Native Symbian Applications OTA

:
New Opportunities to Drive ARPU

Version 1.3; February 13, 2006

Forum Nokia

Contents
1 Introduction 2 Symbian OS Leads the Smartphone Market 3 Symbian OS Device Owners Want Applications 4 Native Symbian Applications Are a Compelling Value Proposition 5 Putting It into Practice 5.1 Application Download Size 5.2 WAP or HTTP Download 5.3 On-Device Storefronts 5.3.1 The Preminet Client 5.3.2 VIISAS 5.3.3 inTouch 5.4 DRM Solutions 5.4.1 OMA DRM 5.4.2 Openbit License Manager 5.4.3 Psiloc DRM Common Solutions 6 Native Symbian Applications Download Successes 6.1 Jamba! 6.2 VIISAS 6.3 TeliaSonera 7 Summary 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11

Appendix A: Implementing OMA-Based Native Symbian Applications OTA Download for S60 Platform, Series 80 Platform, and the Nokia 7710 Widescreen Smartphone A.1 Introduction A.1.1 OMA Standards A.1.2 Additional Rights Management Issues A.1.3 OMA and PIP Support A.1.4 Getting the Right Content to the Right Device A.2 Implementation Options A.2.1 OMA Forward-Lock Implementation A.2.2 Combined Delivery Implementation A.2.3 Separate Delivery Implementation Using a PIP A.3 Conclusion 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 15 16

Appendix B: Creating a PIP File Appendix C: OMA References

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1

Introduction
The owners of Symbian OS devices — including those using the Nokia 7710 widescreen smartphone or devices based on the S60 platform or the Series 80 Platform — are hungry for new applications to make the most of their smartphones. While Symbian OS devices offer an excellent platform for Java™ applications, there is a wealth of additional native Symbian applications available. These applications are written in native Symbian C++, as well as other languages, such as Visual Basic (enabled by Appforge Crossfire), Python (enabled for the S60 platform by Nokia), and Open Programming Language (OPL), a Basic-like language from the open source community. All these applications are delivered to consumers as native Symbian installation, or SIS, files. Today, the majority of users purchasing native Symbian add-on applications are doing so from Web portals. However, proven technology is available to allow these purchases to be made over the air (OTA), often with little more than simple extensions to existing content delivery services. User demand and readily available technology solutions mean that OTA delivery of native Symbian applications offers operators a lucrative new revenue stream that boosts average revenue per unit (ARPU) and reinforces consumer loyalty. This paper reviews the opportunities and outlines some of the ways in which they can be realized.

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Symbian OS Leads the Smartphone Market
For consumers to download high-value applications, they need a platform on which to run them. That platform is Symbian OS. It will be the leading platform for smartphones for the foreseeable future. In September 2005, Ovum estimated that devices based on Symbian OS will account for 70 percent of all smartphone shipments by 2009 (see Figure 1). The success of Symbian OS comes from offering rich devices from the mid range through to the top end, garnering new markets in the process. The latest version of the S60 platform, for example, offers features — such as support for a single-chip architecture that enables devices at lower price points — that capture new users in the mid range marketplace. The addition of robust run-time security is also contributing to adoption by assuring users that their smartphones are secure and protected.

Millions

Figure 1: Estimates from Ovum show Symbian OS as the leading smartphone operating system.

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3

Symbian OS Device Owners Want Applications
A powerful smartphone is only part of the story when it comes to offering the user value. Smartphones offer huge opportunities, whether it be listening to music, updating a blog, navigating to a restaurant or meeting, or checking the status of a flight. Add-on applications allow users to realize the full potential of their devices by addressing individual needs for information and entertainment. Symbian OS users have already shown that they are very interested in adding new applications to their devices. At Handango, Inc., one of the most respected Internet-based mobile software resellers, the typical owner of a Symbian smartphone purchased more applications per transaction during 2005 than any other smartphone customer. Handango’s InHand Symbian OS client was the most downloaded during 2005. Of InHand’s Symbian OS customers, 35.7 percent buy at least two or more times, and during 2004, the average order had a value of $28.10 (23.19 euros) (highest of all Handango’s InHand clients).1 While the demand for add-on applications is a revenue opportunity in its own right, it also has a strong flowon effect into other revenue generating areas, including: • • The use of data traffic to download the application; traffic may also be boosted by multiple downloads of trials as users determine which applications best suit their needs. Data traffic generated by applications; many applications rely on delivering updated data to the user. For example, users of Mobimate’s travel information application, WorldMate, regularly download weather, currency, and flight details. Mobile mapping solutions, such as Appello WISEPILOT, are also strong data traffic generators as users download map and direction information. Demand for these applications creates a rich environment for growing service penetration and related network revenues, by stimulating interest in location-based services (LBS), micropayment services, Presence services, and other services.

