JUR.'G S SA' TRlfs~.

]'ns: and DICK], N KOUY rl'ff AN

Julfa Cua) 1$ one of the most famous and least dOtlllU:H~ptBd ,A1Il'mem;!11 cities 0 f'tl].e pre .. modem pet' ,odi (1)., TbJ)l!lfg11 lon ~ abandoned its eontinuing fame :is due in pat t to ". ~W' Julfa a suburb of Isfahan in the heart ,of han, founded by and for refagees from old Julfa, After nearly four .eenturies of megl~c.~, Julfa's ruins espeeial I y the j mpressive vestiges .: :f' ' .. e cemetery on lhe Arax river, stU] astenish all who ,a,pproaeh the site (FD.gs. 1-4)." The impQ~tan.ce of !.his commercwal center 1IJ[) the hill~tor.y of' international trade and 'the 'Iluderstal'u.ting (If A1"mcni~n society in the s·' eenth C llrtuvy w - rrants Ell deta.iled monograph,

'The ~tylistlc uniqueness 01' ~tE carved tombstones 'wi'[bin, an al~ad,)~ special Armenlan ~adif'D,n IOf the' cross stone ott" j[,Qo...rlt aj" makes the preservatien of the cem.e'~ery ext ,._m:e~y important. Y,d; very little.

.... ;1l., J L.... d J' ·nr-'· d P 1.~ >" 1 '.;q'

l:e~'ar~ HI;;S been .. one on . iu :,1. or its .gr.aVteyul.. .. 01li;tu::at ecnsm-

erations have been respoDsjb].e for tlJis laek, Its present PO~UOQ H~ the A uton om.oU.s, Region lor Naxijewan ill the Soviet Socialist RepubUc

1) The Olll~Y I1llonogm:llih d~"'.oted 'bo the e~ty has been una,viL"la le to WI: :ft .is cited th:f.(lu,gh other sooo~da['y sau['Ce~~ s. T~r.AYetrijafIJ! IG.oN:nl J~!t~d. Tillis', 19!J,7;, fhere are, tU.l·w~ve.r several entries on J't!l!a in. enmtdopi2di9$ ~1[uJ g~o~raph[~, S\uveys: EJu:Jlcl()~H~'edill 0/ .Ii.lam. '~1.r, t edition (19.13), «Djtl.lr~~ b~' 'M; S-itJr'eck~ :n(;'l! Gutty was ifncluded in the second edi~i(i:n under Djnlfa ~ TIm Or 'Of StJl'Vlre,~ En~J,'{;iQP(!dt'Q, vols, 'XX r, ~, 830 ff Q:tl d .XlLIJ pp. 83 'I ~J~~. ~ 1~'IQ~~? ilm:'k.~t.J'P~d!sl; {tCI,b~rn» by Mjr"ltJ. Data vol, "3 (i ~r)J)jpp' 22:5 .. 5,· flaytl.SI'fmi bnst": r~fj'~ fasc, 2~ atticl~ l'),y Atgam. A:)'W.ZY'illJ'rn Erle'~S1Jn 19'76 pp. 14~31. The m~~ ArnuilJ lll~ Ert.t:Yt.w;pedlu wlitl U:Ddo.u'bk~.~" havean ankle when itt n~Iu:;he~ 'lh~ ap.p.topr~,f'lt~ IU~l -I' SU.:jdl!~ d~o.tc.d spe1l:Hi(3,n,y, to tb!t.~'''';Qme~etr.· and :nolice3 on ~ IJ lira: hl l3 rger work' win be cited belt:rn{ ill m.ptf!]' .J and 4. Fer an O\li~I~'vieW ~Ir . rb1~~nian, h:j, to,1 in II ~ pedod a'S." ven as 3 dLs'Ol!ssiarn o~ the ~'~I~VLUl~, tlUil". s, ~C~ D, K~uymji[in. rStl~1 ' m Dou.g d~ TUI''-9jlr':ions el, ~\eS TU[1cS ~Ut"-~11IMl~ (',\!,Il!'_XVI .q,ie!J~!J~~~. 1I.1'''Ul~'DU!f L I f~r lU;~M'f~

dt",\' Irr-~J~'I~'i'-·i1Jt • .., ~, I. ~mrd r (: ~~ H1. I ullln~!~c. P 'i'j~. ~'I' .q ,'7(~.

],0

or Azerbaij a n j. on the. borde r w'm Ira n and close to Turkey make it ve '-y difiicuU: for either Soviet Armenian or foreign scholars '10 systematically survey the existing monuments, . he Azerbaijani gove ,nmen~ seem: to 'take :U ttle interest '" the j o ca] 't~, Not ,only have the SU'TVivuilg' monuments :5I11,1'ff"· red f .om neglect, but a few years agu Italian archaeo 'ogis.'ts 5.oullded the alarm on the' deliberate delapid a.tiCJJ1 of funera [1 monuments i n order to reuse the I) one fo r moderJ~ COD.st.ruction. 2~,

This stndy 'is intended 11:0 relaunch, interest in Julfa and to D10.ke available a group of rare photographs of the cemetery ; illikol1. D1Qle than half a crtJlJtury age in the e,arly ye,fU'S of the So·vie t . I epubl ie s alf' the Canea sus. The' d,QClllDle[[tntioil 'was aceu m jlate, . in Se.p·~eJ:nh er J 92: b~y Jurgis Baltrusairis during- a p;rh~"j]e:ged vis,it to Julfa, Because of BahrU'saiH . 's dose association with Armenian art and because of 'th,e respec HI~g: Berbjri,am a,h:fa:~;s had for one. of his o,lttest French colleagues it "~S decided '~n undertake a jo.~nt effort on the' 1ituleF.arTl'.~dne . of Jul fa using these as yet unpu bH shed arehi val photogra piliJ's as a b,El.se ..

N() a s~ngl~ ~nonlo.graF;h or book exists OJ1 the cemetery; "0 tbc best ,of our kno\vledg,e ,only two articles ha-ve' been written exp.ress~y nil the to --- bs tones (3. On the other hand, as. a lready mentioned, there have bee n sections in several volumes devoted to Jill fa- ijle most complete being that of the Mekl1[tari's father ,ev,ond Alisan (4).

1) I In. ~ ~04· Slone Irem the ~n l'~1rY W~ s. used ill HL fa ~hj on d"" cribed as «bi;l!iOO,I'01JS, de!ilruc.c.ion, du-rin~ ~he ~ &i!J.rLt eenstruction of the raHroad Hn_ Ul!1J ~s by the site 0'1f], the Batum-Baku rall link, :, Bai1o;,iUd8/tyan.ti.bj,~~d~1r'!Jran ~tJJ" ~I'l(lr~p'fttl.re, C'~, k~m:rf_~t'. IMtJ1}lJlm;~' r lllledifJlJal A~""jil "~lilm Aj'{.~JW~,,;.~,:!f, rmd ~Wtlje(Jt lMl'f"~~Q,~t'&J. erevan, ]96;3, p. 169,

(3)', . Marr .. «(~ M'oruJ'llll~nls do ei met t~~ de DjoulT~», . rL\'sjiHliiJk"1i YO'iS/flle! ''1'01. ] V 110; " p, 198 et pl. ~·X~ Iho1Jglll 'm his a rtiele ha. not ~n a Yo i1a'l~de for 'lhis ,tt\dy,~ .M 8. rr' P.ri_l1dD~'1 ideas D.ll rhe );~C ak'ars Blrc' resumed by S. ~1HiJJ,d'n·k~nyal:l.

. -

}Vi..k,o,I£JJ¥JS! M'll'i) 'rrv JU~"",k:mJ C-afffJI'{qN!!lttr ,'U1J.f) (NUwlas j'War.f (.mri A~j,m;f'I.d:{1n 'J"c..hi-

IG'CIJ:l-Fe) ~ Erevan, 1. 9.69 pp, ~ 6"J'-;, however. ~ whl:to liJf :r~feli@[IC'e '10 'ttl is ,a ticle, See note ;5 ro.£ r-efereTlce to the arljd.~ by V nl(y.I'. See also the: {~dditl:mla I Notei> at :the end 'Qf tlhls 8tJUdy, [:!II. :Sl.

(4) L. AliaJ:~~ $iJMrm., Vel'llice~ 189]", section on JuUru, p'p. 4Oe'-42S wJrh nine iU'!lnslr~tiO[EliS.. . 1Wll)gh Alisall dees not. cite the. '1i\mrK. he :pro'bn.bly had access 'to ~ ; Te:J. Y ~v]].an~aITc~ I ,p('ilt{l~u( t~I';~ Nf)I' j{tltl os ,l'AiSJi!:f:ilo't#1. :2 voL.; N~w J u;l ftl , 18ilO! whim, has material Oil cld JIj,Ma. " .• H,. 'GQfo~,a:n P:m',sJ.:a.If,tCM'ti IUW~I·tJ; T~br.an. 1968', the ,odghl~ manuscript is from J 896; tile. work iof Ter-Avetisian 3lready cited in note :I, ; Leo, H()jrQ'C~ p.(jtm~:ltJuir. Ewva,wt '1946, rep:r~ mled in. .Erkej'; kl~:vaci' r vol ,. 11J , Er-e· 1Ij,"L n, 1969' pp.:2 ~4.- "3,8 (ql eratiens JU'U 'trol;n tbis edition ", A 'pm Ay.\-"a.~f~n:t Na~d; eWW~J<J ,~~~/r~~mt:flN~'ft'i).£I~'fd~lj 1~~fi~i(NliI' "J,,;i1. 1"~'II.rLtl~ ~ ~11~ lit LJ~:liiJJI1I ~['$ji on .'lmri~ltm'ld

Several photogrn ph ie co llection, I of the cemetery are k fUJ\Vn besi des - bat of Baltrusaltls's, In ,~,913 the photographer-archaeologist Ararn Vru_yr. a close COl ~ab()r.atof' of Nikolas Miin l:" T'oros T' oramsni III , and.

loG. I. 'l.ll'g~~ Ral~ru..~fthis on morS'eoo,c - b(d'OI'41 '[be Ju:Un oemeliery~ Seplemool" 928. , h etc CO~ft~y [ r 1 1~IHrubJti).

Josef Orbeli, journeyed f] o]'"m Am to JuI~~1. and t ok a large series of ,p.bOI~olgT'al'h.s (5). There '~$ also some reason to believe d~at 'the pro-

u"mjrmJ;/mi' llJl' Jdf{~kw~'J'~ Na~'iir.·iie~!,ay.l,'i'~U)'E A SSJ?, ElI'ev i!I.IlJ; 1:9 I~, ~p. 69·: 5- (r!;;f~t'~Ii1I~~ to this lel{£); lthm, (j.ulayi gcfZ.mana,t·'n~»; Sovetake» HO}''llJU(tl,r, o.9S4,~, no, J. 'pp. 23~9. Related material can also be rm.un!, mill M~ Sillbateanl Nkafa:gir ,'mr/)

- it T •

Kor:apel'i 'Va:J.~'ic' Erlvakll~' e.1I' ,'"'rJ(lkcu-it/ nata TLftis, 1904, ~J!!I,d- H. ,4.:r-akr.e'1~1U]- P'ar,~·

k:{~.1J''1anl ,H(Jl~'''''''" liJ'trn"(/ '~fl(/'eal'. Herk(m e~' I~ar-!. 'VoL J V'.[e:~na~ 19'] L ehn Carswell, Ne« I J,~~tI~'. 11/0(; ArmfllicllJ' Ch'lltNl{!' {Jud Oth'Cr fju,~ldi.'JJJ1)~ 'Oxford, ]96i8! contaias 8, SUlIm:n~fY tlF the ,Ia:sl rclays of oJd lut~, ~:nd, ilfH appe;II!W _. or e~cer{1ts: from We-i'jhn:l1 ~ra¥~ll~,r~" aCCO~lUl$. on Ne\,!,I' J'udfa wbi,ell ~:11. ,p.~sswgabill rnJ,~'iOtiQn the S[~lr~e of 1 Lilf~1.. 011 the ,Ar,~x ill, th~, s~vel1teemllh 10IID.'nu')'" '~h'J;id]y, Karapet Kal3,pe ia n, l.Jfah,,~tt, Ne:w J~l/fa_ ,: L " C~~ d~gn At,m~'li - T/~rt fl~m!::!l ~1~Ju~ A I'me~iia.nj. Rome, ] 974, contain s bi hU og:ntphy ,a:n d .b,is1l;otk{l!I ,. nf(H-J;jj3J:io1'l pertainlng tOI J ulfa,

[,:5) Ar~aSe!i: V~~UYF, «Aram Ynlly.ri il~111 lma~:(t@okan ~uuip a:k'~f;H'~~, i'A'Ii.illt~ VII'I.l,yr S Un.pu~Usherl Ar·d]~elogic3l Surve,)l jl:tla))!}' • .f1Jn'~ 19.61~ no, 4! I~,P. I &~Hi:O. The. 115 photos 'oo_atill.l to Julfa are I]O!\V jIlL file PQ$~~ron of' l~is 'OLI1 -~rt-d.:.~: mll~ notice on J'wl'fa wa~ w~itb~Ji~ ill S.ep~e'l.11~~i' '19L~L

lifi'c',plli1(fttographe - Ermakov 2JI5,0 took pictures, C'D, f.~e slte III fore '_ 9,]0 (6). In reeem times, the 196Qs and 1910s, ,,', dividua] scholars and ,l,eams in parti ou:~ar those as's 0 elated w:fth the. s:tu,cliy of Armenian architecture in Milall. have' co]l,ec:ted important visual documentation,

1'0. ,2;. JuifaJ cemetery, circa 1910-19l1 'Pl~.o.~o I~OUn:~sy (If Herman Vahriflrni~n, Mil.an"

FiG. 3. J u~fa cemete.r.y... circa, . 97~l 'Photo tCC)uJ'I~!5Y H'. V,aJhT-mlmia[l~ M"il~JI].,

The istory of ulfa dates back to th,e, time: of king Tigran ~e 'Great i at teast eccording to Armemi an sources, The ci~y is mentioned in book J cha pter X'XX of the ,Hist'o./~Y of Mov.s.e-;s of' X'OI'eD! in a Iist of 10 calities ~ 11.._ cites as his source the legendary Syriac writer of' the early Christian period, Ma ' Abas Catina (7). The. city. ]5, mentioned

(6) ,A., ftt:a:ct:l:fJlml of the 1i.5'~orm or so pl1~jJtO,8Jl'apbs -Elf :Ennnkov pt-e'S~nred, in ~!r!."Clttv-~1 !Collections bas now _ een p-ubli~~ed by He.:r.m~JiJ, Vallnamia~ vJth iTlJtroduc~:@[y 'tt';S;t b,Y M~ rio. Vern one, Ermrfk~n~. ArmwR!iIl1,' IrJIO. 'VeniC(e, ] 982.

7) «, .. ~~, {A.Zd:\LIJ,"k~ king oJ ~iedia) ~nl~d Oh~'m)i • .., as, 'far as o,PPoslme the casUe of: ak hcha wan. aad the t~:[ce towns 01' Khram, Ju~aYl and Khorshakunik», ,~lo~'itfJ$ Kfl[Ofe'JuJ'fs~ i. fl!:SUJ,f"j' ()/ fhe' Armtm'itUls .. k~ I1s1atioin and oO[l1u'n~nt~ry by Ra'ben 'W, r.~"o.fnS;OI(ftI Q\rnbridge i; t1JSS.~, 19181" ,1,20,;. On 'I'he q.:tesdon of ',8,1.' Abes C~UiUl-, see T1mrnsO:1l 's fIOma:r~.s ,on [Jip" 14. j'\4.~:S.

twice by bworid the historian (lIte' eighth century), fir. t, during the AtaJh invasizms 0',- ,642-3 as I crossing «through ~'~e straight of Jnlfa»,

- .

d·· . Lsn " t . th '. d 'L M ~ iIlt\

an agam, m u -'.:5J! as, a C].'Y m t e same sene s as cite _ .U'Y .: ovses '. 0)",

La ter references ]1Li medj ~,al sources are ,r3J re and me,~'gl~['. In 962' 'i t is. mentioned '- and in 9t16 both. Ju]fa 3JJ,d «its Itl.Q]l;a.s;t~[y)) are noted (9). In the clev~ntb c.·ell.tmy eatholico B Sar:gis :,efe rs to it tn a decree along wlith '«E.rlljlk~ NUCuaD and tabuk» (10). Tl1cre are mgge. tiOJl s that i nscripticns dHL1 cross stones dat.. ' back as eut ] y as the 5evcn:tll", ninth 0 - t~ve']fd1( centuries, but, as v,rj]1 be discus ed later, this seems l1i.gn;ly d,o~btful On the other hand the Arab geegrapher Ya.qu,t (d. ] "29) mentions the city, a'S does tho' Grmgra:phyattributed to Vardan the ,his:tOf ian (d. 1269)1 (1.:ru). During the next century j in 1386 specific.aJly, Timur Lau[g crossed the Arrut. on the, fam 01U1'il stone bridg:e 8:] JuJ ftL, (12)~

Mom consisten and 'con,C!l\· te references :~ 0' Julfa are pro :!ded by b,e '~olopho:ns of Al"menian manuscripts st~U·ti1~E in 'the fourteenth cenmry; 1325 and ],]86, increasing in the iFlee"mtll ]401:j ] 447, '~456 1487', gr-ad&aUy accelerating in requeney in 'we llaU.er sixteen h century, 1562, [j'f~4) 'l158;-1'.. '1.59'4; andl finJiUy cIlintiBati-rug: Q'U the [eve o.f $u]fn'~s: dJestrucdCifl

(S) l.,~ Ar}tfde,ct' ~~r.(iC1JJerl Pal'ml(~" w l:Ji,yoc'. ed. ',t Pd~rsburgl U~,Si U 24·; ,- . Til' .J ~sb trans. Za:,-en A l1'l~tl:ln::!Jl.lraJ'llI, lJl~J:m'J" of l.eW()Jmlj 'f11e1rl,1-~lmm~ Vdn;la;pel' vi tlr~· If N~I-ellir;lWi!J:. Phi'ladcl[tib'~fJJ~ 19.8:2. pp- 50j 56;, the p.ass~~~~ rcfer.rh)~ to I. crossjll1~ of U'ue Arax at Itdfb,~ is, ,iiso q uoted by A" A'I,boYl'J,,~jian (AI,p-Qy~ce~Jl), HJ~U}J' C~( Afl~xml(jfj iJ.lHW,ra(OJl.'" vel. L Cairo, .l'94~, (m Armenlan), J'lI. 3,45.

1(9]1 The 9~~ reference is, rtom AliiAGM:l; Sisekon. p, 41.0i '810 source is gilJo!Cll, lFo:~~ tllle. r-efe:i;'encc ef 97(i~ fowrn.d in ," decree of X:~~c" ~ k (;atb olicos, see G. Y Qrv,~weQJ Fl. Yi!~tak(w(mJ,( ieol'tignl'c'~ (Co.lopi~'oJM 0/ "\1(JJ1W!i'Cfq,J'!,)! An:t'CiI,ias! 1 JS'j_ 110. !J, c:oJs •. ]19-=132~ Or-rB~'11,aUy pubUs'fi-ed. hy Y, ,Sa.~t uneanc", SU~r{i8rll(i.~~t:'1 katr;,(U!·{ l;mll1f.mi ~ lUI, J~irfg g,li~l~rllit~.r1 Arl~"(~ftW. \lilt n! i3i miat;'i u, ~~ 842, ~p,< 3~J· -]07. ~ 'C' :;JJ]SQ't Smltm,le:!Hl~ N{car'l1lgil'. p . .m4~, and A~i:l.zj'~Il, .r tl),:lje all !nl§(ifl(mm,!~'.Jl p, 1 ...

