of Engineering, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia
2
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
3
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: kgnn@pdn.ac.lk, TP: +9471 3008007

Abstract: Prevalence of copper (II) ions (Cu2+) is one of the widely spread
heavy metals in the environment causing ecological and human health risk.
Among the conventional methods of Cu2+ removal, adsorption is observed as the
most favorable. Biochar, a product of pyrolysis, has a relatively structured
carbon matrix with high degree of porosity and extensive surface area, like
activated carbon suggesting its suitability to be used as an adsorbent material. In
this study, biochar was synthesized using an industrial type reactor and low-cost
agricultural waste materials; saw dust and paddy husk as feedstocks. Six sets of
biochar were made adhering to three temperature ranges: 350-4500C, 450-5500C
and 550-6500C with a resident time of 30 minutes. Further, the effect of solution
pH on the adsorption of Cu was tested. All the biochar materials exhibit similar
trend of maximizing adsorptive removal at pH=6. At lower pH values the
surface charge of the biochar materials could be positive creating unfavorable
grounds for Cu2+ removal. As pH increases above 6.5, Cu2+ precipitates as
Cu(OH)2 lowering the amount of soluble Cu2+ in the solution. Thus, the
negative adsorptive removal efficiencies can be observed at the pH values above
6. The trend followed the shape of a maximum graph for almost all biochar
materials where the removal maximizes at 450-5500C pyrolysis temperature as
lower temperatures favor more functional groups while the higher temperatures
favor the development of higher specific surface area. At most pH values, the
saw dust biochar shows higher removal percentage compared to the paddy husk
biochar. Hence, a positive indication of Cu removal is present at lower pH
values. The kinetics follow the pseudo-second order model suggesting that
chemisorption is dominant. However, isotherms of adsorption, surface
characterization of the materials, tests for leaching of adsorbed pollutants must
be performed before field applications are done with the developed biochar
materials.

Keywords: Adsorption; Biochar; Copper; Slow Pyrolysis; Saw dust; Paddy husk

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-210

DEVELOPMENT OF A COMBINED ELECTROCOAGULATION AND


ELECTROCHEMICAL OXIDATION REACTOR FOR TREATING
SERVICE STATION EFFLUENT

B. U. Kaushalya1, R. Inthushan 1, M. A. C. R. Mallikaarachchi 1, K. G. N.


Nanayakkara1*
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya,
Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: kgnn@pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94(0)812393574

Abstract: Effluents generated from service stations contain several categories of


pollutants such as detergents, oil and grease, organic materials, and heavy
metals. Most of the literature suggests the electrochemical methods as effective
and sustainable methods to treat such wastewater. This research focuses on
removing total suspended solids (TSS), oil and grease (O&G), and chemical
oxygen demand (COD) from both synthetic and actual service station
wastewater samples by using an electrochemical cell carrying a novel anode. An
aluminium anode was used to support electrocoagulation (EC), while a copper-
plated graphite anode was used to support electrochemical oxidation (EO). Two
separate batch reactors were tested initially for individual EC and EO
efficiencies of treating the targeted pollutants for 40 minutes of reaction time
under a current density of 30 mA/cm2. The EO efficiencies of removing TSS,
O&G, and COD were increased by 21%, 56.3%, and 29.2%, respectively, from
the modification of graphite by copper-plating. The efficiency study of the
combined reactor with both EC and EO anodes was carried out under two
approaches, i.e., the constant current study and constant time study, in order to
investigate the optimum operating conditions. TSS, O&G, and COD removal
efficiencies of 100%, 100%, and 99.4% were achieved respectively under a
reaction time of 60 minutes at a constant current density of 20 mA/cm2 for
synthetic wastewater. The efficiency study of the electrochemical cell carried
out under the optimum operating conditions for actual service station effluent
resulted in TSS and O&G removal of 100% and COD removal of >99%.
Therefore, the developed combined reactor carrying novel electrodes can be
suggested as an efficient treatment method for the treatment of service station
effluent.

Keywords: Advanced Oxidation; Electrochemical Oxidation;


Electrocoagulation; Oil and Grease; Service Station Wastewater

Page | 47
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-208

ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE/LAND COVER (LULC) CHANGES AND


URBAN GROWTH DYNAMICS USING REMOTE SENSING IN DHAKA
CITY, BANGLADESH

Md.Sajib Hossain1*, Mafizur Rahman 1


1
Department of Civil Engineering,Bangladesh University of Engineering and
Technology, Dhaka-1000,Bangladesh..
*Correspondence E-mail: sajib.buet.ce@gmail.com, TP: +88 01770802348

Abstract: Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh is considered one of the main
economic drivers of the country that contributes a significant amount to the
nation’s economy. Consequently, the city failed to cope with the increasing
demand for accommodation, industrial and infrastructure development, which
caused rapid and haphazard development in and around the city. As land is
considered a finite resource, the proper use of it should not be underestimated.
As a result, understanding the growth pattern of urban areas is of immense
importance in urban planning. By applying remote sensing techniques, a series
of spatiotemporal changes can be observed to identify possible ecologically
sensitive areas. The study identified the spatiotemporal LULC pattern and
measured the built-up dynamics and the growth intensity index of Dhaka and its
nearby areas within 5 km using remote sensing techniques. The supervised
classification technique was applied to classify the images into six different
classes namely built-up, sandfill/barren land, water-body, vegetation, wetland
and agricultural land. The study suggests that over the study period the built-up
and sandfill/barren land have increased by 67% and 679%. As a result of vast
demand for accommodation, primarily lowlands and agricultural land around the
city are sand-filled to facilitate building new satellite towns like Purbachal,
Uttara 3rd phase, Jhilmil and Jalshiri. In terms of the degree of dynamism and
annual intensity index, peripheral cities like Kaliganj and Bandar showed the
highest degree of change in the study period, which signifies faster urbanization
in those areas. This study, therefore, will help us understand the built-up
dynamics especially in the peripheral regions of Dhaka city and will also help
planners to make better decisions.

Keywords: Remote Sensing; Land use/ land cover (LULC) change; Dhaka;
Urbanization

Page | 48
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-205

RICE STRAW AS AN EXTERNAL CARBON SOURCE IN HORIZONTAL


SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR LANDFILL
LEACHATE TREATMENT

Tharaniya J., Weerakoon G.M.P.R.*, Jinadasa K.B.S.N


Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: prabhaw@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94812393577

Abstract: Landfill leachate generates from solid waste dump sites and sanitary
landfills contain various types of concentrated pollutants including organic
contaminants, nutrients and heavy metals. Constructed wetlands (CWs) have
been recognized as a relatively efficient and reliable technology for the
treatment of variety of point and non-point sources of water pollution, especially
at tertiary level. However, one of the constraints for efficient nitrogen removal in
CWs is the inadequacy of sufficient carbon source for effective de-nitrification,
which is one of the main nitrogen removal mechanisms. Thus, this study
investigated the influence of rice straw as an external carbon source for the
enhancement of de-nitrification in horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs.
Four laboratory scale HSSF CW units of size 100 cm x 50 cm x 60 cm (length x
width x height), were prepared with gravel (10 – 20 mm) as the main wetland
media and planted with umbrella palm (Cyperus alternifolius). Three HSSF
wetland units had different volume based rice straw layers (10%, 15% and 20%)
at 10 cm from the inlet zone of the wetland unit, while the remaining was kept as
the control without adding rice straw. All four wetland units fed with pre-treated
synthetic leachate by a vertical subsurface flow CW, at 28 cm/day hydraulic
loading rate (HLR). Wastewater samples from the influent and effluent of each
wetland units were collected and analyzed for five-day biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N),
ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total organic carbon (TOC).
Results showed that 15% rice-straw system had the best overall performances of
78%, 78.4%, 86.8%, 59.2% and 60.8% of BOD5, COD, TOC, TN and NH4-N
removal efficiencies respectively, even though the 10% rice straw system had
the highest TN removal efficiency of 62.4%. These results reveal that rice straw
has a positive impact in nitrogenous pollutant removal in HSSF CWs.

Keywords: Constructed wetlands; external Carbon source; horizontal


subsurface flow, rice straw, synthetic landfill leachate.

Page | 49
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-203

MBBR FOR TREATING COMBINED DAIRY WASTEWATER AND


LANDFILL LEACHATE

W.A.P.P. Rathnayake1, G.B.B. Herath2*


1
Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Faulty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri
Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: gemunuh@gmail.com, TP: +94773689838

Abstract: MBBR is a growing technology for wastewater treatment. It


incorporates benefits provided by both attached and suspended growth systems.
Most of the biomass is attached to plastic carrier media that move freely along
with the water in the reactor. In this study, aerobic and anaerobic MBBR was
combined with a constructed wetland. The study investigated the effectiveness
of a combined anaerobic MBBR followed by aerobic MBBR system in treating
combined dairy wastewater and landfill leachate, a lab scale combined treatment
system was operated in steady and continuous flow condition. The mixed feed
wastewater had a COD value of 2-2.5 g l-1. In order to accelerate the
stabilization, bacterial inoculation was done at first. Initially the COD reduction
in both reactors was observed to be poor due to low bacteria population.
However over time the efficiency of each reactor was improved and the
stabilized conditions were achieved. This MBBR system takes around 30 days to
reach the stabilized stage. The ammonia removal rate too was poor at the first
two weeks but the efficiency was gradually improved. The constructed wetland
was combined not only as a tertiary treatment step but also for bio solid
reduction. During the 30 day short start-up period, treatment efficiency of the
system developed into a stabilized level with optimum food to microorganism
ratio, facilitating further experiments.

Keywords: High strength wastewater; landfill leachate; MBBR; constructed


wetland

Page | 50
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-202

MODIFIED SAWDUST IN ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM


TEXTILE EFFLUENT

W.A.G.T.N. Gunawardhana 1, W.S.M.S.K. Wijerathna 1, W.C.T.K. Gunawardana


1*
, K. Kawamoto2
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya,
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
2
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama Japan.
*Correspondence E-mail: chandimag@pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94812393569

Abstract: Cr(III) adsorption from textile industrial effluent was studied with the
aim of contributing towards achieving targets of SDG 6 (Sustainable
Development Goals). Highly toxic effluent discharge from textile industries
cause the majority of the pollution of waterways which is due to the
unaffordability of the existing effluent treatment techniques. Proven efficiency
of modified sawdust to adsorb heavy metals could be a sustainable solution as
an abundantly available industrial byproduct of sawdust. Biochar derived from
sawdust by pyrolizing at 400°C was further modified using 0.1 M KOH or 0.1
M H2O2 solutions separately. Batch experiments conducted using synthetic
Cr(III) aqueous solution in neutral pH condition indicated an equilibrium contact
time of 1 hour with optimum initial Cr(III) concentration of 5 mg/L with 1 g and
2 g of adsorbent dosages for KOH and H2O2 modified biochars respectively
under single solute system. Further competitive Cr(III) adsorption with the
presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) were examined through batch studies. Results
indicated that Cr(III) adsorption was favored in pH base range when examined
under multi-metal system along with Cu(II) and Zn(II). Adsorption capacities
were increased with the physical and chemical modifications. The physical
characterization carried out using Specific Surface Area (SSA) analysis showed
a 97.9% increase of SSA when raw sawdust was modified into biochar. KOH
and H2O2 modifications had further increased the SSA of biochar by 37.8% and
51.5% respectively. X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the
removal of impurities in adsorbents after physical and chemical modifications
while the Point of Zero Charge (pHpzc) analysis established the favorability of
using a neutral pH in the solution media. Heavy metal removal percentages were
observed as 97.5% and 94.1% for KOH modified biochar and H2O2 modified
biochar under optimum conditions. Findings suggest that the higher SSA and
stability of the added functional groups lead the KOH modification to sawdust
derived biochar to be an efficient, environmental friendly adsorbent which could
be used in treatment of heavy metals in industrial effluent. Further chemical
characterizations using SEM and FTIR analyses could be recommended to
evaluate the surface properties of the adsorbents.

Keywords: Adsorption; Sawdust; Biochar; Physical & Chemical modification;


Heavy metal

Page | 51
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-048
APPLICATION OF GIS AND PIPE NETWORK MODELLING FOR WATER
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

P.D.P.O.Peramuna 1*, A.P.U.M. Pathirana 1, H.K.Nandalal 1


Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
1

*Correspondence E-mail: oshini.peramuna@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94717007190

Abstract: Most of the countries use pipe networks to provide water in good quality,
to meet the demand with acceptable pressure to people while conserving the amount of
water remaining in the planet and one of the main problems of such networks are the
leakages. Hence, it is of utmost importance to effectively model these water
distribution network for effective operation and maintenance. Thereafter, it is possible
to find out the rehabilitation and renovation models for these water networks. Thus,
one of the objectives of the research is to identify the failure patterns of the pipe
network.
This study is based on physical parameters of a pipe network such as pipe age, pipe
diameter, pipe material and pipe length and operational parameters like water pressure
and burst record history. Thottipallama water distribution network which is situated in
the Kandy Municipal area is used as a study area in this research since a high record of
pipe breaks are reported from this area. The methodology is developed to locate the
water network spatially using Geographic Information System (GIS), including the
information from the hydraulic model developed in WaterGEMs software and to
predict the prominent failure patterns using GIS. By identifying the failure pipes of the
pipe network, a rehabilitation model can be formulated prioritizing those failure pipes.
The model used for the research can be used in planning and managing the
rehabilitation of the water distribution networks. Furthermore, this methodology can be
extended to the water distribution networks in other districts in Sri Lanka to identify
the rehabilitation priority.

Keywords: water distribution network, pipe leakages, pipe break history, GIS,
WaterGEMs, Artificial Neural Network

Page | 52
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-206

THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELLNG OF FLOW IN A STIRRED TANK


WITH PITCHED BLADE IMPELLER

P.S.Weerasinghe , S.B.Weerakoon
1* 1

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya.
*Correspondence E-mail: piyuwickramasinghe00@gmail.com, TP: +94716459055

Abstract: In many industries such as food processing, waste water treatment,


mineral and chemical processing, mixing of single phase and multiphase flows
is accomplished by mechanically agitated stirred tanks. Efficient mixing of
liquids in stirred tank is very important in industrial applications by raising the
kinetic energy of fluid using an appropriately designed rotating impeller. The
efficiency of energy transfer depends on number of geometric, flow and fluid
properties, among these, impeller geometry is a key geometric parameter. In this
study, the efficiency of pitched blade impellers used in stirred tanks are
investigated under different blade angles by CFD application using ANSYS
FLUENT 17.2 software. The model was validated using published data and
applied to investigate the flow in a flat bottom, baffled stirred tank of 0.6 m
inner diameter (D) stirred by a six blade pitched blade impeller. Conservation
equations were solved with LES model using the sliding mesh method. For the
pitched blade impeller rotating at 16.33 rpm corresponding to 1.15 x 105
Reynolds number, dimensionless power number and pumping efficiency
parameter were computed with blade angles of 300, 450, 600 and 900 to
investigate the energy efficiency and the mixing efficiency. Simulated power
number for different blade angles show good agreement with the experimental
results. It is shown that the efficient mixing can be achieved by decreasing the
blade angle of the pitched blade impeller.

Keywords: blade angle; pumping efficiency; pitched blade impeller; stirred tank;

Page | 53
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-207

PERFORMANCE OF VERTICAL SUB-SURFACE FLOW


CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR GREYWATER TREATMENT:
IMPACT OF GREENHOUSE TECHNOLOGY

M. N. S. Dayarathna , G. M. P. R. Weerakoon* , J. A. Odhiambo , M. I. M.


1 2 3

Mowjood 1

Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya.


1

2
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya
School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya
3

*prabhaw@pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94812393577

Abstract: Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been identified as eco-friendly and


cost-effective technique for treating domestic wastewater in recent decades.
However, design requirement of large land area, vulnerable to the extreme
weather conditions, pest and disease attacks etc. are highlighted as some
constraints for application of CWs at many places. Therefore, present study
evaluated the impact of greenhouse conditions on performance of vertical
subsurface flow (VSSF) CWs treating synthetic grey water. The experimental
setup consists with eight VSSF wetland units of size 45 cm x 65 cm (diameter x
height), filled with 8-10 mm sized gravel as the bed media and planted with four
shoots of locally available emergent macrophyte, California Bulrush (Scirpus
californicus). Four of these wetland units were kept inside a greenhouse while
the remaining four units were kept outside the greenhouse. All eight wetland
units were fed with synthetically produced greywater at 30 cm/day hydraulic
loading rate (HLR). After an acclimatizing period of four weeks, water samples
were collected from the influent and effluents of each wetland unit at one-week
interval and water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC),
five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS),
total nitrogen (TN), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and
total organic carbon (TOC) were measured. Further, plant growth measurements
with respect to plant height and number of shoots were also monitored during
the study period. Results showed that VSSF CWs kept inside the greenhouse had
significantly reduced BOD5 and TOC with average removal efficiencies of 85%
and 91%, respectively, compared to outside VSSF wetland systems which had
average removal efficiencies of 74% and 69% for BOD5 and TOC, respectively.
However, even though both inside and outside VSSF wetland systems had
removed TSS, TN, NO3-N and NH4-N effectively, there were no significant
difference between two systems. This could be due to the observed similar plant
growth (average plant height and shoot number) in outside system (114 cm, 4)
and inside system (117 cm, 3).

Keywords: greenhouse conditions; Scirpus californicus; synthetic greywater;


vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands

Page | 54
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-211

REVIEW ON DEVELOPMENT OF MODULAR ROOF PANELS

S.S. Bandaranayake1, J.C.P.H. Gamage2


1Undergraduate Student, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
2Senior Lecturer, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: sathsub06@gmail.com, TP: +94774813377

Abstract: Modular panels (sandwich panels) promote optimal solutions to some


major issues prevailing in the construction industry such as increased energy
consumption by building elements, excessive disposal of constructional waste,
unproductive time spent during construction etc. Hence the inclination towards
sandwich elements has been increased vastly deviating from conventional
building construction materials and methods. However, the potentiality of using
locally available natural materials for the development of sandwich panels is a
salient sustainable approach that needs to be addressed. This study evaluates the
current and potential materials used in modular panels and key properties of
sandwich panels including mechanical properties, thermal insulation properties
and sound insulation properties. Moreover various test methods followed, and
standards specified to investigate the mechanical, thermal and acoustic
insulation
properties are also discussed.

Keywords: Modular panels; Roofing materials; Thermal comfort; Shear;


Sustainable materials

Page | 55
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-213

THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF FLOW IN A VERTICAL


SLOT FISHWAY

H.M.P.M. Hitihamu1*, D.M. Pananwala 1, S.B. Weerakoon


1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
*E-mail: prasadi.hitihamu@eng.pdn.ac.lk , TP: +94719011467

Abstract: The flow characteristics of fishways constructed to facilitate fish


migration bypassing barriers in rivers, depend on the fishway geometry and
the layout. Hence, the selection of the baffles and pools arrangement within
the channel is essential for an optimum design of a fishway. In this study,
the suitability of flow characteristics of vertical slot fishway (VSF) with
selected geometric design was assessed by both experimental study and
numerical modelling. Three - dimensional computational fluid dynamic
model was developed by using ANSYS CFX 17.2 software. Model
validation was done based on the water depth and velocity measurements
obtained from laboratory experiments. Suitability of flow characteristics
were assessed for increasing slopes by developing CFD models for 7%, 9%,
11% and 13% slope cases. It was found that the maximum values of velocity,
turbulent kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate in the fishway occur at
the slots and they increase with the increasing slope. The low velocity pool
volumes corresponding to each slope were computed to assess the adequacy
of the resting zones for fish. The study concludes that the pool length of the
VSF could be 43% larger than the recommended values with the fishway
slope up to 13%, while ensuring favourable flow conditions for fish pas
sage to economize the VSF design.

Keywords: Vertical slot fishway; CFD model; Velocity; Low velocity pool volume

Page | 56
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-214

TWO – DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF FLOW IN RANTAMBE


RESERVOIR FOR SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT

W.M.D.M. Wasala 1*, R.M.C.B. Rathnasiri 1, S.B. Weerakoon 1


1
Department of civil engineering, University of Peradeniya, Srilanka
*E-mail: dmwasala1994@gmail.com, TP: +94711616727

Abstract: Sediment accumulation in reservoirs reduces reservoir capacities


and expected benefits from reservoir projects. This is especially prominent
in small reservoirs built across rivers carry ing high sediment loads.
Rantambe reservoir built across the Mahaweli river just downstream of the
Randenigala reservoir is one of the reservoirs severely affected by
sedimentation. The original capacity of the reservoir was 11.5 MCM in
1990 and in 2014 the capacity was 6.14 MCM. Randenigala reservoir
releases and the flow of the Uma-Oya tributary are the main sources of the
Rantambe reservoir, and the Uma-Oya tributary carries large sediment load
to the reservoir annually. Flushing of sediment is carried out using the two
bottom outlets each with an area of 9.7 m2 during the flood season, though
it is not adequate to restore the reservoir capacity. This study focuses on
investigating the potential of reducing the sediment entering into the
reservoir from the Uma-Oya during the flood season using a sediment
bypass tunnel which originates from a low weir built across the Uma-Oya.
A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model was set up, flow patterns and bed
shear stress were analyzed. For calibration of the model, simulated
velocities were compared with the measured velocities. The model was
validated with Manning’s roughness coefficient of 0.03. The model was
then applied introducing a low weir and a bypass tunnel. The bed shear and
velocities increase in Uma-Oya, and the flow is directed towards to the
tunnel. There is a 18% increment in the area of high bed shear stress to
erode the deposited sediments compared to the condition under current
practice of flushing under same conditions. This proposed sediment bypass
tunnel is an effective technique to control the sediment management of the
Rantambe reservoir.

Keywords: Reservoir sedimentation; Sediment bypass tunnel; Rantambe reservoir

Page | 57
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-216

ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY USING WATER


QUALITY INDEX (WQI) AND GIS IN DHAKA CITY

Mafizur Rahman1, Rafina Tanzim 2, Simlia Satter Songi 2


1
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of
Engineering
and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2
BSc, Department of Environment, Water resources and Coastal Engineering,
Military Institute of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
E-mail: mafizur@gmail.com 1, rafinatanzim@gmail.com 2,
simliasongi@gmail.com 3

Abstract:
The requirement for fresh water in Dhaka city is rapidly increasing with
the abundant amount of ongoing development projects in the region.
Therefore for both urban and rural environments groundwater is an
essential physical resource for the consistent potable water supply. The
water can efficiently be collected by deep wells or shallow wells and
served to the proximate population without any necessary treatment. Dhaka
is one of the most crowded cities and for this type of city without the
proper identification of water quality, the efficient groundwater utilization,
planning and management is impossible. The aim of this research is to
evaluate the groundwater quality of Dhaka city in Bangladesh based on the
water quality index (WQI) by geographic information system (GIS). WQI
is a technique to assess water quality and assure sustainable safe
application of water for drinking purposes. The concentration of seven
parameters named pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), hardness, chloride,
turbidity, iron and nitrate were considered. Inverse Distance Weighted
(IDW) spatial interpolation technique has been applied to estimate the
spatial distribution of the ground water parameters and WQI. The WQI
idea is founded on the comparison of the water quality parameters with
individual regulatory measures and gives a single number that indicates
overall water quality at specific locations based on various water quality
parameters. In this study the value of WQI varies from 35 to 79 which
indicates that the most of areas are between GOOD to EXCELLENT
quality of water. Index map for groundwater quality shows that the
groundwater in all the locations of the selected area is good enough for
drinking and household purposes. The overall view of the WQI of the
present area shows that about 90% of the total area having ‘GOOD’ quality
of water and 10% area having ‘EXCELLENT’ quality of water.