It is also worth bearing in mind that many of these additional benefits can be accrued from the many open source and freeware Symbian OS applications available today. It should be noted that Internet vendors meet much of today’s demand for Symbian applications. Through such vendors, users must download applications to their PCs, upload the applications to devices, and install them — a process many find daunting. Direct OTA download is a far simpler mechanism, since users complete the entire process on their devices. The OTA approach is therefore expected to drive demand even further.

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Native Symbian Applications Are a Compelling Value Proposition
Native Symbian applications offer users the highest-quality experience on their devices. Applications, using platforms such as the S60 platform, are feature rich and offer a user experience second to none. As a result, consumers are willing to pay a premium for native Symbian applications. Information from Handango (Figure 2) shows that the average price of Symbian OS software purchased through its own store or the stores it hosts for others has increased since 2004 by 15 percent, to $20 (16.50 euros). By comparison, the average price for Java applications sold by Handango was $4.74 (3.91 euros). Each purchase transaction made by a Symbian OS device owner was also more valuable, at an average of $26.89 (22.19 euros), compared with the average Java customer’s spending of $5.25 (4.33 euros).

1 Figures for the InHand client for UIQ; S60 platform support was added in November 2005.

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Figure 2: The average value of individual Symbian OS applications is growing, according to Handango.

These higher values mean higher per application revenues for the seller. High-value applications also have other benefits. They may offer reduced download catalog management costs, because fewer applications are required to achieve the same revenue, when compared to other platforms. One of the benefits of the Symbian OS OTA market is that it offers a wide variety of price to volume models. While many users will download high-priced applications, there is also a significant volume market for lowpriced applications. This model has been successfully implemented by German content reseller Jamba! GmbH. For more information on Jamba!’s success, see Section 6.1, “Jamba!”

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Putting It into Practice
There are a number of options for implementing Symbian applications OTA. The two principal options are to either extend existing WAP/HTTP storefronts or to use an on-device client. Each offers a different benefit profile. These options are discussed in the following sections.

5.1

Application Download Size
Symbian applications can vary considerably in size, from a few tens of kilobytes to several megabytes. The majority of applications will be between 100 KB and 500 KB in size, with a few high-end personal productivity applications topping 500 KB. Some very feature-rich games can be megabytes in size, but again the majority will be in the typical size range. One practical decision that needs to be made in implementing OTA delivery of native Symbian applications, therefore, is on application size. There are two principal factors that need to be considered: the consumer experience in downloading the application, which generally means considering how long the download will take, and any technical download server, gateway, network, or device constraints. Existing OTA suppliers have found that on a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) network, a limit of 500 KB is useful in maintaining an acceptable user experience. However, users will download larger applications, but it would be advisable to provide a warning about the download size in the application description. In 3G networks, the limit can be set much higher. Technical limits on the maximum file size may exist owing to factors such as available device memory, WAP gateway configuration limits, or the browser in use.

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5.2

WAP or HTTP Download
The simplest option for implementing native Symbian applications OTA is a Web-based storefront with which the consumer interacts through the Symbian OS device’s browser. Using this method, the consumer navigates a dynamic list of available applications and pays after successfully downloading the application. This model simply extends existing storefronts that are already delivering ring tones, themes, and Java applications. In most cases, the key to this approach is implementing Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Download and OMA forward-lock. Implementing OMA Download can be done with minimal effort. Enabling the OMA Download protocol requires the creation of a download descriptor file (DD file) for each item of content, along with simple changes in the HTTP scripts. All of these changes are explained in the OMA Download specification available at www.openmobilealliance.org/release_program/download_archive.html. OMA forward-lock provides a mechanism to ensure that download packages cannot be forwarded to other devices, thus protecting the integrity of the transaction. OMA forward-lock is implemented in most Symbian OS devices, and use simply involves packaging the application in a forward-lock *.dm file. By adopting this method of protection, developers may be encouraged to remove proprietary Digital Rights Management (DRM) mechanisms, such as issuing a license key based on a device’s International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number, which complicates the purchasing process for both customer and seller. While forward-lock provides basic protection to an application delivered OTA, other solutions enable activities such as superdistribution. These options are discussed in Section 5.4, “DRM Solutions.” The advantage of the Web approach is that it leverages existing capabilities to capture the native Symbian application download market. It allows existing customers with Symbian OS devices to discover this content through the portals with which they are already familiar. Nokia Software Market, a WAP site bookmarked on many S60 devices before they are shipped to market, is an example of how easy it is to implement OTA download. Nokia Software Market offers S60 device owners a way to purchase additional content and applications for their devices OTA. The service is implemented using Openbit License Manager (see Section 5.4.2, “Openbit License Manager”) to provide application DRM.