(H}) Ati"'a,l1i~ SJ'sabm. p. -410 proii,.'Mes the portinn of the decree relatlv.e l(l Julfa V/ic1filo,ut chin:€; his soaree: ~'(l:~~j,t~k., Naxauau, iN:la.v f}..~*'flii1I1 E.:j,Q-jxQY [;'fJ',m Iwu,mfl •

...,. -

CtJ!ll~~k»-.

[J 1) Y,fJJqfJ £, . Mit :i(Jinal' ol~btll.(liiJr I ed, F. WustcllfeM, 6) vets, j G\~tti ng~, ~, . ~ Hl73~ HI" p, Ht6. HaJ.y.k PijrDd!(~·n[j A!&Jfm'/rf:;c(/oyl iVa-rdanay V{ji"1Jtlp,.-~l, t:.rl~ic~li ;dj u,O:Il~, Pad&. :1900! p, J:5; o,m. the iq!uc5.li!Qn of thc' worik, 's- :attrJ,buHon to. lb~ lt1.i~ r~JL~ ~ l'OOTIrh lor '~r:Jy Meentn century see the- i~nUodlJCtiom'i aud ChaI~es Do\\·-et't"s revi·!j,\ im B'S'OA S-.

02) ~aull ft~'lIin ~'}Ji :Y~z'~i~ Z(tI{Jf!..mIIf.ra~'. Pr~~i,dh ~rfil.n$laUorl ~y P~lh:: Lll" ~ Cr-a\bi; .!.J'blttiJlf! ile T.imtir B~ as quoted by Ali~-arr.~ $tsa/{l1l'. f} .. 41U~ lm~1 J, \It] I HatJ:Un~r Q,eschlt!tt" (&;S 03l1fmisI.1nw Ie· k:lie.v'j ., ',r·ench ,[ n I"lIsiu I.i . n, J. -, ~~cJ u ~ " I:NS/t)J/r, de' J En'J#i~ OUI1~'i,r(jm. vo~. [1[1 fl;] is nus" p. U,

]4

in 1604· with. at flood. ,of manuscripts dunng the first four years. of the seventeenth century . ] 3).

l1ut" by far tl~e largest potential source IQ:f~nforluatEon on the ci:ty ~]ltd ] ts inhabitan ts is, contained in the inscriptions of churches and monu .. 111el,[~S in the region, ,p1ar6'whLTly on the: thousands of carved slabs in

'lG,.;lt J~lf3. cemetery fa,C~!lg the Ara~ riv'Ct" wj't& faJihvay litle VI ible, C.~[\C~ '~9?'Z.

Ph[)~G' courtesy ~ntro Sh~di ·e' Doc !1tllelltfl!LlOi11e de;,1la C~.a'ltl:1· .iI: Alim~ni!l, 'Mil lL1,.

the cemetery, FrOIM photographs and d:I~\Vhlgs AHia]a 'was ,8lbI~ to decipher and publis,h SO][lJe 30 o.r these, fhey date 'l"\,ithout exeep li,o,fJj

( ~ 3) f or the f'01.lr-tc~l1tb and Jlin~n.th o.enu.lti~~~· . Xai{~k:yanJ Xl V ddr,? ha)~f!r~'J. jef,agnf~JI',i Jnmlt1ktwm.lllfJJ", :---'r~!V4.nl 1 ~SO!' X Y ,d'Qri "CiJ~eJ'(!I, }et-ttgn,.,"" hi!Qwk(;wmmer. j 'lfOlli.'1 EreV! [J, ] . 55~. 1951, '1 ~i1 t i~ .1>IDld traft~la.t'ecl in~o BJigl ns~ in A \!~d;s K. Sa~l'j ran, . C'olopfJcm:ll of ArmeuJ:ml AfQJutSLT~,t!) l 30.1 n J 4BOr. Ca:mbricl.,b':e., Ma.5$.. 1. 96.9. The eolcphons .. f.~r dte: s··xtecnth century J:u~:ve. not y.~l hee.E1 :p':lolfs'htd; the' ma.(teria1 bas beea gatne-t'ed ftom cat" logu.G.:S of A~~Jn~f:'iI'ija:a ll'UUlUS·· ri~U!. For t1ll~ se.v,e-n,t=tlt~, ee If]~ tmy V •. n 'akob.y.an and A. Ho.vha.l]n~S,)~,a[i1' Ha1fjlv!tl' jel'(lNrtl!i' XVIi dcu i Irifanl1~a· ttlllMI" f J'6()r~162fJ l'f.), vot I, ,Ere'lat1,,. 1974,. A lnethodQ~ojk:~l discussion of ~ow ~~tted ma:ruu cri~PlS. 1!;3.JI] be used, sf;r,di.s.t 'o:lllUy to r"mibml'LlOf: our k.iJ ow~edge, i]lf Oh::;c..~'L"C1

to the' :secOWlld~aU' of tIle EJxte'~1tb 'Ce'l1tUl~y (14). He' says, :holWl~\i'er,~

irt t' _,J'::: te eome authnr itl ~i!' ,~,1h.£!i "",,1 d .... st 'il' "!i .,.,~ k 'ars oQ i!"I1!;' t'i!\ .... m' ~;il.'1t5i

-l-.!llfL' a,oooJr.'wng 'ILQ ~Olm:Le ~~, I,~ v L ' .... ,";I!ji 1L.:Ji.Ji'i-< '~iU' ,"";6 - ibIDLC _, '-J, (Ii i[1:~,.,;;' J. J:'Ii,_~' Ib.li;iu

gev:e,nth and 'eli ght C~lrnuie'g!, \-v11Ue a:ooQrdh,~ t 0 G'tileIl 'aue o]dest onei 5 of 1461] (15)., The ·even"[1[;a l :study and sysreU],M~:C publication of tb~ entire OOr.,plUS of Inseriptlons win not o~,ly d.a:riry this point but will also provide :J unique body of' data (m~ a 'm~jor Annenian 'u!ba~l'l ~s!lom,-

"""t," I"hTil ,. 'ii"I ,""iJ,.;,.... i "l1t."G,rt' eenth ~·Jl.!:1' ~; xteenth eenrurie 111<

C[ ili~, I V.n ,~J!',~ Uc!IIbl .II.i::L)!..! "L.Ii _':Lo.ll U~, H lolL kllII.ii"-''!;,o..... u:", 'I;,i, ..... fi:~!,;!b ... ' ~"

Other detai ls about the c iJ'~y come :['r 0 l1ra Xlil inor A rmenian ehroni.t~]~s (hi), Islamlo ~OUt'G:~S" '17)l' popular tradition (l8), contemporary '[r}1veU~rls ~ .a~o]!mts: >( tbfJ m~.j,o,dty EurO'Pe:~n). oI'n.d general nl neteelttb and twoot~ eth century studies already menti oned above, Of the foreign t ravel ~ eli'S, te ha ve 'passed through J1il[f"a~ the mo st bn~ ortant are V,incen za A 1',eSS311d'ri ( 157] ),' N:ewber:y {] 5.8] ), Ca:r~Wljgmt (t'5'90)~ Ta vetnier (J! 6.33 1l Alexa ndre of Rhode's ([ G48)~, Chardin ("11613) - VI ~ ~i~)~ (I 6 8j8t)~ PouiH~t (t'6~:9), 01![se']ey' 0. 8ll2)~ K,c[ Porter (],S,] 7-20)~ Dubois (lS34)~ Si[ne:n:v1lf 1('Ca~ i85~). Their a ceounts" ,~d.hJiW us to dnlW a .lucfi[,e l[l,.f the dty ~I EtS, ,ge'o,g r ~~phy j trade. IJuUd lngs, inhabitants, the ;i mpor ~an:t ceme'~~~.~ and its madern de$().}~~:tion [I 9).

h~'£torkid :pel;i!"Jc~~ \,viU 00 rrOlillld in D, K,O~I.ymjj.a.ill ~ «IrJa,tcd Anfl.,r:rn i~ til Ma,nuscr~ piS" ~S a, ~ta,l:in~eal Ta-o~ 'fO'r Anncrl:i~nm :6] i~:lO r.y»~, MJrdJJ'e~)al Al'n'unlitm C~~fwre I' eds, Thomas J. S-~,D'I::ru~Ua fI. ,S,MIl,d M rch[:Jj.el. Stone, Chlco, (~A ~ ,l9$l, ,P.~).. 425~4J9\

{14,) A~H¥u:il," fSi~Nlkan·. 'po 424~ p](lrp~~ a ~e~u~tivc t.ta.dilllg of an iL'1)s'Cl'i:ptio.l1l '~JLJ '~~]~ tw~Hlh cent iJr-y, IJ:ttd then1 i~ ~o c:.,1ngi bJ~ (:,v.idenoo lo sJ[UPlmrt fJ~is j, see il,~~" fJoroY~ii:l ~~ef1J .8fJvc~ a 1',~adiJ'I,Q of '] 1 'I j fUr one, but this. t~D~ :seems, U'I~ tj'k~ly'j iGtoU'it11~'Il. ,P;ur8Ju~:~t61:J'11 Hlij~,r:~~i2:., p. 2!Sl as 1~llJo~ed by K~n''Peti~u!;li U~lllii"l • ..r"~CHl .Jll~{f_rJj' p •. 45~, noJ~ 1.

- .

{ ] 5~) Ali~:1ln, Sil'l1k.~)"~. pi, ~t.I. C'~[e~ 11,0 a.!l;ltho rLlties, for ,~iii ber- ,a,8J't lug ner is [b.e

;;i;.!.1Ic'k1 aD' of: 146'1 i.~ lu~t rated ~d ~eT,I;la.p:s the J nf:O:I~JTUniJ!l,Ul l{) tr!llft'l. Ti:r ¥oyhaneac~. A)'v .. lzy.a:m. ~m'lI'~Jllue$ to pro~~a:illiillJ1re this notion, ,~~n In w~lhO~lt: taIl ~ble, 'p:m,of .. ~l'jllt: «tJm~ cross ,*-tones [ro.m, the lXth .. XV't.h oe'lih:jlri~ 'bty th~~]'" si m:p]~ f~nrn lac:k I~h,¢\ r,k::1nm,~-sg

- (_

of dec'OJ'il live 'Ciili'V,rJ1jg»~ PtN~IJ(1wik l Nt~'};;I,l.";e ~"Jf~'SJUU Ass», p, 7'4. 'See ;j_~fm [iilr fi

fiJ~'U:Je;r d ['$:cn~$ion. @fiP~8 Uy th~ «add ltlonal eote», p. 53-.

{] 6) Th;e; :s:hm'te:r bistories :and ehronieles have been c(dh~c~~r!" by V. A.. H~kob- 1nUll, i'llmn' i.(JJ~'1(;makt:1gl·u/~Ju;mJ,~r XUf-XV1U (i'd.; ,2, VObL'1' Et~1I1,an", 1'9::H1, 195.,6; thou;W1;r rh~y DOi~lail~ numereus ,1~fe~~Jl~. to J ulfa, QLE!;y lhn$e peU'l.a~.ni:LlIg te the forced! ,mj~ra. ~ tlen ([.0.1' which sefio .r.nfFt~) liIe:ve ,ctLe~f1.~,led' inD01t~natit'fin.

(17) Later l'iGf~re'tme-s ro J iLd'[u1, .afi'eJ 'it~ d~tfi1C'don '10 the ~t~y $~,~nt~e;[1ilill ~"e11,hJ~"Y~, 'in .A-r.~;blc, T~ rk j~h!, and P'~i1i:!~a:n ~~I!,if'~: w.~U be ,f,oUiftd i 11. lil'(~m iJnJi«-!( !ojMd}st. "~:f~k:!~ (~Cj~:I'lr"·»_

~-.- - -c s- ~,~-~

(l~) A:~'Ull LnmthII1~~ [] ~ A 'Il.af1c&rJ)i.1,l:'nJ~J! fu-evanl 19®~ !1;oJlect:s, 'l ~e v~[~i CJo!l.~~ m'~] In~diUoml whkfu l'eb ~:,e t,o J u~'fa ~~J1d i t:; :rarnm,J.~ hricl~'T for ~ib.k·~, see i.rij'rt~,

(19'] ~il~~~-efn;l~ ~t';n,lU[r trJ.'V~1 aeeounes are galhe~d ,in H. HaJk!~Il(\~a.III'1 ()~'~'j"lt.f)'~'l11n"h-t; vel, I, f J 2:5].,15/12') I E..rev.HIu~ 1932, For the ;\jC\'CO'[C ··ni.h [~]lltLU"~'

]6

Severa Armenian l'llistJori.~ or chronic es, eontemp O'l,2lZY to the destruction of the ~it.Y and the forced ,emigr,a ti on, of ~'ts popula;dIQ,1l in I 604~ provlde detai[s a b out the earlier period, The mos t :hnpottant and faetual is tlla:t of' Atak~el of T,abd··' (20)~ Late works writ~em about New Julfa also mention in passing important persons fr.om, the older cfty bur generamy tbey' are based on A:·"a.l(e.]., Armenian.· ourees of the s]xte~th and seventeenth centu'[y are replete ·witb. re:fer,enc·es to, inha~itants,. merchants, prl 5tS~ artists and writ,e' s who. were o:rigiuaU)' from JuU~; they are eas:iiJy ~rccogtd!algI1e ·by 'tb.@, Ar:m.en:U:,l:lo 8obriqu~t Julayectili «fro or of Julfa,»

J ~]fa wa~ :si hl!d~d on the nn! th ]h;EUllt. of the Ara'x, at :[ 'JKlint where· the Emj1akjAlinja river flifJWS into the ,A ~I-,. Sbarply dsrlmg: cliffs enclose it ~'Il a ere seem -shaped semicircle, peedueiug, on the gradluaU~ ... f.,isi.ng sl ope. s, an amphi heatre effect often commented Ion by 'western tr&veners., ··he 'town 'was located in the ancient .Arm,mian provillce o'f' Gotm, about 'tm1'. y kilometers SOUJtlll 0; Na)tlj.o w an, A few' mUe~ "rest of the principal rui (. s aile the remains of .11 once-famous br~d,g,e; over the Arax, It is 'not, clear when or by whom it was buil t; ~hou,gh ol'ld traditk~l1, sngg st the time of ALexander theOrea, 0' hers have proposed .~ re' Roman period (2.],),. B~cau~e ,of this 'ibridp, Julfa

~~ t~n Apper Idbt in Carswell, , •. fJF Jlliftf;J ~;p. 13-81·" though most o'f 'th~ material is on New .Ju ~~~. :ftH' a more g'0r;1!ecaJ "r.I'iew 5Ce lack V!E.utoQgianl, «Tile' ~ r]1age o:f' Arm :nia i'lll, I _ urropean Travel ACCOl;;lfllts, ,of the Severn ernh C~U,lry)~i ~np.l."b]isjled d,octora~ tbes~8~ ColuriIb:ia Unhrm.[~~, New Y erk, ] 97,4·; and ~ce(u1y mo SmJJreo

,e'voddanl~ ·~T:eInoig.L1Rge· .0.,," v~geUI~ sm' Ie peup.~em~tlt. de l~AnDlenle au XV["D s,», R.fA r:m I 15 09:8 ])-, [;p. 4,]9-4.67. Fol!' early 1'1 in ~t~W1Ilth GeJruIUr.y. accounts,

00 Hak:obyau;, U'~'ll.t'lytl1~OOl!\ 'lIol. Yl, (180()~:UJ'20)~ 'l"tv,an. ]9J4. MiUn, SiJttka;IJ, lee, cit.; provides in the .fQotr.!a,~ fJ.xt:~11"~s In extelns@' in UL o[jgi·lmal laugl!laeg~ ,of' tIne fol ~o.~~ini:, V Ineenze ,Alexar[J~ri. C~d &,{1~~g111!. Boul layc ~e GOUlJ foUmle~!. Ta:ve([.1'J i~ ,~ Cbanitn!, Gemeli A Iexaedr 0 de PJiJ,OOes. and Dubois.