Keywords: Groundwater; Quality Parameters; Water Quality Index; GIS;


Dhaka city

Page | 58
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-217

REMOVAL OF MERCURY IN WASTEWATER USING BACTERIA


ORIGINATED FROM WASTEWATER OF AN AUTOMOBILE
SERVICE STATION

B.H.M.I.A.Abeykoon , C.S.Kalpage , W.C.T.K.Gunawadena


1* 2 1

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya.


1

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Peradeniya.


2

*Correspondence E-mail: indeewaria@yahoo.com, TP: +94777105957

Abstract: Mercury, one of the most toxic heavy metals is considered a


significant environmental contaminant. Bio-remediation of Mercury is an
economic and sustainable mode of removing Mercury from the environment. In
this study, the ability of bacteria to remove Mercury from wastewater was
examined with the use of a mixed bacterial culture originated in the service
wastewater tank of Automobile Service Station, Aruppola, Kandy. Mixed
culture of bacteria had been prepared by dissolving 5.0 ml of sludge taken from
the Service wastewater tank, in 20.0ml of sterile distilled water and was
inoculated on a Nutrient Agar plate. Four species of bacteria: Klebsiella oxytoca,
Pseudomonas stutzeri, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterococcus faecium were
identified in the mixed bacterial culture. Mercury removal studies were carried
out using Nutrient broth media containing 5 mgL-1 of Hg2+. Bacteria culture
showed Mercury removal of 18.6%, 57.1% and 86% from the medium after 48,
72 and 96 hours respectively, after incubation at 370C. The mixed culture
showed an optimum Mercury removal at pH 7.0 under 370C incubation for a
period of 48 hours. The original sludge sample contained 17 mg/kg of Hg2+ at
pH 7.84. This study suggests the applicability of using mixed bacterial cultures
that originate in Automobile service wastewater, for the removal of Mercury
from Hg2+ contaminated wastewater.

Keywords: Mercury; Service station wastewater; Bio-extraction; Mercury


tolerance

Page | 59
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-218

IDENTIFICATION OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL ZONES OF


DHAKA CITY USING GIS

Md. Mafizur Rahman1, Simlia Satter Songi 2, Rafina Tanzim 3


1
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of
Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2
B.Sc., Department of Environment, Water resources and Coastal Engineering,
Military Institute of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
3
B.Sc., Department of Environment, Water resources and Coastal Engineering,
Military Institute of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
E-mail: mafizur@gmail.com , simliasongi@gmail.com , rafinatanzim@gmail.com
1 2 3

Abstract:
Groundwater is the most fundamental natural resource of the earth which
supports human civilization. It is used as a reliable source of water supply
irrespective of the climate. Due to its longer duration within the ground,
low level of contamination, wide distribution, and availability within the
reach of the end user, it is considered as the preferred source of water for
meeting domestic, industrial and agricultural requirements. Now-a-days, its
demand is rapidly increasing with growing population, agricultural
expansion and industrialization. Dhaka is an extremely populated city and
exclusively depends on groundwater as a source of quality drinking
water. Compared to the exploitation of groundwater, the recharge to
aquifer is extremely negligible because the geological settings and
urbanization has retarded both the vertical and horizontal recharges.
Detailed knowledge regarding groundwater recharge potential is a pre-
requisite for sustainable groundwater management, including the
assessment of its vulnerability to contamination by pollutants. For
modelling and mapping of groundwater resources remote sensing and
Geographical Information System (GIS) have been widely used. The
purpose of the study is to delineate the groundwater potential zones of
Dhaka city using integrated use of remote sensing and GIS. To achieve this
objective, parameters such as rainfall, slope, aspect, soil, land use land
cover and drainage density were used. The groundwater potential zones
were obtained by overlaying all thematic maps in terms of weighted
overlay methods using the spatial analysis tool in ArcGIS. Different
parameters of each thematic map were ranked by assigning weights
according to the influence to categorize the potential zones as very good,
good, moderate and poor zones with the area of 0.026km2, 11.78km2,
168.83km2and 111.52km2respectively. This study will be useful for the
local authorities, researchers, decision makers, and planners in formulating
better planning and management of groundwater resources in Dhaka city.

Keywords: Remote Sensing; ArcGIS; Groundwater; Potential Zones;


Weighted Overlay

Page | 60
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-221

TREATMENT OF RICE MILL WASTEWATER USING MICROALGAE.

K. Kirujika1*, G. M. P. R. Weerakoon1, B. Ketheesan2


1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.
2

*Correspondence E-mail:kirujika@gmail.com, TP: +94775480535

Abstract: Wastewater produced in rice mills contain high concentrations of organic and
inorganic contaminants, and the major issue in Sri Lanka is the discharge of rice mill
wastewater (RMWW) into the environment without any prior treatment. Therefore, there is
a critical need for investigating appropriate and adoptable techniques for treatment of
RMWW. Microalgae based treatment technique is one of an appropriate alternative to
address this problem. This study evaluated the feasibility of RMWW treatment using green
microalgae. First, a Native algal strain, (Chlorella sp.) was isolated from freshwater sources
and cultured in the BG-11 media. Then, RMWW was collected from a rice mill at
Kilinochchi, Sri Lanka (9°24'17.2"N 80°23'55.7"E) and the characteristics such as pH,
electrical conductivity (EC), temperature (TOC), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrite (NO2-),
nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured. The
isolated Chlorella sp were grown in wastewater medium with the initial microalgae optical
density (OD) of 1.3.This experiment was conducted in semi batch mode for 7 days
continuously with constant light intensity (200µmol photons m-2s-1) and constant mixing to
optimize the algal growth and nutrient removal, in triplicate. During the incubation period,
100 mL sample was withdrawn daily from each semi batch reactor and centrifuged at 3000
rpm for 20 min. Then NO2-, NO3-, PO43-, COD, OD, pH, T, EC were measured in the
supernatant. Results showed removal efficiencies up to 88%, 89%, 89% and 87% for NO2-,
NO3-, PO43-, and COD respectively within 7 days cultivation period. Further, this study
confirmed the feasibility of cultivating Chlorella sp. in RMWW medium. This finding,
reveals the ability of mass culturing of Chlorella sp. in RMWW for recovering nutrients
while reducing the pollution on environment; with less capital investment compared to
conventional wastewater treatment techniques.

Key words: Chlorella sp.; green algae; nutrient removal; rice mill wastewater treatment;
semi batch reactor.

Page | 61
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-126

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADSORBENT MATERIAL TO REMOVE


FLUORIDE FROM WATER

N.K.L.C. Rupasinghe1, S.M.A.E. Senanayake1*, K.G.N. Nanayakkara1,


1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
*E-mail: aroshisen@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94717701327

Abstract: Groundwater is a scarce commodity in Sri Lanka where it


fulfills more than 80% of rural drinking water supply-demand. Dental
fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and kidney diseases are commonly observed in
most parts of rural areas due to the presence of fluoride in groundwater at
harmful levels (>1mg/L). The conventional water treatment process has
failed to ensure safety level of fluoride in water before consumption.
Adsorption is one of the widely used methods of removing fluoride due to
its effectiveness, low cost, and availability of a wide range of
adsorbents. Chitosan is a low-cost biopolymer used as a biosorbent for
fluoride removal. In this study, Chi tosan - biochar composite beads were
prepared to compare its effectiveness against raw chitosan in removal of
fluoride from synthetic fluoride solution. Chitosan and sawdust-biochar
were converted into bead form and they were chemically modified via
crosslinking followed by protonation. The effect of adsorbent dosage,
initial fluoride concentration, and contact time were investigated by
conducting batch experiments in neutral pH at room temperature. Fluoride
sorption equilibrium was reached after 1 hour for modified chitosan with
excellent removal efficiency more than 90% whereas raw chitosan
indicated a very low removal efficiency of 16% after 2 hours of reaching
the equilibrium. At 90% removal, the final fluoride content was recorded at
0.5 mg/L and it is well below 1mg/L which is required as per Sri Lankan
Standards for Potable Water (SLS 614:2013). Therefore, the developed
sorbent material gives promising results in removing fluoride from water.

Keywords: Adsorption; Chitosan; Composite; Crosslinking; Fluoride; Sawdust.

Page | 62
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-054

APPLICABILITY OF CHIRPS RAINFALL DATA FOR


DATA SCARCE AREAS IN SRI LANKA

Thilina Gurusinghe 1*, K.D.W. Nandalal 2


1
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya,Peradeniya
2
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya,Peradeniya
* thilina.guru.mwsip@gmail.com, TP: +94766673504

Abstract: The existing rainfall gauging network in Sri Lanka is inadequate in many
regions to carry out precise hydrological studies, which are vital for water resources
planning and management in the country. Either a sufficient number of rain gauges are
not available in those regions or the existing gauges are not evenly distributed within
the region. A reliable way of solving this issue is the use of representative and long
duration satellite observed rainfall datasets of fine resolution, such as Climate Hazards
Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS). It is a 30+ year quasi-global
rainfall dataset available for Sri Lanka and it incorporates 0.05° resolution satellite
imagery with in-situ station data to create areal rainfall time series. The objective of
this study is to evaluate the applicability of the CHIRPS data by comparing those with
observed data at several rainfall gauging stations in the area of Mahaweli Development
Scheme in Sri Lanka. The evaluation was conducted by comparing CHIRPS data at a
few pixels (0.050 × 0.050) with observed rainfall data at 22 gauges located
topographically close to those pixels. Rainfall data over the period a period of 34 years
from 1981 to 2015 were used in the comparison. Statistical indicators, Average Annual
Value, Coefficient of Correlation, Coefficient of Determination, Nash-Sutcliffe
Efficiency Coefficient, Relative Percentage of Bias and Root Mean Square Error were
used to check performance of the CHIRPS data. The study showed the applicability of
the CHIRPS data for the use in data scarce regions of the country, especially in the
lowland flat areas of north-central, north-western, northern and eastern regions where
hydrologists are facing an acute data shortage due to inadequate density of rainfall
gauging stations.

Keywords: Observed rainfall, CHIRPS data, performance indicators

Page | 63
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-055

A MODEL FOR MANAGEMENT OF SIVALAKULAMA TANK


CASCADE SYSTEM

K.A.C.K.H. Gunasekara1*, K.D.W. Nandalal2, U.S. Imbulana3


1
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya
2
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya
3
CRIWMP, UN Compound 202-204, Baudhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7
* hasinit44@gmail.com, TP: +940715775593

Abstract: From ancient times Sri Lanka was considered as a water rich country. But
recently people, specially living in dry zone, are facing many issues without having
adequate amount of water resources for their daily use. Many water management
practices consider availability of water resources and demand for water only without
taking interactions between them. For management of a tank cascade system it is
important to incorporate dynamic interactions among different sectors that comprise a
water resource system, such as, physical components (tanks, canals, etc.), economical
aspect, agricultural sector, etc. A model was developed for the optimal management of
Sivalakulama cascade system, which comprises of 20 tanks and situated
in Galenbindunuwewa DS division in Anuradhapura district. The study was limited to
a sub-system of the Sivalakulama tank cascade system comprising 10 tanks, which are
connected in series and parallel. The model is based on System Dynamics Modeling
approach, which enables incorporation of different sectors such as physical aspects,
economic sector and agriculture sector. The model was calibrated using observed
water levels in three tanks in the sub system. The model showed the reliability of each
tank in the system in supplying the Yala and Maha irrigation requirements and the
possibility to study the impact of having other field crops requiring less water.

Keywords: Tank cascade systems; System Dynamics Modeling; Vensim PLE

Page | 64
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Sustainable Manufacturing

Page | 65
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-121

MANAGING HOTEL INDUSTRY WASTE THROUGH


CIRCULAR ECONOMY CONCEPT
D.M.P. Wijesekara1*, P. Sridarran2
1
University of Moratuwa
*Correspondence E-mail: dmpwijesekara@gmail.com, TP: +94711968338

Abstract: The hotel industry plays an important role in the Sri Lankan
economy accounting for 12.5% (2018) of the Gross Domestic Product of Sri
Lanka. Most countries evaluate sustainability of the hotel industry from an
environmental-impact standpoint, but this is not practiced in Sri Lanka.
Handling hotel sector related waste has not received much attention in the
Sri Lankan context, which can be identified as a gap in current sustainability
research. Addressing gaps in hotel sector waste management from the
perspective of Circular Economy (CE) concept; this research identifies
match-making possibilities for hotel sector wastes with other industries,
ensuring alternative uses for such waste. Although many studies have been
carried out in other countries regarding the concept of CE, it is still a novel
area in the Sri Lankan context. Although CE research has focused on aspects
such as applicability of the concept, adaptation requirements and
implementation scenarios, no research has focused on the application of the
CE concept for managing hotel sector waste. Therefore, this research
investigates about the concept of CE, its applications, barriers, favorable
outcomes and strategies in handling hotel industry wastes based on CE
principles. Following a qualitative research approach, semi structured
interviews were used to gather data from selected case hotels. Manual
content analysis was used for analyzing the collected data. Research
findings revealed that the possibility of adopting waste exchange programs
for the hotel industry depends mainly on the category and the location of the
hotels. Even though several barriers exist, match
making of waste was found to be a viable option through proper vendor
selection, thereby ensuring best use of waste.

Keywords: Circular Economy (CE); Waste exchanging; Match making; Hotel


industry

Page | 66
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-095

EFFECT OF COIR FIBERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND


WATER ABSORPTION OF CASSAVA STARCH COMPOSITE

A.C.C.J. Cooray , A.P.S.M. Amaraweera , N.M.L. Fernando , A. Manamperi , A.


1* 2 2 2

Manipura Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,


1, 1

University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka


Department of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
2

University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka


*Correspondence E-mail: chamal.cooray@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94703016076

Abstract: Petroleum based polymers have negative environmental impacts due


to its lower or longer degradation rate. Biodegradable plastics based on starch are
widely studied by researchers to develop sustainable and environmental friendly
plastic products. Cassava contains a higher starch yield of 14% by weight
compared to other plants. This research check whether the mechan
ical strength, water absorption, and moisture absorption properties can be
developed of cassava starch thermoplastic sheets by adding Coir fibers at 5% and
10% from the total sheet weight. Cassava starch thermoplastic sheets were made
by using glycerol as the plasticizer. Coir fibers were introduced as the filler of
the composite. First, glycerol: starch weight ratio 1:1 was mixed and Coir fibers
were added. Then, prepared mixture was blended by a plasticoder and
compression molding machine was used to generate sheets. Then, the properties
of the composite sheets were measured. Tensile strength of composite sheets
with 5 % of coir (0.739 MPa) was significantly increased relative to the reference
sample (0.44 MPa). However, compared to the 5% Coir composite sample,
tensile strength was reduced when 10% of Coir was introduced to the
composite. This due to the decrease the binding matrix starch in the composite.
Cassava composite Coir of 5%, 10%, and reference samples have shown an
increasing trend of water absorption with increasing storage time. Water
absorption was decreased by 10% of Coir sheet relative to 5% of Coir sheet.
Further, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed there is no chemical
bonding between the matrix and the filler. The adding coir fibers have increased
the mechanical properties and decreased the water absorption of composite
sheets. This starch composite can be improved to make sustainable products like
food packaging and car interior design.

Keywords: Cassava Starch; Coir fibers; Thermoplastics; Composites;


biodegradable; Bio polymers

Page | 67
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-127
EFFECT OF NANO-MG(OH)2 ON THE MECHANICAL AND FLAME
RETARDANT PROPERTIES OF NANO MG(OH)2-RIBBED SMOKED
SHEET RUBBER COMPOSITE
K. M. G. C. Bandara1*, M. R. Abeywardena1, 2, D. G. G. P. Karunaratne1
1
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400,
Sri Lanka Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri
2

Lanka *Correspondence E-mail: geshani10@gmail.com, TP: +94773573613

Abstract: Polymeric composites incorporated with inorganic nanofillers have


become a greater attraction in modern field of material chemistry due to their
improved properties. Yet flammability is a major drawback as the polymer materials
burn easily. Nonflammable polymers made incorporating halogenated fire retardants
cause several negative impacts such as emission of corrosive, toxic, and
smoky halogenated compounds. Magnesium hydroxide can be considered as a
halogen free fire retardant. In this work, nano-Mg (OH)2 was synthesizes using in-
situ deposition method. Ribbed Smoked Sheet (RSS) rubber composites were made
incorporating nanofiller in 5-12.5 phr loadings by compounding in the two-roll mill.
The composites were tested for tensile strength, hardness, rebound resilience, com
pression, swelling index and flame retardancy. Incorporation of nanofiller showed
improved mechanical and flame retardant properties.
Keywords: Nano-Mg (OH)2; Fire retardant; Tensile strength; Nano-Mg (OH)2–
ribbed smoked sheet rubber composite

Page | 68
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-132

UTILIZATION OF COAL FLY ASH AND BOTTOM ASH AS RAW


MATERIALS IN SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITES

H.M.R.S. Herath*1, C.S. Kalpage 1, A. Manipura1


1
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University
of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
* E-mail: randiherath0@gmail.com , TP: +94717091692

Abstract: Continuous production and accumulation of coal ash in coal boilers has become a
major economic and environmental concern. Transport of ash offsite for cement and
concrete production seems economically unattractive. On-site value addition can be done if
coal ashes could be converted to zeolites that possess high environmental applications. The
present study was done to evaluate the possibility of converting coal ashes to zeolites. Coal
ashes were subjected to chemical treatments to study the effect on material characteristics.
X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry results evidenced extraction of Al with alkaline
treatment and extraction of Si with acid treatment proving the possibility of synthesizing
zeolite X with alkaline treatment. Alkaline treatment followed by hydrothermal
crystallization yielded 62 % and 54 % of zeolite from fly ash and bottom ash respectively.
X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy pat terns of synthesized
zeolites showed characteristics of standard zeolite X, verifying the formation of Zeolite X.

Keywords: Coal Fly Ash; Coal Bottom Ash; Zeolite X; Alkaline Fusion; Alkaline
Treatment; Acid Treatment.

Page | 69
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-029

CENTRAL LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS SYSTEM (CLPGS) HUB


FOR FREE TRADE ZONES IN SRI LANKA: A SAFE AND ECONOMIC
APPROACH

J.K.Basnayake*, Nayanthara De Silva


Department of Building Economics, Faculty of Architecture, University of Moratuwa
*corresponding author: jayanthakbsl@gmail.com;endds@uom.lk, TP: 0773944101

Abstract: Major industries in free trade zones in Sri Lanka heavily depend on
conventional Liquefied Petroleum Gas Systems (LPGS) as their energy source.
However, many drawbacks in terms of user safety has been identified in the
LPGS, as it is potentially hazardous from the point of production until the end
use. High rates of LPG leak incidents have been reported in industries, resulting
explosions or fire and incidents of cold burn. Therefore, it is mandatory that the
storage and piped distribution of LPGS should be carried out under a controlled
environment in order to prevent such incidents. Further, its cylinders tend to
occupy a considerable amount of space within the built environment, resulting
in organizations wasting a significant profit due to the underutilization of space
within the context of “business”. Therefore, a central LPGS (CLPGS) has been
recommended as a safe, efficient and economical system for individual units, in
order to overcome the aforementioned prevailing issues. This concept has been
established based on the bulk LPG storage and piped distribution. The bulk LPG
storage (i.e. the hub) was designed at the central location of the zone and 30
potential individual units (organizations) were networked. The rate of return
values was compared to analyze the economic feasibility of the proposed
system. CLPGS could be a novel solution for future industrial hubs and for
metro city development projects in highly dense areas where space becomes a
critical factor. Since the ownership of those systems would be transferred to an
expert single party, maintenance and safety of the LPG can be managed in a
better manner.

Key Words: conventional LPG systems; LPG distribution hub; safety risks;
Industries

Page | 70
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-171

USE OF DELTA-D TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT AIR POLLUTION DUE TO


PADDY STRAW BURNING AND TO PRODUCE PADDY STRAW POWDER - A
LOW COST, RENEWABLE, CARBON NEUTRAL, ALTERNATIVE FUEL, TO
REPLACE COAL IN THERMAL AND ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

S.A.S. Perera1*, M.F.H.M. Aadhil1


1
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
*
Correspondence E-Mail: anulperera@yahoo.com, TP: +94777717895

Abstract–Coal is cheap compared to most other fossil fuels. However, the higher emission
of CO2 has made coal, one of the major contributors to greenhouse effect, global warming
and climate change on earth. Forest cover and agriculture are the main absorption systems
that reduce CO2 in the atmosphere by photosynthesis. Although environmentalists
emphasize the importance of maintaining large areas of forests as CO2 sinks, sometimes
forests are major contributors of CO2 to the atmosphere due to sporadic bushfires around
the world. Agriculture, on the other hand, absorbs CO2, produces food, creates employment,
and maintains a healthy, sustainable and safe eco system which never causes bush fires.
However, there is a practice by farmers, in the Asian Regions, to burn agricultural waste,
such as, paddy straw just after each harvesting season, to prepare their fields to cultivate the
next crop, causing severe atmospheric pollution in major cities and India is a classic
example. Sri Lanka’s major food crop is paddy and the annual production is more than 3.5
milion MT. Paddy straw (PS) is the major byproduct and its annual production is more than
5 million MT. Presently, paddy is harvested by combined harvesters and after the harvest,
straw stubble and cut pieces are scattered in the paddy field. Since PS is a major hindrance
to field preparation for the next crop, with minimum turnaround time, most of the farmers
burn PS, which causes atmospheric pollution due to emission of, heat, CO, CO2, SOx, NOx,
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), and particulate matter. Delta-D Technology is a
patented technology, invented by the author of this paper. By using Delta-D Technology all
types of organic waste can be rapidly digested and converted into powder. This paper
discusses research carried out by the author, to convert large quantities of PS, lying in the
paddy field, into a paddy straw powder (PSP). PSP can be easily combusted in a furnace or
a boiler by spraying into the combustion zone.