5.3

On-Device Storefronts
An alternative to Internet storefronts is an on-device purchasing client, which offers the customer the advantages of latency-free catalog browsing, as well as improved usability owing to its ability to fully integrate with the device UI. On-device storefronts can often be used as a complementary delivery solution to Internet-based stores. One reason for a dual approach is that usually, an on-device storefront can be delivered preinstalled on a device only to new customers. On-device storefronts can, however, easily be delivered to deployed devices by the mechanisms discussed in this paper, but delivery would require the customer’s permission.

5.3.1 The Preminet Client
The Preminet Client is Nokia’s on-device storefront offering. It has been designed from the ground up as a mobile storefront to provide mobile consumers with the most effective way to discover, download, and enjoy quality content and services. Implemented as a shopping-mall concept, the Preminet Client is able to host content from multiple channels simultaneously. The Preminet Client may be preinstalled on an S60 device or loaded as an aftermarket extra. Designed to increase content sales by improving the shopping experience, the Preminet Client offers zerolatency browsing of an offline catalog. This allows customers to shop more effectively and access more content faster. Background catalog updates can be used to refresh the storefront’s stock. Integrated discovery, trial, purchase, and download mean transactions are more likely to be completed. The Preminet Client also ensures that consumers see only the software, content, and applications compatible with their devices. For S60 devices, the Preminet Client can automatically install the content (with the consumer’s approval), so there are fewer customer service calls about downloaded content being lost on devices.

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5.3.2 VIISAS
The VIISAS Mobile Catalog is a turnkey solution, offered as a hosted service or in-house solution that handles not only Symbian applications, but a range of other media and application content. It includes features that allow applications and content to be securely previewed and purchased. The VIISAS Mobile Catalog’s architecture is designed for scalability, so the solution can run over server arrays for large installations that require high peak load throughput. It also incorporates real-time reporting that can be delivered to a content manager’s mobile phone, allowing the effects of marketing campaigns to be monitored in real time. The VIISAS Mobile Catalog handles all the DRM requirements for applications and content. It can also deal with applications that use proprietary DRM solutions, but, according to Jarmo Kuismanen, CEO of VIISAS Communications, “Once we have explained the capabilities of the VIISAS Mobile Catalog, developers are happy to remove their proprietary DRM for a better user experience.”

5.3.3 inTouch
One supplier that offers a hybrid solution, a client, and a Web storefront is inTouch Wireless Services Pte Ltd. Its Try-and-Buy Manager (Figure 3) provides an on-device catalog of applications the user can select to try. During the trial phase, applications are accessible only through the Try-and-Buy Manager. The user can purchase applications through operator billing, which is undertaken on a percentage-of-revenue basis. Application DRM, which is transparent to the user, is handled via BIO messaging. Once an application has been purchased, it is moved to the device’s desktop.

Figure 3: inTouch Try-and-Buy Manager allows applications to be evaluated before purchase.

The company offers a range of licensing models for applications, including one-off purchase, partial licensing (such as individual levels in a game), rental, and subscription. Try-and-Buy also supports user-to-user superdistribution of applications using Bluetooth technology. Try-and-Buy content can be downloaded by device owners from kiosks (Buffalo AirStation) or by WAP or Web download.

5.4

DRM Solutions
Protecting downloaded applications is an important step in both encouraging developers to make applications available and protecting the revenue streams that application sales offer. This section looks at DRM solutions that can be used with native Symbian applications.

5.4.1 OMA DRM
The OMA’s DRM standards provide for OMA forward-lock (which prevents content from being forwarded from a device), combined delivery (which builds on OMA forward-lock by providing rights to limit the availability of the content), and separate delivery (which allows rights to be delivered separately from the content so they can be updated and content superdistributed).

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Full OMA DRM protection for native Symbian applications has been provided since S60 2nd Edition Feature Pack 2 using an application packaging mechanism called a protected information package (PIP) file. This is Nokia’s recommended DRM mechanism for S60 applications. However, when targeting earlier devices or other Symbian OS platforms, a proprietary DRM mechanism, such as those discussed in the following sections, may be appropriate. A detailed description of how to implement OMA OTA for Symbian applications on Nokia devices is provided in Appendix A, “Implementing OMA-Based Native Symbian Applications OTA Download for S60 Platform, Series 80 Platform, and the Nokia 7710 Widescreen Smartphone.”