(,20) Ar.ilbk'r el Davfj~c'f;l PatnllU~ fp~u~ EJ.luil3Jchll ] 89~ .pp. 16-92:. Jar,gi e~efpllS ,~ r t· e sections rele 'ant 'to IrWfa are given]ll reXI{!:t\.SQ !by . Ji!an,., Sis«/cauJ pp. 4J,4ft418. Sew=r~] other a,eOOlm1~ exist, indudins an anOiU_YUIU)US chro.rlllc~:e p'lill.b]ilSb~d. by

:[~k6b'ytll1J, lHlnor Cf,rolric.i":J, ·vol l, no,:·.ILI pp. ]78-188.; 11; list of other works is f!;iWll by' HaiHlbyall:F ~" ]78:. Jilnotheli eye wI il:'n CS 6, aeccunt ~ ofi:ere.d by an A'rmeman c~tboHc Nsh.iQ!p of Naxi i e",an 1Dubl.isbed in /tiu:nral . lSiati(j;fte, M,aron 1837~, r. Cars~

\wll! New h,lfa. p, 31 lU]:[e 5, ,

{2,~)1 tOn tile ],ecge.oo aUdbu'in,g ·lbe '~Ql1stnlcliOi]'J of the; hddg>B 'to A~e..(ander~ ·~~~_:al1alanyan, AW:J~li':lapQw:mi ~O' 5871\· P.P.. _}6-7, ~~l; III its, ini'Ua[ .P~tr.E it is not

. _ .

lon'ly .like lind of .0.0" :82:1., p, ;] 84, '~~hllf;lh dese.ribes, tile' feast p~a:ran~.d by X~ J a;y

'n ~ik ','" r· '. hu,hl ;r. ~bil!s as alread pOlOltcd Ollr" by : '3IIla[~lJ:yanl 'bul ls iclJ.recUy jns~

became one of tile Ina j or. points Oft th~ oar avan route CO:D'mectmnl;' Iran land the east ,vith "sia ""inot" and the west, tlle so-called EiZef~]m road The ,Arax is st ill [0 day the natural l~ oundary ·behvee.J1 S oviet Arm~~ll[a and TU1~k.ey and ]']!D? as 'in p,m!8,t centuries it separated the: Ottoman Emnplre' and 'the SafaJvlids. Iti i p(['(ibab1y t11e ·bridge· as a link betweeneast. and we'5t,: that in great part allowed tllC merchan . of J~llra in the fifb:'enth and esped,aJUy the sixteentl ceUIIt1ru~y to 'conduct such wide .. ranging commercial o peratlons, By the mid-sixteenth eentury, Julr~ merchancs \vG'n~ well escab1ished in Ven:llCt'! and India, and 'neal]Y ,~e'ry~'here ] In be1w'e:eJ] 1(22). n Aleppo d uri ng this peri od tiley \vere. regarded. ~8 the Annen] an merchant 8 pa excellence (.2:1),.. I·· .. '0' '1 oubt tolls Ivied Oil the crossing :of the brid,ge also resulted in, l"eV.CJt110 for tile ~o"WJI] i

The' s unrces refer to Ju Ifa M a l'inUi~ (giH 0 ~ _ own (glu ~akr: olall) ~ city (k~ aJ{l"k~ ). a: ad lofty lei t)l' (gelali(! aia:k.f ) . A.gdcID.11. t re wa· virtually

unknown 11!.. _ ;:..; u~e A 'f' . ·t'~9,#10 1"0 cky ~,;t:Ii"iF r '" '!' 'rI However 1if"]'II""'I[ • .QI ~:'fI I1'II"N _- ,0, indi

c~'~Ur!., II' ,!!JJIif:',,-,i::t;,1l' ur J.L-!!""',1~, Ie i!.!!J..!! I!;i!,U!l;~ 'U·ft~T"" J ![ 'I!.'U""_ ..... ",~, ,;..y'm ...... ,u.,;' ...

cation that the area 10 the north of JuU~, OU, the other side of the ,cliffs~ 'wa~ C1£[ ~tiv.a.ta.bl;e. Th e land south of {he A rax, h owevcr:~ 'was Dot vlery fertile, It ]UlS, been suggested "that '_ axnjewal served, as ,supplier fOI' tl'te city" The ]1003'[ economy included .m1in]llg and qearwy.~n&, wbUe sheep herding and w,ehlvi 18 was known until recent dlll~S (24)., Iowev~r, Itt]u: wealtb and reputati on of Julfa was based,

pired by the Joug B_,OCOUll' or' he' reception or S1111b . A bbas i:n I fi,OJ frbUind in A ;:ak!f'~l. The various legends ;giu'hered about 'the 'bridge, nos, S~"t\-E2' offe.r llttle ,C!l)llCUMc il.nhnn'iliMmo,nlJ OIIJ'l ]1~ canstrection o destructlen, though, oae, L10~ 587.E ~ys 11p dlfslrlH:U.ou was i.i:g the' time oE Sbah.'Ahbis! 500 II j:!i'(j' note 31.,

{!2) A,I:LSi\I1J; Sf qk,w; ·DP. 41. ],..420~ PUb:~1S.hc a scrle 01' doeuments In Armen lan and Ital fa I'll framlhe M:elk.hiln rlst archlves of ,t.h~ iuctiv.i'~ ~r ] ul rlill [n~lcbtH~t!l ifiI.V;efljke: in the ~ixb~endl cen,tmy; .. see .eIl:~so leo;, Piltn.mtyufl UI! p, 235" and. Ay; a yan; P{m~it1tntld .1(~·l~r~e~[(msJulJl ASSl?:, P,I 70t for a. llst (lJ[ cities w:~eJ;e Jutfa mercbanrs '''~'ere .a.c:['~vle .

. 23) ,A'I;11 0;112. the Armel]iatlmercha..fIi~· .\\ ~fkj"fI~ i III Aleppo. 1 h~ V~ne;~ ~ii n nlerchan~, Fri derkih ]'!illl :563 :pur~ rhe J'ruUa, .;1!rojay _, .~ n first 'f'Iac:f~ ,caUtng ~hem «[be merehants.of Armenla» f.-J,ay- ioI;.ovordl j)Qlmu()'Im.. ¥OL 1'1= Erevan, ~~:r;'2\ p 31i, '~Yhl~ pa~.p~bl.e' .pro~,f of tl11~ J"u]fa. pr$;~~nGe in Alep.po is 'p.rovide.:(1 by U~e u~mbs'bO"nes in the Annenian cemeteries of S~libe and Aziziye" of the 27 recorded fune:r~l'j.' i rJSor.i~'liO'llJs Cb:t"IKh~g before ] 6~; '~'9, are Qf J ul Fa. merchants ,Arta\l~ld Siwr,meearL~ Polm:u(i'A'ln fla/~pi (JZ Q},i}z gerelmcmatmu/ QW twjm1l1cfr If(J~i'(!FiJi ~'ap!rnQJ{.afef'U (.H.is~ few).; o· the .Nat/milll Cf!n,r~f~r'(!3!' of AJepJlf) a~Ml ~f'll!' 1~1stt,ip#lJ.US If'}/" Armfmltm rCJ'lJ.lh.stases}, AJeppcO. ]915, pp. 12-~- :&5 .•

('~'f.1 ;\1:;"'a'ti'I 't'erak~i'j,. it'i_A'i

ml~; n .!.ItJI~ P.J.J.!" u. ~ ~.ilLI"IIJ ~~!II ~J!B ••

Ut

Ql1. commerce ,A.ppa.refiJUy at cue pQ'mt tbe pop'~da:t~,O'~l in creasl!'}d, s 0 ;muLCh that the cI~y sprawled out to the o:t.b,\®r side ot the Arax.

In December l 58,] ~ Ule' ,ETJJ,gtis.h tra V!e1l,e] Newb:ety passed thr-{'nmgh Jwfa and reported Ute ~hy to have :3 ,i(mO hou ses and :15~ 00 (] to 20JOOO .i nhabi tants as we 11 as seven c,hmGReS (25), A decade later 'j 1'JJ I59;®1 his Icom]filtdou. Calt.wfi,dlt sar~c~ therewere l~,OOO l);!r)tIlses ,md, 11)JJQO souls (261.

Howe ve ~. othe r ""~'~[;'H'1jat",;;!>,1Z' have ii... ... en >G'\['l ''I..~',l''ih ~:r. . .dI, If'i.~O houses and

lILv tT'I." 'y .. JL ,I V IJ. ,,...lIlilLI.l,,_II,lJ.!l-L. &-"-a' _~ f;\l ''fl~ ~~, ~~ J.'U91 ~~ ~~,uu. _ ' !U U-'l!~O ~ -II.,!Ull

4l1lll'I(lOO inhabitants, ~lldl c\t.m as many 3! ~'D~cm) houses {Z7)., A.t ~he peak of :i ts Jliosp~d'ty' there must ha ve been a t :~ea1~;t ,j'j;Ol)6 structures crowded on ill narrow str ]p' 'between the mounralns a~dl t),e river. Aecording 'to Cartwright, 'h~}th Armenians and. Ge;~)ir.w;~Ul"~ were. :1~;v,i1:!i.g there, but the :d,ty has ,always been, at ]eas.~ iru 'po8~-nledi,®va] times, A-rmeJ11an;. there m-e no other references to ,e.'J~her ~[orgialls, cr Musl ims inlarge numbers, No iltsCl1'iptiol1B ,1D Geor~&:a1n" Alal~ic or Persian are [',epor,t.eiL No other T.,emig~.aus buildings be~sli des. A1'Tf.llewian Oh1tlrches arc known (28),

UnHk~ other areas or Ute region, tlh~ hO'11I\<'S~ and, the eharehes (,-,f' JUXffel were made entirely of ma s;sive, stone, ,a-p~lftreu;tl,Y.' withJQut the use of mortar, The stone was Q[uw:uled. in 'tb,e; immediate area, Th~ ,dw·a.bi Uty of 1ili s material ,is responsible for die extensive ve~.ti,ge8, stU[ visible en the site mel~ j,80 y~[W's· of ~gleeti Thjs stone [constmcttiO(ll perforce resulted in the devel opment of skilled maSOJ1;S,!

I ' -

their ~nrtwst[c 3chit'Vem~t is preserved i1ltlll the fUnet~ury monuments of

the ad jaJWlUt [©e:flletery. The' vastness of thi s <moJ:.d of :~o]d:leF$>),~ ,~lS An~a'n called it, Cll1tTh I~Jwy be comprehended in teems ['l\f size athd :nl\lll'itilbers, At one 'tim,e there ma,y ba:ve been as m~ny ~J; :1 Q,rOOD gra,vestoln:~s~

{15J J,OI1:\11 'Ne\voory. Le~l:~J·3. 'Co-nc(!~",,'i,llt the lVD)~g€? oj' tvL I. Ne whet JP emil lW. J{'afJjJJ .Ftlt'.hJ H~:&tI.UI]''li!' :r1-lt Pri~~~'jl~~1 Na~,ftgmlQ~IS, ~QI, ,IJ I LQllu@r.i 1 ,~98;, A~,i~1litJ i

Q.::",...,,1:·n~1' n .1;,1 <::I' !o.11~!iI!!o'[rl'li!!ll·~~ p,. t1 , . .Jl!l,

(261 J(ti'ml (:[:!J'ftwrigh:t"! Tlre ,P'11!(M~lw:rs Tre reldi L" NJ Jl~e, [~';t If.1l:l~es~ ll'lfO,~~?' " •. SY.j!/{',f Afesc'llo't[CiI!:nio" 4fll\i'£J~~~CI'~ lltledta, ,Hirccmiaj (flul ,f~flhirL. "'~ torl1dQJ],~ I G:ll ; A.~iS~nl! Si:¥t}lum~ 'p. 419 ~ ,~jo.OO 1, llnd. ,at'fS\-J;,fe'~11 N'e11r 1~IUaJ p. ,,]3,~ prov'idil: the Ps!:!!iS~l~ on J'~,ltl and] ~::tu:tW1"jgllt~,S ¥lerr fiilVm'8,blo, i~'~~~siQUl~ [of 'Lltel::'b_ar.m of. -the, Aimm~,ian~ of tbat d'~y"

,(17) AJl8.an~ Si~'f,fi;~I'l.. pc, 4A 01 witlihtl-ut citbl;fj, his source for th~~ Jhi~h fi~ut-e~," Cl&) AliB~]D1 i:bJd~ p, ,4il3: ~-P~Slk5 or fi'~~/\r)d ~ke~eC~,M{'~ 'C8Jlihol:tc~ .nest probably ~n iilte, C:hure'mes wi~ci1 p.lace.g ln doulr,t th~, (;Om~l;;t~ re 6f 'L~OJi .H~:S~jT, ] J,~ p, 2:51 '. Ih~.'t 1~:~;j)J'U.lri!;lIlJS il11J'rF~[-.ed. 'booa;use dlf~lIe, w-el'~ no ca~IY@~n~ ,~mo~g them 'where@is the A rrnen ~[IJ ilU$. of N~ii e~.'J] and ,[i'~~j a:Jr were savoo :fI:@JMi the fl!)rc@d ~il~ ot~ A b'bti;:; by Rotl mJ,m n. Cnthol le fil\~i$jl'lln~.

,8

,Ra,s. ·5-8, ,~~L J'!!Ilr~j x~iC~k{,ar dated ]494. 6\, .Jg~:r~lj Ra,~!k"lnr Qir 1546.. 7. ~;a[n{[L,i of 'I SSo. K Jw~f;t. 1!mcfJ<.1mr o,r USL

j"U''Ij 4rV'

more recent eJt~ mates place W s:nrv:hdng number be~Wt;·~, 2,:000 9J[d 5 ;rOoo (29) ..

As 'the siJ~~t.Jt ,cetl'tury moved towards ilts close, the :pr,osp,e'rj'ty and reputation c·f.' Jwf'l Increased, Its merchants w·erc trading

:t.. Th · 1 ,i ,IIi'!!.. "..;:!I~ '·'II'k :>:ii

[e~v,erywJLlere. r r e 3,peC] a u concessions wey r,ectnv;e~ as SJJL~', 'ttauers,

{tom Shah ~ Abbas of Iran by at least 159.2 May have conn ibuted to tlreir renown (30? An account of the wemlth accumul ated as wo'll asthe material culture imported from east and west into Jwfi.l(j decpr,ite' the 11. omes of' rich is offere di QY A rat(le ~n his description or the three day feast and reception given 'by tbe. ,great XO:.;·t11 of the [cHy~ }"~te it, fOI Shall f Abbas d lurn~ hi~, .srta,y there after the ccnquest or 'TabI~.2'~ Erevan, and Bzemm fro'm the Ottomans in ] 60,31~4 (3 '1 )1, Some sa'y it was the manifesta ~ . on of this 'wealth I hat ,caug_ht the 'eye and whe tted the appetite of the sha,h and ev·enrua[ly led to the c~~y!l's destruction. O~he1LiSlj h 0. we ve r, suggest 'that 'the gr6a;~ Armenian merchants tlb:eady tlading, for and with the shah. encouraged the Safa:vi.d~, to take Armenia under their protecti en (32),.

W,hmteVtl 'the' reasons from the Armenian point ·or view'~ western

h 1tt.,. II!.. -, d ~>'L, 11irr: r 1 h i'Abh' . 'I '-:II ..

~c Oiars W.uO nave studie , IUl,e il~,e 0 ' S: sa ~ ' ... ' ," ,jis. and the . .urxo-

'Persians wars see' 'tbe fate 'of Julfa WV&c,Uy linked to the shah's SICOYClled [earth policy before the in.vadjn,g Ottoman armies. By cC'1np.Ietely destroying the i:OWW3, cities, and cultivated ~ands. along the natural passage hehve@n. A'sift MinoT and Iran, 'that is, '~e Arax va]ley, the OUo.mBmJi, would! have dJffiew ty pro1visLonmg .and ] odging ·dleir. armies 0'- an eastern 0 ren se,

Thus, ijl!l the late summer of 11604,., 'Shah i' A.UXba s instmeted hiR ,gt';.lleJ'''

'(291) Alexander of :Rho' es offer, 'the highest fi~u:te 0f 1 0',000 .. H,j$t,o~,J,~ flf flie

, ~

,j~!J1:~;'iI(11i r;f tJU,1 StJc,iefy d Jeliu,~, Esia'flJithlfod f~1 p~~';JJ;m ,b,)!' R..e~efend Flr.lh.~I' ,A./~;x,(!J~,Jr:r.

of RJu!Jt/es. trans, hy A. T. 'Wi]SOir!', B.S.t:t.A,S, .. , '\1\01 H 14 l1~2.Sj.~: see a so, AUlflJitS,is{1'kml p, 4~, note .2~ :for the French _ ers.io.n olr the :passage;l In the, '[ll'ddanineteent c:~rr~ilry i Sl ~ll$J1t~V cQllu:rt,ed 3!"QOO in sCJ',ip~-ion!S!,. AI~ ~a'n. p, 4.27 ~ in 1.'9.04, Te,r-Av-~fi~j;afil. reported some 5,~O(m were s,tiU :s'IBlILujng, ,,.t\'yv.,il~yani ))~m'ijal ,?tld ,NdxiiJ.eWJm;/wt A SSR i p, "4" In his time ]913 .. J91S, V[luyr ~epor~-, a. count. by]} . .,4Ja:[wdyan of 2].]00 .stones both standi ng:afllG raUen, which he S:a(y& ea ~:not be w.rong by mor'C' dll'UI JO~SO in rnsmber, Vru.yr,. «J !,]I§;a»~, p, 1&0. Recel!Jll: jJ\hotfJcs ~hoW' se~era] huadred stili slal'lldlflJg and more 'th~.n a thousand om:ll the site, Jn ]9'1-6 thef~' were stUl about

_', ,00.- , see .: be' DllaJl nort,~. p. 53. ;I.'

1(30}, T~r Y,c:.--vhLllne.ano·r j P.mii~~it;; InMMI illj .P:~" 13 8·9 n ,cr. H~y .z~,{~)"t,(~ha ,aimllff ...

J~Wi~ ~IV p. 325.

(_)1 Ar,n:t el, j'J'atmMfi ~ril~~ ~ .• ]~,. Leo, P:(~'1mutJ'Jm~ L L pp. 231-'8. U2~ lto;r1!ipt:tuUD1m J~fi~!~iJll. h;lfo~ p. ,10,

lJA L r.n:UiAl1]S{ & K0'U Y'MJIAN:: J :ClLfA ON lIIE AltAJ{ ;2: ,[

als, to tran s,fel: the ,popma;tlo'll of Jltlra and, the surroundhl,g regions all t:h~ VUty. ftom, Van and Brevan to Iran, Tlte 10 COl]. inhabi taut's were C,aught' unprepared, Three ,dffys~ notice wu given; an :b.i~to.rica~~ fore boding of the, three d(]ys~ notice 01 the: forced evacultions of 'the 19:~ S Genocide" To accel€t-a.t~ the withdl(u'W~t the shah ordered the 'elty lof JulIa, to be burned, The population moved east :ruam,gtite left, the northern, ba;1U]K of the Arax for some ti me" but the s,hab~ feaJilTIg tile' ~~lPJjJoitch (If (he: Turkish '~Imy~ ordered hi's mHi:tat:l ]ea,d,'el~ to force an immediate ,crossl;Dl,g' of 'the r]'~e1.' ill (n~,oo to enter J:r.a;n'iam territory. The }u)n:iJyinl, des,cri,Ptio-n, (Jf fh]s cfo;ssm,g ,offer,et( 'by A [Ilk" el and ethers can on]y cast ,d"oob~ en ,t:.b~ shah~s 'COlleeni' fer the' cJvH JU~llrfrua;tio'n~

A1PPa.rent~y in. 16,04 the '~l'id,ge (t,er the ri,v~'[ WU net used, I~~

dest I"I'~'C~I'~ I"YiiY ~il! attribute I~ "". ·tl: - ell'" - - e . $ Q'k ... '~! ~A' 1..:~:" -~ .... ~ niih .;» • ~'~ •

,_~:g; _: , ~:... 1,1'0,11. ~.!.1! ~ nri :' iUlu;;;'1.:JI, to . ne tune On: anan . '- .' nnas, lJ]j:~gt' eOCac.II.I,Y

]i,o'w and when ,i s 'unclear (3:]). It W!~S -8~a.n.ding tn 1581; aeeordlng to' Nlew~e,:[y ~ bUtt ,iu ,t!ll~ sev,ent~ent'h c.enLllry' TaverJl[~1i, Cbalrdjn., and Tournefor~ crossed the Arax in a boat (34J. 'Today 'the piel~' nf this massive stone ~~Kuc'hIDl1e can :s:tilill be seen on the mOteS, of the river. Dur.i.m:(g, 'tile c'fo~~jr1::g~ of I'604~ thousands of Arreenians '[OS[ the if 'UVg;S by droVfUm,g ,; in the winter of the same year ti"u).Mds m'016 died, of eeld, disease, and starvation. Some lOU; 000 s{)Mls 'we:oo hlvo:hr,~dl in the forced. exodus, How mmy finaUy reached Julia, the fbU,(fMJ.~g ye',ar is ~Qt clear, 'but 30,1©,[]O 'w,e,ar,e setrled In 'thfJ silk pnjduc:mt regions near the. Casp~iW, Sea wAere they lang,ui,shed '~J:um eyft)ltu~lly d:i s-ap'peared {15)~ The shah "vas so determined to leave

{13,. T~ 'p~ lh of' the fO\~ct}d. r:J]tr~~!;h W'tl:ii aloJag the '~la:~tner.n b@ilj:ilk err the ]'\~W~ ,f~,t(ld thie ~oss~ng was some dff31~nce '~WH]" from J ul f~. 'Iavernier, who pi!;jsed '~ I'i.ilfa In [6J~! reports, <,The.r~ 'W~S ilJj. 'f~ir ~tO'1:ile-'Brid~e, wbkJTh S:D.a=AbaJs, ,ca:lJJsw to be brai,en. d~1NU; WheL:;L he who~'~y m!f.stroyd the 'Town~ tJ1ta~, ~ t might be ne harbour fo~ the 'l'liJ'l(d'J, Jean. Baptlde Ta)fe:r.]]iert. ,:~IltgMs.h trans; 'lJu~ SIx VCJM'~ges",. tilf'O'lwf.r; n~r,k.·(t) I' lrNo Pe~~l.a; ('md #'re Eas,~ .fJ~difMj Leaden, 16171, I, p, 1. ~~ .aJS, q noted hJI the ,A.p~,db:: of CS]"swcU,!, Nf)J~! JIIlf,tl~ 1). 73...