Keywords: Alternative fuel source for coal, paddy straw, Delta-D Technology, paddy straw
powder, Solid waste

Page | 71
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Sustainable Construction Materials

Page | 72
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-174

PROPOSING A METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY THE OPTIMUM MIX


DESIGN OF AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE BLOCKS IN THE
CONTEXT OF SRI LANKA

H. M.U. R. Herath1*, P. B. R. Dissanayake 2


1,2
Department of Civil Engineering/Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya.
* Correspondence E-mail: udanah208@gmail.com, TP: +94714856867

Abstract: Introduction of Green Building Materials and Products (GBMP)


results in a reduction of energy consumption over the lifetime of a building thus
leading to a reduction in toxic, environmental pollution as well as ensuring the
security of energy and raw resources as appropriate. The building construction
industry has widely used fly ash based products as GBMP. Fly ash is a waste
material generated from electricity power plants and is used in cement
production with special properties such as workability and durability as well as
in the production of concrete. However, in Sri Lanka, the industrial usage of fly
ash is very low as compared to the high volume generated from the Coal Power
Plant located in Norochcholai, Sri Lanka. This very wasteful, fly ash can be
effectively used as a fundamental raw material in the manufacturing of
Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) blocks – which are popular as light weight
building materials. Using Autoclaved Aerated Concrete in Sri Lanka, facilitates
two major aspects: Firstly, unused waste fly ash can be removed from the
Norachcholai power plant premises in a sustainable way; Secondly, the Sri
Lankan construction industry gains a sustainable building material.
Nevertheless, there are certain issues in using fly ash based AAC in construction
sites, such as its problem of drying shrinkage in the block which leads to cracks
in constructed walls. The AAC manufacturing process is done in accordance
with IS: 2185 (Part 3) – 1984, but raw material sources are not providing the
required qualities according to the code. Although the raw materials are not
providing the required qualities for the production process it is a must to use
available sources in Sri Lanka. This question can be addressed by optimizing
the mixture design for the available materials in Sri Lanka, considering its
drying shrinkage and compressive strength, stays within the limits given in BS
EN 771-4:2011+A1:2015 Specification masonry units Part 4. Eleven different
mixture designs were prepared by varying fly ash, cement and lime,
subsequently tested and thereafter, an equation to calculate drying shrinkage and
compressive strength was formulated as a function of fly ash cement and lime.
Using the results of this research, optimization of the mixture design can be
done in the AAC manufacturing plant.

Keywords: Autoclaved Aerated Concrete; Compressive Strength;


Drying Shrinkage; Response Surface Methodology

Page | 73
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-016

APPLICATION OF BLENDED CEMENT MIX PET FIBER HIGH


STRENGTH CONCRETE FOR STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

A.L.M De Silva1*, T.M Shakeer1, J.T Jayawardhana1, P.P.C. Saumyasiri2 and


M.S.T Priyadarshana1
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology,
The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.
2
UltraTech cement (Pvt) Ltd, New Nuge Road, Peliyagoda, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: a.l.maduwantha@gmail.com, TP: +94765516292

Abstract: High strength concrete (HSC) is being produced due to growing


demand for taller and larger structures and due to limitation of land space.
Demand for HSC in Sri Lankan construction industry is now increasing due
to Sri Lanka is a developing country. However, HSC has many versatile
properties, there are some drawbacks. It is noticed that HSC is relatively
brittle material possessing lower tensile strength and lower flexural strength.
This study focuses on the experimental investigation to improve these
drawbacks of HSC by addition of PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) fibers.
PET is a polyester polymer obtained from recyclable water bottles. With the
development of technology in the modern world, the production of PET
bottles keeps on increasing and they are being thrown after a single use, will
eventually make environmental hazards. Further the recycling capacity in Sri
Lanka is very low when compared to its production. PET fiber addition was
done for water cement ratio of 0.25 and PET was added in 0%, 0.5%,
1.0%, and 1.5% of total weight of the cement. Then the compressive
strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength were compared with the
control specimens to know the effective usage of PET fibers. The results
revealed that the presence of PET fibers will increase the HSC performance.
PET fibers can improve the compressive strength, tensile strength and
flexural strength and also to control the cracks. It was observed that 1.0%
of PET fiber content exhibit better performance among all the mixes. The
results showed that 21.75% of increase in compressive strength, 25.24% of
increase in split tensile strength and 42.70% of increase in flexural strength
for the addition of 1.0% PET fibers to the HSC after 28 days. These recycled
PET fibers introduced HSC showed better performance compared to the
conventional HSC.
Keywords: High strength concrete (HSC); PET (Polyethylene
Terephthalate) fibers; compressive strength; split tensile strength; flexural
strength

Page | 74
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-088

EFFECTS OF CARBON BLACK AND GRAPHENE OXIDE


ADDITIONS ON PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY PORTLAND
CEMENT COMPOSITE

A. M. B. Chandima1, S. P. Guluwita1*
1
Department of Material Science, University of Moratuwa, Katubadda, Moratuwa.
*Correspondence E-mail: sguluwita@materials.mrt.ac.lk, TP: +94718140898

Abstract: Due to the blooming of nanotechnology in the construction


industry, various types of nanomaterials introduced to obtain ‘smart cement’.
For the sustainable built environment, it is required to achieve durability and
increasing the compressive and tensile strength of the construction structure.
This research paper aims to provide a detailed investigation of the effect
of Graphene Oxide and Carbon Black nanomaterials on hardening Ordinary
Portland Cement (OPC) mortar, which uses in Ultra-High Performance
Concrete (UHPC). The cost of UHPC is high due to micro reinforcements
and with maintenance costs. The use of Graphene oxide is the aim of making
smart cement, which can avoid cracking and corrosions, and it provides
better monitoring of a concrete structure. Carbon black was incorporated in
the optimizing stage of to reduce the cost factor. Mechanical and
morphological properties were investigated by incorporating the cement
mortar with 0.01 wt.% to 0.1 wt.% Graphene Oxide (GO) dispersion and
with 0.1 wt.% to 1.0 wt.% carbon black (CB) dispersion of the cement
weight. The test results revealed that the addition of 0.4% of CB and 0.03%
of GO by weight is the optimal quantity of the composite, showing a 43.27%
increase in compressive strength for specimens evaluated at the age of 2
days and 60.61% enhancement in the flexural strength for the specimens
evaluated at the age of 28 days. Interestingly, it was observed that further
addition of Graphene Oxide and Carbon Black reduces the workability and
efficiency of the mechanical properties due to the re stacking of excess Nano
particles. Morphological analysis of the Graphene Oxide Cement Composite
revealed that Graphene Oxide affected the formation of cement hydration
products. Carbon Black nanoparticles in the Carbon Black Cement
Composite act as the reinforcing and a filling ingredient of the cement
matrix.

Keywords: Nanomaterials; Construction Industry, Graphene Oxide,


Carbon Black

Page | 75
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-099

STABILIZATION OF FINE-GRAINED SOIL USING FLY ASH AND LIME TO


USE AS A SUBGRADE AND EMBAKMENT SOIL MATERIAL IN ROAD
CONSTRUCTION IN SRI LANKA

G.P.K.D. Subasinghe, B.G.K. Imeshani, M.A.M.S, Kumara, K.M.L.A Udamulla*


The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala, Nugegoda
*Correspondence E-mail: lakshika0807@hotmail.com, TP: +94771388029

Abstract: Stabilizing the existing sub grade material, rather than removing and replacing
it with granular material, results in substantial cost savings. The fine-grained soils with
high clay and silt content are generally less desirable as payment sub grade and as such
the study focuses on stabilizing the same with lime and fly ash. The fly ash used was high
calcium, class C fly ash obtained from Lakvijaya power plant in Puttalam, Sri Lanka
while lime used was commercial grade quick lime. The soil was from a site at Ampitiya.
The sample was found to be low plastic clay according to the Unified soil classification
system. The blends were prepared with the virgin soil: Fly ash: Lime in proportions by
volume. The Atterberg limit tests, Modified Proctor Compaction test and 4 –day soaked
modified CBR tests were conducted on the virgin samples as wells as the blends. The
control sample did not comply with the Liquid and Plasticity Index requirement to be
used as sub grade. Based on the test results it was concluded that all the blends tested
complied with the ICTAD requirements of Liquid Limit, Plasticity Index, Maximum Dry
Density and CBR for both embankment type I and Type II materials. For sub grade
material only, the blends prepared with virgin soil: Fly ash: Lime in proportions by
volume 85%: 15%: 0%; 80%:20%: 0%;86%: 8%:6%; 79%:12%:9% and 72%:16%:12%
were in conformity with that of the institute of Construction Training and Development
(ICTAD) specifications for sub grade material. Hence the research proves stabilization of
clayey soils with fly ash and lime is a sustainable approach for sub grade and
embankment construction in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: fine grained soils; Fly ash; Lime; embankment; sub grade

Page | 76
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-111

THE POSSIBILITY OF USING SOIL CONCRETE FOR MODERN


ECO-FRIENDLY HOUSING

HN Hikkaduwa , RU Halwatura
1* 2

Construction Industry Development Authority (CIDA),”Sawsiripaya”, 123 Wijerama Mw.


Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.
2
University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
**Correspondence E-mail: himal.n.hikkaduwa@gmail.com, TP: +94714870861

Abstract: Shelter is an essential need for the human being with the beginning of
the humanization. Contemporary the housing requirement is lag due to high
construction cost with respect to the present material and practices. This was
leads due to boosting of Sri Lankan construction sector with massive
development & infrastructure projects, and those projects were consumes
enormous amount of construction materials in the country itself. Further down
illegal and excess mining of raw material will thriving to massive environmental
degradation. The country rich historical artefacts of rock caves & scripts are
in danger due to elevation of metal quarries operations. Ancient Sri Lankans
consists with eco-friendly & sustainable construction culture, when looking
backward and analyse methods and technologies that were existed and used by
our ancestors for their building industry can be a grand saving in environmental
impact; Thus the soil is played a vital role at past and even though still rural
housings are constructed by soil with different mixtures & methods. When
hosting of mixed economy and western construction & culture, the mud base
construction practices were gradually diminished. Now it’s cogitated as poor
man’s housing material. Wall and roof are the most significant building
component in a housing unit. The walling materials can determine the cost of the
building as well as the total life cycle cost of it. The available soil base walling
materials such adobe brick, wattle, and cob as an issue of weathering due
exposure to water/rain. Even though the brick has higher embedded energy and
construction cost. Further, compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB) also
consume considerable amount of energy & cost. The rammed earth is a tested
material quiet use and it also consists with complexities, such as mixing &
compaction. Thus the paper wish to elaborate the prospect of using fair-faced
soil concrete walls, through cement stabilized high viscous soil concrete
mixture, with light compaction effort in the slip-form construction for eco-
friendly law cost housing.

Keywords: Soil Concrete; High viscous pouring method; Low cement usage;
Low cost housing

Page | 77
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-100

A REVIEW ON THE APPLICATION OF RECYCLED


AGGREGATES IN THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH-STRENGTH
CONCRETE

A.M. Fernando1*, DR. J.C.P.H. Gamage 2


1
University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
2
University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
E-mail: 160149u@uom.lk, TP: +94777731950

Abstract: Over the past years, the process of large-scale construction


works being carried out has resulted in large amounts of construction and
demolition waste to get piled up in landfills causing adverse effects on the
environment, the economy as well as society. The most
extensively consumed material in the construction industry can be
identified as concrete. On average, aggregates which are about 70% to 80%
of concrete volume add significant disturbances to the ecological system
due to its procurement and transportation. At a time like this, where eco
friendly substitutions are stringent, full or partial replacement of natural
aggregates by recycled aggregates has proven to produce an
environmentally friendly solution. The concept of using re cycled
aggregate in new concrete had been prevailing for a long period, but with
limited application in constructional work. Extensive studies done by many
of the researchers, on the use of recycled aggregates (RA) in the production
of concrete by investigating both the fresh and hardened properties of
resulting concrete mixes have shown successful results in producing
normal and high strength recycled concrete having comparable properties
to that of conventional concrete. But some drawbacks concerning reduced
concrete strength and durability caused by recycled aggregates having
inferior properties to that of natural aggregates limits its practical
applications. Recent work done concerning the incorporation of RA in
high-strength concrete together with cement composites has brought about
ameliorated properties in high-strength concrete mixes. Hence to benefit
from this combination, further work is required to fill the prevailing
research gaps. This paper presents an overall review of analysis performed
using recycled aggregates in concrete production and its feasibility to be
used in high strength concrete to establish sustainability in construction
work together with the concept that we can truly refer to as green concrete.

Keywords: Recycled aggregate; Construction and Demolition waste;


Recycled aggregate concrete: Attached mortar; High strength concrete

Page | 78
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-031

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANICAL


PROPERTIES OF WASTE TYRE RUBBER ADDED CONCRETE
MEMBERS

A.N.H Mohamed* and J.M.R.S Appuhamy


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri
Lanka
*
Correspondence E-mail: hasny331@gmail.com, TP: +94774859331

Abstract: Waste tyre rubber disposal has turned into a major issue to the
ecology due to the increment of vehicle usage and durability of discarded tyres.
Waste tyre rubber can be recycled for reuse purposes, but the recycling for reuse
is not always suitable when the tyres are heavily damaged and getting too old.
Moreover, recycling consumes more cost, while the cheapest way of burning
emits hazardous gases to the atmosphere. As the tyres are non-biodegradable
and impermeable products, landfilling pollutes the soil and stockpiling leads to
risk in health and environmental concern. To overcome from the problem, the
tyre rubber can be used in civil engineering works such as road pavement
construction, geotechnical work and many researchers are trying to use it in
concrete as a partial replacement for coarse aggregates. Because of the higher
elasticity and resilient performance of tyre rubber, discarded tyre rubber can be
combined with concrete. Also, it can absorb energy. This study was conducted
to investigate the optimal size and proportion of tyre rubber particles to be
replaced instead of the coarse aggregate in ordinary concrete. For the
investigation, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% of coarse aggregate volumes were replaced
with the 4mm, 7mm and 10mm crumb rubber aggregates. Compressive strength,
flexural strength, water absorption and shaking table tests were performed to
analyse the potential usage of rubberized concrete. This study demonstrated the
possibility of using tyre rubber added concrete in construction works. By
replacing 2.5% of coarse aggregate volume with 4mm sizes of rubber aggregate,
no significant reduction in the compressive strength, flexural strength and water
absorption properties were observed with the enhanced dynamic performance.
Meanwhile, it's a cost-effective way to minimize the amount of discarded tyre
rubber. As a whole, the rubber added concrete is a sustainable and
environmental-friendly material.

Keywords: Eco-friendly material; Rubberized concrete; Waste tyre rubber;


Mechanical properties; Dynamic performance

Page | 79
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-133

RESEARCH GAP ANALYSIS OF CFRP/CONCRETE COMPOSITES


UNDER PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO ALKALINE ENVIRONMENT

G. M. D. N. Aponsu1*, J. C. P. H. Gamage 2
1
Undergraduate Student, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
2
Senior Lecturer, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: dhyani.nethmini@gmail.com, TP: +94785360844

Abstract: Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) is a popular building


material which can be used for strengthening concrete structures. As this is
a relatively new material in the field of civil construction, there are
numerous aspects to be explored of its use in a long-term context. The real
life behaviour of the CFRP/concrete bond throughout the life-time of a
structure can only be predicted at present as this material has only been in
use for less than two decades. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the
implications of its use through accelerated ageing in various environments.
This paper reviews previous research conducted on the behaviour of the
CFRP/concrete bond following accelerated ageing procedures in the
alkaline environment. The findings of experimental studies done on the
bond interface as well as constituent materials are explored in this review.
Furthermore, the different types of alkaline solutions used for experimental
procedures, considering the pH value as well as the nature of the solution,
are identified to provide a better understanding of test procedures for the
research community. The need for more accurate and effective accelerated
ageing techniques in future research is also discussed.

Keywords: Accelerated testing; Alkaline exposure; CFRP/concrete;


Interface degradation

Page | 80
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-157

INVESTIGATION ON MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF


FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE REPAIR GROUTS

R.M.S.Udari1*, M.A.L.Silva2
1
CINEC Campus, Millennium Drive, IT Park, Malabe, Sri Lanka.
2
CINEC Campus, Millennium Drive, IT Park, Malabe, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: Kushiiudari@gmail.com, TP: +94775108341

Abstract: The idea of reusing materials has become a major concern as the
production rate increases in many industrial sectors. When it comes to the civil
engineering industry, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) usage is
commonly seen, as it is beneficial for post and pre strengthening of structures.
CFRP is available in the industry in different formations such as CFRP fabrics,
strips, rods, etc. Depending on the purpose of usage, the type of CFRP can be
selected. The generation of CFRP fiber left overs during such construction
processes has now drawn attention because, the waste is non-degradable and
hazardous. Therefore, it is high time to introduce a proper way to dispose the
fiber wastes. The most ideal way of disposing the CFRP waste is to use the
beneficial characteristics of it in another material while saving the use of
resources, money and time. Therefore, using CFRP fiber in the process of
developing an innovative in-situ concrete grout can be suggested as a
sustainable way of fiber waste disposal. In this study, the aim is to prepare an
innovative fiber reinforced concrete repair grout and investigate mechanical
properties while evaluating the economic and environmental benefits. Since the
world is moving towards a sustainable future, this approach would be quite
convenient. The study presents the impact from CFRP percentage on the
concrete performance in compression, tension and the workability of concrete.
Compressive strength test, tensile strength test and workability test were
conducted for this innovative grout. Further, the grout was made with different
percentages of CFRP fiber fabric and silica fume to enhance the mechanical
characteristics.

Keywords: Carbon fiber reinforced polymer; Grout; Mechanical properties;


Sustainability; Cost

Page | 81
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-160

ASSESSMENT OF WOOD PROPERTIES IN LESSER-KNOWN


SHOREA SPP. IN SRI LANKA

CK Muthumala1, WVTD Amarasinghe2*, TS Mudalige3


1,2,3
State Timber Corporation, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: rctharindu87@gmail.com, TP: +94718087427

Abstract: Timber species, Beraliya dun (Shorea disticha), Navada dun (Shorea
stupularis), Dun (Shorea zeylanica), Yakahalu dun (Shorea trapezifolia), Yakal
dun (Shorea astylosa) and Thiniya dun (Shorea congestiflora) are lesser-known
timber species belongs to Dipterocarpaceae family in Sri Lanka. Therefore it is
important to identify these species and classify according to their timber
properties to popularize among people engaged in the timber industry and forest
management. In this study wood density, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus
of elasticity (MOE), compression parallel to grain (CNP) and compression
perpendicular to the grain (CPG) of six Shorea timber species grown in
Rathnapura district in Sri Lanka were investigated. The tests for mechanical
properties were performed through the Universal Testing Machine (UTM 100
PC). Determination of the wood anatomical features especially vessels, rays and
parenchyma with related to wood physical properties and density also
investigated. To study the anatomical features, slides were prepared with small
wood section and observed through the microscope using SE premium software
and vessel diameter and ray measurements were measured. Six Shorea spp. were
identified by using a prepared dichotomous key. The wood density was grouped
into four classes as very high, high, medium and low respectively. Out of the six
Shorea species, Shorea disticha shows the highest values for MOR and MOE
tests and the Shorea trapezifolia was reported as the second highest values for
MOR and MOE. Shorea trapezifolia has reported the highest values for CNP,
CPG and Tensile strength values. According to the density values, the highest
value shown by the Shorea trapezifolia and lowest was from Shorea zeylanica.

Keywords: Shorea; Strength properties; Anatomical features; Density

Page | 82
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-052

USE OF EPS BASED LIGHT-WEIGHT CONCRETE PANELS AS A


ROOF INSULATION MATERIAL FOR NERD SLAB SYSTEM

D. P. P. Meddage1*, M. T. R. Jayasinghe2
1, 2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa.
*Correspondence E-mail: pasindu95dm@gmail.com , TP: +94717241540

Abstract: Natural energy sources are being ceased, due to the drastic
development of various industries, along with the utilization of technology.
Energy, related to the building sector has accounted for almost 23-50 % of
the world’s energy demand. Besides, reinforced concrete roof slabs have
much potential that can contribute to this substantial operational energy
demand, acting as a heated body in the daytime. Therefore, our primary
objective was to develop an energy-efficient slab system for low and
middle-income families by adopting the approaches to
sustainability. Accordingly, this study was directed in small scale physical
models to investigate insulation characteristics of the EPS (Expanded
Polystyrene) based concrete panels combined with NERD (National
Engineering and Research Development) slab system. A parametric study
was carried out using energy models, calibrated using the field results.
Moreover, the thermal characteristics of this composite slab have displayed
better results compared to prevalent roofing systems. The structural
performance was assessed, in contrast to the conventional NERD slab
system. This novel slab system performs well in tropical climatic
conditions when it is installed, with passive features. The overall
decrement factor and the optimum insulation thickness were obtained as
0.6 and 75 mm respectively. Furthermore, the production of these
insulation panels is an efficient way to dispose of non-biodegradable
polystyrene waste.

Keywords: EPS; NERD slab; Roof-insulation; Thermal-conductivity

Page | 83
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-117

DEVELOPMENT OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE BY USING BOTTOM


ASH AS SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTIOUS MATERIAL

L.C.G De Silva*1, W.A.N Dilrukshi1, A.S.J.M.U.D. Jayasekara1, T.