5.4.2 Openbit License Manager
Openbit License Manager offers a third-party DRM solution for native Symbian applications. It relies on a central license server hosted by Openbit and a device client delivered with each enabled application. The user downloads applications from a WAP or HTTP storefront and installs them. Payment is not required at download, since most applications are delivered with a free trial period. Once the trial period has expired, the user is automatically prompted to purchase the application (see Figure 4). Payment can be made by a number of mechanisms, including billing via the customer’s account using Premium Short Message Service (SMS). Once payment has been made, license details are sent using encrypted SMS or HTTP communication transparently to the user. The use of Premium SMS to purchase applications protected with License Manager has already been implemented for some 70 operators worldwide. Implementing Premium SMS payment for a new operator involves simply making a connection between the operator’s Short Message Service Center (SMSC) and Openbit’s license server.

Figure 4: Openbit License Manager offers a range of license and purchase options.

License Manager offers a range of licensing options, including outright purchase, rental, and subscription. Superdistribution is also available, because License Manager is embedded in the installation package of every downloaded application. While License Manager allows operators to generate revenue passively through Premium SMS, the purchase of applications can be accelerated by hosting them on the operators’ download portals. There are currently around 50 developers creating applications enabled for use with License Manager. In addition, any existing native Symbian applications can be easily migrated to License Manager. In most cases, other than removing any proprietary licensing mechanism, License Manager does not require developers to modify their applications. Applications protected by Openbit License Manager can also be preinstalled on new Symbian OS phones.

5.4.3 Psiloc DRM Common Solutions
Psiloc DRM Common Solutions consists of three components: Common Security (which protects applications from hackers and reverse engineering), Common Licensing, and Common Tools (such as a “send to” option for superdistribution and an on-device catalog).

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Common Licensing provides services for a customer to purchase an application and then ensures that the application is used only by that purchaser. It works using a client on the device (which is included with each application to ensure it is always available) and a license server hosted by Psiloc or in-house by an operator. When a customer purchases an application OTA using Premium SMS, direct billing, or any other operatorimplemented secure payment method, the Common Licensing client communicates with the server to obtain a license, using data services or SMS. Applications can be locked to a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card or device; using the SIM card option allows users to transfer software easily when they upgrade. Licensing options include time, date, or uses limits as well as outright purchase. The system also includes extensions to the basic superdistribution model that allow content distribution to be tracked, enabling sophisticated loyalty programs. To implement Common Solutions, applications have to be modified to include additional header files and definitions, a process that Psiloc says can be completed in around 10 minutes. Applications protected by Common Solutions can be hosted either on the Internet, using an existing WAP store, or through an on-device shop client (which can host any type of content, such as music, video, or other digital media). Options also exist for supplying license keys through retail outlets. Currently, 150 applications are available with Common Solutions, and more are expected to become available following the wider launch of the solution in January 2006.

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Native Symbian Applications Download Successes
Several operators and channel vendors are already seeing positive results from native Symbian application delivery by OTA.

6.1

Jamba!
“Native Symbian application OTA has been a singular success for Jamba! Symbian offers technical simplicity in delivering content, with reliable OMA OTA and much less variation than Java handsets,” says Thomas Richter, Jamba!’s director of content sourcing. “These more-educated users spend two-and-a-half times more on applications and content, without cannibalizing our Java downloads business.” Software and content channel Jamba! has been doing nothing but OTA delivery of Symbian applications for the past two and a half years. From the delivery perspective, native Symbian applications provide Jamba! with the fewest technical issues of all the software it handles. “We have to maintain somewhere in the region of 120 different categories of Java applications to cope with all the different handsets. By contrast, for [the S60 platform], we need only seven,” says Richter. “This means we can deliver native Symbian applications much more reliably.” Richter also attributes part of the reliable delivery of native Symbian applications to its better-educated users. “With Symbian OS, it’s easy to ensure the right content or application gets onto the handset,” says Richter. Of Jamba!’s customer base, 6.8 percent are users of Symbian OS smartphones, and the revenue they generate is 2.5 times higher than the best Java phone ARPU. “We see that Symbian OS smartphone users, mainly [S60] users, simply buy a higher volume of content to create this additional ARPU,” says Richter. “While this includes some additional downloads of content, particularly videos, the majority of the additional revenue comes from games and native Symbian applications.” Richter believes the key to Jamba!’s success is its business model, which is different from many other channels in the market. “We have the best and largest portfolio of low-priced native Symbian applications,” he says. “We are not targeting the pioneer user but the mass market with small, helpful, fun applications.” Jamba! does not host any applications that use third-party DRM solutions, and it implements OMA forward-lock as part of its software delivery. “Third-party DRM solutions, such as software registrations, hamper the user experience,” says Richter. “While developers are nervous about removing their own DRM, our sales volumes more than compensate.” Many of the applications Jamba! sells also have flow-on effects for the customer’s operator. “While we don’t have direct information on the data traffic generated by our applications, I believe it to be significant,” says Richter. “One of our popular applications is Living Wallpaper. This includes Webcam feeds, which will generate a lot of data traffic.” Jamba!’s service can be supplied as a branded solution to operators worldwide.