'fne de.~tructiol['JJ, .of 'l'h~· brJd,s;e ;~] til~ time of ~ A bbii s is also ;1'e;p01t'IDern. by A,bralfl8:m of c.r.-e~ (d, 17'fi.6) jin hiLl ,Hl~'I~'J'; Al!I't{l1fJm' J!c.'(1:~~,()~lk'lJ~ ,K:r:c:I'{u/ wOJ' Pa/J,HUtgr,tU",fwn ,a~c.~ fc~ n ,fw:r',Qt/ e W N~'fr-$'f~i,.~'il ,PfJ~'~i'{/ i V sJai'~~atj, "~'8JO~, pp", ~n,~ai as dl~ by V., Haif,ourt," • )'UEI,yal~! M,~~(fl1(Jj'pai~ h(1)i(Jfft(J;j.~i k(lJ'{f'IA(J1~CltIWI·jj. [i!' ,km~,rJ:r't;'t€,~, ~J~ EW.VSLt;lli ~,960~ p, ] 12'i note :1. Om the Qra~ tmd~i.thlilJJ attri,b~ti,n:g"~ ts d~'[ru~ti,o['IJ to S~ah '~,A,Jbb:RS . l~nahuly,j;j,rm,~ .A:j!m]d~poi,t~mt no, 58."fEj p,p') 2~ 7,! 240; see also A'~i~~l1~ SflJ.:ff.lcau" p" 413; .A.;y'il,a~Y,~'iitr~ ,';fJ,t,}:jfj'tttlk.i~ ,P'" 13,,~,;, FJg" 12J i in Ali:3~n illii.'!SU ... 9;t~ by :pl'io1tto th~ l?o.til ~ cro~i[]~ En ~s' day",

(,}4) AHsa[b~ Si8akcUI, !p;, 4,13; .Ay~allJ~ :Pa~td'al.m!J,n:. 1II1• '13S~ qUd.tun;g HA.

M""'-h t]!i!f!l1m 'tli .ret::,

~I!.''''' \ fJ~'.7·J, ,po Q~'.,

{3 S) Ai'SJk'!'~J~ ~Q,tm(l.t: f i'WJ~I' P]p.. 52, :f r, ; an ,e}'ewjtfL~ 'S'p;aw~b 'w1Ldt,er rC'p(Jt~$ ],OO~OOO AfmOO~;@)liI!ir lmfQ1,l'\~" ln that :[Ol'cedi IT]a[\ch~, nay ,ZOW'I.¥Jf'tl.l' pa~'nn~('='

22

..

IN M, -MORJ A" HAlO EIlER B:EJtlA N

Jiu]fa deserted. that in the :foUo,wing yeat he senta speciia] [army baek to the ,city to ,[QID]d up those who had stolen back, about ,it thousand, and

" • ~l t::."l[t:./[ 7 h d t'; 'I" d A' in th

again lJl JI:. Y' u ' . at, l,o'U:sa,n I mote ~ ~"ilJ]e;JS Vlere "OUD'- 'e'u u:p . J.l '_' e

ruined city and lts environs 1_.3{j).. S ldom in the post '[oogol;. Timurid pe~docl has all entire lcit~l been so qui.Ckly and sy~teuul,tjcaHy d~strQ:yed,

III the centuries 1:11am followed, scattered Annenius did move bade to Julia in an inconspicuous way. Sbo[tly after the. mass exod 1JS~ two great caravsnserays \vern bw~t][ one 011 eaeh side 0,[ the river, by 'the

- _ .. ' --

rich and ftIJIDOU'- X.Oj6lY ,: [tzar of 'e'w Julfa in respect of '(be, memory

of .bi:s native ci'ty (31). T'avemi[er also l"epOJt~ ill 163,3 that certain Armenian families returned to the fer till le lands above JUWa. ~H.louUlage ae Gouz 'Was. alB red a meal of a 'whole lamb by an Armenian cleric in ' 647 (38)~ :Ji1 648 a, certain bishop Hovhannes even built his 'OW~[1 church in the mountains ab Dye the city. AU san als 0 rep orts en inscription of ~ 687 on the church of "'l" Georg (39 '. In be eighteenth century, tJ:~e ch[[~r of the village of Julfa gave ,bis, stlp'por t '~O the li beradiem struggle of Davit" Bek and in l123 I, small army under the 'lead .. ership 10" two' bvotDer;s from the. 'town joined the forces G'" D'3Vi ,- t(40) ,

',I owa,r,fIl the end of the ei,ghteenth. century there were.some 40 to [60 houses in the villagej ia tB1.2 [Ous-~J)r reported that 45 Armenian families li ed the -e in difficul f circumsta 'c.e~;; in li ,8,34 • ubois spen t a might in the heme of 3" certain Artun (4l)_ m ,AHia_;n:ts time the end Df 'the nine

yliJ'i, JV1 p. 99~ cl'liIot11l~ IG, A, Ezov, Sn.o! j~ie PmrlJ VelikfJ:g;ol ![ llfU1J'fllUsldm :mlrmk}i"~ t, P~te~burg~ 1398 ]p. 46:1 :ff.; the authors '~h~!illIs.cl ves s.u,gg, ,t iii. much ldl1hei!" number, 3U-O ,000 and more, II:ip'I'~ pp.. :9.'8 .. 9, Sia~ also lao", Pat~mJt)'I1J1. Ill, pp, 2J~~ :261; Cilr.S~W~~l li/ew J[tlf{} ~ pp, ,3'..4; RafaQI, tI,~ MaJJiliS, I' Ef~! Ide '(1J' Perse, [~.axis, r ~6:Ot as CJjU()itedl by Cm'~"..e~l!, Ne w Jii/fa p'. '74.

{SO) A~a k'el, a'S quoted by Cl1LF'S' fI,' U Ne» J.ulla. p, 4 and Ka rapet r3'D; !,gj,tl1 {hI ", Ji,I/fJ1 p. j:2"

(31) ,~~.C()l!i(J' ,NlL(J},', ,O~~ of tb~ (~hie[ . .,.1 ,'fnimi(ms tLlat '~'~ttt out (III Z~'IfQ, ,grQ'l,Va JOg rich by Trade, .. bui:lt 'two, reat Inns- :f01'- 'll!te.1Iollo"li-lJ. ,of ~11js Counh'y in Ztl~fa. UIJOD each side 0:(' tJJe Riv'el" one, He. spent above a.[JJ, hundred ti'@Uf5ruld CrOWI:tS" bu'~ dy10s left two remar~tib.le Fjccras ,of ~YoJ"k un i]ui~h ~'d:~. ~ ver!lti~i' (lli 63J)l TIM~' ',~'". YQJr-areA'jl London, '1.617', 1 :p. 19., as quoted by C;a:~~I~, i\re" v' Julia, p, 74.

(38'[ AJi~!l Sisa1can" p. 4.:2,0" note 3:1 q,Ji., peine ftlsmes nous eampez 'Cilue.. le VC~· t~,b~t~ ['MOI.l!B en¥a,,~, un mouton bo[]U'1J. tOlJ]t ~hti~er 'P01Jlt' fu ire ,K{}J1J~if;).

(39 Aiit.ix&uldcr of Rh,o(te-s~ exoerpt0d rn ~he ottgimd in AliIS~Ul, $isttktm,

. 421,· Ul~ dtw--clrJi ·[I!5[riptlQIl lis on p. 427'. ~

(~, n Nay. z,QwlwIJrdi pUll'mtt1~lf['~; =V'~, pp, 1 fj.5!, ]168.

I ~J I H:lk cibY,llm l tU/(!Il,I'UitJ 1m7UtJ" 'VQ~' a. V j p, 44]~, .Alr:~n~ Si$t'd~orl. p. 2] .. ; li.lnliu- Oul· IS.

teenth C~1:t1lVY ~ 8 orne say there were ..f1~ .~znjJ8ny .as SO to I. 00 houses, '~~H;alt others s ay there were hardly even that number of j'l_h~ bi'[ants (42.). eH}'· - .~I];3. tbg,re were' ?JD tOI ,:]C houses, R RUS8ian IC1L1liSt0 ms post, at cO'SS aek baJ]r~dts,,-, and, acr-O®i the liver a Persian khan ~llJ_d friOJl1titl :post SOWtei 20 churches were reported to be still S'la]ld#~,g (43};, h~] 93'16: the population ,of tb,e viUalge, and the .fro~Uer pO's.t ,cam'h]n,€!c1l ~wa,s reported to 'be .2} 100 (44). Tcd.a:y~ ·01' at least d.illIJ:Wg ·tfu~ past eoup{e ,of decades, a, JlteiW 'ViIlla:l~ with the: same name Julfa has been ,{;a;mbli'-meJd a bit s ol1ith of the old one, Recent photcgraphs of the loem€te~y sti'I~, mow it to be ]mpl[.~ssive'~y decorated by hnndeeds of upright xa~~k~.arB (Ff.~s. 3-4)~. To the best of our kn owledge, n 0 5clenti:fic research oQl~. tile' site h as been encouraged by the lecal a uthorlties,

","" Y'

The distinctness of' tb~ JuU~b e uncr3ry monuments, Jtalcrk"" ars as ~hey Me .sometimes ,cal,~~d.~ has been ,Bllru.d~rll to on several ceeasiees, The :x;af~Jf·~r tJF:E' cross stene. has been the su'bj~ct ofseveral recent pietorm~l albums and ~, 'f~w ~·m.dmJ~J,l most o [If thesa intro d ucti 0 D.U to 'tilese volumes (45). Mus:i'~'Cj' Up,'Ijgh.~ mnnoliths b,ave been put [of-the ArmeJ1ie tradition from earliest times. 'Smillii ar memarlnl stele let.~d'6t~d, durin,a; the Urartian ki.ll,gdom..l ,~.oo,' in th.e mi Ueni~ oellicMie, they are found in. the form 't)f' menhirs ~];1.d ·tilaps' I(Ht~raUy dragons), Later, Iqum,drHate(~l SW'fJjei

earved en ~O'lll'[· 6ide:~ w[tfu. he ~~y images are jq1o,\W {}'10m the mrst 1~.t.U" ries o)i CJu]'s'tiaruty in A. ~meni a (46). The, xac~ k'ar proper ~ a IstOJ1~:

(4~) AI isaEl, ,bitt;.

[43), Bi\I'C)f:citJ,{med1J'(1 ~if fr.'ilam:" 'i\ir'8~~ ~dWOI]i' «Dj iJU[a}~ ,.

(44.) l$./(m't ,A.'flsikoipwlhw. «G~lf~Pt;· st!'!Jti~:t.i~ 0'J'l l~e ·~.ons, or ex:porJ and :iml~J'lJII'I: t,~ :lJ)Mi '~.hrQugJm, It];j,~ ra:ul ~ i nk ~U J u]fa. fO[,'19'27"'18 are also g r ~oo.

"4.5) l.cYon Az~.r:ian KUiLdJ At1I.D~1IJ M' ~q;IDJllk i~,[l,. J)QaU'J;'le!,~i'i Iff/I A.~/i~'rediln.t Ar.ir1:!2'~!a. vel, '2.1 K~'~tdlkaFJI 'M'i1a,(]~ ]96:9" Ji.vith det~]~oo bibli@~[',8Jphy~ t~t ~[IJ E[I~l]s~ ~.~~~ Hali~H!),. l~:le~.;· edDlil ens wit'~ ,,A rmeaian ~~ume; BaJ'kak(u,~ 1CaC·~Jl (lnt{r (.Ar~.n:.ell~·~~~ .K:luJtelduJtwj: i ~,m:hciil" l~71~ t~f~e and. te·;d in Armeiil'iallJ~ Elllg.~~~h, and Frel1.ciltj :ph©'lLO~ b-yMaTIiJit~t, essay '~y Leven .AZ~,I::Ya:D ~ K~l{t'tdJkaf, (}foi:v: e'.rJ i?ieut! Al'i.l']eiU~rtimelli, 130UIlld to,~ther. wi1h JWllr;J'tltM;nt~ dw:mel,n:iznn'e&! ©8l.tSJ]ogU'e of a Icombine:Q ~hlb.l,tij on, e~lYS by G i ulio Ieni aad Arme~, MalloukillJl, Centro StllliU ~ D~(!!ClUm-e:.~daz:~~n~ de:! 13- Cll,lllbn:EIJ, Armeua, M i ~an!, .Il.d. [1'982:'1.]. AJSQ the fQIl@,w.hlg s~u s;lli~~ Itt,i~ttis::

A. ·N. Sald:llya[IJ~ '~~Haybkan N~~'r~:UtfCfi arv~s~ (Th A]"~ @£' At:m~t1ian X:a.lc'~,i'H~Y~r, ,1£) Iniacin f :~,,96{)l' ~,Q. 5"1 pp- 31~·45.~ ne a, 6~ ['p .. 44~;'~ll ne, 7~ .['p •. srS·44\!i no, 8. P!#., ·43-:S2'ij, na, 9, Pl}~ 45~51; ahd A.. L, .J~:~Qih~oIDJj ~Ob. (!lrmj,~u]ski~ ]l_,C:hrax~).~ r'BH U 911~), ne, L P,P+' 2 ~ 5.;213. ~e~ Ith:e. foht()wi"'~~ IlO'~ -r~r :wbued biWiogta,pby.

'(-46 . G., YO'V~lt ean, {(F'lUflGrnIY ~lre]~~e and, thei [' Aj[ch~:ele,gjc~d 'Val!lle flo.r e,he JUSl'{jllfJ 01 Armmti~\o A[t~9' J1f4(]r;erJ{J'~' ilud Studies. lor ~~:f! llisU;ry at A:;msniaJt

9b

,P1(;8,; 9! a,-f. Jh.J lfa, detaUs of xaJc It.<' aes w,if~ dltnhuul¥f!'.. l:ep.T,emU];~atiru;ns. .of the deceased, a . I j s: 1 ,. de(a,U of Fig. 81~ b. ilil.~J.e unknown; c. il.54 l-l S :5..0., I~. ~ 5'.56, 'det11.n of Rlg. ] OJ! date, uaknown ~ e, [1515", 'r'J1l,[OItG~, a-d, Jalt!Ul~:at!is; c'.·f. C(jiu.rmesy [of H. Vahrn.mnan, MlIan,

:I[~ :: t.J b ~ 4,... ~'1 "f' I... • 1 · I'

wweu~e~FS aSrh~ eentra 'm,O'll' a eross, uecalne common tn tnc I~illurt r1

amtury and after, beiJlg' em,p,luyedl as a free s aJ~Jfiu\g clom~]c'm,or,IJHv.-· marker 01' as an nffe.ril1~ carved onte the. wall of a C11111'10]]. Th~)' ulsn served as tuner',nlY monuments from the early :p.etirod. A~r i()'f t]n; Judfi monoliths. t~y are almost witJwut exception 1Q111 . stones, thou rh a pparen ly on occasion 'some '\W:'!,e erected 'meal" church bui]db~as a, . nlemort~l:s (41).

" or a v~u:j'ety 4Jf reasons, the xa.o~k~!trs 0' the luffs. rre.metet-y rep' IC-

. -

sent QUe. Ci,.f the more .[ lwresttng c,Q!rpe;ra of Armenian ,rci~~ef sa;dp~'Ltre~

First, tn the second lha~::f' of tblt~ sixteenth. century', the .11)] fa artists created their OWl;]; distililctive style. Second, this styltsti1c development was bruta]];y terminated '\fitb the de'· truetion ofthe city in the first year or til seventeenth century, Third, b~CRUSC he region was desolate and deserted; the .stODOO hav~ heea preserved 'in situ for nea.r]y 380 years.

Tb.Qugh 'file iraditi,olrill of large st.o.ne grave-markers WaS continued b~ tJ1h~ rr settl ed ]nih,lb~tal1 ts at New Iulfa, the sty'le of the thousands m tJ:m~ ceme~rf o:f the Isfahan suburb w,a~ aplpm''el1.tly changed auJi, the stones were placed fiat rather than t'Ep:d,gl)'t as on the AI,~'X, (48). The ,JiUiIfaxaa'""k~n.r.s: represent as a grnup the ] .. ast great fiouE.is.hing of a'scld ·tyraI art tb,a;l in i~s duration, it'.B, elaborateness, its consummate mastery, and ~ts en o rWlOUS Gt.uantity is unique m ,he: hm.story of 'world art, It is 'ttnf,ortu:(lttt~·. '[hat political eunditions JUnle' nGct permitted 'tb }l'floper ~tlldr ~)~ publication 'Clf'this important mass of post-renaissance art, Lite '~.he ,lr eat medieval capital of An:i, uneared for and a.lband,oned in Turkish occupied AJm011~a just across tile Soviet Armenian- Turkish border, file ruins of th dty of Julfa tlJldl ft~s !cem,ete]~y remain neglected ,and virtu'~Uy uU1l'boWl1 to .art history and civilization, One of the purposes of this "r,odest study is to draw attent ~ on to thi~ untwcc5sary neg1ect

I t is a hazardous undertaking ito analyze the art and leona gr,aphy of 'tIte brief cihft,p~·r that Ju]fa ~epresents in the '[rOng ]history of

Ad film!. Q~ltur'" vat U I!' ,w Yo rt" ~ ·9'44".~ pp. 46· 't 21 in Armen tmllfl), ; 'liigHsJ] trans, wit.[]{i<ut p,l.t1h::~. New York. 1944·. PD, '10-'4; lit Ai-ak'cbaliJ .HaykaK.a.II pat/lpF:o~ k d'J~i'!ltJAmetlJ 4'.,,7:".1'i1 ,;/.4. (AI·mftJ1imi. .Figtlrol ScrlSplUre fi'(}m lhe .F:r.mrtfl t(J ~/w Sr!'Y€.N~h CetJlllr'i{!J'l, ~re'itaJi'i I 1~4,9," see al 0 N .. Step,a,:n'ia - _ a,nd' ',. Tchrkmuk __ hial1· r Art tiecm'a'Iii "itt' f! A,.mCtI.i m Ml'Jv(de L01"!1 [Ilgrnd; Ir~i ~ ),'

(41) AH~~'I1. Slwikan, J);.c~/Jlsim; ltile!lttiollS several,

48) Carswell N"e.~j,J If.d/~" pl1.r1ij~m. WftlC p;~. 9,6! a view of' the ,cemet~ry. owever, "esb~, of tit. oJ 0: J uH:tt styJe is IJ)r. jiWVCtt) i n a seri es of smaJl a(f]{ars Ion the W~] I~ or Elu~ church !Of St. Jam1!S, at Ne'li7;' J'u lfa; Carswell, p.i.. !,~~ ·figs... c·~'f~ pl, 17 ti,!!. e,

26

Armem,lll art on the 'l"oa'sl _: of a .:group of 18 ph(rt~g-rQ phs' taken by Jurgis Baltrusaitis 5'5 y,e.flt.S ago ,. The authors are fu'Uy aware of' this but since no attempt has been made to discuss th~s. art, witb tb,e excep-

,. f' 1.J 1!.. b ...::II k · R .