Priyadarshana1, M.K Samantha2.
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, The Open
University of Sri Lanka, Nawala, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.
2
Incee cement 413, R. A. De Mel Mawatha, Colombo 3.
*Correspondence E-mail: chalanigdesilva@gmail.com, TP: +94714856217
Abstract: Urbanization has reduced ground water level and flooding of
roads due to extensive use of non-permeable paving method. To continue
urbanization while preserving ground water and to mitigate street flooding
will require a pervious concrete (PC). Although the pervious concrete has
lot of environmental and economic benefits, its uses are still limiting in Sri
Lanka. This research provides a background for developing a mix design
using BA as a supplementary material and also achieving optimum balance
between porosity and strength is essential with use of locally available
materials. This study investigated the potential of using coal BA, waste
product of coal combustion, as a substitute for sand which is scarce, in an
optimum PC mix design. Concrete cubes 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were
manufactured in both mix design 1 (MD1) and 2 (MD2). In MD1 coarse
aggregate replaced in 5-10mm and 5-12.5mm aggregate sizes with BA. In
MD2 aggregate sizes of 5-12.5mm and 14-20mm studied in two separate
arms by serial replacement of cement 0%, 7%, 12%, 15%, 20% and 30%.
Compressive strengths were measured in day 7, 14 and 28. Effective
porosity, permeability, flexural strength and abrasion have been measured.
Cost analysis performed with the selected mix design versus conventional
methods. Both 5-12.5mm and 14-20mm coarse aggregate mix designs –
28-day percentage increase in compressive strength show linear increase
and effective porosity inversely proportionate with the percentage
replacement of cement with BA. In series replacement with BA both arms
showed compressive strength inversely proportionate to percentage
increase in effective porosity. Although it decreases the effective porosity
with the percentage of BA, the effect on porosity is relatively lesser
compared to the increase compressive strength. Optimum mix design of
this study was concluded for PC as a paving method is 5-12.5mm
aggregate size with 12% BA replacement. When compared with the
conventional paving methods, proposed PC mix design was cost-
effective.
Keywords: Pervious Concrete (PC); Bottom ash (BA); Mix Design (MD);

Page | 84
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-114

TENSILE CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE BASED NATURAL FIBRE


COMPOSITES FROM RICE HUSK AND LOW DENSITY POLYTHENE
WASTE

P.M.I.B. Abesinghe , S.N.B.M.W.Y.S. Narayana , H.M.C.C. Somarathna


1 1 1*

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jaffna,
Ariviyal Nagar, Killinochchi 44000, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: hmccsomarathna@gmail.com, TP: +94212060161

Abstract: Manufacturing new products with waste material has exposed a


tremendous contribute to sustainable waste management globally. Recently,
natural fibres have gained attention among researchers, engineers and scientists
as an alternative reinforcement for synthetic fibre-reinforced polymer
composites due to low cost, fairly good mechanical properties, high specific
strength, bio-degradability and eco-friendly characteristics. This project was
carried out to investigate the tensile properties of waste based Natural Fibre
Composite (NFCs) with the use of Rice Husk (RH) as the reinforcement
material and the low-density polythene (LDPE) as the matrix. five types of
waste based NFCs were developed by varying the weight fraction of fibre to
LDPE weight, and weight fractions considered in this study are 10%, 20%, 30%,
40% and 50%. Simple techniques were used to manufacture NFCs, such as
shredder machine and hot press machine which do not need high expertise.
Uniaxial tensile test was carried out according to the ASTM D3039, using
universal tensile testing machine with displacement control loading method.
Load, displacement and time histories were obtained and further analyses were
undertaken by obtaining Young’s modulus, yield stress, yield strain, ultimate
tensile stress, failure strain, resilience modulus and toughness modulus for each
variation. All types of NFCs with varying RH content show behaviour of
materials having typical nonlinear elastic-plastic region. Research findings
indicated that addition of 20-40% RH content provide better overall
performance under universal tensile behaviour, by mainly considering the
behaviour under elastic region and ultimate tensile strength.

Keywords: Natural fibre composites, Rise husk, Low-density polythene,


Tensile characteristics, Sustainability, Waste management

Page | 85
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-138

MODIFICATION OF A BOTTOM ASH BASED INSULATION


MATERIAL USING SAW DUST, EPS AND AGGREGATE CHIPS

K.A.D.Y.T. Kahandawa Arachchi 1*, J.C.P.H. Gamage 2, G.I.P. de Silva 3


1
Postgraduate researcher, Department of Civil Engineering, University of
Moratuwa, Sri Lanka 2 Senior Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
3 Senior Lecturer, Department of Material Science and Engineering, University
of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka *Correspondence E-mail:
tharikakahandawa@gmail.com, TP: +94716830804

Abstract: Bottom ash shows moderate properties of thermal resistivity when


incorporated with conventional cement-sand plasters. This paper investigates the
possibility of incorporating other commonly used insulation materials to develop
a superior blend as cementitious insulation. Re cycled EPS, sawdust, and
aggregate chips were blended with a developed bottom ash based mix proportion
and mechanical properties of the mortar were analyzed. Compressive strength,
work ability, and thermal conductivity were tested. The results indicated a 26%
increment in thermal performance when EPS was introduced and a 33%
increment when sawdust was introduced. On the contrary, their strengths reduced
drastically. The aggregate chips had an inverse effect where thermal conductivity
increased along with the strength. However, the compressive strength increased
up to 75%.

Keywords: Bottom ash; EPS; Cementitious mortar; Saw dust; Aggregate chips

Page | 86
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-145

MODIFICATION OF ENGINEERED CEMENTITIOUS COMPOSITE


MORTAR TO USE AS AN ADHESIVE FOR CFRP/CONCRETE BOND

M.W.C. Himasha1*, J.C.P.H. Gamage 2, G.I.P. De Silva 3, V. Attanayaka4


1
Postgraduate researcher, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa,
SRI LANKA 2Senior Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, University of
Moratuwa, SRI LANKA 3Senior Lecturer, Department of Material Science and
Engineering, University of Moratuwa, SRI LANKA 4Airow Solutions (Pvt) Ltd, SRI
LANKA
*Correspondence E-mail: mvchimasha@gmail.com, TP: +94774008602

Abstract: This study focuses on the development of a thermally insulative


cementitious adhesive for bonding Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)
fabrics with concrete using Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) mortar.
The poor thermal performance of epoxy adhesive encouraged the development of
a new cementitious adhesive which could resist elevated temperature. The ECC
adhesive was developed using locally available materials. The developed adhesive
has a low thermal conductivity between 0.145 - 0.18 W/(mK) which shows its
resistance to elevated temperature. The developed adhesive showed an average
bond strength of 570.28 N/mm2for an effective bond length of 150 mm. When
compared with epoxy adhesive, ECC adhesive showed a 15% reduction in bond
strength. However, under elevated temperature, the bond strength reduction in
ECC adhesive is very low compared to the bond strength reduction in epoxy.
When the bondline temperature was incremented up to 100 0C, the strength re
duction evident in modified ECC adhesive was 5.21%, while it was 69% for epoxy
adhesive. It shows that the developed ECC adhesive resist high temperature better
than epoxy. The average 28 days tensile strength of the adhesive was 3.83
N/mm2and the average 28 days compressive strength was 52.77 N/mm2. A finite
element model was developed and validated for the pullout test to predict the bond
performance of ECC adhesive. The parametric study conducted varying the
adhesive thickness concluded that the bond strength enhanced with the increment
of adhesive thickness up to 20 mm.

Keywords: Engineered Cementitious Composite; Cementitious adhesive; Carbon


Fibre Reinforced Polymer; Thermal performance; Finite Element Modelling

Page | 87
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-167

A MINI REVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF NANOMATERIALS IN


CEMENT COMPOSITES

S. Ganesh1*, N. Rajapakse 1
1
Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology, New Kandy Road, Malabe 10115.
*Correspondence E-mail: suganthiny.g@sliit.lk, TP: +94777481019

Abstract: Cement composites, such as concrete, are brittle and have poor
resistance to crack formation due to low strain and tensile strength capacities.
Hence, numerous studies had been conducted incorporating different
nanomaterials into cement composites to improve its performance. This paper
provides a comprehensive review of different types of nanomaterials in cement
composites and their effects on the properties at ordinary and elevated
temperatures. Nanomaterials are classified into nanoparticles (0D), nanofibers
(1D) and nanosheets (2D). Several studies reveal that nanoparticles, such as
nano clay (NC), calcined nano clay (CNC), nano-silica (NS), nano-alumina
(NA), nanofiber-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene,
change the morphology of ordinary cement composites. Hence nanomaterials
improve the mechanical and durability properties of cement composites but
some nanoparticles had little impact on the tensile and flexural strengths, even at
elevated temperatures. At extreme temperatures, nanoparticles integrated
concrete and nanofiber integrated cement composites completely disintegrates at
750˚C and 600˚C respectively. Dispersion of MWCNTs and graphene in cement
composites is poor and hence surfactants have been used for uniform dispersion.
Currently, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, which consume only about one-
tenth of the mass relative to other nanomaterials, display a significant
enhancement in all mechanical properties in experiments. Although little work
has been conducted with GO-integrated cement composites, in terms of
durability at high temperatures, they are predicted to be used in the future
construction industry as they are considered less hazardous and easy to disperse
in water than nanofibers and graphene. However, the effect of nanomaterials on
human health and the environment, prior- or post-construction, should be
addressed to decide on the suitable nanomaterial.

Keywords: Nanomaterials; High performance; Dispersion; Cement


Composites; Elevated temperatures

Page | 88
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-036

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON WASTE TYRE STEEL FIBRE CONCRETE

K.G.R.C.K Amarasinghe1*, J.M.R.S Appuhamy 2


1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,University of
Ruhuna, Hapugala,Galle.
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,University of
Ruhuna, Hapugala,Galle.
*Correspondence E-mail: chanakaamarasinghe94@gmail.com, TP:
+94713806998

Abstract Concrete is most widely used construction material in the world due to
its ability to get cast in any form and shape. The strength and durability of
concrete can be changed by making appropriate changes its ingredients. Hence
concrete is very well suitable for a wide range of applications. However, concrete
has some deficiencies. Those deficiencies are low tensile strength, low flexural
strength, brittleness and low post cracking capacity. Therefore, want to be find
some solution of those causes in using waste tires. However, nowadays disposal
of waste tyres is a major problem in the world, due to the filling of the landfills.
In future, production of vehicles will be increased and waste tyres will be
increased. Currently, worldwide every year, about one billion tyres end their
service life; more than 50% of these are discarded, mainly by burning or
landfilling, without any treatment. These tires can be recycled or reused as fuel
in cement kilns, as building material in asphalt or as aggregates in concrete.
When the used tyres are recycled, the steel fibres in tyre waste can be recovered
from shredding, cryogenic or pyrolysis processes. So, there are two main process
in tyre recycling of Sri Lanka as shredded and pyrolysis process. Shredded steel
fibres and pyrolysis steel fibres are main steel outcome for the after the recycling
process. In my case studied of the adding above shredded fibre in
different volume percentages in normal concrete. Critical investigation for grade
25 of concrete study the compressive strength and flexural strength of steel fibre
concrete (SFC) containing of fibre volume ratio of
0%,0.25%,0.5%,0.75%,1%,1.25%,1.5% 1.75% and 2% volume fraction of shred
ded fibre and Each fraction made three samples to get average value of result
data obtained has been analysed and compared with a control specimen (0%
fibre).

Keywords: Shredded Steel Fibre; Pyrolysis Steel Fibre; Compressive strength;


Flexural Strength

Page | 89
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Urban Environmental and Social Wellbeing

Page | 90
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-173

DEVELOPING A HOME-GROWN SUSTAINABLE CITIES ASSESSMENT


TOOL COMPLYING TO SRI LANKAN CONTEXT

W.D.T.N. Nandasena 1*, K.M.S. Hasanthi 1, P.B.R. Dissanayake2,


1
Green Building Council of Sri Lanka
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. *Correspondence E-mail:tnandasena@gmail.com , TP:
+94 779033171

Abstract: Urbanisation is one of the most widespread environmental changes of the


twenty-first century. Studies reveal that the new estimate for the urbanisation in Sri
Lanka is around 42%. Urbanisation causing significant issues for environmental
sustainability such as climate change, pollution, congestion and substandard living
conditions. In this context, one of the solutions that can adapt is the concept of
‘Sustainable Cities’ where the growing urbanisation is encouraged to embrace
sustainable urban development principles into city planning framework while
supporting to achieve Sustainable Development Goals stated by United Nations.
Therefore, the present study carried out to recognize possible standards for a green
tool which complies with the Sri Lankan context. Firstly, a comprehensive literature
review done on existing, city rating tools in the world and then guidelines were
developed according to Sri Lankan Context, and the tool was evaluated under an
expert committee meeting. After a couple of rounds of reviews, the tool was
finalised, indicating nine main criteria and seventy sub-criteria. The main criteria
were Management; Ecology and Conservation; Infrastructure Management; Waste
Management; Transportation Facilities; Water Efficiency; Energy and Atmosphere;
Social, Cultural and Economic Achievements and Innovation. As future work,
several pilot studies need to conduct by selecting well representative sample cities
in Sri Lanka. The developed city assessment tool is enabling city officials
and communities to measure the current status and the sustainable changes of the
city profile and for enhancing awareness and promoting transparency and
recognising the achievement of sustainable development.

Keywords: Urbanisation; Sustainable City; Sustainable Development; Sustainable


Development Goals

Page | 91
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-020

A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING THE


CAUSES OF INTUITIVE FEAR IN URBAN GREEN SPACES

LWG Kawshalya1*, DP Chandrasekara2 UGD Weerasinghe3


1
University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa
2
University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa
3
University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa
*Correspondence E-mail: gaya3kawshalya93@gmail.com, TP: +94718922781

Abstract: At present, the urban green space is acknowledged as one of the most
important part of the busy lives of the urbanites as a relaxing space which
supports social interactions, recreation and conviviality. Still the intuitive fear
while inhabiting these urban green spaces is an issue which has led such spaces
being under used or neglected. This intuitive fear or the sense of insecurity or
risk is a result of the anxiety or distress in the mind of the users. Thus, many
studies have been carried out to explore the causes for this intuitive fear or the
psychological aspects of the fear of crime in the urban green spaces. Most of
these studies suggest that a combination of various attributes has resulted in the
psychological insecurity among the users of urban green spaces. This paper
aims to systematically review the causes for the intuitive fear when using these
spaces. The study is carried out by reviewing the existing literature published on
the area of the investigation. There are total of thirty-seven articles which met
the selection criteria. The assessed articles were reviewed with the authorship,
geographical location of the study, journal and other basic data following a
comprehensive analysis of the variables assessed and the key findings. Majority
of the articles highlight that the physical parameters have impacted more on the
intuitive fear in urban green spaces compared with the perceptual (personal)
parameters and the societal (social) parameters. The outcome of the study; the
developed framework of the causes of intuitive fear in urban public spaces
would help the both future practitioners and researchers.

Keywords: Intuitive fear; Sense of safety; Urban Green Spaces

Page | 92
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-144

A MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF HOUSING PATTERNS IN THE


URBAN LANDSCAPE: A STUDY IN KANDY GRID CITY AREA

S. A. M. K. P. Abeykoon1*, D. M. L. Dissanayake2*A. M. C. J. Abesinghe3, D. N. G.


H. M. W. S. Herath4, H. M. M. V. Karunarathne5, H. G. M. Palipana6
1,2,3,4,5,6
Department of Geography, University of Peradeniya
kasu09abey@gmail.com, +94712252023

Abstract
Located in the central highlands, Kandy city is considered as the heart of
cultural representation in Sri Lanka. The Kandyan landscape is unique in its
features and is a famous platform holding cultural memories varying from the
Kandyan kingdom, British reign, and post-colonial era. The remnants of
buildings within the Kandy grid city which represent different eras and cultures
give an incomparable artistic value to the landscape. As the primary objective of
this study, the buildings within the grid city were identified based on the year of
establishment and architectural characteristics and later were classified as pre-
colonial (Kandyan Kingdom to 1815), colonial (1815 to 1948), or post-colonial
(1948 to present) constructions. Judgemental sampling method was used to
select a few buildings from each era to analyse their characteristics. As the
secondary objective, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of each
period’s buildings were identified. Data was collected through field observations
and interviews while document analysis was done as the secondary data
collection method. Carl O. Sauer’s Morphological approach and Fred B.
Kniffen’s Louisiana housing patterns analysis were used as the theoretical
background for this study. This study discusses how to strengthen the inherent
cultural value representation of buildings belonging to different eras and how to
use them to express the cultural heterogeneity of the grid city while minimizing
threats and weaknesses prevailing on those constructions.

Keywords: Kandy; Grid-city; Morphology; Urban; Landscape

Page | 93
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-019

A CASE STUDY ON TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF THE PAVEMENT


THERMAL PERFORMANCE BASED ON SURFACE TEXTURE FOR
URBAN AREAS IN SRI LANKA

Seneviratne D.M1, Jayasooriya V,M1*


1
Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri
Jayewardenepura, 10250, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: varuni.jayasooriya@sjp.ac.lk, TP: +94764322443

Abstract:
Pavements represent a high fraction of urban land use and contribute to the
Urban Heat Island (UHI) in cities. The countries within tropical regions does not
experience significant changes in local climate throughout the year similar to
temperate regions, however experience differences in ambient temperature
conditions due to the changes of the sun path relative to the ground.
Identification of the thermal performance variations of pavers in tropical regions
will assist landscape planners on selecting the pavers in an optimum way to
reduce UHI considering the pavement location and the surrounding structures
and direction of shading. The physical attributes of the pavers may also have a
significant impact on the thermal performance of pavers. The current study was
concentrated on two time periods; 1) where the sun is right above the study area
(August- September) and 2) where the sun is relatively positioned furthest to the
latitude of study area, (November-December), to assess the thermal performance
of pavements within two climatic seasons in Sri Lanka. The study was
conducted in an urban environment in Colombo, Sri Lanka by considering 9
sample pavers consisted with a single color (Natural Gray), and three surface
roughness levels (Smooth, Rough and Jagged). One-sample t-test was performed
to analyze the significant differences among pavers on the thermal performance
in two different seasons considered. According to the results obtained, there
were no significant differences within the thermal performance between 7.00
AM to 12.00 PM of two time periods, however, after 1.00 PM, pavers have
shown a significant difference within the two time periods. The maximum
temperature difference within two periods was shown at 4.00 PM as 6.56°C. The
time period of November to December showed lower surface temperature levels
and heat emittance. The findings of this study provide valuable insights in
pavement designing for urban areas, in order to regulate microclimates and
reduce the impacts of UHI.

Keywords: Urban Heat Island; Pavements; Temporal variation; Thermal


performance

Page | 94
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-137

ASSESSING VISUAL IMPACTS OF STREETSCAPE INSTALLATIONS


ON URBAN SAFETY AND COMFORT: CASE OF GALLE ROAD IN
COLOMBO, SRI LANKA

WMNTK Wijekoon1*, KWJP Wijesundara 2


UoM Urban Lab’- Centre for Cities’, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail:ntkdau@gmail.com, TP: +94715360678

Abstract: At present, Sri Lanka is experiencing with a rapid urbanization


process with challenging use of modern technologies that makes a way for mega
development projects ranging from urban core intensification to introducing with
new infrastructure and multimodal transportation systems. Respectively, the
Traffic Department of Sri Lanka Police reports that in 2018, all cases of road and
traffic related accidents have been tremendously increased due to human factors
and poor & imbalance spatial operations, management, maintenance and
regulatory methods in Sri Lankan urban areas.

The ongoing urban surveys in Colombo further suggest that the increase of all
types of streetscape installations such as billboards, hoardings, banners and
digital screens etc. are potentially a threat that causes the road accidents and user
& property damages. Even though streetscape installations are expected to be
regulated by the related institutions and experts, so far no firm initiatives
have been identified as long term effective solutions to make a positive impact
or to minimize negative visual influences causing unsafe, unsecured and
discomfort urban public environments.

Hence, the study aims to identify different types of existing streetscape


installations while critically reviewing the build, designed and situational factors
that causes physical and psychological negative effects on road users. It also
targets to establish a baseline to scientifically analyze the visual impacts due to
streetscape installations, by incorporating qualitative and quantitative analysis of
county-level data and single case study. As the final step, it aims to rank and rate
identified streetscape installation categories according to its magnitude of
influences and impacts on users. In particularly, the study challenges the
research gap between streetscape installations and its level of visual impacts. As
a result, it identifies the correlation between streetscape installations and safety,
comfort aspects while examining the effects of installations on pedestrian and
driver’s attention and performance.

Keywords: Streetscape Installations; Visual Impacts; Urban Safety and


Comfort, Commercial Streetscapes, Galle Road

Page | 95
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-006

STAKEHOLDER PERCEPTION REGARDING GREEN URBAN PLANNING IN


KANDY

E.G.I. Sevwandi1*
1
Department of Geography, University of Peradeniya.
*Correspondence E-mail: isurika327@gmail.com, TP: +94716350275

Abstract: Recognizing the significant footprints of any urban planning initiative is


essentially important in achieving sustainability. Green urban planning in Kandy is such
directive which emerged as a way to support green spaces that provide ecosystem services
and to revalue them in the urban planning process. Even though this is widely debated
amongst stakeholders as a futuristic strategy on urban upgrading, there is small-scale
empirical research. Hence this paper will explore and discuss the viewpoints of different
stakeholders regarding green urban planning in Kandy. Further, it offers a snapshot on the
understanding and the expectations of individual stakeholders in respect of the green
concept and its realization in Kandy urban context. Since stakeholders can enhance
accountable, legitimate, representative and transparent decisions, investigating their
perceptions would provide a backdrop to introduce more green technologies to city
planning. Face-to-face direct interview is used as a means to collect the opinions on green
planning from three stakeholder groups: residents, travellers and planning experts in the
Kandy Municipal Council area. Samples were selected by convenient sampling method.
Findings revealed the three stakeholder groups having slightly different perceptions
indicating quiet less understanding on green concept. Experts had identified green concept
as eco-friendly and sustainable, while residents perceive it as urban greenery with
environmental conservation and travellers as environmental friendly city. Their perception
on green city planning and its main focus, relevance and suggestions on Kandy were vague
indicating different ideas. Yet, they all stressed the impact of green planning towards urban
liveability which they have learnt by experience. Hence the three groups depict a narrow
understanding on the broad scope of green city planning. This urges a proper mechanism to
enhance the stakeholder awareness on green planning because the ultimate goal is to
increase sustainability by means of positive stakeholder participation with their context
specific solutions.

Keywords: Stakeholder perception; Green concept; Urban planning; Kandy

Page | 96
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-139

CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES OF URBAN PLANNING AND


DEVELOPMENT OF KANDY CITY, SRI LANKA

W.A.N.I. Perera1*, D.M.L. Dissanayake2*, P.M. Gamage1, D.M.C. Dissanayake1, R.