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6.2

VIISAS
Mobile software developer VIISAS Communications offers a download client and catalog, which can be used to deliver a range of content to mobile phones. While True Tones, ring tones, wallpapers, themes, and Java games represent an important part of the download business, CEO Jarmo Kuismanen sees an increasingly important role for native Symbian applications. According to Kuismanen, the applications that sell best are those that function and look best to the user. “With Symbian OS and [the S60 platform], the skillful developer can produce high-quality applications. So, if an operator wants to offer their users the best application, then they have to look to Symbian OS. We use a native Symbian application for our client for the same reason.” The VIISAS Mobile Catalog is a real-time, client/server offering for both Java and Symbian OS phones, delivered as a hosted or in-house solution. However, the best download experience is offered by VIISAS’s Symbian OS client. “With Symbian we provide advanced mechanisms to protect the user,” says Kuismanen. “We can ensure network faults don’t result in the customer being billed twice. We can also automatically start application installation and prompt the user to retry if they accidentally cancel the installation. Only Symbian OS allows us to offer these features.” “We have done a lot of careful analysis, and the results clearly show that the end users with Symbian OS devices generate significantly more data traffic, make more orders, buy more-expensive content, and they are much more likely to be return customers,” says Kuismanen.

6.3

TeliaSonera
For Finnish mobile operator TeliaSonera Finland Oyj, downloads of native Symbian applications are an integral part of its overall download offering — so much so that the company has hosted the Nokia Download Server to boost application sales by ensuring a high-quality experience and service availability. Juhani Kivikangas, TeliaSonera’s director of partner solutions, estimates that the majority of the company’s customers obtain their native Symbian applications using this service. “Native Symbian applications allow our customers to make the most of their devices,” says Kivikangas. “The visual quality is better, particularly in games, and the user interaction superior to that of Java applications.” As a result, TeliaSonera has found that owners of Symbian OS devices readily accept higher-cost native Symbian applications, which can be up to $25.45 (21 euros). While games are a significant portion of the native Symbian download business, users have shown significant interest in other types of applications. For example, among TeliaSonera customers, one of the most popular applications of the last 12 months has been Openbit Photographer, which allows users to create humorously distorted faces from images captured on their phones. While revenue from the purchase of native Symbian applications is important to TeliaSonera, the flow-on effects to the use of airtime services are just as financially rewarding. Applications such as Photographer help drive services such as Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). “Advanced applications, together with better browser capabilities on Symbian OS devices, result in their owners’ delivering between three- and five-times higher data usage when compared to other phones’ users,” says Kivikangas.

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Summary
Symbian OS device owners are ready to realize the power of their new smartphones. Operators can find new profit in this user desire by hosting a variety of native Symbian applications and making them available to their customers OTA. Several options exist to implement OTA downloads. It is possible to reuse existing download infrastructures such as WAP or HTTP storefronts, which may already be in use powering ring tone and Java application downloads. Alternatively, applications can be sold using an on-device shop client. Operators can protect this new revenue stream by implementing DRM-compliant capabilities in their OTA service delivery platforms. Ideally, these modifications to the OTA service delivery platforms should include one of the popular types of DRM, which include Openbit License Manager, Psiloc DRM Common Solutions, and OMA DRM. As the number of Symbian OS devices grows over the next few years, native Symbian applications, and the data traffic they can generate, will represent a significant opportunity for operators to generate additional revenue. This paper has highlighted a number of options that can be used today to generate additional revenue now and into the future.

Contact your local Forum Nokia business development manager for details.

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Appendix A: Implementing OMA-Based Native Symbian Applications OTA Download for S60 Platform, Series 80 Platform, and the Nokia 7710 Widescreen Smartphone
A.1 Introduction
This appendix explains how to use Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) standards to download native Symbian applications to the Nokia 7710 widescreen smartphone as well as to S60 and Series 80 devices.