IEro'll. 0' 0. cer, somewhat 0' aseure, ano vague wors S m .·us;s,J{tn 0-

Armenian (49'), it \V,flS felt "hai a preliminary ~UIV'ey based O~1 these unpubl'shed photographs would he appropriate to the me·m.aty of H:aJS' Be:rb6riam~ who '\V~'S, ahllsy.S interested. in the most negiected ~d obscure aspects of Armenian studies,

]11 the fa] 1 of I 928 ~ while on a researca mi ssi()D1. to look f.OIr Pj{·e< .. cur ·ors· of, ,omane_sq~e. art in SiOiV~C.t Armenia, Georgi.n" and A~erhaijaJl, BaJn1l!sa]tis \iV~S afforded thc~ .opportunity to visit the famous site of old Julfa, "is guide w'as AS·Atr.ab k K-a),ftnt~',ar" friend. and assoelate of NikolasMI.l[\ T 01"()& 'rCfW1lani"an, Josef IOrbe1i and ofjl.er scholars who rorked om the. famous excavaticns of Ani just befolf·_ and during the Fjls~ 'World War. The trip to Julfa wa~ made on horseback [because or the lack of other transp ort) Irom the closest railroad 'StatioTht.. The singular photograph of tile mount,ed;BaJ:t;lli"llSait1 B, be~ore tbic ceD.ll:Ctery (F.i.g. 1) is eloquent res li1m·ooy to ·tbe advem I re surrounding the entire expedition, In the. fO'n:o~li:ng year B,a]trusrui,~~s:~ 5· first ma jor be ok on An:nOOli en .and Oeorg[an art was published (,50). In tha t V'O~U]Jl,e one of the photos taken at Julfa, a x:act" k'ar of 1596~ appeared (pl, XX] V,I ig· 4,J). In the ensuiltj y6aIs,~. the others "tfre ci3Jr-efwly preserved \l.ail~ng for the appropriate moment £01.[ their study and publkation,

,A.~ complementary material to the .S'lud.y of the .. altnit(~a.~ti~ ,archive we have s.:;lectiv·Jy angmented our pllil,oto(s 'with most y uJlpub~'ushed ones fro.m other soerces, The 00 do not i nel ude e'xamples :~f.f'om "the. Vruyr archlve it. E'rev,an31 since we did not have ,3;C005 I tOI it: howe\~~r, ,a1r-e:ld:y lYu,bUs.hed! pb()'LOS :fl"om. the. 'V lluyr ar chi vc' hJl:ve been carefully cited in our notes, In addition arehiteet Herman Vahramian of M~lan.. has 'put at out' dj,~:PC;~ al photograpltsl both old. and recent from his eolleetton (.5:1. : .wnaUy, Adriano Alpago-Novello has

t49.) l11.tl, works or M~H cited In note 31 and Ithose .in nCJit~. M~ A sedolll .~ Slfstem~rlic stmy of rne histo.;ry. a nd artlstic de\"el opment of the A rrne nian xa.~·"·}{ 1IJ-[~ "l,~ i U w,aits to be '\ilm:hten;

(~O). J'. ]~~;hn,li.b.iti$j £tuoe,'r .f.li'f r,(J-ri ~,,~~die~ra..;' eu (;i(}~'gjlr]. ,~l eLi. Armdni~.

I'~~f' '1 t9'29! ~fn.e pre.fafce by H~nri F,odlflon! pp. VJI-XV~ pf(;)v'ide3 mere del~ils •.

f:5 'I) =ftiLe-l'e ·~rlue.r have be~n publish_e.d In piiLl in th~ v6ium~s 1J:~u:,t,mI.1tfU£~ ,KJJ't~/, J1k11', ~ 9M·~ and "he e~hijbition caL~'I·o,ue.'J~(lu:.hk·(Jr see ~~pro ]]:oh~ 4·5. "["0 tile h· I nr r~H Iknm,,~cd.~e '~he pho~:~ ~u:pp~[edj bY' H. 'Vahl'nljJl,,~['i FIgS. 2, ~, ,g. ,@<or t2, U ' 2. c, II J C ~ 27. J...~) h l!it Ill! ~ been PI!' Vi01J:SI~ Y vublhh~ll.

mad arvailao].e material from tbe 197106 ·.bIlOV, part of the archives of the CenrJ'I', Stlldi e Documcntszicne dena Cultura Arrnena of Milan.

Vari:oll.s8cbolar.s have described the characteristic features 01 Julfa ,x2Etktars: narrower a~ld more elongated than those of other

reg~i(HThg, 'whh the central [c.~tOSS il3tlc]osed iu .. 3, P ointed mihrab -like arch ill high relief against the cut-away background, and sometimes bearing, a t th~ bottom, the :6gure' of ,I. horse and rider' (52). The discussion

. 5.2) g, lIar:(u.dliill.ry.f!l,14j I Jij'lmkwYalr iU}j' t'rJ'f~f't~'(1pd~I1;}F ·e'V Il'QJ·gf}l"f. rp(1_~'ped~ler (1\tf(!tliev'n1 .' ~,,.nenlall An:hil'et:t~ {md L'VlaSltt \J.llSOJ1.;~)j Brevan, 1963~ PCP, I ~,91~ ·'2aryan. Ar.M~(!;}~''UN Kl~'alcllktll's;,. p, ] J; ~~fii.. K{mlCilkiii" C~ltfdogtlQI p. 17.

below is intended to plesmt lu mere ·co'm'pl~;t~ though ~enta.tive. schema f or :~he organization into types of O.~ J ulfa tombstones,

By their pa:s,i.c. iha'pe tb:e mG'.[UJUle;n.ts. at Julf~tcau 'be immedi a\tely divided in te two: first, th~ tradi.ti:on~'[ 'lfecta~,gulal mone lith. (fig"S" 5-21~

:30 .. 31)" l'ill.e.w;ut'img from. '~\I"O te IDlea,dy four meters in ,bel,gbt and 1[Y]1.e· meter in wId.th. (more than ~., per cent ,of all monuments belong to 'this

- ,. - L: h . , . -'. '.-,' ,'~ - - ~ )i!C't~( . "'Ii ~. , .. ',.A ',j, , .' - , ,t, J-' 'I'ii":

group W lUG' are propelJlY ')i~l; c1:'L ars j ,. S©CQUU; ,SI. i~.y.pe u;rmq~e' dJ -,' 1ll_Jl:t3!,

a rlt'~e s.tmndimg: ,~ctiJptur.,e in the 'I,onn,(ll :fep':f\~ellt[n8 B ram (fn.gs~ 2;~:29)~ Tfujs latter gJOiUp will be discussed separately rd the ,end of' 'rh[s

stlld.y~

The, ffitd: a_nd '~af,g;et sertes h~fs been ar,gall.1l>zf;td ill. rough chronclo ..

SIc~d order based Ion the read]'H!. of 1MCEiptl0!L11 as 'they a ppe,gn[" Qiii the

,,~

-)I

phctos (.53)" This ~1[r'~'DF~mem.t JJ;s possible because in :priltcip!e the Julfa

"'~k'/.' . ;lit .A .4 W' ".!IL.,. tI' "'] .-.:t 1·"1

!at, '. ars w.ere cO~S:i's.t,e11 [y ~ate~i ,:' ]'[kt]l~ ':Ltg' 00&6 'wlro:g(h .. «(gl<;;a~

pIG,gre~slp.n tJ16 llari~ties of C!I()S$ stones at,e) d~,v]ded ,il]]d, sub-di .. vid~d "into oat@g-o:ri.es- according to iconographle rather than stylistle dlffer,ell;li'ce~~,

N ealily a ,ae.n~mty ago, Ali.isn had~ ~.pe~u'[a:t~d. OU. dates, ~:S, ,cady as the 's,ev,en't[l, ei&b,th- and. tw€]ftll centuries fO"F the' old~5.~ of tbe xitO'tJ( ars C54). One of ill 0&0 used for bis h,pOithesj s of the ({twelfth ce.n'tnrj1>) is. i]h.1s1:l[~tecl iu Slslak(l1!l (5'5),~ the same stone was pboto- 8ra:p4~d. 'by B\aJtmb:i~l~ (Fig, 20)" Clemrly it ,] S not frorn :~be twel ftb. ,ce:nturj", hut ntrther the late s~:]rt®(m.th and from among the very last series produced. (~nl~ Al1l0ng' tho. ]1~~ctilltiO;tlS A]jsai~ 'Pll!b~iuslwld b1 fuU" (h.e eil:di~;5,t are from the ~ 5'40s ,..._.... 1545" ] 546~ l.5S(} - but ll]:lfortu:na:Qdy none ;()f the }Lac~,kl1;aar£ 'Maring '~be~~ dates is ~~l1W]stnt1,e(J beY him (S{)., OUT IOI\Vl1, ex;an]inati,on of the 1928 ]lbotos has l,evealed. only one to;mbston~ 'Of the lfiFlee~m ,~tUIY" tlt'fn't of 1494 !{.Fig·" 5)" i.ft~t 'vhi~h tlml~ is a hiatus of half a century to 1546 (Fjg. 6), l3~50 I(Fig. 1), ru;1;d it,S-51 (Fig. :8). The oldest, whic!1. irs dIa.ted 14,94, sno:ws a p~ai te d cross rendered s:p o,n'~a~e(ru:sly, but r,m.dtCr 10osely" 'with. naive lwlnb (Fig. 5)" reeall ill g; t])1e pro'vinciai gty,[e in, eflrly Arm,~]jjia)i J:[]la~1,uS'cdpb (.~8). These of the ,und,-sixteenth cenmj'Y already 10 egin 'to ahow ,2 m.OIV®m el~.t tcrward surface orga;u]zB.tioll; ,cjl,a1,acfieti Sloe of the dew] oped Julfan s:~.yle, but stiH tvit]](1lllt the intrusion Q,f elahD[,ate h1[U1Utn 'or animal repr~$e]il-' tations, The c:arv.~ng ]S also of '1Urufornl~. rather low reHer, 111e areh above iUle' the inner cross ~ s. [10~; y~f join ted!1 but the' 'top' b~.d is, £onn~d. of a de:xietol(SI gtcmetdc l~~ajti'

[5.3) A. 8y~fG1ifi~:li~J oa-slte ~lu"\rey or: :1,n~r~p:U~n~ ~~rOl:llld PfOd,~~:~ n i'lilIc~Unlabl~ ~,i~'l~oi:'i~~1 a1'1ld. 'sfiC~Qiogi;(!al '];liFo]];le of the cit) and :at [l~JU" ,~a'~.al v!~~~ or fh~ ~rtl8tic dtWY~IQ~R'~JlU of this, 8;:peci~] sCli~,p:t;U!r~] tfa,dlt]on; s~ no~e O,ft. ,po 54,.

1(54) A]isan~, Sfsai~t:I, p, 4·M·~ see nj)M3 l4 S;tI{JllG. W,e de f1Jt1t '~\'~i ~h to t(NtD I ~y dliscOliltnt: ~ucl:iJ au ~atb~' ~atillii~ ~'Ut~m:I,Qltilt spfod fi:ca:lI,]i rl~i!d~~ i rlscri,~t~'bns (~,r pL1JotOjgrllJ;p:Jl<S~ it ,is, har[] til ,lThcoept. tlnMte Oe~tme di"e IDft~enU1. oCl~riJnlry_

I(n:;} AF1;$an~ S,j':sriira'fj'" fig'., Ji:!, relerenee, p, Jfl?"

(5'6}' 'CO'mp.ar~ to 'IJle xatn{; tu:'s of 106'011-,21, ltl.foYl~ flJtcl.. FI~~. Dr; 3'0. 31: tbe 1~~~'h:J5in( ffllClf 'p~~'rucd star ~f' hl1lfra~e paltfJ"liiIs, on two mr U~or~~ 'luV!e'~fj of ,r~li!.lr. rLl ~ ~l:f~~lfllrislic ~tf 'lhfs 'last [)etit~d of d~:cb\ra.t io:,n.

CSt} AHs~Jlj ~b;(lk(m, p, 422: the tbn 1.~~~1ii of ~1'I11~ )01 mKfl~tillJra'i ~iFC L'dVCI1, C5S) O,n thJs flt~],a.~ ~-c D. K'OU:rD'i~~H~~~ «The CI~Us.!Iit'a~ 'h'::I,d~lhln Ull A 11'1 W,!I I' HI IH~,H. REI.I'~;,~'I.r; ~,j, U9H D. ~p. J6J-,2):l7n; di~Cw~~i(;m mi !s~,j'h::, pr'!I, l71I1 n:1 ~~!~·h h I ~I~ af~ illl'u~tftl'l(al h~ c'h~~t.:rHh ccu!m y 11jI~U1ll:{!.:l'ilr.i I~ ~1w~ ~ ~.I ~II.

'-6

The xac~ kL" ar elf 1 ,556, (F,ig~ :l 0) departs m, severa l ways fro m the previous se de -;, The central CiOlSS and t''IO' sm ~J ler crosses stand in sharp Jti,~ re I ief agsinst the ell t .. a'way ba,tkgn:nand, the eneom .. pa ssing i" ch has been spHt into a kil();be affair: tl),e effigy of the' deceased! in a 'Y,ery p:rovi:~n~ia] :s'[yre~ ls g~ve1~ ,a conspicuous central po,sj tion in the ge;n~er'al! arrangement, A xacrk~ ar elated 1560 (Fig 'II) (:0]1- fiJnll,s thls des~gn tend(fncy~ bl cur series the earlies readably dl~-ad

:1 one to display the characteristic disc 0'1 osette below the cross is of 1,574, (Fig, 14)" Aftter 'this dan~, the djs,t~ ever 111~re ,elm.borately ear y~d~, is lever' absent ,fVO')J11 the fundamental des~gn '0 f the Julfa xac~k'~ar,s.

The deep '-elricf a:n.d the rosette be ow' the cress ushered in th,~ nlUy developed Ju]fa .xacl"k(>· I' s:tylej,'revl1oTtls,iy charatc[erlzed by' narrowness and beight deep earving, and the P ointed ogival a reh , elemsnts that converge ou[y in the 5710'. We s,haU return to' '~e cb~!tsH]Ctltion, 'of these cross stfU1CS sh ortly,

Th]s, mature styl,e or arrangement of the: lU1lfaxact'~1 'ars flourished for the' rd,Rt~:veT.y short period, of ,25 to 30 'years i Its evo hlti:on m,u.~<t have passed through a very' fa, id dtv.t.']opmcn:t within the ateliers ll' 1l1aSO~lS' and sculpt'o,m wo,rtu1J;g, in the eliy., The tu,u'1drcds,~ 'Il1!rha,ps origln~d]:y' tll.ouslllld2ii, I~f stones a:t:tribublbJle byeithe date or 1co:)lograpbh; and ,styns.tb~ ID1[3J.o.gy to tlle Hu~t, 'Q_u,at" ,er lof the :s;ix-ooe,llt'h c.t,:rtuI)1' }llot O'l1]Y overwhelms the viewer by their sheer IqIllantity, 'but also rasses sottte' [qJlle~tj OD,S alunlt the' s oc'lologica'~ context in which they were executed,

As, has heen 8u,~~ted ,mlr-eady, the number of visible' xool~k~~lrs ill the ceme tery ba s varied in ~'~ima'!e from .2: '00'0 to' I <[).ooo in the accounts of travellers from the sixteenth to the: late lliM't :' ~, th ceaturiea, The lnajority 'Vi~ble in pboto,gra}J,hs and ,djsce~rn.Db~c by 'I,yp-e~ seem, JJ, belong to the period f~om the lS1'Os t o :I ,604; these number in the huadreds, ,}4any of' them and others recorded by inscrlption are on the' graves of 'w~altlJiY merehants die, x,oj.~.ys (59). W CJJUI~

. 59) O~1'l ,:;.~6jay \: ;altd the p1]!!U,'aJ, q iU~lion of 't he roereh~~,tt cl~55 ses ,KQur;'fl~ ij~ n, on Hi.r;ll),~r:ff ,,'e~'l' Anlt,et1ir:nr.1 rDP" 3j3~J61., H. S. AI1' SYaIl,. Xl'II (.Iar~ ,1Z:(u(IA'/wlam ~-l"1 E ~~'JmWrji ~1.~j,\'m.r,aIJ H(ly(Jsumm~l (XVihh Ce'U'IlJ:JJ f.._ilfer€.llli,I'Il ~~1.'u:w!'1nmU,\' l/~ JV ~~'tCF'iJ' A1'jn~j'li I), BrL~ali!. 19.6l, ,po S9~6,3'" mesr r~cn' Iy Ila~OD~ Bar.s.OlllUia 1, ~ ,~lC l ItiU~ Role f'.hcArl'n~lfli~JI1Alnirtj. ~t ',w~,th,il l!~ '. ['Prl1'<H' ~OV'nlll1'"I: lid lhe Armen ,Uill J~UUm (I ?'Q~~ ~SO)~~; 1111 Be'njarn'rn Ur~nuJu ~md ~"rm~'n.1 cw~ 1~ cdil['I~I'~. ('~ , If Itn Ul{~ ,/.'.L': ,h_1 ifl, mtm J,'fll/) till ~W', ~f·~ IJtI'll~ ~ K , '''lJt I ~ I • 1"11 ...

FUJ8. 18ia·,b. Ji\dfa! :xa(tk'~f of fS'l91• rhoibe,s, :Ba l.llllsaJt is,

h

l'lti~.

a.

could have been 'be actual pcpulati on. of Julta to hu.ve 'p~rod.uced so Ina:l1"'j prominent deaf s in such a short period? A.ppa\IT:'endy more t1Kl,11 'the csti netted 2!:{YQ (}T' 3,000 households rendering ,~ popnlatlon

Flu, 20.; Jlfllfs., :o::at"k&mr" undated compare len, mil~: tOI' I r~'fin~ S/~akotJ ~ 'J' ,g~ 125.

PhOJ[~ Banrf~~M;ids.

Fro. ::U. JI1II:f .. a, xac k" aJ! wit h n~ hulous OJ1ti un ~t mH:,Ja'~G:d,_

~)bLO~O BfI;i t;nJ~tljt~s.

of 15,000 to 20~IOOO souls, for in. the inscriptions there arc almo ," nn fe·male names, Furthermore, m,MY of 'the. Jul fa merchants in the late sixteenth and first years. of UiI .. C seventeenth centuries died while en

'1..' t . Ali'''' h . ded 'b h b · d .

uUSUICS.S ups, .,' san 'as recoro '" .~, ose \'It 0 \¥~ ,eurn~~ m

'V enice, Bud Su:rmee,an bas given 11:s the record ,of ", lepp 0 where the g.ravt1 stones prior to the firs ' GJjll~uler of the seventeenth century in the

I ['o'f II< ii"l31 ,,-t-OD'W ok. U ~':~Ali:li'"~ i);bD D EI';. 1]1 If .l 'I.]