Devika1, N. Senavirathna1
1
Postgraduate Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Peradeniya
2
Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Peradeniya
1
*Correspondence E-mail: nimalshini18@gmail.com, TP: +94702470420
2
*Correspondence E-mail: dissanayakedml2011@gmail.com, TP: +94718075726

Abstract
Kandy city is a significant urban premise where process of development began from the
Kingdom Era, as the capital of central province. National Physical Planning Policy and Plan
2017-2050 (NPPPP) is a national level guidance for the development of physical
environment of Sri Lanka and it has emphasized an urban development strategy with nine
urban development aspects. The study has focused on evaluating the potentiality of
achieving the desired Urban Development Aspects of NPPPP for current status of planning,
implementation and their challenges of Kandy City development scenario. The study has
initially done as literature survey and primary observations. SWOT analysis has used as the
main analytical method to figure out the current status and challenges of achieving
mentioned aspects. As results shown, improved pedestrian spaces, improved recreation
facilities and high quality utilities are categorized under urban development aspects
achieved providing positive impacts (strengths), green built environments and improved
public transport modes under urban development aspects have been achieving and would
provide positive impacts (opportunities), smart facilities, wider range of employment
opportunities and augmented social infrastructure are under development aspects not
achieved with negative impacts (weaknesses) and more spaces for physical environment
under urban development aspects not achieved and would provide negative impacts if
achieved (threats). As a conclusion, modification of architectural buildings, closer location
of two public transportation modes (Kandy Goodshed and railway station), planting
endemic flora species and green built environment are the major strengths while lack of
space, natural barriers, location of schools around the lake and ceiling effect are the
dominant weaknesses. Tourist attraction is the most impacting opportunity and natural
barriers limiting expansion of the city is the main identified threat impacting urban
development. As review outcome, researchers proposed strategic solutions to overcome the
recognized weaknesses and threats exist in current development process of Kandy city to
achieve the sustainable township with these development aspects.
Keywords: Urban development Aspects; Kandy City; SWOT Analysis; Potentiality;
Challenges

Page | 97
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-118

DETERMINANTS OF THE LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION OF


FARMERS IN MEDIUM SCALE IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT IN
TRINCOMALEE DISTRICT

S. Gowrythasan 1, S. Sritharan 2, C. S. Bandara 3


1
Irrigation Engineer, Trincomalee Division, P/Department of Irrigation, EP
2
Senior Lecturer in Statistics, Department of Commerce, Eastern University
3
Senior Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya
Correspondence E-mail: gowrythasa@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94777372295

Abstract:
The design of irrigation systems for long term stability must include not only
engineering considerations, but also participatory aspects of farmers. Therefore,
this study measures farmer participation through labour contribution, planning,
information dissemination and regulations of farmers and farmer’demographic,
socioeconomic, psychological and institutional factors. 100 farmers in the
medium irrigation schemes in Trincomalee district were selected using stratified
random sampling. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and multiple regression
analysis methods were used to analyze the data using SPSS version 20. The
study concluded that the level of participation of Trincomalee district farmers in
medium scale irrigation management activities was at a moderate level in which
labour contribution and planning activities were at a high level and information
dissemination and regulation activities were at a moderate level. Moreover, all
demographic factors (age and gender) and psychological factors (perception of
profit, soil quality, perception of water availability and responsibility towards
irrigation management) were found to be significantly associated with the level
of participation. In the context of socioeconomic factors labour force, total
monthly income, cultivable area, farming experience and distance from tank to
land significantly related with the level of participation. Moreover, institutional
characteristics, namely access to credit facilities and training service were found
to be significantly associated with the level of participation. However, livestock,
education and distance from the market and access to extension services did not
have significant relationship with the level of participation. This study suggests
that the farmers should be involved in all levels of irrigation management and
soil maps also should be developed. Moreover, water management techniques
such as the tank cascade system should be developed and practiced in each
medium scheme to reduce the water scarcity and improve the perception of
water availability and participation in the irrigation management.

Keywords: Farmer participation; Medium irrigation schemes; Irrigation


management

Page | 98
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-023

GREEN APPROACH FOR URBAN MAINTENANCE: A CONCEPTUAL


MODEL

A.K.N.E. Rathnasiri*, Nayanthara De Silva


Department of Building Economics,University of Moratuwa,Katubedda.
*Correspondence E-mail: nimali.aththanagalla@gmail.com, TP: +94712009155

Abstract: The Urban Maintenance (UM) is generally concealed yet vital for a
contemporary city to become a safe and comfortable urban space. However,
with increased urbanization, complicated urban lifestyles, limited resources and
poor attitudes, maintenance becomes a challenging task. Increased maintenance
impact the environment, the social life of people thus, UM needs a novel and
innovative transformation to achieve its goals and objectives. In the 1990s,
green maintenance (GM) was introduced as a response strategy that aims to
carry out maintenance activities and utilize resources in an environmentally
friendly manner using advanced technologies and equipment. This approach
ensures the health safety and comfort of maintenance personnel and urbanites.
However, the implementation of GM on the urban paradigm is yet to establish.
This study aims to discover existing issues of safety and health in UM practices.
Further, the paper proposed a GM model for UM through which safety and
health of maintenance personal, urban users could be enhanced. The existing
literature on urban green maintenance is explored using the Scopus database and
the VOSViewer data mining tool. A Bibliometric search followed by a
Scientometric analysis was carried out to establish maintenance mandates used
for the GM model. The model will serve as an innovative tool for assessing the
level of safety, health and comfort of urban stakeholders and to identify the gaps
between expected maintenance practices and existing maintenance practices to
which, will develop corresponding strategies in the future.

Keywords: Urban maintenance; Green maintenance; Health & Safety;


VOSViwer; Bibliometric search

Page | 99
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-091

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT


HOUSEHOLD LEVEL: A STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
KANDY MUNICIPAL COUNCIL IN THE CENTRAL PROVINCE OF SRI
LANKA

Mahesha Ihalagedara1*, Mallika Pinnawala2,


1
Postgraduate Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri
Lanka.
2
Department of Sociology, Faculty of Arts, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: maheshasatreps@gmail.com

Abstract: The solid waste from industries together with domestic waste is a major
social issue found in contemporary societies, particularly in developing countries.
It creates short and long term socio-economic and health impacts on the
communities if the waste is not properly managed. Hence, solid waste
management is one of the activities where community participation is a key to
success as they are the main waste generators. Within this context, the study was
examined community participation in solid waste management at household level.
The study was carried out using qualitative data collection methods in Kandy
Municipal Council in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. It found community mainly
practices waste separation, home composting and use 3R concept at household
level. Their participation is active for the waste separation than other two
practices, as it is a rule imposed by the municipal council. Therefore, an
attitudinal change is required in order to change the behaviors of the community
using environmental education.

Keywords: Solid Waste; Solid Waste Management; Community Participation;


Bottom-Up Approach

Page | 100
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Waste in Construction Industry

Page | 101
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-166

CHARACTERIZATION OF WATER RETENTION AND UNSATURATED


HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR RECYCLED ROAD-BASE
MATERIALS

Ryohei Ito1*, Akira Kato1, Akihiro Matsuno1, Ken Kawamoto1


1
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-
okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitam 338-8570, Japan
*Correspondence E-mail: r.ito.691@ms.saitama-u.ac.jp, TP: +81-80-7963-0427

Abstract: Not only characterization of saturated hydraulic property but also


unsaturated hydraulic properties such as water retention and unsaturated hydraulic
conductivity are necessary to evaluate an accurate water movement process and
the design of water drainage in the road pavement system. Till now, only limited
data is available for the unsaturated hydraulic properties for unbound roadbed
materials due to the difficulty of measurement. This study carried out the
measurements of water retention capacity (WRC) and unsaturated hydraulic
conductivity for recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) that typically used for the
road base and subbase materials. After grading particle size distribution of RCA
adjusted to Japanese technical specification, the tested sample was compacted in a
cylindrical mould following the modified Proctor method and then used to
measure WRCs and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The WRC was
measured under the main drying process by a combinational technique with a
hanging water, pressure chamber, and a dew-point potentiometer and the
unsaturated hydraulic conductivity was measured by an evaporation method.
Besides, Toyoura sand was used as a reference material. Results showed the
graded RCA gave a smaller water retention capacity compared to Toyoura sand
at saturation, however, its water retention became higher than Toyoura sand at the
suction range exceeding 10 kPa. As well as water retention property, the saturated
hydraulic conductivity of graded RCA became smaller than Toyoura sand at
saturation, however, the measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of graded
RCA at the suction range of 10~100 kPa ranged in the orders of 10-6~10-8cm/s
and became higher than those of Toyoura sand.

Keywords: Recycled concrete aggregates (RCA), road- base and subbase,


water retention curves (WRCs), unsaturated hydraulic conductivity

Page | 102
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-165

CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES


FOR FINE RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DIMOLITION SITES AND
CDW LANDFILLS IN HANOI, VIETNAM

1
, Akira KATO1, and Ken KAWAMOTO1,2
Ningning HAO1, Akihiro MATSUNO

1
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Japan
2
National University of Civil Engineering, Vietnam

Abstract: Due to rapid urbanization and population increase, the generation of


Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is increasing in urban areas and industrial
zones in developing countries. In order to examine the potential reuse/recycling of
fine residues (typically <2 mm) that generate from various construction and
demolition activities, this study investigated physical and chemical properties for the
fine residues including soil-like materials taken from building demolition sites and
CDW landfills in Hanoi, Vietnam. The sieved and grounded fines prepared from
waste concrete and clay brick debris taken from building demolition sites and CDW
landfills for a series of laboratory analyses. Three properties such as i) surface
morphology and element composition, ii) thermal property, and iii) environmental
safety were analysed using a scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive
spectroscopy, thermogravimeter-differential thermal analyser, and leaching and
content tests. Results showed that well reflected the material composition of fine
residues and both Ca %and mass reduction in thermogravimetric analysis (TG) of the
fines rich in concrete became higher compared to those of soil-like and the fines made
from clay brick. This implies that the combination of Ca/Si ratio and TG would give a
good insight to characterize the material of fine residues that generated from unknown
sources. The results from leaching and content tests showed that the concentrations of
water- and acid-extractable ions mostly ranged under the tolerance limits
(environmental standards in Japan). However, some fines gave higher Pb and B
concentrations rather than the environmental standards, suggesting the environmental
safety tests are necessary to examine the reuse/recycling of fine residues.

Keywords: Fine residues, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW),


Element composition, Thermal analysis, Environmental safety.

Page | 103
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-109

DEMOLISHED CEMENT BLOCK AS RECYCLED FINE


AGGREGATES IN MORTAR SYSTEMS

P.H.S. Rangika1, E.A.N. Thejasa 1, H.M.C.C. Somarathna 1*


1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jaffna,
Ariviyal Nagar, Killinochchi 44000, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: hmccsomarathna@gmail.com, TP: +94212060161

Abstract: Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste has been an inevitable by-
product of the remarkably developed current construction industry. The major
constituents of C&D waste are concrete and mortar; which contains a significant
amount of fine aggregates. Dumping the C&D waste in landfills causes serious
environmental problems including soil and groundwater contamination. On the
other hand, natural fine aggregate sources are non-renewable and depleting due
to over extraction. Therefore, more attention should be paid in terms of
recycling the aggregates in C&D waste and utilizing them in construction sector
for sustainable future. Recycled Fine Aggregates (RFAs) were produced from
demolished cement blocks. An experimental program was conducted regarding
the properties of Natural Fine Aggregates (NFAs) and RFAs, and the
mechanical properties of mortar mixes contained of RFAs by replacing NFAs.
The main difference between NFAs and RFAs is the old mortar adhered around
RFA. Aggregates characteristics, such as particle size distribution, bulk density,
and water absorption. Results revealed that the physical properties such as
particle size distribution, bulk density, and water absorption are almost similar
to those of NFAs, and lie within the acceptable range. Furthermore the findings
correlated well with the previous research findings. Secondly, a series of mortar
cubes were casted by partially replacing the recycled aggregates in the
proportions of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%. Density and the dry (7, 14 and 28
days) and wet (28 days) compressive strength were obtained for each
replacement. Findings showed that mortar with 20% replacement ratio
performed well in all the considered mechanical properties and it is shown
insignificant variation with the properties of mortar contain NFAs fully.
Furthermore, up to 60% of replacement of RFAs is feasible for load bearing
construction with 1;5 cement: fine aggregate ratio.

Keywords: Cement mortar, Construction and demolition waste, Demolished


cement blocks, Recycled fine aggregates, Sustainable

Page | 104
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-164

ASSESSMENT OF HYDROPHOBICITY/OLEOPHILICITY AND


HYDROPHILICITY/OLEOPHOBICITY FOR AUTOCLAVE
AERATED CONCRETE GRAINS COATED WITH STEARIC AND
OLEIC ACIDS

M. J. Zafar1*, A. Matsuno 1, H. T. T. Dang 2, P. T. Huyen 3, T. T. V. Nga 2, and


K. Kawamoto 1 1Saitama Univeristy, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Saitama 338-8570,
Japan.
2
National University of Civil engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Hanoi 84-024,
Vietnam 3Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi
84-024, Vietnam *Correspondence E-mail: junaid.engr.jz@gmail.com, TP:
+818078087400

Abstract: Oily wastewater is produced by the rapid urbanization,


industrialization and economic growth in developing countries. At present,
many oily wastewater treatment practices such as flotation, chemical
coagulation, adsorption, filtration and membrane separation are
available. Among them, oil/water separation techniques using natural
hydrophobic/oleophilic (vice versa) and artificially modified solid grains
have been paid much attention due to their cost effectiveness, quick
treatment and sustainability but the potential use of hydrophobized porous
grains has not been fully studied. This study aims to assess porous grains
of autoclave aerated concrete (AAC) grains coated by hydrophobic agents
(HAs) and discuss the applicability to oil/water separation technique. The
AAC grains (0.106–0.250 mm) was prepared from waste scrap in Vietnam
and were coated with two types of HAs, Oleic acid (OA) and Stearic acid
(SA), at different concentrations. The degree of
hydrophobicity/oleophilicity was assessed by measuring contact angles of
water in air (CAa) and oil in water (CAo) in the laboratory. Results showed
that the measured CAa for both OA- and SA-coated AAC grains rapidly
increased with increasing HA concentrations and reached the maximum of
140–145oat HA > 100g/kg while CAo decreased with increasing HA
concentrations and the maximum CAo values were 137–140oat HA < 10
g/kg. The correla tions between CAa and/or CAo with organic carbon
content (OC) and A/B ratio (ratio of hydro phobic groups to hydrophilic
groups determined from FT-IR spectra) indicated that the measured CAa
for both OA- and SA-coated AAC grains increased with the increase in OC
and A/B ratio and became a plateau (almost constant), while the measured
CAo showed a monotonic decrease with the increase in OC and A/B ratio.
In the next phase, column filtration experiments shall be conducted for
examining the oil/water separation efficiency and capacity based on the
tested results of this study.

Keywords: Oily wastewater; Oil/water separation; Autoclave aerated


concrete; Hydrophobicity/Oleophilicity; Contact angle (o).

Page | 105
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-077

A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW TOWARDS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF


CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF CONSTRUCTION AND
DEMOLITION WASTE

M. Gowsiga1* and M. Thayaparan2


1,2
Department of Building Economics, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
*gowsigam@uom.lk, TP: +94770703102

Abstract: Growth of construction activities escalate the generation of


Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW). It is obvious that there is
comparatively a bulk quantity of material being wasted in the construction
industry. Much of these CDWs are generally directed to landfills and the
sustainable practices in relation to this context are generally neglectable in most
of the countries. Inefficient resource exploitation has also become a significant
problem in the construction industry. Hence, to boost the minimisation of CDW
and efficiency of resource exploitation, circular economy (CE) is considered as
an appropriate concept, which sustains economic benefits as well. CE is a
business strategy to gain economic benefit, minimise environmental impacts and
increase the efficiency of resource consumption. Though the CE is not a novel
concept, in the context of CDW it is still not adopted fully. Hence, this paper
aims to analysis the existing literature on a systematic way towards CE
implementation in the context of CDW to minimise the CDW. A systematic
literature review was carried out using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic
Reviews (PRISMA) as the analysis tool to understand the concept of CE,
different types of CDW, the application of CE concept to minimise CDW, and
the challenges to adopting CE towards the CDW. Although CE consists of 4
models such as reduction, reuse, recycling, and recovering materials, mostly
reuse and recycling are in practice. The findings are expected to stimulate the
circularity concept into the construction industry to reduce the CDW to landfill
and to avoid resource scarcity, which would guarantee more sustainable CDW
management practices in the future.

Keywords: Circular Economy (CE); Construction and Demolition Waste


(CDW); Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA); Waste
Management.

Page | 106
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-084

BIM-BASED CONSTRUCTION WASTE MINIMISATION FRAMEWORK


FOR THE DESIGN STAGE OF A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT: THE CASE
OF SRI LANKA

M.A.C.A.K. Sabhan1, A.P. Rathnasinghe 1*, H.S. Jayasena 1, U. Kulatunga 1


1
Department of Building Economics,University of Moratuwa, 10400, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: akilar@uom.lk, TP: +94765670054

Abstract: Construction waste has significantly affected the environment and any
project’s value for money, which made researchers to concern for a Construction
Waste Minimisation (CWM) process. Scholarly works have ascertained that the
major proportion of construction waste generates during the decisions taken in the
early design stage as of 33% of direct construction waste. On the other hand,
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is being widely used in Architecture
Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry to enhance the building design, cost
estimation, and scheduling, where researchers are already speculating on the
potential of BIM to enhance the CWM process. Even though many studies have
emphasized and accomplished CWM, BIM-based strategies are not significantly
practised in Sri Lanka, since it is a new approach towards the Sri Lankan context.
Thereby, this research aims to present a BIM-based CWM theoretical framework
for the Sri Lankan construction industry. Accordingly, an extensive literature
survey was conducted to develop a theoretical framework for the identified causes
of waste generation activities with the incorporation of BIM features. Further, this
theoretical framework would provide solutions by laying down the procedural
layout to achieve foreseeable solutions for the most significant causes of
construction waste during the design stage of a construction project.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM); Construction waste;


Construction Waste Minimisation (CWM); Causes of construction waste.

Page | 107
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Geo-technical and Transportation Engineering

Page | 108
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-089

COLLAPSIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESIDUAL SOIL IN


MATALE DISTRICT, SRI LANKA

C.J. De Zoysa1, A.K.T. Dushan 2, L.C. Kurukulasuriya 2*


Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya
*Correspondence E-mail: chank@pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94718386041

Abstract: Collapse is termed as the large volume reduction taken place in


partially saturated soils upon wetting under a particular applied pressure, that are
otherwise resistant to much larger applied stresses under normal conditions. This
phenomenon can be commonly witnessed in Aeolian, alluvial and colluvial type
of soils across the globe though not much reported to occur in residual soils.
However, a residual soil too can develop into a collapsible soil under certain
conditions. In this study, undisturbed soil samples obtained from a construction
site in Matale District, Sri Lanka consisting of a residual soil which exhibited
unusually low values of dry density was subjected to a series of double
oedometer tests to determine the collapse potential and to investigate the
variation of collapse potential with the applied normal pressure, relative
compaction and degree of saturation. The study revealed that the collapse
potential of different locations of the site is directly proportional to the applied
normal pressure and inversely proportional to both relative compaction and
degree of saturation. Also, it was identified that samples remolded maintaining
their insitu dry density can increase the collapse potential of a slightly
collapsible soil. A multi-variate regression analysis was performed to develop a
relationship for collapse potential in terms of applied normal pressure, relative
compaction and degree of saturation.

Keywords: Collapse Potential; Double Oedometer Test; Relative Compaction;


Residual Soil; Degree of Saturation

Page | 109
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-130

ASSESSMENT OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL OF COLOMBO


PORT CITY PROJECT

I.A.C.C. Ilangakoon1*, A.M.R.G. Athapaththu1, B.P. Gonaduwage2, P.G.GM.


Ranbandara2, R.U. Thilakarathne2
1
Departments of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya.
*Correspondence E-mail: charith.ilangakoon@gmail.com, TP: +94778288837

Abstract: Due to the limited land area in Colombo Central Business District,
the development of reclaimed land in the Colombo coastline was initiated.
Colombo Post City is the first-ever mega reclaimed land project in Sri Lanka.
Especially when it’s come to sand reclaimed projects, liquefaction is one of the
major problems that should be addressed. Liquefaction is a process which
generates mostly due to natural seismic events. Even though Sri Lanka is located
in an earthquake-free geological region, events like the 2004 Tsunami and recent
studies confirmed that seismic events cannot be no longer ignored and should be
considered in the design stages of structures. Therefore, the determination of the
effects of seismic events on the Colombo port city project is of prime
importance. In this study, liquefaction triggering potential and prediction of post
liquefaction vertical settlement of completed land plots of Colombo Port City
were analyzed, based on CPT data with the magnitudes of different earthquake
hazards that could be anticipated in the future. Cone penetration test based
manual analysis method, namely, Robertson method verified to be reliable
according to the past studies, has been adopted for the analysis along with
software named NovoCPT. For the analysis process total of 88 number of CPT
data sets considered by covering land plots developed with different techniques
and land plots with different objectives (commercial buildings and road
structures). Also, the relevant seismic data for the analysis were selected based
on the past incidents that occurred in this region of the world. The analysis
showed that the probability of occurrence of liquefaction failure is independent
of the improved method and some locations identified as locations with critical
layers. However, further studies revealed that settlement values are higher in un-
treated land plots when compared with the treated land plots.

Keywords: Colombo Port City; Liquefaction; Earthquakes; probability;


Software

Page | 110
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-135

A LABORATORY INVESTIGATION ON THE ADVANCEMENT OF


RAILWAY BALLAST BEHAVIOR USING ARTIFICIAL INCLUSIONS

S. Venuja1*, S. K. Navaratnarajah1, T. H. V. P. Wickramasinghe1, and D. S. A.


Wanigasekara1
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya,
Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: venujas@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94771751337

Abstract: Ballasted rail tracks are the most popular and conventional rail track
foundation system primarily consists of ballast as a major portion by weight and
volume. Ballast is a highly angular, coarser material with high bearing capacity,
shear strength, and non-water absorbent, which is obtained by crushing rocks.
The ballast layer absorbs and widely distributes the moving train loads from
sleepers to the ground. With time, the ballast is deteriorated because of frequent
cyclic and impact loads from train movements, which ended up with high-cost
maintenance. Artificial inclusions are renowned remedial action to the above-
mentioned issue. In this laboratory-based study, the effect of rubber pads and
geogrids on the shear and deterioration behavior of ballast was evaluated by
conducting large-scale direct shear tests under 30, 60, and 90 kPa normal loads
with a shearing rate of 4 mm/min. Based on the experimental results, a
combination of shock mats and geogrid is suggested which enhanced the stress,
dilation, and deterioration behavior of railway ballast.

Keywords: Ballast; Shear strength; Deterioration; Rubber pads; Geogrids

Page | 111
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-170

INVESTIGATION OF COLLOIDAL TRANSPORT IN SATURATED


POROUS MEDIA: EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY

B.G.C. Bombuwala1, A.M.E. Karunarathna 1, B. Banithy2, T.K.K.C.


Deepagoda 3* 1Undergraduate, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of
Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. 2Postgraduate, Department of
Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
3
Senior Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri
Lanka. *Correspondence E-mail: chaminduk@pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94768039827

Abstract: Field and laboratory scale observations conducted during last few
decades provided ample evidences to prove colloid-facilitated transport of
numerous contaminants in porous media including radionuclides, hydrophobic
organic compounds (HOCs), heavy metals, pesticides, pathogens, etc. Therefore,
it is vital to investigate colloid and colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in
porous media and the soil physico-chemical parameters controlling their
subsurface fate and transport processes. This study mainly focused on
investigating the effect of flow rate (as a physical perturbation) and ionic strength
(as a chemical perturbation) on mobilization and transport colloids in saturated
porous media. A series of controlled-laboratory column experiments were
conducted using a selected sand as the porous medium and colloids with the
Stokes’ diameter < 1 μm extracted from an agricultural soil. The ionic strength
was controlled by changing the NaCl concentration in the influent colloidal
solution while the flow rate changed by varying the hydraulic head of the
column. The turbidity of the effluent solution was measured to estimate the
colloid concentration and a series of breakthrough curves were obtained for
different combinations of ionic strength and flow rates. The experimental results
were numerically characterized based the advection-diffusion/dispersion
modelling framework coupled with attachment, detachment and straining
parameters which were inversely estimated using the HYDRUS 1D software.
Estimated attachment coefficients of soil colloids were significantly higher in
low flow rates and higher in high ionic strength. Also, the results of numerical
analysis identified attachment as the key retention mechanism in saturated porous
sand in an ionic solution.