A.1.1

OMA Standards
Nokia provides comprehensive support for OMA standards within its devices. Two of these standards are the foundation for simple, efficient downloading of native Symbian applications (as well as a wide range of other digital content). The two relevant standards are: • • OMA Download — a set of standards that provide robust WAP- or HTTP-based downloading to mobile devices with reporting of successful downloads, which can be used as a billing trigger. OMA Digital Rights Management (DRM) — a set of standards that provide mechanisms for protecting digital content. Version 1 provides three such mechanisms: OMA forward-lock (which prevents content from being forwarded from a device), combined delivery (whereby content and rights are delivered together, allowing content to be limited by time or usage), and separate delivery (whereby content rights are delivered separately, allowing rights to be bought at any time). Version 2 provides a single method of protection based on separate delivery with the addition of public key infrastructure (PKI) encryption. For more information, see the references in Appendix C, “OMA References.”

A.1.2

Additional Rights Management Issues
When delivering native Symbian applications, OMA DRM provides protection only for the download package; once an application is installed on a device, it is no longer protected. In most cases, this is adequate protection, since few users have the ability to repackage an application for illegal distribution. A more significant drawback is that it does not allow usage rights (as enabled by the combined delivery or separate delivery methods of OMA DRM) to be given to applications. To overcome these issues, Nokia has introduced a DRM License Manager in S60 2nd Edition Feature Pack 2 that allows application files to be protected by any OMA DRM mechanism, thus providing protection against repackaging and enabling time- or usage-based rights to be granted to an application. This mechanism works by packaging the original application installation file and critical data files in a ZIP archive known as a protected installation package (PIP) which is then encrypted and stored in a DRM Content Format (DCF) file. The PIP file can be used with any DRM mechanism: OMA forward-lock, combined delivery, or separate delivery. Details on how to create a PIP file are provided in Appendix B, “Creating a PIP File.”

A.1.3

OMA and PIP Support
Table 1 illustrates the support for OMA Download and OMA DRM in Nokia platforms and devices.
OMA Download Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes OMA DRM Version 1 (Forward-Lock) Yes2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes OMA DRM Version 1 (Full) OMA DRM Version 2 PIP Support Application File Transport MMS WAP HTTP Yes Yes Yes Yes3 Yes3 Yes3 Yes Yes

Platform/Device S60 1st Edition S60 2 Edition
nd

S60 2nd Edition Feature Pack 1 S60 2nd Edition Feature Pack 2 S60 2nd Edition Feature Pack 3 S60 3rd Edition Series 80 2nd Edition Nokia 7710 widescreen smartphone

Table 1: Support for OMA Download, OMA DRM, PIP files, and OTA download transport protocols in Nokia Symbian OS platforms and devices is illustrated.

2 While S60 1st Edition provides OMA forward-lock, this feature does not extend to native Symbian application installation files; only images, audio, and Java applications are supported. 3 Rights are delivered by WAP Push over Short Message Service (SMS).

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A.1.4

Getting the Right Content to the Right Device
Nokia’s platforms and devices are under constant development, with new features being added all the time. This means that an application written for the latest S60 device will not necessarily run on earlier devices, because it uses new features. Therefore, it is important to ensure the right applications are delivered to the right device. Fortunately, this is not a complex task. The browser on each Nokia device has a mechanism to report the platform version number on which the device is based. This mechanism is the User Agent Profile (UAProf), one of the HTTP headers passed in every HTTP request from a browser. There are two formats that could be reported: • Nokia6600/1.0 (4.03.24) SymbianOS/6.1 Series60/2.0 Profile/MIDP-2.0 Configuration/CLDC-1.0.

Or (where the operator has chosen “Mozilla compatible” headers, which became an option from the Nokia 6630 imaging smartphone): • Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.0; Series60/2.6 Nokia6630/x.yy.z Profile/MIDP-2.0 Configuration/CLDC-1.1).

The version information reported in the headers is defined in Table 2.

Platform/Device
S60 Platform 1st Edition S60 Platform 2nd Edition S60 Platform 2nd Edition Feature Pack 1 S60 Platform 2nd Edition Feature Pack 2 S60 Platform 2nd Edition Feature Pack 3 S60 Platform 3 Edition
rd

Reported Header (OSName/OSVersion)
Symbian OS Series60/2.0 Series60/2.1 Series60/2.6 Series60/2.8 Series60/3.0 Series80/2.0 Series90/1.1

Series 80 Platform 2nd Edition Nokia 7710 widescreen smartphone

Table 2: UAProf version details reported for Nokia Symbian OS devices and platforms are illustrated.