IJ !j'ij L1iIlJ~,Lll ,"' ~~~ l!1tll'J ~~~ :~JY ,~J![~ILl' _l\.U:I,.~ 1.""Il

Armeni an cemeteries are O¥ erwhe']m in,g~ y of men frem Julfa (60).. Once again a thorough , tudy and record;"ng of rhe JuJf31, material will provide clearer iJntica tions Oil] this question and, may force an ltp\-~ald reestimation of'the population of the IOI'Wll and Its envi .ons at i 6 most prosperous moment (6J)m

he, trade and trav.e,] east and \\t's.t north AAd south resu - ed in the imlux o r :luXU[," items fo;~ the decoration of]1 DCa]] households ob[,q,ue]y referred " 0. by- Ah\k~,~d, during the grea,. reception, for Shah ,~ A bbi8 in 1 i603 1(62);, Per hi ps motifs em jm,pll1}t ed 0 bj - ets and textiles .rna;y [lave provided the i;nspira''1oln.s fOJ SO[l1e of the stone carvi~gs. in "be cemetery but close cxaminatioa S uggests li ttle 'that: coul d n ot have evolved. 1lildlgeliouB'I~r in 'tbe intenlely creative &ttll,osp,~er-e of the stone workshops d,ev,e~oped thro gh 'the arti stic. if somewhat morbi d, patronage of the wealthy .Jw!~a families for the decoration !D:f1th,e graves 01,' their prominent ! lead. Su.te]y the J ulfa (!eme.'V: 'f;y,,, ',;y'jth Us ge 0 gra .. ph-ieaUy '" isible, po sition in relationship to the., ci~~l, rhe river t and the mountains, must have been the n"QiIE '·:~l1PO rtant . nrae ion of the area, a place to ,ws.,play the. b~.dges of a family's weaUh ,3Ed ],m,portaflce. Tboughman'Us1cxipt ,roducti(nl increaeed irt the late slxt,een:tb ,oentury and th OJt1lgb S everal mlniaturists ale 'known. from J ulfa ,-,j neluding ~

rare female artist of' the fifteenth century, a certain Jd,tt:diUl'll (63)~ and (llf course the great master of 'the perio d! 0 f grandeur, Yako. b Jwayec~i .1164) ~ the development of a Jnlfa school o~ manuscript painters or architects did not materialise In ai!Y way comparable to 'that of '[be '~eam of sculptors involved in the xao~,kvar indus .--y.,

The BF'e;at s'tQUC . labs were carved, on it si;n;g1e.·si1de as, was the ELccep®ed tradition of Armenian xatctk~ iUS. They 'w,eye a1 so oriented on the customary east ... west axis, The -si,gh" of the hund reds; of artistic n~~]i,e(g

(60) Set j'tU!I1JIl notes 2l-l.

{61' Pe:tll£lP.S, closer to, the: ,4G ,0001 ::;ULtge:&lIOO, b:, one, of the Q~~r4;.-e~, used by AHhu· Jlq1ra,t note 2;7.

(6:l) A;i,ak el, ,Pm.rjUlf",iwJ~ •. p, H>: rl\.Hsa![]'j SIs.qkti1..1., p, ,1-14; Lee, P,umm~' {ml, I n~ !D:lP. 238-9_,~ ll~~' J.fJ~f)'rol·di' p:afm.,rgJ'Y.w"J lV. PD.· 95 f:f.

(63) A. .Erem)"~[l,~ «.TH[lhrntge;r~):fd da Ii",~ nli a Ifl,hayt nkan:' "uhi (A n U'Fll~JiatW~' n, 'i'fteenth ,~n;,ury Pai:lillt:re-5~n) ijmiaci7~ (1'9~'2). JU]h, PJ:", .. S~SOI c:r.~e[ky~,Il'i. )/Vtl~ CevUN,:fJ1 . o/-.rJ:Ohf}it$, vol, n" p .. 641' ae, -89.

'04.) On Ya~obJHako;b see Irina Dramhyan, «ffitkob. }iJla,e.-c;"u mr.JH;a[l'kEll~ [~lripL t'b;'f~gn'(YiJllILI '(rh~' r c;o:n,og;mpi1y of Hako:b (D( J tllfa s Mhda.tlll:es)~ 'J B(mher ~ifn:loUU~(~'rtJm" U1 J971 _I. p,p. 17J~.J 84 wlw R.YJssi· n al1d French J.~j1J1es· t~J1OIl"'e C' nUll I .• , ' -]" I lIt (f~S~!'JlI, . km.~lii"'n An. oll!dot1 J9"'7. P~I ,23.6·~ , O.

i~AllR.uSALn~ ~ KJ, UYMHAN: HJLfA ON '~1E ARAX 35

(Figs. 2=4, 2491 25) must have been a wonderous aesthetic experience 'tIO all who viewed It.

The long r,e.ctalJl:,rublf' surface was treated with. a precise _ rogram, Repr,esentati Ditud scenes; when they begin to ·fLp1'Ca.1L in the 1. 5108, are relegated to the W!'E.y top band (F]gE. 2~-23] or a space at the bottom of the: stone or both I(Figs~ 30 .. 31)1, They, along \ ith intricate vertica interlaces on each side, served as natural frames for the central cross motif. he upper _ epresentatio nal Je:li@f,~b at whic·b. extended tOW,IM 'the heavena W·B.s appr' ,riate.ly decorated \Yiih Chds~ or the Virgin. or win. a ralbrn OlU; Z,Q omorphie figluc" The lO;'WfJ h1ul,g,~ W,;lIJS e,onsis~e~L1fl "Y a picture of the decea sed shown as, ~t mounted 'W,all 1. ior or warriorsaint (S't. Gecor:ger!), close to' tl'lle ground (Figs. 19c, 30, 31) almost touchin-i. 'he earth \vbere [he body itself was interred: an adj.atent lnserlpticn identifed th e person. MOore rarely a. restrained banquet scene is shown in jits place, presumably iii kind of celestial repass, Earlh~]r on stones rom. the' 1550s. to the 1570s, the deceased WQ· often d[miJ1~:li vely represented in. a pions. stance wi:~h Wnlds ere s sed ov.er the breast ,(Figs, ~a~ge).

The '.ypica,) inscriptional formula read {o this cross, is 'J.1 memory of xlJjay", •. ,,:» The date was scmethnea rendered together \ fi(h the in scriptior but 1L1suaUy.- and especially in the late period, ~ ndieated in the fta.t ree - ssed al' _ as of the Gross, design in the usual Armenian formula: 'U~,e word ,(date» and three digits (exP'lj~:sed in lett~'r.~) indiCflLtin,g the year in the Annen ian era. (FAg. .28l J1 th cc' dnal stage of d.ev,s opment UI.e da t,c i ormula was indica ted ill the. corners ·lo'Ime~. by the rosette Jnscribed in a ~qua're starting in the upper. [,eft hand eerner with the .abb'r~~l~ia·lion for ({date;}}' and 1Doving' around clockwise in u.~h corner (It··Eg. ~'9c~ 31) (6.5)..

let 1II!f.8. retnm :n,oW to the classiflcation of the xaek,~ars during' 'ill epogee of tlleir ,~xecution, Ute ftna1 decades of the sixteenth cen-m~y .. 'The cross stones of this period <call be di vided ~'D to ~h{rse \,~lth a patterned top band .Fig"-. f'-20) and those with a represeatatienal one (F]gs,. 21-23; 30, ,31), The f;or,mCJ with out i,gnr,es,~ are 'tile most COJnD1on land, appear j'l1 a .1arg-e nnmber qf ·diff'elreu~, designs and ,effects. In this £tud.y their subdivisi OIlS wIU DOlt 'be discussed, The lfignril PODlJ:P

.~:j osr C'ajiiy SOOl nn the f,~mOTlJS ~iC-'" ak ,aJj, of 1602 ' eur F:lg~ 3 ) ID:O,v ]n

EJlmiach.~ A:fii~(111i'a(j1 Klfa~(""kq,rs~ J';ij'l~ :~g:s., ]96~.9a. t slfl.ou1~ b:_ ~oted~ :IIU)~vt~r~ fh_at this. Q,rd-er wss ~lot wJwa,ys jj"OI]Oi~d and often the l~trers f~nni-ng the d~m are sc. Uer~ about

separates into two 'very nO~.Ge'ab}e types b,· the su bj:~ Cot dcpicte ci wit];lI-nn the horizontal u:pper. band; (1) with a strange animal flgure flJanked, b;y angels 0:1" crosses OP'igs,., 2;1-22)1 and (2) with Christ in glory or ,Jtldg:e-

... ~. . h 'T '·1 h ... t, l' f jI.'j).. .,. .~ ,,",,_,1""' .~

ment tog,e,'~l~r 'WI,t .', ,f.ut.~:r t - e Sy]]lU'QlL~ 0·' tne M1m~.~S w tl1e ,a,poca~.ypse

er the fbuT:' lEVa:t1ge~] sts j eined ]}'y &ln~;~ls (FJgs. .23a,-f), The jfo[m~r '~~Ime seem s to predate the latter,

The pl'l!o:togra pbic 111 ateri.a~. a:v,ailable 10 us ~Jlo,;v's; 'rOE tIThe j ~n.tjr ..

,e '" I!' I ., .. A~ ., .... :n ] ""il'" ~, f +.~. '" ~ ...... n U ~

JJ,~~JJ:on o.~. ·t"ve vt 1f]W!!l;'Vh..Jl1l\a, xae }r~rr,~ or cl~:e 'fiYSil or :an,JiUllii;U type ~u'!?,)~.

'three of whim are ill the Baltrusaiti s archive (F1.p a ..2] i 22a-,,~). Th.'Qug·fu none of the.latter p[Dvidte~ ,81. dare, a p'~"e'vi!ous .. I.:y pu'h1lish~c[ ,c):,an~,p']e is fro],;TI. the year l519 (6.1).. The 111JotiF that ~ttr~cj~ immediate attention ~O[l 1iU t'\~€l\i'e of tbes~ stones is NI' TIgure composed of a pair of confronted q1lUl:~lra,~ds~ b(tdlies 111 p~',ojf]re ll1er:g~mg in to a :s:lngTs' 'r[·Olkt~ny :f~.Ciin,g and he'a'r~ded ll,uman head! It appe'£t:rs tor haveJ a haln, Tb.~ ani mal is

• .:a l k "Ir.",j.":'· A' ',1". 'b!il ,,;!l' ] "11 ] tha

W]ng~!iill. le ,ill gnrten ana lias a . ·~t~.y eevercn W.l.t_~. scares rat .1eJ~ man

hair i Each 'body has a tail J['epre~ef;l'ted. 4], S). a 'lID c'kly twined rope, eurved back and afiom,(t end le~ld ~i~.1 ill :a C~1i&'lgo~.'I~, head, This Il,pper 'band is divided into three unequal sections with the smaller side eampartmeats comHiniJ~g' one ,of two variants, The .dij:l:~ed ,B,pe .. dmmb~!8 C;riO'S'S~;S withl1l .po..rnted afdll~s; mere ~T·~ four more silrri]u lto' ft. fum 0UT s811IlpUng' ("Flg,. 11) (fi8.).. The other seven have on each sid.e a. mecl.i.:n,g W.ill~ie:d an g,el (.Fjgs .. , 22 a .. 0 } fadng t.,~·~v~rd ~h~ two~ b'omed. LT.eatU[,C f6~)~

("'til BaJt nll'~l tis, three; ,~.K~~!:l, Sj,\."flk. tl ['I. '15.£.. ~t 27;. one i n th~ V a hra:BilIaJl .areh lve (OUI!' Pi g, 22c}; t~i~ rest [proba.bjy a.f1telr' .p~lb.dtogra{~'lhR of' VU.1J.' r" It ru~j l]Oj2IJll ~lrEl'L'B Sar;an~I!l)! famjatJdld! '[ljt i 15', O[!lfl i~ Avedi~iD.n~ ,fJ,~iJ'lu£J.' >C, :;f.!;,lPM~w!f t1pmJll~f:J{.~" Caire, ]959~ D" 131 rkgh'~'; with a mounted :5!}ure at I:he bottom, Do~umelnJ~ .KhtJ:fcNhar" fi;g. :54. SiN Iil~,e repa'.~~~uc~d h'1 .'f:lt(l~ ~w7{} iJOrtil p~~'m~( },m1 r IV'I !i., .584, M.nae .akanl N" h.4mr'{), .P, 177 r;ght. A:1\1'fI.£y~fIl1' .Pu;i'ltjuwikj. .N~Nrilfe w:m~!ik()'l .ASs.~'J thg" 370.; see also- tho 1t\v.(~ '~is:~bl~ in ,~~,~ 1~n:1&emb,te 11.110'10,. :B~fx..l.!Ida['Yati~ AfthiN~(:J'N llIJft .M~l:ef l'(tUw.nJJ. :~I'· 8S. rhe: ~l ~u5tr~dEMlt'i.·]n nn'"A.'I,\\edsj~.utj ~rod Dfli~,{~, were uot co.n!S!JUed., .lml~.r:{1 n.ot~ 'I.,

(61) T.~.e .g~ve of ~ cert~l.ti S5j(a~ V~le:~ AH~n~ Si$(}$twt. rig. .~ If, lnsc rl,ptroll., .1', 427 .;_ same ~lODe, in A \ftd:ts~i~U'IJj PldJ~tng ~.~ jc./jd'pteu~·sIP·i' 13]. Th~ central U:lU;J: i f repres,ents a, pa i r of vet.Y '~o.mg erosses aiCh in its own ,oJ£i~~~J n~e~:; be:~ow ~s ill C~I [ved reseue :iiIln.d II :dider. 011 eaeh sMe. e:f the 'f~:lJl]tns:tlic aruh'fJ.~al .. i!!s, a crossIn ,ill niche..

((i8) B~ltJ...~sai tis, eue (FiS. 2;.1.)1: 'MliilZliC:'td~fM'iIy,a!lm ~ tv. NltJttJ, ~" J 71; D.(f,r:i;f,mr~~,r,.~.

Kt~'{J'Idlka~·. Jig. ;'4, tWOl t¥fI;mrJles~ sa IDe V~.tlY.r. ,pll{'lto !llll. flt(~' zolo. ~fdi lKtfm/l~1 ''ym1l .1. V • p, 584]1 tWQ ~arn.plefi.. 'O[J)~ w~'th a ~~[Jjqu~l .900:mu~3.n.d ene 'wJlh a rider ~'I thl; noi~'oC1"; (6~) .Bal.t't~El:ItJs, twn (iFig8. 2i.,a.h) ~ V(L'~ rarnian, one: (Fijg. 2:l~); A ~~Y.:II !

Si!r~k {lj,~, fig. 121" Anllj ~ Qj~ I1·St!.r~~·I:i'~'rn i ijt;ullft~n.dkf. ~B. J j 3'· B~r~~ uJa ryu n, J Irlr·Mt, 'f ,;, l~fltl Af'I:M'h?r' J\'f{'l.w;mf~~ ~B" 8~ ~ t\y\r~~ t. Q I~. l~nm"m.rik i N~I r/{.1", ~'ltM'lo\~ ill A ;s~t"· f~', II!. ~ 111

3S

.13 d

F1!Gs. 23 a-l Julfa, de taHs. ill ~iO~i ba.m dt (if jimco!'k"'!iLts with Christ a-d, 1J:u]dated .•

1':::!!li~' II' '1 £.,.:') A.' -.~ ,[!:, 'IC'-. ';'lii1i 'If'!jil!-.. d -U'V L • M'il. I!.. ~ 1

e. d"7' I Ji :~'. .. w.;.;.~ li.;let~1.~ iCb .dg. JIJ'. .IIruotQS ~'!' 'iC~ . '" L-L~~ljl~Jnla:nl' " §,~~ ij; L:.I~ ~ •. _'~:_''''

tnl$~!Jids; t ~Jt!er lrffluclikQf l£JtJdbiN~I'., L;e.m'trn' D9CQlWlen~aJzi:OM A'i,m~flJa~ j\·Uh\r-t.

39

..,'

'Witboutt entering into all elaborate iconographic stu~r' of this motif' an undertaking reqJll~dng ill separate mOnQ,gr3.p]~, based on a larger sampling of data than available for this ,MJ11d;y, several observntions need be ll)3,de'. The confrented doublebedied a,rum,:aJ l;vith human, head its an unusual creature- in Armenian and ill fact Near Eastern 'art. There ICXliS,[ in .A'fr:uenian illnminstions examples of co,nfron'ted birds with ~,'iDg,le head, and animal-headed human fignres, but: there is O:u["y one esemple known to US~ sculpted on the thirteenth century

148" jL~lfa cenll~H,erYl' ram I!lton~ of ,M~ullJjk::)azar cbued 1,518. ,Phcn,o of , m,c Chan.h"e of J: ,9.0 oiJuroosy , :r Cent ,0 Decumen tElzi one A,fmeTI4l" 'M i h,l n,

o@nt[lr,y m(Hla's~exy of N or V,arag! Hke the combination of an imal and hum an witnessed .Q-,Q the Jul fu stones (10 \'", OJ] the at er hand, :~~n,.m the .!f),e,i"g1~,bciJ[ilin,1 northern region of Dagestan on the' Caspian littoral there are confronted r ons \viili a si it',gl~' 'lhoug]] ill this, case

00" ~~ ~,n ~ near ,!den;lical ligu~'· !LllougU:l crowned and rendered i . an

e'[Iltir-eiy d i'ff erent. s ~y1rLi:, earved w:ii~ ~ in an e~o[llga.le~, hc!X~IDl[]. j;Jart of an in trleatas d sign ;{o\i\e th pr!tlOi~H~ 'western emranee (; .. r the cburCh of Iothor of God (AstWI.'C;iI,ChD) ~a t, ~:~,is .Arlme'ali~.li IilCUlistic comp1cx, ~n the nOI'~hL. It: ~"-"a~ bUll n betwe.eu 1.22.7 a,n~, 1:.2];7., "he. reneW sculpture with hybrid animal ha jwst ' eon 'pub~ished Hra,C"ya J(:,""rilrtd)'all, ~' er Vanl.gUvank j l:a.rt~ul,pel~dca[1 h~ui1a]ir3' .'i..raJJlPF (1.'9.184 J ~'o. "i p. 70~ il3g.'); For bird e~:!ii!lrples. see A. Mmn;';J1,kiH]~1tll! IfaJ~ka1~!t~/,r zardorp,~sti E ~V$lD.~ [9SS! 'figs. 734-13.7,· 100. G~ animal head li.BlI!~~ t'i~~, ,D,. Ko(]rro;Jj~a~, .j}lTh~ ~rCJibaet].l of tl1e Zo.qm.o,itphi~ Fi~ur:~ fu f~e ~ (;(Yrl!o:gr~J phy ,o'f'rrm:'WE:ifIJ Pefi!l'~O.,t1't Auf lll4 .Prlma S:fmp,()~I'() de ArJ'(?' "n;~"ut, VI·!l]IlcC'. 119i~~ pp., ~~OJ..4, [ :t

anima 1 head on 1J] e sj d.ee,s . of a carved stone pul pit or stalrca so (7 _~ ). Wlnged lions ot gdffo i-like . nimals are Iound 01, the tops of decorated hea dlpie:oos 'i n thirteenth ce'~[]tnr:y Armenian manuscripts (72)~' these mJay 'be' vaguely associated with the Julfa animal.