Keywords: Physical and chemical perturbation; Column experiment; Stokes’


diameter; Attachment; Detachment; Straining

Page | 112
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-136

NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE EFFECT OF FINE MATERIALS ON


SHEAR BEHAVIOR OF FOULED RAILWAY BALLAST

R. M. D. L. Rathnayake1*, S. K. Navaratnarajah1, M. Daxsan1, H. K. K. A.


Jayasekara1
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri
Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: dimalir@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94714982305

Abstract: Railway network has become the most economical and widely used
transportation mode in many countries. This is mainly due to the frequent congestion
of major highways which is caused by rapid urbanization. With this increasing
demand for railway transportation, the need for heavier and faster trains too has
increased. Introducing high-speed trains with heavy axel loads creates high stresses
in the track layers and causes excessive settlement and degradation. Therefore,
special attention must be given in understanding the behavior of track layers due to
vibrations under dynamic loading. The ballast layer plays a crucial part in
transmitting and distributing the wheel load from sleepers to the underlying sub-
ballast and subgrade. Ballast becomes degraded and fouled by the progressive
accumulation of fines between ballast voids due to repeated train loading and various
external factors. This phenomenon leads to a change in ballast behavior such as shear
and dilation. This study concentrates on analyzing the effect of fine material on the
shear behavior of railway ballast material. To achieve this goal a 3D finite element
model of ballast during large-scale direct shear test is developed using ABAQUS
software. The model is calibrated and validated using data obtained during a previous
study. A parametric study is carried on the shear behavior of ballast by varying
normal stress and the percentage of fines. This model is then used to predict the
effect of fine materials on the shear behavior of ballast.

Keywords: Ballast; Shear behavior; Foul material; Numerical modeling

Page | 113
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-022

ASSESSMENT OF SHEAR STRENGTH PARAMETERS OF MARINE


DREDGE SAND

P.G.G.M. Ranbandara1*, A.M.R.G. Athapaththu1, R.U. Thilakarathne1, L.C.


Kurukulasuriya1, B.P. Gonaduwage2
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
2
Port City Development Project, Ministry of Urban Development, Sri Lanka.
*E-mail: gayan_madusanka@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94711674842

Abstract: Cohesion and friction angle represents the shear strength parameters of
soils. Linear Mohr - Coulomb envelope is the widely used theoretical concept to
describe the shear strength of the soils which are related to the geotechnical
analysis and designs. However, sand deviates considerably from linear Mohr -
Coulomb envelope due to the effects of factors such as confining pressure, relative
density, mineralogy, particle crushing, particle size distribution and fines con tent.
The Colombo port city development project, which is in coastal region, reclaimed
dredge sand over 13m depth. This project was proposed to include low rise and
high rise buildings all over the reclaimed land where the type of foundation may
vary depending upon the structural loads and subsurface conditions. Therefore,
determination of shear strength parameters for different loading condition is of
utmost importance to determine the bearing capacity and to select the dimensions
of foundations. In this study, basic engineering properties of reclaimed sand
collected from Colombo port city project were examined. A series of laboratory
direct shear tests were conducted to determine the variation of shear stress over
different normal stresses. From the analysis of experimental data, it was revealed
that shear stress of dredged sand varies linearly with normal stress up to 100 kPa
and showed nonlinear behavior thereafter.

Keywords: Land reclamation; Dredge sand; Shear strength; Port city; Relative
density; Maximum dry density

Page | 114
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-066

UTILIZATION OF BOTTOM ASH FOR CLAY MINE


REHABILITATION

S Suloshini1*, A S Ranathunga1, S A S Kulathilaka1, W B Gunawardana1, M M S T


M Mapa1

1
University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: 198034E@uom.lk, TP: +94778842520

Abstract: At the end of mining activities, clay mines were abandoned due to the
cost and non availability of filling materials. These abandoned clay mines cause
adverse environmental and social impacts. In addition, large quantities of bottom
ash (BA) are generated as a by-product of coal combustion process. This BA is
disposed by open dumping in the lands, which creates severe environmental
pollution. Therefore, conducted research on utilization of BA for mine
rehabilitation is beneficial. The main focus of this research is applicability of BA
generated from Lakvijaya power plant, Sri Lanka as a potential backfill material
and a soil amendment during the clay mine rehabilitation. Initially tests were
conducted to investigate the basic properties of BA. Next, chemical composition of
BA was analysed to select the suitable crops for vegetation. Further pH, electrical
conductivity and water holding capacity were checked and micro structural
morphology of BA was determined through Scanning Electron Microscope. The
results showed that BA has good engineering properties and the potential to
improve agronomic characteristics of soil. It has better water holding capacity and
permeability. BA can adjust soil pH to a desirable plant growth range. As BA has a
very porous structure, the root system can easily develop and helps to uptake
nutrients by the plant. However, a considerable percentage of trace metals is
accumulated in BA which will increase the bioavailability of some trace metals to
levels that poses risk to human. Thus, investigations were carried out to identify
the heavy metal concentration in leachate of BA using column leaching test.
Results showed that leachability potential of trace metals in BA does not exceed
the allowable limits.

Keywords: bottom ash; clay mines; compaction; soil amendment; trace metals

Page | 115
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-131

SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF WEATHERED METAMORPHIC


ROCK-MASSES IN SRI LANKA

H.S. Lasantha1*, A.M.R.G. Athapaththu 2


1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: lasanthahs@gmail.com, TP: +94710804075

Abstract: Weathering changes the strength of intact rock and rock-mass


properties. Variation of intact rock strength and geotechnical properties of
metamorphic rock masses with respect to the degree of weathering under tropical
conditions is poorly studied. Commonly used rock slope stability analysis methods
are Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Slope Mass Rating (SMR), Kinematic analysis and
most of the rock-mass classification systems do not consider the effect of
weathering for slope stability analysis. In the present study 10 road-cuts composed
of metamorphic rock-masses along Kandy-Randenigala and Kandy-
Mahiyanganaya roads were studied. Point load tests were carried out on block
samples and intact rock strength was determined. Slope Stability Probability
Classification (SSPC) system, which is specifically designed to address
the stability of weathered rock slopes, kinematic analysis with stereographic
projection, RMR, and SMR methods were applied to determine the stability of cut
slopes. The results of other methods and the observed visual stability of rock-
masses were used to validate the SSPC results. The results of the SSPC
orientation-dependent analysis, the kinematic analysis, and SMR analysis were
found in good agreement with the visual stability of the studied cut slopes.

Keywords: rock-mass; weathering; RMR; SMR; SSPC

Page | 116
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-026

IMPROVEMENT OF AN ADT ESTIMATION MODEL DEVELOPED FOR


A-CLASS ROADS IN SRI LANKA BY INCORPORATING NATIONAL
EXPRESSWAYS AND IMPORTANT B-CLASS LINKS

P.M. Jayarathne 1*, R.D.N.D Kumari.1, W.R.S.S. Dharmarathna 1, I.M.S.


Sathyaprasad 1
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: prasadmaduranga81@gmail.com, TP: +94713891621

Abstract: Estimates of Average Daily Traffic (ADT) are important in the operations
of state highway departments for new constructions, improving existing facilities and
maintenance. The available manual survey methods to calculate ADT are costly and
time consuming. There have been several previous attempts to develop ADT
estimation models for the A-class road network in Sri Lanka. One of the serious
shortcomings of these models is that the contribution of important class B roads and
expressways in transferring inter-district trips is not represented. Hence, this study
aims to improve ADT estimation model for the A-class road network including key
B-class links and current expressways (E01, E02, E03). Six independent variables
were selected in order to represent three main contributors to the ADT through the
location; local, regional and inter-district trips, as build-up areas of cities and,
distance to the counting stations, population density in the administrative district and
the network connectivity factor. Network connectivity factors were calculated based
on a link-node system with 96 nodes and 162 links. Road junctions, interchanges of
expressways and district capitals are also selected as nodes in the link-node system.
Important B-class road links were selected based on average ADT in B-class links in
each district, google maps and, local knowledge. Furthermore, B-class links
connected with expressway interchanges are also selected based on ADT values.
Assuming the rational behaviour of trip makers that try to reduce fuel, toll cost,
travel time, travel distance, etc. the network connectivity factor is derived based on a
generalized cost function. Generalized cost matrix was used as an input for analyzing
the cheapest path using Dijkstra’s Algorithm in Python platform. A regression
analysis is done for obtaining the respective parameters of the ADT model with
Minitab 19 software. Model resulted a R-square value of 0.71. Percentage bias
(PBIAS) was checked for calibration and validation data. For the calibration data,
PBIAS is -0.00937% and for the validation data, PBIAS is 1.8%. Hence, the model is
not biased and there is a significant improvement of the model, while using
generalized cost instead of distance or travel time.

Keywords: ADT; network connectivity factor; generalized cost function; regression


analysis

Page | 117
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-090

INFLUENCE OF SWELLING OF CLAY LINER MATERIALS ON


HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

L.C. Kurukulasuriya1*, R.A.T.M.N. Rathnayake1, A.H.N. Asuramanna1,


1
Dpartment of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of
Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: chank@pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94718386041

Abstract: Solid waste has become a huge problem in the world due to
open dumping practices. In Sri Lanka, open dumping is used mostly to
dispose solid waste. Engineered landfill is one of the best options to
overcome these problems. In an engineered landfill, bottom-liner is an
essential component in minimizing leakage of leachate into the subgrade.
Clayey soils are used to construct compacted clay liners. Bentonite can be
used to improve hydraulic properties of the compacted clay liners to
conform to design requirements of liners. Such Bentonite amended clayey
soil can swell when used in a landfill liner affecting its hydraulic properties
which has not been taken into consideration in the determination of its
hydraulic conductivity. Therefore, in this study, effect of swelling of
clayey soil mixed with Bentonite on its hydraulic conductivity is
investigated. For this purpose, the soil was obtained from the premises of
Ediriweera Sarachchandra hostel at University of Peradeniya. Tests were
performed for three soil samples pre pared by mixing 5% and 10% sodium
bentonite in addition to the unamended soil sample. Initially, Atterberg
limits tests, specific gravity tests, mechanical analyses and compaction
tests were carried out for these three samples. Effect of compaction on
swelling pressure, percentage swell and hydraulic conductivity was
investigated by conducting swelling pressure and hydrau lic conductivity
tests on samples compacted to 90%, 95% and 100% of maximum dry
density. The results showed that swell pressure and percentage swell
increased with the increase of degree of compaction and Bentonite
percentage. Also, the hydraulic conductivity decreased with the increase of
compaction value and Bentonite percentage. Multi-variate analyses were
per formed to develop a regression relationship to evaluate swelling
pressure, percentage swell and hydraulic conductivity using degree of
compaction and percentage Bentonite.

Keywords: Engineered landfill; Bentonite; Swell pressure;


Swell percentage; Hydraulic conductivity

Page | 118
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-024

OPTIMIZATION OF JUNCTION PERFORMANCE AT PERADENIYA


COMPOUND JUNCTION:
AN APPLICATION OF VISSIM

D.H.M.K.S Thalgaskotuwa1*, A.S.P Ranasinghe1, W.R.S.S Dharmarathna1, I.M.S


Sathyaprasad1
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
*kasunsanjaya1995@gmail.com, TP: +94712466669

Abstract: Peradeniya junction is one of the key intersections within the Kandy
city limit where traffic congestion become a serious issue for city transport
planners. The junction consists of two, three-way intersections which connect
four main approaches; Colombo, Gannoruwa, Galaha junction and Gampola.
During peak hours, long queues propagate along the Colombo approach when
compared to other approaches. Over time, vehicle emissions and fuel
consumptions due to junction delays have increased because of the increasing
growth rate of vehicles. In this research, traffic flows at Peradeniya compound
junction is simulated using VISSIM software (VISSIM 9) and identify an
optimum junction operation strategy. VISSIM is a microscopic simulation
model introduced by PTV group and it can be used to predict network
performances at operation level, optimize control systems and predict their
behavior before implementation. Geometric data, queue lengths, travel times,
vehicle inputs with compositions, route selection percentages, parking data and
pedestrian data were collected from a traffic survey and a road inventory survey.
Calibrated VISSIM model of Peradeniya junction was used to simulate
improvement strategies; signalization without further geometric improvements,
signalization with geometric improvements, installation of coordinated signal
system for both junctions, new bridge with signalization, and introducing an
overpass with signalization. Then by using Benefit/Cost analysis of travel time
savings and reduction of vehicle emissions as benefits against the costs of
construction and operation, introducing a traffic management system for the
junction was identified as the optimum operational strategy for the junction.

Keywords: Peradeniya junction; traffic flow simulation; VISSIM; optimum


strategy

Page | 119
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-011

A REVIEW ON EXPERIMENTALLY AND THEORETICALLY


DETERMINED INFILTRATION

S. Tharshika1*, G. K. D. A. S. Rathnasiri2, R. Abinayan2


1
Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
South Eastern University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka
2
Undergraduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
South Eastern University of Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: stharshi1992@seu.ac.lk, TP: +9477 726 1955

Abstract: Downward movement of the water from the ground surface is


defined as infiltration. It may be entire flow or partial flow through the
soil. Measurement of how fast water enters in to the soil is known as
infiltration rate and also generally expressed in inch per hour. Estimation
of infiltration rate is essential for effective management of water resources.
It is evaluated by selecting a suitable model among existing available
models in different soil conditions. Thus, this study will be illustrated by
several studies, which are done by many researchers who are interested
in this field. Experimental infiltration rate values have been compared with
infiltration rates which were obtained by Horton’s model, Kostiakov’s
model, Modified Kostiakov’s model, Greem Ampt model and Philip’s
model. The results from different models have been analysed to select the
most suitable model. Field measurements have been taken by using either
single ring infiltrometer or double ring infiltrometer and tests were carried
out in several locations. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study
the various research works done till now to study the comparison of
infiltration rate which obtained from field data and conventional infiltration
models.

Keywords: Infiltration rate; Infiltrometer; Horton’s model; Modified


Kostiakov’s model; Greem-Ampt model; Philip’s model.

Page | 120
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-092

HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BALLAST SUBJECTED TO


PARTICLE DEGRADATION AND MUD PUMPING

K.D.K. Rupasinghe1*, L.A.R.L. Weerarathne2, L.C. Kurukulasuriya2


Department of civil Engineering, Faculty of engineering, University of Peradeniya
*Correspondence E-mail: chank@pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94718386041

Abstract: Ballast is the primary component of a rail track foundation.


Ballast aggregates are composed of crushed and coarse grained hard rock.
Main functions of ballast are providing adequate permeability for drainage
purposes, support the superstructure by distributing the loads from the
moving train and provide lateral resistance to tie movement. Similar to
shear strength characteristics, drainage capacity is also one of the most
important properties of ballast. When it is degraded and aged, broken and
foreign particles accumulate within the voids (ballast fouling) and its
drainage capacity is decreased. Ballast degradation is mainly due to
internal particle breakage and mud pumping. The aim of this research is to
study the effect of particle degradation due to particle breakage and mud
pumping on hydraulic characteristics of ballast. Rowe cell apparatus was
used to conduct permeability tests. Since the ballast particles are large in
size, naturally it was impossible to accommodate sufficient amount of
sample within the Rowe cell to achieve a better packing of ballast.
Therefore, parallel gradation technique was used and a new sample was
prepared according to the parallel gradation technique. Series of constant
head hydraulic conductivity tests were done for each of the samples with
difference fouling percentages and breaking index values. Variation of
hydraulic conductivity due to particle degradation in parallel graded ballast
was obtained. This investigation revealed that the hydraulic conductivity
decreased significantly with the increase in either the fouling percentage or
the breakage index.

Keywords: Ballast Breakage Index; Fouling percentage; Hydraulic


conductivity; Parallel gradation; Rowe cell

Page | 121
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-134

THE EFFECT OF FOULING MATERIALS ON PERMEABILITY


BEHAVIOUR OF LARGE SIZE GRANULAR MATERIALS

H. G. S. Mayuranga1*, S. K. Navaratnarajah 1, M. M. N. Gimhani 1, and J. M. M. Y.


Karunarathne 1
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya,
Peradeniya,
Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: sushanm@eng.pdn.ac.lk, TP: +94714960369

Abstract: Granular materials are discontinuous, highly heterogeneous materials


that are randomly assembled. They are widely used in civil engineering
constructions such as in highway pavements, rockfill dams, drainage systems,
and rail tracks. In this study, the granular type ballast aggregates were used to
analyze its permeability behaviour when it is contaminated with fine particles.
The ballast provides rapid drainage and supports the heavy loads apply from the
trains. However, the accumulation of fines in the ballast layer which is known as
fouling causes disturbance in track drainage which is leading for reduced track
performance and frequent track maintenance. Therefore, this study focuses on
the determination of permeability behavior of fouled ballast with different levels
of fouling experienced in Sri Lankan rail tracks and to propose the stage at
which track maintenance should be done. A series of constant head permeability
tests were conducted by using large-scale permeability apparatus built in the
laboratory. Sandy clay was used as the fouling material and the gradation of
ballast currently adopted in Sri Lanka was used. Void contamination index
(VCI) was selected to indicate the fouling level and the permeability of ballast
was measured at different VCI values. A numerical analysis was carried out to
simulate two-dimensional flow under actual track geometry in quantifying the
drainage capacity of ballast in different degrees of fouling. By using constant
head permeability test results as inputs, drainage capacities at different cases
were obtained from the numerical analysis and classified according to the
drainage capacity criteria. Based on the research outcomes, a relationship
between the hydraulic conductivity of ballast and the VCI% was obtained. Also,
the critical fouling levels in different layers of ballast were identified to
commence the ballast cleaning work at the rail track site.

Keywords: Ballast; Fouling; Large-Scale Permeability test; Numerical


modelling

Page | 122
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-153

POTENTIAL OF WASTE RICE HUSK ASH TO REDUCE


PROPAGATION OF GROUND VIBRATION FROM IMPACT PILING:
CHARACTERISTICS OF IN-FILLED TRENCHES

G.H.M.J. Subashi De Silva *, S. Thoradeniya1, K.M.G.C.J Thilakasiri


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University
of Ruhuna
*Correspondence E-mail: subashi@cee.ruh.ac.lk, TP: +94-077 8069856

Abstract: Impact pilling inevitably generates seismic disturbance to the


surroundings that can cause discomfort to occupants in nearby buildings,
disturbance to the activities undertaken in the buildings, and possible damage to
nearby structures. To reduce the disturbances to occupants and damages to
structures, the propagation of the impact pilling induced ground vibration needs to
be assessed and controlled. The objectives of this study are to investigate the
characteristics of ground vibration induced by impact piling, and assess impact
pile induced vibration based on the available standards and evaluate the
effectiveness of trench characteristics (i.e., shape of the trench, multiple trenches,
infilled trenches) in reducing the propagation of ground vibration. The ground
vibrations were measured by using a four-channel seismograph and a six-channel
seismograph. The measured ground vibrations induced by the impact piling were
compared with local and international standards. A damping layer was introduced
by using six different types of trenches: Rectangular open single trench,
rectangular open double trench, trapezoidal open single trench, trapezoidal open
double trench, a single trench filled with RHA, and a double trench filled with rice
husk ash (RHA). It was found that the magnitude and frequency of ground
vibration induced by impact piling in hard soil was greater than that of soft soil.
When the excavations were carried out in hard soil the magnitude of ground
vibration exceeded the permissible values recommended in local and international
standards, implying a necessity of having a method to reduce the propagation of
ground vibration to far-field. It was found that rectangular open double trench
reduced ground vibration by 82.9% in the transverse direction and 78.8% in the
vertical direction. Double trench filled with waste rice husk ash reduced ground
vibration by 76.3% in a longitudinal direction. This study concludes that in-filled
trenches with waste RHA, an agricultural by-product, has the potential to reduce
the propagation of ground vibration induced by impact pilling.

Keywords: ground vibration, damping layer, in-filled trenches, rice husk ash

Page | 123
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Construction Management

Page | 124
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-076

EVALUATION OF CHALLENGES IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION


INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

R.G.H.N.B Herath , D.T.H.N Perera , K.T.Withanage


1 2* 3

1
Ted Jacob Engineering Group Dubai Branch, Dubai, UAE.
2
Bam Higgs & Hill, Dubai, UAE
3
Department of Building Economics, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: hirushinibandi98@gmail.com, TP: +9471561010518

Abstract: The United Arab Emirates is one of the leading developed countries in
the world with a continuously booming construction industry. Building and
construction sector is considered as a leading economic drive in the country.
Rapidly growing demand for the constructions has imparted adverse effects on the
environment extending to human beings, fauna and flora species and other natural
resources. United Arab Emirates, along with the other neighboring states in the
Middle East Region, is trying to move towards sustainability but not yet fully
implemented. This research paper is focused on identifying and evaluating the
factors which act as roadblocks to the sustainability movement in the UAE
construction sector. A questionnaire survey was conducted among construction
professionals who have been involving in UAE based construction projects,
selected through non-probability sampling, aiming to identify benefits of
sustainable constructions in UAE, various aspects of sustainability practices and
key challenges for sustainable construction industry in UAE. Researchers
discovered four main benefits of sustainable construction practices in UAE such as
minimum life cycle expenditure, high competitiveness in bidding projects, reduced
environmental impact and enhanced client satisfaction. Further, through an
extensive statistical analysis, the researchers discovered that challenges towards
sustainability are corporate economic policies of the organizations, lack of waste
management practices, massive air pollution, costly construction process, lack of
clients who are willing to fund sustainable projects and lack of competent
professionals. This research recommended to develop a methodology to overcome
challenges towards sustainable construction practices, which can be promoted
among construction professionals around UAE. It is expected that research
implications will motivate the government of the United Arab Emirates to develop
an economic and social development model while minimizing environmental
damages and promoting sustainability in construction projects.

Keywords: Sustainability; Construction Industry; Challenges; United Arab


Emirates

Page | 125
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-005

STRENGTHENING SUSTAINABILITY IN SRI LANKAN


CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY THROUGH SUSTAINABLE
ENTREPRENEURSHIP: CONTRACTOR’S PERSPECTIVE

W. A. A. Oshadhi1*, W. D. I. V. Somachandra2
1
Birmingham City University, 15 Bartholomew Row, Birmingham B5 5JU, United
Kingdom. 2International College of Business and Technology, No. 36, De Kretser Place,
Colombo 04. *Correspondence E-mail: aparnawickramatunga@gmail.com, TP:
+94770881468

Abstract: The construction industry contributes 9 percent to Sri Lanka’s GDP.