Using the UAProf header, the server providing the browsable storefront can deliver information on the available, compatible applications to the user. The question now arises, armed with the platform version, how many categories of applications are there? Essentially, there needs to be one group for each edition; however, specific applications may take advantage of APIs offered in a feature pack or as lead features on a device. The application’s developer will be able to advise on compatibility.

A.2

Implementation Options
Operators considering implementing Symbian OS applications over the air (OTA) have two basic options: • • To implement a system based on providing OMA forward-lock protection only, which gives the widest coverage of available devices. To implement a system based on full OMA DRM using applications delivered in a PIP file, which limits the target devices to those based on S60 2nd Edition Feature Pack 2 or later.

It is entirely possible to implement both solutions, using the UAProf headers to determine which type of content to deliver, but for the sake of simplicity, this appendix will discuss each option separately.

A.2.1

OMA Forward-Lock Implementation
Implementing OMA forward-lock is the simplest option for enabling native Symbian applications OTA.

A.2.1.1 The forward-lock delivery process
The process of downloading native Symbian applications when using OMA forward-lock, shown in Figure 5, is: 1. Browse — Using the device’s browser, the customer connects to the operator’s WAP or HTTP storefront. The server reads the UAProf and returns pages containing applications suitable for the customer’s device, along with descriptive and price information.
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2.

Download and Charge — The user selects an application and initiates the download. The operator’s server first sends the download descriptor to the device. Using the information in the download descriptor, the device checks features, such as available space, to ensure the content can be received and installed (if not, it helps the user with resolvable issues such as memory space). Once it has been confirmed that the content can be downloaded, the device connects to the content server that is defined in the download descriptor (which may be the operator’s server or one hosted by a content partner), and the download is commenced. Once the download has finished, the user is directed to the Web page defined in the download descriptor, and an OMA Download installation notification message is returned to the operator’s server; this message can be used to trigger payment. Install — The user initiates the installation of the downloaded application. Installation can be undertaken immediately after the download, or at some later time. Use — Once the application has been installed, the user is able to use it freely.

3. 4.

Figure 5: Symbian OS applications can be downloaded OTA using OMA forward-lock.

A.2.1.2 Infrastructure requirements
Implementing OMA forward-lock in an existing content system should require only minor changes to the existing content delivery infrastructure, shown in Figure 5, as follows: • Each application that is to be protected by OMA forward-lock needs to be packaged in a *.dm file. This could be done by the developer as part of the application submission process or on the fly within the content system. OMA Download needs to be enabled; this involves simple changes in the HTTP server to enable the OMA Download protocol. For each application a download descriptor file (DD file) needs to be created; this file defines the download server, device capabilities, and download completion redirect page, among other things. Amend the billing trigger to act on the receipt of an OMA Download installation notification message that indicates successful download.

• • •

A.2.2

Combined Delivery Implementation
The use of combined delivery essentially follows the same process and requires the same infrastructure as OMA forward-lock, although packaging a PIP file into a DRM file is more complex, since the downloaded file needs to include rights information.

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A.2.3

Separate Delivery Implementation Using a PIP
Implementing separate delivery with applications packaged in a PIP requires only a few extra components when compared to an OMA forward-lock implementation, but it provides greater reliability and options for licensing applications.

A.2.3.1 The process
The process of downloading native Symbian applications using separate delivery, shown in Figure 6, is: 1. Browse — Using the device’s browser, the customer connects to the operator’s WAP or HTTP storefront. The server reads the device’s UAProf and returns pages containing applications suitable for the customer’s device, along with descriptive and price information. Download — The user selects an application and initiates the download. The operator’s server first sends the download descriptor to the device. Using the information in the download descriptor, the device checks features, such as available space, to ensure the content can be received (if not, it helps the user with resolvable issues such as memory space). Once it has been confirmed the content can be downloaded, the device connects to the content server defined in the download descriptor4 (which may be the operator’s server or one hosted by a content partner), and the download is commenced. Once the download has finished, an OMA Download installation notification message is returned to the operator’s server, and the user is directed to the Web page defined in the download descriptor. Preview rights must also be included in the download at this time.5 Install — The user initiates the installation of the downloaded application. Installation can be undertaken immediately after the download or at some later time. Preview — The user runs the installed application. The user may preview the application for a specific time period or number of uses defined by the downloaded preview rights. Purchase Rights — Once the preview rights have been exhausted, or immediately if no preview rights were granted, the DRM License Manager will notify the user of the need to purchase rights for the application and directs the user, through the device’s browser, to the appropriate storefront page. If the customer purchases rights, they are downloaded using OMA Download. Billing for the purchase can be completed on receipt of the OMA Download installation notification message that confirms the rights have been installed.