'The tail ending' im at drs gon ~ 81 head is well kJi1 o\vn in ' rmeman art from he' t\ve]fth to the it teenth century (73) and 'is f ',lind

in, the neighboring slamic tradition . f the twelfth and 'thrrt ¢.nth centuries; O:I:J~e of 1,18. in previously recording W~Men't examples ~ofth]s

(71 ] he Louvre has a fa ne c(d~c'C'ri.o~l ot th~e D~,ge.';tanl stone reLiers; 'the

(ndp±ll, (\~8S di&!)la}l\edl dllldng ~'~e 1917' exl"Bu'bm'tiOI1J «I'lstam dans ~e.s co.He.cthJF'!s nationales- ~.!"J U-ne Grand ]?~.Iais and. again in 19'f~1 .. 2 dl\J.rlI'lJS fUl ~~hib[t i~L·o.r~e\rut des ~roi· ades» In .fhe M ~e d 'a rt et d "essai,

(i.2.J Sec. for example the h~('). a rove the headpiece of S t, M ~lfk.., O:I]~ wi. th "8. human head, ill Hu!, G'o5~'1 Qlf 1261 by rt),ros R.Q;SHJl,.a~IUmore.~ \Valters: Ail <Oalf~ry! MS W., 539'i fol, 13, II, ·S. D~r Nersessian, A,,·menrfl'l. M(mu.SCf'rpIS in the fVtJil'elfS A'f'.f .' iljll"J' I2m~ tl run re, I q.j'3~ 'pt '~2'11 fig. ;89.

(71) See e'x!1m~le, from manuscripts in MJflR _-:t,@,ka.nyai1!, Armecnian .IJef:r)rr(lli~fJ itr~1 ht;~, 12S~ 72~1 7J~. i Ul~~HOJ.

JB,ALTRlJ~ A~J,~5 & KQlUYMJI'AN: lULFA 0" fHH AR.AX 41

ssglt arius fi.&url(e has discussed ] ts meaning in both east and west (14). Parallel mo'~ ifs are known in Armenian and Geolrg' an, mrniatn:relt in wmc:. at feline body with, human torso and a c owned lli-le~,d is represented executing a Parthian shot at the menacing ope,ll mouth dragoiU at the en d of the crea tu re s O'\<V11 tail (7'51• ' ., owever this species ,i IS found in a secular conte t, whereas the Julfa 00 1 pcsite animal like that at N'Qt Vawag is in a clearly v,eligtous une. pl"db' bly s,ign.ifYillg,.

- 10· 24(". ~Ilgl.'a;\f.jng ,oF ram S 'one of Manuk Na~~u~ of ,- SII. Pheee ii.ftet ~'Ji~ElJt.

Sf_~a,'kal~'. 'fig'. 12It

'~y m~[ogy to 'the Christ motif '~vbiich '~oUQWS It, the resurrection of the 'S0l1l11 through ~ble risen Christ, It is p(uJ~'able't what w]th the attendan t' angel s and the hal 0. ,of the. ani m al in the lu] fa exemples, and dle location at t e 'Very entrance of the church in the '.,' OJ![ V'an!!

(14 For instance, 0 til cains !".ilf the Artuk id ,dy.ni!$ty of the twe!rtUl century stlmiial(' W Armenlan molars discussed ln the fbUo'w~'nl aote, For an ijJ.us'ir,a_'I.O',IITt of the A ['1 i:JJkid type ,i1]S wen. as, we~I~~rn ~ar~et]Jes with a di.s:.Gu.Bsiolll see J, 8a~ l uifti'l is, Le lfoye,n: Age ftmt,f,lillllfJ.Ulti A}/,fi'qlliu!.~ et I(J;X:OI:'I. mes. d'JJ~' ran goth/que, new ed~tio.in, ParI's· 1981! PD" tl0 .. JJ1. rig. 9SA.

(7''-) T~~~ examples are similar to the rut uk id com types 'alnd those an tWfll fth and fbirteeJLIltfi century lSit.mac bronzes. The fa.lUo,t:I:s Georgian I:!ltBll'1lple is 1'[10111 an aS~r[DfilQmy hook of "nU~8,~ S. Amir,an~slltjniJ G"lzifjl;l]k(Jj~ mlnt~'iwtl," M'osco'WJ 1 gl!66~ fig., 56!, also in Mnac-'a;kany,al:lJ" A~;'n'wNilm lJeefj.rat~~~,., Arl~ ng. 1 ~05; t~e Arme.r:uLa'lITI, eJULU1ple ~'~ ill ,~1ate'(l:lad;ua'r:I,~ ~MS 3,884 of 1461-]478, M'nac~aJkayaID..m H,g" . _U14,

one, that '['[:he ,h"fbr:~d figure :W~u1c~ion,5 as ,rn. s,ytrdnll of salvation, Indeed, thiis ,i s the basic theme of tlie, ere ss that f orms the central motif and provides the essential rais.on crttrtt ·CJ,"f x;a}c~lk!',a·[.s. If' w:e w·ewe to a·ppbf (MLlfI' em.:~ ler explan3;{~'o"D. of the sagittarian Jigur,e to '01,e,. one found. on 'the cl~lJlFc'b and Julfii monuments, we would s.pe~l~ ef a union of heaven and earth represented by a combiaation of the celestial Christ

'"

and the terrestri al dragon (16).

Further tY~l()I.l1ogi,c~d, d M'sifi.catk;m s o~ thb va ,i,~lty are no dQubt :pQi$,~jble~ bnt ,addjti,oJ"Ul1 refinement \;viU have to ,;;tw:ait mote dl~:ta.

A- . ,Ii'", ~L..:. ' '. ...:Ii ,t . ',' .' x·4'~~ C r- '1'1)..,. ,. ,,;If ", -, '~,.,,', -, -- ...-.Jd' ",,~:JI ',c', 'I ',,, '" .... ] -, of

' __ $; HJi.l1' me secena _,yp~ \\1!t.;L11I1ln51~:II we nave notea nme examples o

'wllicb {tm:y tJl'~'fe l]a ve dlseernable dates: 1597 (Fl:g" .23q) and, 1\-V'o of' l~Ol (P",gs.., :2JfJ 30~ (77)., Amcmg the undated ones the~r.e is a 'wi,d~ va[.~:,et.y of interior mQdific.a'tions. The \lery iJilr1Lang.e.meut of ftg;ur,e~ su.ggest9i a. progression (rOTIl all Olt,g"! nat", arehai a formula. 'I t ;i 51 120 ssfb'l~: that this group m~:y have. d~v~~']op~d j:md.e,peI1d~hd)f of the, previous animal sty]e', watfuer til ma beialJg a clUQ~~o~Q,gi,~&r1 [y later S:U'bslt~tute for it.

The 'fi][st of "{th~ three dated examples i s ~he clearest in '~f&r.m s of its 'interpr.et;attion. Christ is seated 011 '8, t;lh.ro~ffif,c oompesed in part of the four symJb0li,c animals' ofthJ' apocalypse, 'Un:l'£O'irbl11 ate]y the Baltr'UJj aJti s photo (Fj\g. 2le) or the upper part reecrds oruy th~ ,alate of' ] ,5:9", but leaves us in doubt about the eonfigurat ion o:f the rest of the carving. P:resnmab[y it [8 l:i~ t])Jlt of I.~02 found in the A1j~~u! .. Milarn ~~ho:tograpll: (F,i8~., 30). The 1591' moti f"is flanke d 0r11 three sides ~y a carefuny carved i n:scr~1!ti.~,]~. Om the left and I: i WIt are crosses in niches, Chrlsl is also i 11 a, poJylo bed niche, n the AHsan~MiJ;nl example (Fig, ,2Jfl, detail), tj],e. two side crosses ha ve been t;'Ulppr-esBi®a to exp.a;rLd tlle ,design outwa.rdl. Kneeling angels 'with wil'1~~ reminiscent err those i L d b'~ d 'iI!...:IL·..a '. 'I· '1lL. 'R... dded T1..' . ..l ncr tue'01illY.'c· ~,U) Qul,iClil], aruma type.~ IIIlJ3Jlie ueen CliilJ!·· ea, ,j[ ne sun J]J]u

moo:]] t'o,getl1er wi~J~, ,i:! ''ID.lcm".,sYirnnl.etdc,a] arabesq ue backgt~Omld gives th ~8 'W,orrk a $pe¢'~a] ~Jlur~., Th e ftn~d dated example is one of till~ most

('76) :Hal h;tliaiF;is.t Le ,M()y~m Agrj Rmf{ls~itj1:Jt(! f. pp. 1],] -2.

['1if) l1laUfuM~li&~ two {.F,~:gs~ 2,JILF~.~cl. QiJ[g~ of W.IILcll is da ted lli 5197 {Fig.. Zle'}; V ~Iuftmi~ rn.~ :fi1f~' {F'ig] .. 23a!>~, d); the ~11~ O[ J 802 [OITH' fi~. iU is 'liL'qw lnEjminoiln. D'a(,f.mw~,w{. If:,ittJ"/c/lf:r:.ar n 'figs. :5 6'~7, ,A~mi'!\liwt Kl~al'cI1ka~~f, ffigs. ] 9&~, 9g~ ,"KitattlM'uk' CatttlrJl1~"g, fl!!. 51" see ~Is,b ~n!rt;{ [lott~ 73:~ AiiiSiilm,t S'~1s~tlc(Eit; :[ig, t14~ ~od.ern ptllJ0tO .Iu Ktrfltchlmf, Catalogic~Do fi!., ,W (Qur flg. JO), .aJ$.o da'led ]'~02 _;,. AJi~anlll fi~. m.1~'i ,Snr.\mliJ,rY~Hh )(,r)rhr~l~yi'1 h~}J:(lsta:1~1 1,/.~·ut.llka.fl b~lt:lltr(]~"{ ltr,ifal:J{l~meF.J.~ :El'mI'&Il,! ;~9).S .. j i~. 5l~: ;;mother lor ,th~ '¥'ilJ~e~' m~~ be C~:nC~fll~1 i n '~h~ JJQnr -ph!l).OO ~n A )'1;r'a~a!'~. r:UJ.~:rj(Jl'l;~UII. t. fi~. j~)'b, '\'o'tJ1.c'h ;ill:&y,~rs l-q; b~. 'like the ceT'rttr,8!l xac.""k" ~f Qif fig', 56 i n the

, _

Ihll d '~~iriorll lor nf~'('l~m~~~f>li. f(IJ~t(fi.kar. Mil~]iJ.~ t~'11.

"BA'[.'rRJJSA:rns &; KOUV . J.IIAN: ~Ut:FA. ON run AUX 43

ramous of 9JI: XJlQtk'c1rs from Julfa, for i~ is preserved at HolyE'~chmiadzm in A 'IDellia and has been reproduced dozens of times (Fig. 31),. On this exqruj'site f,eHe·f' of 160,2, executed by the. master Or]g'OJr (7"8), t,fue band bas, been further expanded laterally to create the most sopl\Jlsti~ cated ',Jl;adation ef the type. 'Two ad.dH~,ol~aJj angels have al so 'hem added,

The undated ,examples fill] ~:n~a, arcaded and non-arcaded groups, The Ia tter (Fig: .. 23a.) is represented by A S]:u,8~.'e stolle i u whiclt the laterel 'bland has been substituted 'by m.: allov er esign in l,hile}l the spaces ere fiUed by Cbrs st the angel, eagle lion and ox of the. apocalypse and! four angels, Below are two .~ rosses individually contained in extreme- 1"1 pointed mihrab-like niches, I,'f,ohably representing just two of f,01l4f OlE tl'l,e entire stone as found on other xalc.~k~ars 0,1 this type. The remaining ones (19), are themselves dlvi.o,ed into 'two groups, two showing a central motif similarto the :e~ Itrn.saids ] .597 x:at'tt:,a'f':ablL with the add i'~] on of cberubbns above the a read ,'S end,osing Christ' s. ]u~ad (~ig. 23b)~ 10:n the. sides are two pairs of CtO~e'5\! each enelosed in fit pointed liliobe 'he o'toer:s ( .'igs. 230: d.~, shew the band arranged 'in a. series of uni :form,aID]y sized single painted Gothie-l j:k~ arcades ruDt~.dnood 'witll a fl.ow'illg band, Little cresses surmount ,eaoll ,o:f the porints so foamed, In addition to the central Christ of the previous. examples, ~bur haloed male sai'1'ls. turning . oward Christ are. introduced, one to a~l arcade, surely representing the' four Evangelists (810). OA 'I wo of' these, the .ligm.e to the right of Christ is. ycung and ll~l1bea1.dcd., This a:rrangel!tJJeu~ recalls the: scene of Christ ill O~o.ry Q~7 'the Sec'ond Coining i~1 ,fifteenth :a;od six~eenth century Arm en ian min iatures where J eS1lJS is:, seated onthe throne of tetramorplts, the symbols of t:h.r~ Eva1tg\31l~t8 In .'-. rmenian examples of 'he period, Christ is uu~nJ flanked by. the Virgit.l and John the Balptjslt But Ul,e [j,BJi[.C eonliguration O'f the beads 0. f 'the tetramorph and especially the para Iel lines of ibe:j' wmgs

(78) SC~ Ilrt~'!!~ ous ji,O'llC. Jl.l~b~I'M ~y ~.n iIlLUeID11~t has :I_)e·cu rn ad~, re .SJ§ign til eaning to the ,es~t(trk~' nu L'llClical v~ I ues Q f ~.h0 imsc~dp·~io(IJ. of' «u rigor \"8:rpet»j, the sc~ll!IP'~m: o-f the xat.r k" at, ("j1k Dsmadlan, (~.Es~a~ d~ d~oodage d'u ne erolx de pii2(l~) .• Tlte S:econ:a Inl tlin:l.lrmtll S),!~Jposim.t,' (HI AtrJf!t?.'fl.icm Art. Yere~t'm, J.2~1.J SepPm'be. J'9'l', Ere.van~

98.[,~ vol. I' n, pp, Ul3.-1 .4.

(,<:1) ~ilJtru~itis! on~; Vab.r.aInia.mL~ 6\'e tm:l.udung ti:n,e; (~ne w:tlth'n,e aU ()il'er de.$itn·: V ~ilJyr ] 11 ma.r~lUidlary~r~,. H uJt(}rjQm1R~·:J. ~. 5,6,

(80) VahIH. m [ilin. tht~~ examples {o'!lr Figs. 13c-d),~ A[i~ul Sisti/am. ,q., [2'9'; ~alxu.d~ty~n, l-fl Ml1£lJW£'td, fi.g. 56, which ap'pe.a~s!o t~;fh:tce Ul E\lange1is.~ with

. . _

f..::JilOO:~i·ng anJ~e'ls~ at l~st :a,t the e~tre~IiL~tieg, atr, ~ ~e rew or eresses ~Ilmve 'the ,n.l'('!ad~ is lacking.

44

.1 Iii'

,I N MEMORIAM ilA1G BERJ.fE.RIAN'

spread to rl ~:t.t and left, recal ~ 'th,~ Julfa ::t80""k'rc ars, Scenes ():f. the ASieerus:I:ijJI and L8L~t J ud'g.e',mt'ml.t also m(MW' 111 e same arrengement, so metimes wlHl the additien 0 f chembim (:8~,). 'Those lae~kt",ars wi ill the EV$l'Jll!Z'Hsls and the :fp1JU creatures forming Christ's Utrone grO'llped ito,geth~]" ,~nvoke both the G'O.~pe1E, and the apoca].y!"tlc 'tfiMO'U,.

An earlier va,.i~ety of the ,«cros's~} type may have served ,]]l part as a transition to the :XATc."l"~aU's with Christ and the lE"r~m,iJis~s~ syu1bo:ls in the upper 'hi&tn~,. Bal tr~;.i mitis (Fig. 19'1'1 detail) ~nd. others :mtve [,eC~iJJ'ded seV€l~jJ fh-a'~ introduoe into each of tJ]C quadrants of the central cross one of the four symbols; a;l_g,eJI I' lion ex, eagle (82). There are ,R] so a number cf ,ath er vadetie s of the xac.t_kt ar from this period, t~~e decadK; of the IS80s~ but ~hey ~U~ SeeltELITIg~:y less C0]11JJl0m. tl~eir m.t)tifs include the Virgin and child, the 'V:irgb~ and the magi J Christ ,aJ one, the bust 01 Cbrist in 'the center of the main CfQIS£ (Fj,g. 19b)" and, figures arranged vertiGIUy ruong oUl~ two sides of Ute :5'toue (.83)., The p[e~ P onderant majori ty ~ ,h-owey.er-~ of "the gravestones 'shows e']ab orations 'tJl[ tile cross design, mu'l~ip]ylrng' thenr number in ,alwa.:y;s, new !lIJld c;re&tive ways", Se]do'nl are '(we identical x~l,ct',k~,aES to be seen. The tnnovative irllgelluu'ty and the obsessive passion to create ever 11l@W' variations of the theme of the cross seem to have had. ]],0 bounds at. JU~.fiL

The fi:ruLl group of Julia, ,fill;:l.eli-~U~' monuments to be eousidered ] 5, the most unusual among the theus ands executed til ere, and d~s,"tiD:rgUlli shes 'this cemetery from a 1 ') others, These are the ram-shaped sculptures alluded to earlier, Te:I~h)licl Uy tlIDey' are :m,ot. xa[r'k. an; since 'tl~eir mai!J;l. purpose 'i:s, n.ot ;supp Oft :rOf a ICfQcSS,., The m;aJonty of '~ho S~' £{vfd~l t on tnt pb,otognu,llt~ 11 ave ~llel t~~l" cn:o~s nor inseri ption ;tThOm"' a;ny

[:)-1) For an ex a1tiUIp]E' i(1\~r.Y' mUGh Uk~ (H,Wr c~LIJh'a~ 1111~tif, see M'na('''D'kiil!L~IYIUlJ!

Anjl,~el~i(fn fJfl_cor,~1.iwt An. p, ~95~ r~~. 4Ifll9"I' 'Erov'Bfc1~ M{L'lmnZld~r:l[I1~, MS '~J56 dared I46~l E~~ll1'Oples of ,tbe mol1'" i f1 mi rI ia:t ures ~;~',!l t,e~~po-r~ry to. dle J ujl'f~ m,OEtlll.f;I,]:el~,-r;S o:a.D 'be fQlij],d ]t:L f~ira V,HLc['{i H:!I),kDpian~ Armal~~~(JI1: Mil'li(rti~j'(J.\:~ Va.~w-ourak~fJ'. _~' revsn ~ ] 97:31 [r.i ti n~t1;~J edltkli[J.t :fig. ~ S i' 1 :}"n A.D. from H~Jd;, '[ig, ~11 UiM from :X!;zan,; r.~r a 1m, earlier ewu~m;p'~e, Der 'N~~~:[Ij~, Wah,eJ'is.. fig" :t:~ 11• ,~~htJ, 'C~:rn],tbg. ffig~ .1tJ9', As:c~n", s~e;11,- l'!t1'S; W$4Jo;~ :~ 4,7'5.