However, due to existing complications such as political instability, rising
commodity costs, high turnover Con tractors are more concerned with the safety
of their profits than trying to go for a win-win situation to all involved. As a
result, the industry is neither unsustainable nor innovative. The need to move to
an innovative and sustainable business practice has emerged to achieve economic
well-being and environmental and social prosperity. In order to build a
sustainable country, the concept of sustainable entrepreneurship and its possible
implementation are presented in this document. Sustainable entrepreneurs are
those who offer innovative solutions for transforming the economy into a more
sustainable economy while promoting society and the environment. The purpose
of this paper was to explore sustainable entrepreneurship solutions for contractor
organizations in the Sri Lankan construction industry Thus, the concepts of
entrepreneurship and sustainability have been extensively studied while stressing
the challenges faced by contractors, focusing on innovative sustainable solutions
for the same. The qualitative data collection followed by the Grounded Theory
method was adopted based on 20 interviews with leading contractors'
organisations in the Sri Lankan construction industry. These challenges were
identified as poor customer knowledge, rising raw material costs, shortage of
skilled labour, high labour turnover, lack of utilization of research and
development, misuse of innovative durable materials, massive paper usage when
ordering materials and material waste. The identified challenges are
recommended with solutions to show how sustainable entrepreneurship will
benefit the construction industry to improve its benefits and sustainable
construction practices while promoting the well-being of the environment and
society as a whole.

Keywords: Sustainable Entrepreneurship; Construction Industry; Contractor


Challenges; Sustainable Innovative Solutions

Page | 126
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-002

DETERMINANTS OF LABOUR MOTIVATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION


INDUSTRY IN SRI LANKA

G.B.L.L. Rathnayake1, M.D. Rathnayake2


1,2
Department of Quantity Surveying, University College of Anuradhapura,
University of Vocational Technology,
Sri Lanka
*
Correspondence E-mail: lahirulqshan888@gmail.com, muviniqs@gmail.com

Abstract: Construction is the fourth highest sub sector in Sri Lankan economy
which contributed 8.1% of overall GDP. Labour is an important resource in
construction because it is the one that combines all the other resources namely
materials, plant and equipment, and finance in order to produce the various
construction products. Labourers on civil engineering projects are frequently
confronted with problems that could lead to demotivation; thus, join and retain
them in construction field in Sri Lanka is a key challenge. Thus, the research
problem is articulated for this study as: what are the labours expectations from their
job in Sri Lankan construction industry? Survey research methodology was used to
investigate the research problem. Structured questionnaire was used data collection
in this study. Sample of 30 construction labourers was obtained across construction
sites which are located in Colombo, Anuradhapura and Kurunegala area in Sri
Lanka. Percentage and Relative Important Index (RII) data analysis techniques
were used to analyse the data. The results indicated of top six significant factors of
motivation for construction work force: providing a fair level of salary; empower
safety and security at site; stabilize labours jobs; caring of labours; offering rewards
and bonuses; and, providing a retirement plan. Implementing these methods of
motivation through effective motivation strategies will increase motivation of
construction labourers to join and retain in construction field; thereby, improve
productivity of construction work force.

Keywords: Construction; Labourers; Motivation; Sri Lanka

Page | 127
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-146

REVIEW ON THE READINESS OF SRI LANKAN CONSTRUCTION


INDUSTRY TO ENGAGE IN BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY: A
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

B.L. Gamage1, A.P. Rathnasinghe 1*, K.A.T.O. Ranadewa 1


1
Department of Building Economics,University of Moratuwa, 10400, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: akilar@uom.lk, TP: +94765670054

Abstract: Blockchain technology has become an innovative ideology with numerous


applications, which was initially launched on cryptocurrency like Bitcoin. The
practice of Blockchain is anticipated to improve the accuracy of the construction
project data and their management, through the concepts of “peer-to-peer network,
public-key cryptography, consensus algorithm, and hashing algorithm”. The most-
known application of Blockchain is a cryptocurrency, which enables the secured
transactions between parties, and also it has encouraged people and companies to
work together with much confidence and sincerity. The core feature in this
technology is identification of fraud, once it occurred in the Blockchain network. To
keep confidentiality among the public, the consortium Blockchain network has been
introduced which keeps private networks inside public Blockchain. In the global
context, Blockchain is being exceptionally executed to achieve a transparent and
high-security data storage mechanism throughout the construction project lifecycle.
Even though many studies have acknowledged Blockchain-based construction
strategies in the global context, such practices are not yet being significantly
practised in the Sri Lankan construction industry due to unawareness and resistance
to change from the conventional setup. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate the
potential of Sri Lankan construction industry to adopt Blockchain technology.
Accordingly, an extensive literature survey was conducted to develop a conceptual
framework. This framework lays down the guidance for construction industry related
firms to ascertain their capabilities and competence to uphold Blockchain technology
and decide potential mechanisms for adoption. The research adds to the body of
knowledge as it uncovers a conceptual understanding of Blockchain technology for
the first time in Sri Lankan construction industry.

Keywords: Blockchain Technology; Construction Industry; Readiness; Sri Lanka.

Page | 128
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-101

ASSESSMENT OF THE PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT OF


USING CONSTRUCTION TAKE-OFF SOFTWARE

S.C. Withana 1*, A.A.D.A.J. Perera 2, K.S.K. Jayawardhana 2


1
University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
2
University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: sudaracw47@gmail.com, TP: +940774014463

Abstract: Construction quantity take-off is a crucial aspect throughout a


construction project life cycle. Higher accuracy and efficiency in taking-off
process are vital in decision making. There are number of construction
take-off software available in accomplishing these tasks and PlanSwift is
one of such take-off software for construction cost estimation. But the use
of these software is relatively rare in the construction industry. The aim of
this research study is to calculate the productivity enhancement of taking-
off process using Planswift software rather than using the traditional
methods. The productivity enhancement was established based on the
percentage of time saving with the use of PlanSwift software calculated
through an experimental study. Development of experiment, design
drawings, Development of data collection web tool, Data collection and
Quantitative analysis are the sub objectives to achieve the ultimate aim of
the study. This research study can be used to make an influence on Sri
Lankan construction industry to use construction take-off software rather
than the traditional methods to increase their productivity.

Keywords: Construction; Take-off; Software; PlanSwift; Productivity

Page | 129
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-083

RISK MANAGEMENT RESPONSES FOR THE RESHUFFLE OF RISKS


DURING THE FEASIBILITY STAGE OF A BIM-ENABLED
CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

S.R.I.L. Bandara1, A.P. Rathnasinghe 1*, H.S. Jayasena 1, U. Kulatunga 1


1
Department of Building Economics,University of Moratuwa, 10400, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: akilar@uom.lk, TP: +94765670054

Abstract: Building Information Modelling (BIM) is the cutting-edge innovation


in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operations (AECO) industry.
The practice of BIM is anticipated to improve the effectiveness of the structure,
development, and activity of a benefit through Three Dimension (3D)
representation, coordinated and robotized drawing creation, clever
documentation and data recovery, predictable information and data, mechanized
clash location and computerized material take off. In the global context, BIM is
being exceptionally executed to achieve a transparent and productive decision-
making mechanism throughout the construction project lifecycle. When it
considers of BIM implementation in the construction industry, scholars have
identified a reshuffle or revolution in the traditional risks following Standard
Conditions of Contracts. Accordingly, the scholars have also identified the need
for a modern risk management approach as a successful response due to the
intervention of BIM. Thus, this research aims to evaluate for any suitable risk
management responses to manage such risk reshuffles considering the feasibility
stage of a BIM-enabled construction project. To achieve the aim, extensive
literature synthesis was conducted. Accordingly, the occurrence of risks in the
feasibility stage, reshuffle of risks as per the traditional and BIM procurement
systems and new risk management responses for risk reshuffles for a BIM-
enabled construction project were identified. Hence, the research outcome
successfully answered the necessity of having a modified risk management
process for a BIM-enabled construction project while highlighting the evolution
of traditional risks in a construction project environment with the intervention of
BIM technology. This study will be an initiative to look into the BIM
intervention in a traditional construction project environment through the eyes of
the risk management philosophy.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM); Construction Risk


Management; Risk Responses; Risk Reshuffles.

Page | 130
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-043

CAN RIBA PLAN OF WORK (2013) USE AS A TOOL FOR CONFLICT


AVOIDANCE IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS?

K.T. Withanage*, Nayanthara De Silva


Department of Building Economics, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
*Corresponding author E-mail: kanchukathilakshana@gmail.com, TP: +94 71 258 9099

Abstract: The construction industry holds a wide range of closely incorporated


organizations carrying multiple tasks by a diverse range of professionals. Under
these circumstances, conflicts are inevitable in construction projects. Proper
project planning and management could eliminate many conflicts and disputes
across different project activities and professionals. Royal Institute of British
Architects (RIBA) plan of work is well- established construction work plan for
project planning and management. The research is focused to study the potential
of using RIBA plan of work (2013) as conflict avoidance tool in construction
projects. A questionnaire survey was conducted among construction
professionals who involved in pre contract phase of construction projects,
aiming to explore the effective RIBA tasks for conflict avoidance at pre contract
phase, their practicing levels in order to establish possible enablers to promote
RIBA plan of work (2013) within the Sri Lankan construction industry. Out of
twenty pre contract RIBA tasks, eighteen were identified as effective for conflict
avoidance. Further, it was revealed that only seven tasks were significantly
practicing in Sri Lankan construction industry. Fourteen possible enablers were
established, targeting to device RIBA plan of work (2013) as a conflict
avoidance tool through enhancing the practicing levels of their tasks. As RIBA
plan of work (2013) is an effective and efficient tool for avoiding conflicts in
construction projects, subsequent implications such as cost, quality and time
overruns could be minimized. Further local authorities and practitioners in the
construction sector can re-visit the existing practices in the industry to capture
the optimum benefits of the RIBA plan of work (2013).

Keywords: Construction Industry; RIBA Plan of Work (2013); Conflict


Avoidance; Pre Contract Phase

Page | 131
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Green Building and Infrastructure Development

Page | 132
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-148

LIFE CYCLE EMBODIED CARBON AND INITIAL AND


MAINTENANCE COST ANALYSIS FOR THE ROOF MATERIALS
AVAILABLE IN SRI LANKA

I.G.N. Anuradha1*, R.U. Halwatura 2


1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: namalanuradhagamage@gmail.com, TP: +94713220421

Abstract: Being a significant industry, construction works, especially


buildings reason for a massive amount of carbon related emissions
throughout its life cycle. Therefore, researchers all around the world are
searching solutions to minimize these emissions of building life cycle.
Moreover, Initial and Maintenance Cost plays a significant role in building
cost. Being a developing country, cost effective sustainable building
materials are really beneficial for SL. Nevertheless, there are very few life
cycle Embodied Carbon and Cost studies have been conducted in SL
to distinguish the cost effective sustainable building materials. Moreover,
Roof is a cost significant element of the building. Therefore in considering
all above, this research was aimed to determine the life cycle Embodied
Carbon and Initial and Maintenance Cost of Roof materials available in SL.
Since, clay tile (both conventional and fully automated), asbestos sheet and
concrete are the most widely use Roof materials available in SL, these were
considered as the Roof materials for this research. Then, life cycle Embodied
Carbon and Initial and Maintenance Cost of these Roof materials were
calculated for a house model based on the collected data through process
analysis and documentary reviews. Eventually, all four Roof materials were
ranked based on the gained values. There, the conventional clay tile was
crowned as the least embodied emission Roofing material and asbestos
Roofing was identified as the most economical Roof material. Eventually,
this study provides a guidance as well as a methodology to evaluate other
building materials in terms of life cycle Embodied Carbon and Initial and
Maintenance Cost.

Keywords: Life Cycle; Embodied Carbon; Initial and Maintenance


Cost; Roof materials; Process Analysis

Page | 133
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-151

A STUDY OF GREEN PRACTICES IN HOTELS AND RESORTS IN

SRI LANKA

A.G.P.Layanga1*, S.D.S.A.Wijerathna2, P.B.R.Dissanayake3


1
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya, Matara
2
Green Building Council of Sri Lanka, 120/10, Vidya Mandiraya, Vidya Mw,Colombo 07
3
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya
Corresponding author: pamudisamudura@gmail.com +94714930916

Abstract: Eco-friendly or Green practices in the accommodation sector are to grow


throughout the island. The customers keen on tour and travel demand these services from
Hotels and Resorts. As there is a massive gap in tourism industry on green building
perspective, hoteliers has to be made aware of an effective tool to implement. So as to
overcome this prevailing situation, Green Building Council of Sri Lanka is enthusiastically
ready to introduce a Green Rating Tool for Hotels and Resorts in Sri Lanka. The
development, sustainability of the hotel industry can depend on Green Certification. It is
obvious that most of the hoteliers perceive green certification as it increases customer
demand and profit. Green Certification is directly focuses towards energy saving aspects.
The grade of green certification will be maintained by the green rating tool which consists
of following criteria; management, sustainable sites, water efficiency, material resources &
waste management, energy management, indoor environmental quality, social and cultural
awareness, innovation and design. In the hotel industry Green certification towards the
sustainable concept has become remarkable. Sustainability is not a newly found concept for
hoteliers who seek for greener accommodation or venue. Linking with the sustainability
concept green certification contributes to create an environmental friendly hotel or resorts. It
would become a kind of contribution to achieve competitiveness in a successful manner.
With the implementation of green design and construction, it practices saving energy, water,
resources etc., and leads to preserve the environment too. In addition green building
practices can also provide healthy and comfortable indoor environment to hotel and resort
occupants and employees. However there is the potential for conflict between green
building practices and hotel guests’ satisfaction and comfort as the conservation of resources
could detract from the quality of guest’s experience. This research is done to practice green
rating tool to create a green and luxurious environment without damaging the hotel and
resorts financial position. Practicing the Green Rating Tool could be the best remedy to
climb up the top of the hotel industry with stars.

Key words: Green Certification; Green rating tool; Hotel and Resorts; Sustainable; Tourism

Page | 134
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-053

IMPROVING WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF A RESIDENTIAL


BUILDING THROUGH INTRODUCTION OF GREEN FEATURES

P Ganegoda1*, RP Kumanayake2
1,2*
General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Ratmalana, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: piyankara956@gmail.com, TP: +94769197352

Abstract: Water is becoming a scarce resource in the world. Therefore, it should be


used carefully. If we can use water more efficiently at the domestic level, it will
eventually save a huge amount of water annually. Increase the water use efficiency
at the domestic level is the aim of this research. To achieve that task, green concepts
will be followed. The existing domestic building will be selected for the case study.
First, it is essential to study the current water requirement to identify green features
to be introduced for improving the water use efficiency of the building. After that,
it has to design a rainwater harvesting system and a greywater reuse system. It has
to be determined the cost efficiency of the proposed systems as the final objective.
Current water appliances have to be discovered through a reconnaissance survey.
The current water requirement has to be determined through two methods. The first
method is to by using water bill readings for and the second method is to by
analyzing questionnaire results and previous literature. After determining the
current water demand, green features have to be proposed to increase water use
efficiency. Rainwater harvesting systems and greywater reuse systems have to be
designed according to the new demand. The cost-efficiency of proposed systems has
to be discussed at the end. After the research, it was discovered that proposed green
features can increase water-saving efficiency to 43.7%. Rainwater harvesting
systems can catch up to 48% of the new water demand. The design life of proposed
systems was expected to be 50 years and initial investment could be covered up in
30 years. Therefore, proposed systems can increase water efficiency while being
cost-effective.

Keywords: Water efficiency; Rainwater harvesting; Greywater reuse;


Green technology

Page | 135
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-037

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN LEAVES DENSITY AND THERMAL


PERFORMANCE OF LIVING WALLS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

Liyanage C.T1, Jayasooriya V,M 1*


1
Department of Forestry and Environmental Scince, University of Sri Jayewardenepura,
10250, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: varuni.jayasooriya@sjp.ac.lk, TP: +94764322443

Abstract:
Living wall systems are one of the popular elements in current architectural
practice, which regulate microclimatic impacts whilst adding an attractive esthetic
value to a building. The plants in living walls can act as a thermal barrier in
reducing the overall temperatures, which can in turn reduce the cooling load
requirements for buildings. Various parameters of the selected plant species in
living walls may influence differently on their thermal performance. The present
experimental study examined the impact of leaves density of living walls for their
thermal performance by using ten identical experimental cubical wall structures
(1m×1m×1m) representing 8 living walls of 4 species with 2 replicates and 2
control experiments oriented to the south direction. A bare wall constructed with
cement blocks has been used as the control experiment while Asparagus
aethiopicus, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ophiopogon japonicas and Dianella ensifolia
variegate have been used as the species of living wall experiments setups that
represent various leaves densities. Data collection was conducted from 9.00 am to
6.00 pm for a period of one week in August 2019, by recording the ambient
temperature and relative humidity, wind speed and living wall and bare wall surface
temperatures. The imageJ software was used to calculate the pixels of the binary
images, which represented the area covered by plants, thereby estimating the leaves
density of the living walls. Heat flux has been calculated for the control and four
living walls. The living walls recorded leaves densities ranged from 45% to 80%
for the selected four species and significant temperature reductions were recorded
by the living walls with respect to the bare wall. The leaves density and heat flux
showed a moderately negative correlation (r =-0.5, p<0.05) indicating that the heat
flux to the wall from the ambient environment decreases with the increasing leaves
density.

Keywords: Living Walls, Heat flux, Leaves Density, Thermal Performance

Page | 136
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-120

PRIORITY WEIGHT BASED GREEN BUILDING RATING MODEL FOR


EXISTING BUILDINGS

GA Thusitha1*, BHJ Pushpakumara 2


1
Instructor, 2Senior Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of
Engineering, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: pushpakumarabhj@kdu.ac.lk, TP: +940772206662

Abstract: Building sector is a major contributor of the annual global carbon


emission and it consumes 40-50% of annual final energy use in the world. Green
building rating systems are developed to certify green buildings and promote
green building initiatives. Existing rating systems allocate credit points based on
both linguistic and numerical descriptors. The numerical descriptors present
definitive and absolute thresholds whereas linguistic narratives are subjective
to the perception and interpretation of the reader. Also, existing rating systems do
not directly identify the priority or interrelation between different parameters.
The objective of this study is to develop a priority weights based green building
rating system. In this paper, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to
develop a green building rating system. The developed green building rating
system was applied to eight existing buildings including a faculty academic
building, an administrative building, a hotel, an apartment, and a factory
building. The results of the study demonstrate that the numerical thresholds of
point allocation, equations, and priority weights of the proposed rating model
supports a definitive classification on green building performance.

Keywords: Green buildings; rating system; priority weights;


sustainable development

Page | 137
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-014

A STUDY ON CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON COOLING ENERGY


DEMAND PATTERNS FOR AN EXISTING OFFICE BUILDING

S. V. I. R. V. Serasinghe, M. A. Wijewardane, I. D. Nissanka


Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Moratuwa,
Katubedda, Moratuwa, 10400, Sri Lanka.
E-mail: nissankai@uom.lk, TP: +94766570602

Abstract: Energy demand for building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
account for a significant fraction of the global electricity demand. With global
average temperatures projected to increase throughout the 21st century, building
energy demand and consumption are also slated to increase. Even though the
importance of climate effect on building energy management has been identified
there has been few studies conducted to date to estimate the sensitivity of
electricity demand for air conditioning to the climate variability, especially for the
tropical weather conditions. The localized studies are of more importance in this
regard, as the air conditioning load vary with the local ambient conditions. The
impacts of climate change on building air conditioning energy demand for
existing buildings can be reduced by establishing future energy de mand patterns
and using passive cooling strategies. Hence, this research aims to establish a
relationship between the current energy demand patterns for air conditioning in a
selected existing building and ambient temperature changes, thereby establish
energy demand patterns. A suitable sample building was selected for the study and
the indoor thermal comfort data, outdoor environment conditions and building
energy consumption patterns are monitored and hourly data were collected.
Climate conditions and the cooling load variability of the building were studied
theoretically and the relation between climate conditions and energy consumption
patterns were ana lysed. The indoor temperature and cooling load showed high
sensitivity to the outdoor temperature with maximum of 25 % cooling load
increase for 1 °C increase in outdoor temperature. Also, it was predicted that the
current cooling load of the building will increase by 40% - 55% in 2050. Further,
the effects of the short-term meteorological variability on the cooling degree days
are calculated and its impact on the energy demand was established for the
selected building, which could be used for predicting future energy demand
patterns with the help of different climate change models.

Keywords: Energy demand; air-conditioning; climate change; existing buildings,


thermal com fort.

Page | 138
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-150

EPS BLENDED CEMENTITIOUS PLASTER FOR IMPROVED


THERMAL COMFORT IN BUILDINGS

A. Selvaratnam1*, J.C.P.H.Gamage 1, G.I.P. De Silva 2


1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mortuwa, Sri Lanka
2
Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Mortuwa, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: aaruga93@gmail.com, TP: +94775751783

Abstract: The use of green materials in building construction has become


trendy to improve the thermal comfort within the buildings with minimized
natural resources. This paper presents the development of a cementitious
insulated plaster using Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) as partial re placement
for fine aggregates. An experimental program was conducted by replacing
the fine aggregates in the conventional plaster with EPS in the range of 0%
to 200% by volume. A reduction up to 69% and 53% were noted in thermal
conductivity and density, respectively due to the replacement of aggregates
with EPS in the conventional mortar. From a trial and error process, the
mix with 125% replacement by EPS was selected as the ideal mix for
optimum thermo-mechanical performance. A numerical model was
developed to examine the heat transfer behaviour through a Wall/Plaster
composite and the predicted results were in satisfactory agreement with the
experimental results. A reduction of 18% and an increment of 20% were
noted in the decrement factor and time lag, respectively in the wall panels
with the developed EPS-Cement plaster.