2.

3. 4. 5.

It is possible to purchase and deliver full rights at Step 2, and eliminate Steps 3 and 4. However, following the entire process has the advantage of guaranteeing the user has installed the application and that it is compatible with the customer’s device, since the rights are bought after the application has been installed and previewed.

Figure 6: Symbian OS applications can be downloaded using a PIP file and separate delivery.
4 Standard HTTP download can also be used. 5 The associated DRM objects are handled in the following ways: • For OMA DRM version 1.0: while the user downloads the PIP file, the server pushes the preview rights via WAP Push to the device. • For OMA DRM version 2.0: Preview rights are delivered as a second download as part of the overall download process.

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A.2.3.2 Infrastructure requirements
Implementing OMA separate delivery in an existing content system will require the addition of a rights server and minor changes to the existing infrastructure, shown in Figure 6, as follows: • • • • • Each application that is to be protected by OMA separate delivery needs to be packaged in a PIP file. This will be done by the developer as part of the application submission process. The operator needs to enable OMA Download; this involves simple changes in the HTTP server to enable the OMA Download protocol. For each application, the operator needs to create a DD file. The operator needs to introduce a rights server. This will create a rights (.dr) file on the fly and make it available for download to the customer. The operator must amend the billing trigger to act on the receipt of an OMA Download installation notification message that indicates successful download of the rights file.

A.3

Conclusion
Using a range of standard technology, operators can easily implement the delivery of Symbian OS applications OTA. The browser-reported UAProf allows the platform to be identified and the right applications offered to the customer. OMA forward-lock provides protection for downloaded applications across the entire range of Nokia Symbian OS platforms and devices (and many based on other Symbian OS platforms); combined delivery is also an option, while separate delivery can provide the customer with application previews and several purchase options. Finally, the OMA Download protocol can be used to ensure that applications and rights files are safely delivered. Existing content systems can easily be upgraded to implement all the technology required. Most of the technology simply requires configuration changes, and the most complex change likely to be needed is the introduction of a rights server.

Appendix B: Creating a PIP File
DRM License Manager is a component introduced in Series 60 2nd Edition Feature Pack 2 that can be used to protect native applications and themes on Series 60 devices. It enables application developers to specify that certain application or theme files will be protected by OMA Digital Rights Management (DRM), thereby allowing rights to be assigned to an application or theme for preview, activation-based usage, time-based usage, or outright purchase. DRM License Manager requires applications to be delivered in a protected application package known as the protected installation package (PIP). A PIP is a standard ZIP archive that contains the application’s SIS, a file that defines the PIP file’s content and the data files to be protected, which is then encrypted and stored in a DRM Content Format DCF file; see Figure 7.

PIP File (DCF Format) Zip File SIS File Definition File Data File Data File
Figure 7: The PIP file is a ZIP archive containing the application SIS, data files to be protected, and a definition file.

More information regarding DRM License Manager can be found in S60 SDKs, starting with the S60 2nd Edition for Symbian OS SDK, Supporting Feature Pack 2.

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Appendix C: OMA References
Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Download — www.openmobilealliance.org/release_program/download_v10.html OMA Digital Rights Management (DRM) version 1.0 — www.openmobilealliance.org/release_program/drm_v1_0.html OMA DRM version 2.0 — www.openmobilealliance.org/release_program/drm_v2_0.html User Agent Profile (UAProf) — www.openmobilealliance.org/release_program/uap_v20.html

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Copyright © 2005, 2006 Nokia Corporation. All rights reserved. Nokia, Nokia Connecting People, Nokia 6600, Nokia 6630, and Nokia 7710 are trademarks or registered trademarks of Nokia Corporation. Java and all Java-based marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks or trade names of their respective owners. Disclaimer The information in this document is provided “as is,” with no warranties whatsoever, including any warranty of merchantability, fitness for any particular purpose, or any warranty otherwise arising out of any proposal, specification, or sample. Furthermore, information provided in this document is preliminary, and may be changed substantially prior to final release. This document is provided for informational purposes only. Nokia Corporation disclaims all liability, including liability for infringement of any proprietary rights, relating to implementation of information presented in this document. Nokia Corporation does not warrant or represent that such use will not infringe such rights. Nokia Corporation retains the right to make changes to this specification at any time, without notice. License A license is hereby granted to download and print a copy of this specification for personal use only. No other license to any other intellectual property rights is granted herein.

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