Keywords: EPS; Green insulation; Recycling; Thermal comfort; Wall plaster

Page | 139
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-112

THE AUTONOMOUS BATTERY-POWERED HOUSE, WHICH ENERGIZED


THROUGH A SOLAR POWER & REUSED HYBRID VEHICLE BATTERIES
UNDER EXTRA LOW VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT INSTALLATION

HN Hikkaduwa1*
1
Construction Industry Development Authority (CIDA),”Sawsiripaya”, 123 Wijerama Mw.
Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.
* Correspondence E-mail: himal.n.hikkaduwa@gmail.com, TP: +94714870861

Abstract: The life was arose with the lunar energy, and the main source of the
energy to earth is solar. The evolution of science from Stone Age, then find fire and
now electricity, and tends to find new energy requirements for living. At present,
electricity become the basic need in human life. Day by day the electrical sector
developing and lifestyle is changing swiftly. Similarly electrical energy demand will
boosting with respect to the population growth and changing lifestyle. The strategic
setting of Sri Lanka in Indian Ocean, created the immense development and leads for
vast electrical demand in power sectors. Thus power generations consumes huge
amount of coal & fossils fuel, through a massive environmental damage & loosing of
countries foreign remittent. In par the distributional losses will exaggerate further.
Electrocution is a critical risk with high and medium voltage supply; even in the
domestic supply of 230 V, AC. Presently most house hold electrical appliances are
runs with 5 to 12V direct current (DC) low voltages, and for step-down it, also
creates losses. The life was arose with the lunar energy, and the main source of the
energy to earth is solar and accordingly humans were success to absorb the energy of
the solar rays as a solar photovoltaic power. Sri Lanka is a tropical country, which
close to the equator, and also efficiency of solar PV panels & batteries technology in
rapidly in present: therefore solar is the more prominent power source to country.
Nonetheless, the cost on solar panels can affordable and price on better batteries are
compatibly high. Sri Lankans running with significant amount of electrical & hybrid
vehicle, and dispose of its batteries are now be a challenge, due to absent of
recovering technologies. Haphazardness disposal of them course huge environmental
damage. Thus reusing of them shall eliminate those issue. Hence, this paper assays to
elaborate the prospects of autonomous “Battery Powered House”, which runs with
extra low voltage (12V) installation and energized thru Solar PV & Reused electrical
vehicles (EV) battery bank.

Keywords: Battery-powered house; low voltage electrical installation; Reused


hybrid vehicle battery bank; Solar PV.

Page | 140
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-081

A DEVICE TO DETERMINE THE PANEL ORIENTATION FOR


BEST ANNUAL SOLAR ENERGY GENERATION AT A SELECTED LOCATION

S.U.M. Jagoda1*, W.M.C. Dilanga1, D.S.D.S Jarathne1,


H.K.G. Punchihewa1, V.P.C. Dassanayake1, H.P. Karunathilake1
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Moratuwa,
Sri Lanka.
*
Correspondence E-mail: sathindujagoda@gmail.com TP: +94 70 202
9680

Abstract: Within the past few years, solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation
has gained popularity along with sustainable concepts around the world. The low
efficiency of PV systems could be identified as a leading drawback of energy
conversion. Panel tilt angle and direction directly affect the amount of irradiance
incident on solar panels, governing the amount of energy generated. Assuming
ideal conditions, fixed panels are installed to face the equator, as used in
common practice, while the tilt angle is kept equal to the latitude of the location.
Due to the uniqueness of geographic and weather conditions in different
locations, the irradiance patterns may deviate from the ideal. Thus, the optimum
panel orientation may differ from conventional practise. Thus, the objective of
this study was to introduce a universal method which can determine the location-
specific optimum orientation of solar panels. The in-situ weather and irradiance
data were captured for a period of time (approx. 30 weeks) at a given location. In
addition, weather data at the location was collected for the past few years via
relevant authorities. A mathematical model was developed to extrapolate the
irradiance incident on various orientations using available data as a guideline for
an average year. The orientation that is expected to capture the highest amount of
irradiance was determined as the optimum orientation. Then, a case study was
carried out following the above methodology at the department of mechanical
engineering, University of Moratuwa. The analytical results showed that the
overall efficiency of the PV system was increased by 0.4% compared to that
obtained with the generic tilt (i.e. 7°) setup. The efficiency of the entire system
could be increased without an additional cost if such analysis is conducted prior
installation. The analysis would be more appropriate for large scale solar farms
rather than domestic installations.

Keywords: Solar PV; Panel orientation; Optimum generation;


Irradiance modelling; Fixed orientation

Page | 141
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-051

INCORPORATING GREEN BUILDING FEATURES TO ENHANCE


WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF THE NEW BUILDING OF LADY
RIDGEWAY CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL

NHMWWDS Bandara1*, RP Kumanayake 2


1,2
Department of Civil Engineering, General Sir John Kotelawala
Defence University, Ratmalana, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: sandaruwandbandara@gmail.com, TP: +94772885084

Abstract: In the Sri Lankan healthcare sector, Lady Ridgeway Children’s


Hospital has a high significance due to its uniqueness. The hospital has a
considerable daily potable water demand due to the diverse nature of the
functions required daily. GreenSL Rating System of Green Building Council of
Sri Lanka (GBCSL) identifies water use efficiency as one of the key areas in
green building rating. This study was based on the 9-story main building of the
hospital’s network termed as the ‘New Building’, which has a separate water
supply network. The objectives of the study were to identify appropriate green
building features to be incorporated to improve the water use efficiency of the
selected building and to propose a set of solutions in terms of improving water
use efficiency, greywater reuse, and rainwater harvesting. The relevant data were
collected from many organizations including GBCSL and Lanka Rainwater
Harvesting Forum. The rain water harvesting tank capacity design was based on
a cumulative mass curve analysis aided by analyzed data from the Department
of Meteorology. The collected rainwater will be used for gardening, laundry, and
cleaning. The high-efficient fixture-based design was conducted according to a
standardized method of GBCSL. The greywater reuse system was designed by
considering the discharge from faucets and showerheads and the treated
greywater will be used for flushing. The suitable treatment methods for
rainwater and greywater were identified. It was found that the impact of high-
efficient fixtures is significantly high in improving water use efficiency. The
incorporation of rainwater harvesting, high-efficient fixtures, and greywater
reuse resulted in a re duction of 82% of potable water demand of the hospital
building. Also, it was found that the suggested systems are economically
sustainable.

Keywords: Rainwater harvesting; Greywater reuse; Water use efficiency; Green


hospitals; Grey water treatment

Page | 142
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-152

FORMULATION OF A GUIDELINE TO ASSESS INSTITUTIONAL


SUSTAINABILITY IN SRI LANKA

H.M.S.D. Kumarasinghe1*, S.D.S.A.Wijerathna2, P.B.R.Dissanayake3, Udayagee


Kumarasinghe1, P.Gajanayake1
1
Faculty of Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Pitipana, Homagama
2
Green Building Council of Sri Lanka, 120/10, Vidya Mandiraya, Vidya Mw, Colombo 07
3
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya
*Corresponding E-Mail : sandvindigmail.com, TP: +94(0)71 4159353

Abstract: Green Office (GO) practices are the efficient use of resources and minimize the
impact on the environment. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to identify the
GO practices suitable to the Sri Lankan context. A set of seven criteria were identified as the
benchmark of the assessment tool as, Management and Education (ME), Water
Conservation and Efficiency (WCE), Energy Conservation and Efficiency (ECE), Material,
Resources and Waste Management (MWM), Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ),
Innovation and Design Process (ID), and Social and Cultural Awareness (SCA). Under each
main criterion, sub-criteria (SC) were identified in driving the converted conventional office
workplace to the GO workplace. The SC found under ME were general applications and
green human resource management. For the WCE, water performances, water-efficient
landscaping, air conditioning, innovative water technologies, and water use reduction were
identified as SC. Eleven SC were identified concerning the CE, as energy efficiency,
Chlorofluorocarbon reduction, optimized energy performances, renewable energy, existing
building commissioning, ongoing commissioning, ozone depletion, and performance
measurement submetering and building management system, green power and energy
conservation policy.
Further, nine SC were recognized under MWM as solid waste management policy,
sustainable purchasing policy, waste stream audit, solid waste management: ongoing
consumables, durable goods, facility alteration, and sustainable purchasing: ongoing
consumables, durable goods, facility alteration. Under IEQ, thirteen SC were perceived as
indoor air quality performance, smoke control, outdoor air delivery monitoring, increased
ventilation, low emitting materials for facility alterations and additions, green cleaning
program, indoor integrated pest management, indoor chemical pollutant source control,
controllability of systems for lights and comforts, thermal comfort monitoring, occupancy
comfort survey, and daylight and view. Innovations in operations and exemplary
performance are the factors classified under IDP. Two SC were determined under SCA as
substandard as social wellbeing, public health and safety, and cultural identity.

Keywords : Green building, rating tool, sustainability, resource use efficiency

Page | 143
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-172

INSIGHT TO SUSTAINABLE RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT


IN SRI LANKA

Hasanthi KMS 1*, De Zoysa CJ 2, Nandasena WDTN 3, Dissanayake PBR4

1
Education, Training and Research Division, Green Building Council of Sri Lanka.
2,3
Research & Green Projects Division, Green Building Council of Sri Lanka.
4
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya.
*Correspondence E-mail: kms.hasanthi@gmail.com, TP: +94712365661

Abstract: Sri Lanka consists the most densified road network from Southeast Asia. The
total road network composed of two main categories as National and Secondary roads.
Secondary road network is more extensive with greater distance of 15,743kms
providing intraprovincial connectivity. Sustainable rural infra structure provides rural
mobility facilitation bundled up with socio-economic development, poverty elimination,
supply chain improvement for food security, job market expansion, accessibility to
essential services, equal governance and social security and reduced vulnerability.
Rural infrastructure must merge into existing livelihood systems, facilitating maximum
number of rural beneficiaries. Challenges for rural infrastructure development in Sri
Lanka are sensitive and rapidly changing environmental conditions, limited economic
resources, community attitudes, existing ecosystems etc. Cost effective, site specific,
disaster resilient infra structure planning is promoted with interconnection capability to
existing and future building networks. Contribution of stakeholders: contractors,
administrative bodies, community and facilitators in planning, designing, construction
and operational phases of infrastructure development is encouraged under sustainable
rural road development. Land acquisition, revegetation, long-term road maintenance
etc. are critical but flexibly made into action with community participation. Use of
locally available materials, resources and labor reduce the carbon footprint of
construction and disseminate the economic benefits through rural empowerment.
Minimizing construction impact and mitigation of negative impacts is vigorous under
the context. Protecting existing vegetations, revegetation, construction of eco-corridors
for animal migration, site-specific risk mitigation are prioritized. Sustainable rural
infrastructure development is a comprehensive approach to save energy and resources
while providing a long-term collaborative solution to rural accessibility in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Rural Infrastructure Development; Sustainability; Participatory Approach;


Sustainable Rural Roads

Page | 144
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Structural and Construction Technologies

Page | 145
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-161

MODIFICATION OF SEQUENTIAL LAW FOR FATIGUE DAMAGE


ASSESSMENT OF STEEL STRUCTURES BASED ON THE LENGTH OF
STRESS/STRAIN LIFE CURVES

M.A.V.S.G. Meegalla, P.V.D.P.L. Saparamadu, I.M.U.I. Wijayarathna, T.M.


Pallewatta,
P.A.K. Karunananda*
The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala, Nugegoda.
*Correspondence E-mail: pakar@ou.ac.lk, TP: +948385810

Abstract: One of the main difficulties in stress/strain based fatigue damage


estimation is to find a representative ‘damage indicator’ which can be easily
connected with the stress/strain life curve (S-N curve). The mostly used damage
indicator model is the Miner’s rule but it does not take into account the loading
sequence effect. The experimental results are higher than the Miner expectations for
increasing type loading and are lower than the Miner’s expectations for decreasing
type of loading. Recently, a new damage indicator that is based on sequential law has
been proposed to capture the load sequence effect more precisely. According to the
fundamentals of the stress/strain based approach, the damage point travelling path
(damage trajectory) travels along the stress/strain life curve. The obtained results of
the sequential law can be further improved if the path of the actual damage trajectory
is taken into consideration. This paper proposes a new damage indicator considering
the movement of damage trajectory along the stress/strain life curve. Damage
indicator values are obtained using MATLAB (2018a) code and confirmed the
applicability of the developed new model using a numerical example. Numerical
example was selected to capture the effect of multiaxial stress effect and curves
based on experimental results and mathematical modes. Increasing and decreasing
type loadings were applied. As shown in the numerical results, the obtained results
illustrate the real trend of fatigue damage assessment. Therefore, more accurate
fatigue life estimation can be predicted using newly proposed curve based fatigue
damage accumulation model.

Keywords Fatigue life; Loading sequence effect; Miner’s rule; Stress life
approach; Sequential law

Page | 146
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-155

INVESTIGATION OF THE BEST JOINT TYPE FOR COMBINING OF THE


FINGER JOINTED TIMBER PANEL IN BOARD PRODUCTION

CK Muthumala1*, S. De Silva2, PLAG Alwis3, KKIU Arunakumara4


1
State Timber Corporation, Rajamalwatta road, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka.
2
Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ruhuna,
Hapugala, Sri Lanka
3
Dept. of Agric. Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Sri Lanka
4
Dept. of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: ck_muthumala@yahoo.com, TP: +94777834716

Abstract: Waste sawn timber material in furniture factories and short length of sawn
timber are serious problems in timber industry. To further suggest ways to minimize the
waste, by applying a jointing system, this paper utilizes the finger-jointed techniques. Using
this method, waste timber planks, trimmings and edgings can be used as finger-jointed
boards and furniture in sustainable way. Finger joint technique is also used to eliminate
wood defects which weaken the strength of sawn wood planks. Finger joint technology is
used in structural and non –structural applications. Furniture mainly belongs to non-
structural category. This study was conducted to investigate the best joint type for
combining of the finger-jointed timber panel in board production. Shear test was done to
determine the most suitable joint type which could be employed in combining two finger-
jointed timber panels. Shear test was performed for Pine-Pinus carebaea (soft wood) and
Teak-Tectona grandis (Hard wood) timber types. Clear specimens, butt-jointed and tongue
and groove were tested in the shearing apparatus. Eight test specimens of each timber
specimens were used to obtain shear strength perpendicular to grains with 0.5mm/min
loading rate was applied using a Universal Testing Machine. Shear strength of Teak
specimens with tongue and groove is higher than Teak specimens with butt joint, because
bonding area of the tongue and groove specimens is higher than bonding area of the butt-
jointed specimens. Specimen part with tongue of Pine is weaker than corresponding part of
butt- jointed Pine specimen due to small cross sectional area of tongue. So Shear strength of
Pine specimen with butt joint is greater than Pine specimen with tongue and groove.

Keywords: Finger joint ; joint types, butt joint ; tongue and groove; shear test

Page | 147
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-158

INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF OFFSET DISTANCE IN CSH ON STEEL


PLATES UNDER THREE-POINT FLEXURAL CYCLIC LOADS IN THE LCF
RANGE

S. Abeygunasekera1 *, J. C. P. H. Gamage2, S. Fawzia3

1
Postgraduate, University of Moratuwa, Katubedda, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
2
Senior Lecturer, University of Moratuwa, Katubedda, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
3
Senior Lecturer, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
* E-mail: abeygunasekarasampath@gmail.com, TP: +94712227790

Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the effects of offset distance of crack stop hole
(CSH) on steel plate with respect to its loading point. Laboratory tests and finite element
simulations were performed to estimate the effect of offset distance from the midpoint of the
specimens. The experimental study was performed in segments of rectangular plate stresses
with a cyclic flexural load which applied through a mid-plane of the top surface of the
specimen. 5 Hz frequency and 2 kN constant amplitude fatigue test were performed in the
low cycle fatigue (LCF) range up to 10,000 cycles. Also, crack stop holes of 16 mm
diameter were placed at the different offset distance from midpoint up to 100 mm in the
range of 20 mm, and their effectiveness in Yield strength was evaluated by using laboratory
test and test results were validated using a cyclic J-integral option using the ABAQUS FEM
technique. The results of laboratory test as well as numerical analysis were synonymous.
The offset distance of the CSH indicated a significant variation in the yield strength which
in the range of 26.5 % to 56.8 % compared to the CSH at midpoint. This investigation
reported a significant yield strength variation in the range of 19.3 % to 42.1% with respect
to CSH placed at mid-point of the specimen.

Keywords: Location of CSH, Yield strength, 3-point flexural cyclic load, LCF, J-
integral

Page | 148
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-154

INFLUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN CFRP-STEEL


BONDING: STATE OF THE ART

S. Abeygunasekera1 *, J. C. P. H. Gamage 2, S. Fawzia3


1
Postgraduate, University of Moratuwa, Katubedda, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
2
Senior Lecturer, University of Moratuwa, Katubedda, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
3
Senior Lecturer, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
* E-mail: abeygunasekarasampath@gmail.com, TP: +94712227790

Abstract: CFRP material has become a super hero material during the past
decade, owing to specific characteristics of this material - such as light weight,
high strength, fatigue and corrosion resistance, easy to install and excellent
strength gained compared with conventional repair techniques. CFRP based
retrofitting techniques are utilized with concrete, steel, masonry and wooden
structures. However, performance and durability of this technique is depend on
several internal and external factors. Internal factors can be identified as
properties of material, installation method, number of CFRP layers attached with
parent materials and the module of CFRP material. Significantly influencing
external factors are magnitudes of loads, loading frequency, stress ratio and
environmental factors. Over the past decade, CFRP has been established as an
excellent retrofitting material to be used for strengthening steel structures. This
paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the effects of environmental factors
on bond performance of CFRP/steel strengthen under the influence of critical
environmental factors such as humidity, temperature, UV concentration effects
and combined effects of two or more factors. This is because all of these
structures are frequently exposed to such an environmental condition during
their service life.

Keywords: relative humidity; thermal effects; temperature effects;CFRP/steel


bond

Page | 149
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-035

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SHEAR STRENGTH DEGRADATION


OF REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS WITH CORROSION

R.A.C.G. Ranasinghe*, J.M.R.S Appuhamy


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka
*Correspondence E-mail: chageeran@gmail.com, TP: +94716884960

Abstract: Many reinforced concrete structures are exposed to adverse


environmental conditions that lead to the corrosion of embedded steel
reinforcement which causes the reduction of structural performance in the context
of flexural strength, compressive strength and shear strength etc. Previous
researchers mainly focused on the effects of corrosion damage on flexural behavior
of reinforced concrete members and effects of corrosion on shear behaviour is not
properly investigated. Finite element analysis has become a tool in analysing of
reinforced concrete structures with adequate modeling assumptions. Therefore, this
study was conducted to investigate the shear failure mechanism and shear capacity
in longitudinally reinforced concrete beams with limited transverse reinforcement
subjected to different levels of corrosion. Numerous finite element analyses were
performed on concrete members with different corrosion conditions. Few concrete
specimens were undergone accelerated corrosion to reduce cross sectional area of
rebar thus affecting required the level of corrosion. The finite element analysis
results were compared with experimental results in order to validate the developed
finite element models. A parametric study was done by varying the corrosion
damaged parameters and an averaged diameter with a maximum corroded pit was
considered corrosion condition modelling. Residual shear capacity and percentage
reduction in shear strength was analysed in accordance with corrosion
damaged parameters. Empirical equations were developed to predict the residual
shear capacity of corrosion damaged reinforced concrete members which can be
used by structural engineers in making timely decisions.

Keywords: Reinforced concrete; Corrosion; Finite element analysis;


Corrosion condition modelling; Shear strength

Page | 150
11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-110

THE BEHAVIOUR OF FERROCEMENT JACKETED SQUARE


COLUMNS WITH DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENTS AND ORIENTATION
IN STEEL MESH

T. Kobika 1, K. Hishoban1, H.M.C.C. Somarathna 1*


1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jaffna,
Ariviyal Nagar, Killinochchi 44000, Sri Lanka.
*Correspondence E-mail: hmccsomarathna@gmail.com, TP: +94212060161

Abstract: In recent years, the vulnerability of reinforced columns due to several


facts highlighted the necessity of effective re-strengthening techniques. Among
several techniques, the repair of unstrengthen and damaged reinforced concrete
members by external bonding such as ferrocement technique shows higher
applicability due to its unique properties such as significant enhancement in axial
load, low self-weight, crack resistant, fire resistant, durability, and water proofing
ability those make it an ideal material for wider applications. Ferrocement consist
wire meshes and hydraulic cement mortar, where the enhancement is depend on the
quality and quantity of both wire mesh and mortar paste. In addition to the quality of
the wire mesh, geometry and orientation of the wire mesh may affect the ultimate
behaviour, which required detailed investigations. This study investigates the effect
of the geometry and the orientation of the steel mesh in the ferrocement jacketing on
the performance of the rectangular reinforced concrete column. Reinforced concrete
column specimens with dimension of 100 mm ×100 mm × 320 mm were casted and
columns were re-strengthen with ferrocement jacketing technique using 12.5 mm ×
12.5 mm steel mesh, and 3 different mesh arrangements were used. Axial load, and
displacement histories were obtained and the overall response of the specimens was
examined in terms of maximum axial load carrying capacity, axial displacement,
cumulative energy, and crack pattern. Findings show that the axial load carrying
capacity, energy absorption capacity, deformation resistivity of jacketed specimens
are improved than the non-jacketed specimens due to the additional confinement
provided by the proposed technique. The results exhibit that the proposed technique
provide enhancement in the axial load carrying capacity up to 62.20% and
enhancement in the strain energy absorption capacity up to 202.3%, while reduction
in the axial deformation at the 200 kN up to 23.72% compared to the non-jacketed
specimen. Providing additional layers at corners enhance the performance of the
column with low material cost, and overall performance can be enhanced with the
orientation of square mesh changing from 0◦ to 45◦.

Keywords: Ferrocement jacketing; Square reinforced concrete column; Steel mesh;


Mesh geometry; Mesh orientation

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

ICSBE2020-058

EFFECT OF SALINITY ON CEMENTITIOUS CAPILLARY CRYSTALLINE


WATERPROOFING

D. R. Mallawarachchi1, A.D.U. Shantha Amarasinghe2, J.H.C. Jayanath3, N.H.T. Kasun4,


K.G.C.S. Gallage5
1
Shavlock Chemicals International, Matugama, Sri Lanka
2,3,4,5
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Katubedda, Sri
Lanka Correspondence E-mail: adusa2@uom.lk, TP: +94773064064

Abstract: Water proofing is important in construction industry to prevent degradation


effects and aesthetic problems and hence to improve the lifetime of concrete structures.
The cementitious water proofing materials have gained the confidence in the construction
industry, mostly due to readily reacting with hydrated compounds in cement and forming
water insoluble crystals inside the pore structure of concrete. However, the reaction
mechanism is governed by several factors including the water quality. The present study
examined the effect of the degree of salinity on the water proofing efficacy of the
cementitious crystalline coating available in the construction industry. The electrical
resistivity method was used to measure the percentage moisture content at 3 different
depths, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 inches against the negative water proofing. The degree of salinity
was found to significantly affect the water proofing ability of the material with time and,
at very high salt concentrations water proofing ability was totally hindered. The depth
effect was notable throughout the entire period of 7 weeks and the results indicated a
gradual enhancing of the formation of impermeable layer in the concrete structure.

Keywords: Crystalline coating; waterproofing; salinity; concrete;

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11th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE) 2020
10th – 12th December 2020 l Kandy l Sri Lanka

Page | 153