('82) Two S'IllCtll nO,]j],e$ can also 00 seen Om a 'Vfl.1.yt pih.'otograp'~I~ I)lJf:UmiJ:lltl~j KJ"rtlfC/fktJr j ~fig. 55 the :SSJmf ill Ay¥~zy.a[),~ PtJlrifa:miJ.d~ f-'~Ct. ,37a.

{O'''!! ~ B ~ i1' Fih • t .nr ,,!II ''\i'" - ..:1 r= ... -~ d' "'n ~t.6 "'~ n,- "" ~t .... ,Ii"i""_-C chen i'fI'Ii t'he

!!iai!'J, '_ . uS'~ IQII 'Ii,,_, ]",U5 _' iRIlitlly- tlfglJ!:l aoy 'II;,.;,.;IJI]~' °u' '!L~,,", "'~ u1~' '~'_V':HI;,oiJ 1_ ' __ '_ ,~!, ~"_

pm~foU~1 ll1,o~e:; ~ x.a.;C~~:",a.r Oif ]-60:3 "!"-vith Ch'["jS[ ioa small C:~J[~o~dt; Arn'llmiit}i!i. J{I~'aid1.kt;I.~·i~j I'i S. l'{)~:; !.h~ Magi ~n~ 'i]~hel' figures ]ll, EL J],\f&'Pa rtit(.e, '~0P b~]lJd:j. AV-etHssiaifil" Pd~u"jJ. I' ~ J, 'f.-ip1t 'liN; i 1ft. III ~c:rt; w:ith e~\8h'~ rertk~ l n,g.ure-s four to a side, A,y.V',~zyati," r'i~n'l'" ia ~ uUd; fi~, ),9n .•

"fOCIG'. 25. ]ulta.,," [.'4; m stone . as seen in the' bil!ckg):ound .or Chatil!tr~;'.s photo Fi,g .. 24!l.

Pboto ~o[!Juesy o.f' Centro Doclam:~enta:zi!j)ne Ar~:]~~a'I' ·ti:I~.n"

. ..:i. - . ,. ,I F'" 2nA) - , . r- 'i'~". ' 't'·' '. d . '." . 'J A ~ t !'fi" "II II... ' ,.,,~- ,j;..'l!,." .-, J Q A)

lteS]p \ .1,g..,;I'i!.l,; tl me i wo _o'Wn rams h.lL;eJl ,t eu I~y !J1Le aumoi s ,Q''if" ,

'trurteetl. are undesorated. Jf'ud:be':nlli,lol~e~ the curious ab~,ef[c~ of crosses even 011 some of those ,tthat are hIghly decorsjed {F~ gs" 24-1~}, cOl1',ted 'wit11l. 'tJle~ seCRi:~tr ll1floti'ts [00:1 s~v'®wa1 (. "'[gs., 14; 2S;t 2:6 a- .2~a)1 puu the ram-shaped stones in H, spe eial ci1tegory' of tomb markers. At 'least one (F~.,g., 21) however j, doe's have a CTOS8 pro',J)l1i1;JLeuUy ca rved O,l] its, left side (85}.,

It j 9 hard to place U1,e ra m stones In. any mea.1lingfru ,e'h;r\()no.l,ogic3.~ seq,uene~ 'by ~.yp-e"" Three of tfuet~l have Te~.,~'ble da:tes·~ ,I 57 S (Figs; 24a-c)

li"U:;$:. 261i!;~,b. S:ardaraMd~ Ar.l11!!l:];ai!l.l, A.i:1:'i:meo]{J:gicaJ MlI~~u~n.'l nl m stlQ:l1e dated ~,S,j9" both sides, ~rhotos D, l('(i!u.ymjirilD.,.

] .579, fFi_gs., .26a-bl, ,and, lli 60 ~ (Fig~ ,28) (86), TblU'S.~ their app)ear..a.uce cO,]J]!cb:le:s with. tile" b~gimning of the f1,oudsj~][[,g period of Julia :xaek~',m"s ~ andl '~i [ ,pr.oduc1ion eontlnues to tbe end. A CQ11l1IUOTI:1i theme ,0]) them is ~ banquet scene (Fig], 24c, 25" 26;a~ 29.\a~ b) with two 'OT thr-ee'

(:84) R8Jlh'll]bilit~:s:" fq~'~r ,; Vf'Llirmmian ,t~ll~ mere than ~a~'[ plaln; Siijf.5l!d;pJJ1"D;b~Jd M,y~~mj A,nrle~:iao S.S"Jt\" (me (pint Fi~s;. 2~a-b); A l!1~an.. S~!~Ylk(J.~lj fig'. l2S~, same In KII~"r;J~,k:i:!~'1! C~Jf)~qtJj.iey 'fig~, ,24 '(ilIJ]SQ flg, 23j~ s~nl~ in ,M!1Jaea.k~.fbyatJl.~ Ai'mei~ittn llec1)p,rL" 1i'f.!:G'Af'l~ Ig, 1j1~~ .Avc.(H~stEIJn~ _P{lillt,~~(!.S. p. '127" D~J\f:llf,lnelUJ':. Kh~'fd~kuri, fig. :S5~ ~~e hi A;~v,~gy,~'WI,~ ,P-cr.f"YallJ~ilf~ Wig. 37.9.;, l)o(.'l'lIUlml'sl ,KJultrth.lfm', oohi~o l~7?'" 'fig, 56,

1(8..5)' f~(tm tm~ VatM'a..mi~m .arem'~J OMt .F]~. 'l1 ..

1~~'6,)' Alil~]j ~ ;Si'f-aka1~'j, 'fig. 1. 2$1 fep,roQ!cbJceill ~[J the oill~gilllai, pb(l!t~ of Cha.nr~ tak.eiLl' ,ill]. 1 ~9:O ,(m:tr :f~ g, 24a) In IrJurtdlk{j~' ~ CaWZ()/tufd~, fig. 24J dated I SiB·: Sard.anbaiCi M.~s.eUL'tl,~. ,a;ppa:rermltl;y ~iiJP'ub]~ shed, .~:S 79 (~)t;Lr Fig~. 2-"OOt"b); Varu~ misn, 1 GOI {(Hl.l Fi:@!l. liB), Tfu.'eJl[' :rJ.P.~:r,~l1.~e as a 'mo,tif ~~ms' to coij[lCi~ 'wllb tile oogitn]liJJ:~: or '~he [p~r.,i:,odJ of sr!\Y,~ist'~c e~;patil.rioJli, of th~ Ju~:f~. 1(~,~¢k'~ o.,rs as dis('L1SSJeii. ,~'b(}'ve'.

seated persons ~ a central figure ~ perhaps :th:e dlecea\~e"d~. 'bedn~: served by those in :attlC:TldartiC~ 01.1; the sidles ('81)" Vessels.! i"11d.u(lblg: !)i·tclrer,!. and musical instruments aXE evi d,c;nt. In the middle of e 0011 sum scene is ,a tree' or bm:mcb~ 'probably rep(ffi',o'scn.ti:n._g· tile trCtf G' ' m~e in wb).t b~ ]11telil,d~d as a. celestial 'banquet or l .alterna dvely ~ 'Ul€ Armenian hiO'Ift"c(Jj ~ tile' repa.s,t for the saul (8.8)" Sncl\1J a scene w:a~ [~lready observed .on normal ]f'llf~ xatJ,['ars,; Qonte,," d]s'p:I)~yed where a meuuted ngu'Jre m]gj]:t 1~.3:v'e; been expected,

The r311lJ. stone with Ul£ most v aried ,~;fId u nUJ31Ull see nes 'W[~~[ al so the first to 'be ]J1UbH shed, as a. photogra pb by ~I.dam e '8.. Cbantre (F,lg", ,24u) i~l 1 ggr). An engrav mg' I(F~g,. :Me) of the same stone by' Bo~coU] was 'Used. by A.lisa]], j n his Sis{JKan of 1 g;~3,. The '~r,i.mJu~I Chantre 'View hss "been repredueed by Adri a!1i Q A.~ pogo-·N QiVeUQr a 1\d the C~J)tro (U DO£~I.lf]~nU Armena of MH~:n, fur [['t~ tra 'Ve~ ~ifj'l pb.o~ogr:aptl[C ,e:dflba~t on Armenian )nl!.'l5l!'k~ ars, TJle Iate Art'lses, :Ml,UILC<P a,k~llJ,an also reproduced Ali8aD'~lsl drawing in hi iii Shldy on Armenian decorative ad. (89)~ The ft;tte: [of thi~ remarkable ffiQ:lL'1J ument il,as 'been U1'1C'eE~mn lUlUl D'OW desplte the pJ:U~to,geapll pwbH:~]wdl jn fhe' m'O{le'm,renJk)ned em1biti'n;n c~.taJogue (IF,lg.,, :25) plllrp()[· ring 'ito 'be a modern 0 n-site record of the same ,SCe1:R~ ~ :f~[J in thj:s), new ·pl'lot.[l illt is tlle' decerated r,~.tl hl the back~I(]1I1Iind of Cj}al1t.re~'s (of: Fl,gs. .24a~ 2$) that. is shown rather than the one un d1er eonsidera tien (90),;, 1IF O(ffi'~IIJ;Ll1a,~e1Y:ll ~1. close exs m.i[[adcm. of the ,BaUnda.itiS' [archive bas; established c]e1a:rlj1' that sometime Ibe,tJN~eJ1. ] ~9] and 19,28 the. ornate ~t011e was ov!c;rmrn ed, I~. 'was :pfu.'[)~Q:gra;p.hedJ

nearly Utp.~i de down by B,altms a]t1~ (Fig, 240)1 revealing the other side' which appears unde GO rated, Tlte lLac~1rar 'to tlle right of Ute 11m, allows !lSI to be ceii1taij],~ :Er;r it is th~ same ~S' th~: one ln the Chantre 'ph;oto"

The: Da:ttenec1l lear .or the ram b]( jt[b,e ,Al]ian len.gr~l'vi.ng (FilB,. 2k) sbo]r'V$ ,~1 swoni-bearillJl rider sroun d whom is [ns'&fl[bed~ <tT.his is the'

f81} .Bj)j1fh"u&~ith~, ,ODQ or two ~pJ!es (Ot!i[' Fig,5]", 2'~a-b}~ the ram g,ff J 578 . . Ad ~8aft~!Ch~u' ire {OUT' f.ggs. 24a~~ ,2'!lJ, seerns to' have' such R '5~ene ~ :Cl~~~:tft~ ,~uld ,!{/1cdchkftr" Cti/.l~II()£ftfeJ f;:g, ,':"l; S~fd,~~g.b~~!~ o£ 1579 (fJ:g~, 26a,,;b).

($:S~ $,ueJ1 a b~lii'L_q.uec SCeELe wi th [mtsi~l3!.nts ~s is found nil! p\[i"t)'\j!~~I1J~l:al. styk~. 1\aelr"ars fi?1(jim odwf' ,[et[[on~ ''Of Armenia, sr;e J\oJ[" ,exanljl1les the il1usmu,[@ns ~.ccOIfl~P~rf~-\y]ng: Gr.i~or Kclnl1\3mjm~ l{Muz,ykal"]:lJe :ifljlStI'm:n~t,y na b:y1:ob1'~· n~I'~~ftli~ ClrrIiile· nU {Xll!-X'V~' ve~[jJJ)'~ .se'(;'tJl~d S,~mprJ.sium Ofl. Armpl,l~tl'i:r ..tr,t-" [;1) • .37'~J.S lil ! 8,,S, J 67·,J 69.

(~9J) AJ ~SM! &islJlam, fi,g. 118~: ,K:iutldllk{j}', C(Jt(Jj'ogMC', firg. 24: Mlnt1~"[~,k~l.nJ&~~!

Arm~'wkm fJ{'(~(,I'fi'!~'!!e An. j]~. 733~ 'Ol~l:' F,~,s. 2Ae:, The Ol<i;!E:ill1tl!.~ i~ in n, I iHnl~ 1i\~1 ,.j ffa ~lIj'r..v t ·11'irU~ ~'Jle nl,'!l~(!'1 r-.BrJ~" '~'ijg'3i ~ ~.h 6t,t) nn 'P. [180"

~ dJ~ ~, f( Jmt '/~/,;t"rf. C(dt,UI ~~j!I". n j' ~ ,J~.

tcmb of 1V[a::nul~ Nazar, ~ 518)} (9~,)~ The al~.'boratcd,y [h~;co[',ated. horns of this animal are found, ou other examples (:f.i,~s,. 216a~bJ~ including a fragment p,hO,tIQgl:aph~d b:~ ll3~tt'tlsai"[is, (F[g" Z~cl, The ft]"gu:rts carved on th,~ side e f t~,e t~1L1r] mal (F~,g~, 24~, ,C} are, "ro,m left to ]":~Bh't~ a mounted person witb a falcen on his ]e.ft arm, ]eadillg a sjt~1n,g of three prisoners, two, 1],'Pr~i,I]tt pigs or other ,~~:n i mals ('hU1CLttg; or embraelng, three figures engaged in 11 ban.quet. scene 0'1 in the 'el~'p3'FatiO'J~, of 011,~" the ]eft han d person p]ayiirlJg a stri'nged .instm;m,e]J~ and just below ~hemi a crc'w~ed,

,27

,e;

.~('j

F~Cii:!l" .2'1'" Jnl (h. ram '~r~O[le wi th a cross, uHdatetL 28., Ju lfa, fa !Ill steae ,c1[1:~:eCl f 60 I, " "lP'h.otas, courtesy of' ~~, Vah~YI IDIlu~n. 'M i ~a"~.

human-headed '~ird so OQiRUJrtOIl l n med ievel A:r menian art, Bxee p! for the three men t ied at the neck w itl1 ',~rm's, r:~ste;Il edt bebjn~l their 'ba.clk~] all 'the images have parallels in other carved stones from the cemetery QI in earlier works 0 f ,Arullemttn arr, ,e.VIM the cl.1,Ddn.g ~ i,gs (92l,

Th", ' - ']'~' id I"r,; ~'; Ii!!' h

~ef·e ]'S toe ·.lU:LC ev~ ence 'to ,ol:({e~~ all, ~xpla~IDla,1]Oll ],'(fE: the presence

of thi 8, unusual 'ram form in the J ulfa graveyardt '1V:EarI said that BUCh. ~ue~ 'were ,¥ide~:y known, j nan area stretch b1Lg: from the ~fi}Uthe111l ID1or,es, of Ute iCa:Sip,jan. to' the. Chortl~h riv-m- (9ll~ b1LJJ,t he &1 d nat otfer

(9'1) «A~t5, 2: hju'Ilgist 'Ma:i:mU-Ji Nm.zar,i;n~ t\r l~mE [JC:rH+,:S;jJ = [~;1~~}}·~ An~~.I1J

_ S~::SiJ'l~Qjl.. D;, 4,2;4.

('9'2) OJ[ at lcars~ 'e~,b[,acl'l~,g 'O( wrestling, upr,igln ~u'l.hTIaJs, ~]aC~ak~ln;ya:n~1 A~'ltllllJi(lU ikc'Ol'alirle An\', ,fi~. 5 U.; fro:~ M..ate118,a.aJ1[fIJ M S 745n of:~ l2(}, 'fLi~:" ~ 0:54, :rrom 'MS 172~ lOf. I j04 CIDetiJOOf.), lin :rnarbo/ Raxi J cwal'L.

(23) Quetfd if! M:ru~iC~akar.L'ly,~~; N. j~rt:'fJr,f)~ p,p. ]l57=8", 'MaJic.a .Bl'ambiUa. r.e:ports U'ilat r,~,m stam~s am' ,if"u(md, jJj ij;O, ej~g1ht(l:ell't ~ C~[i,tu;zy ,~rn:i'~~t, hi! all Armel1la~n, ceme-

an explanation of their ,sym.boUc meaning, W,nat rank, merit 0.'[ e s'Qter-ac acHvl tty ,did a F erson h ave ~,o have in order .rOoT his, gra ve to be' graced by a. nun: ~.' For the moment we cannot say.

In summary j Julta xa ~i~ k.~ ars ] n their earl ies decumente ~ phase ~ the last years 'Of' the fifteenth to the ]Jli d-'8ixt SC!]l tit century~, disp] ay a .style. characterized by provincialism, ~,ac of sophistication and ].oQ!~,enea:s, executed In. ra 'her low relief 'GraduaUy~ arret' the 1550s,

,n ....... '-. ,.Jl':-. n!,.... - ,': .. ·h.~1·lr~1~'· "'-d' t .; ' .• tir '.', .' ... n! ....... d ",- .J1 .. -., ".

U~ sur] ace J.lS· ever more SAJ.L uuy an· rnnova mg~r: WOfJtY;· m aeeper

and dee]} T relief' until the abrupt end of plod uetion in 160_" :B~y tille ~ 510s tl:M~ poi nted arch, an ancien t e'lem,Mt ,iin Afmenia1~. as 'we] I: as Isla nic architecture, replaces the rounded ,O~l~. u8Ied, pre '. t,ous.ly 2tt J"~~fa and elsewhere, _ n the .earlie·s t sts ge ' of the art, 'the deceased ~s. not represented on the tombstones, but l'Otugbly from m:hl-c:e~l~1!:l!I~Yto- the 1.57'09 the person l:S scmethnes depicted, in a primitive and diminutive manner, These effigies were r .. p' aced, in. the late 1. 570g by. a, horseman J a motif alre ady used i n .A rmen i an xae'k'an in the th irteen th century and one tha\~ remained popular at J'Jkllfa to the end (94). A less frequent 'banquet SC0n~ appears at about the same '~] rue as the r1 der I but th.e two are not seen together on 'tile same xaci k('lr '(9:5). At th~ end o,f the 1.510\51 a:. 'abul()us two-boc ~ed animal, with a single human face appears on. the top! band. of some gravestones ann. in the 1,5808· the tetramorph, a comblnaticn of the sy rnbo Is of 'the fo,Q;IT Eva ngelists, 1s assimilated into the central cross on. som' monuments, bl tbe late 158(ls or e.f3ldy 1590s Cfuiri enthrone d, at times with the four ·EvaJlB~liists~ replaces the stramge animal in ·the up'pet' band Also ],~. the 1570:; a uni que sculpted ram monument is. introdmed into the rep.ert.of'Y O.r the. cemetery; it remains popnlar to. the ~nd. of JW'f:Il~8 existence, And al wa:ys. there Ire the stone s :decorated ,only by crosses arnd geolllu~~t]C or gc·ome.· iIed, floral designs, ThIOUgbout the history of the Julfa ce'll'tec~el':Y~1 these [·~pr~:sent the 111ljO!tity of'run.e·tar.;, mnnu ...

tery at M ~}urnb.[t[, north or Ta brlz: he adds that ,gimiJat r.R-~]B· wu til ~~J.daJ'I i.[[jJscti ptions C~l\iti be seen neat .ll~~llfeS i j:I] rhe. r,e.~lon of KnOll ~ M~tiklll, and SabnULj! probabilly rater 'iuiitali ons of ~irmenian 1~1(amp.les .•

(94) The. earliest example seems t()' be 'abc. ~~Y·k~'al~ o:f 1. 13 3 of Gr.ilor .~db::lJ~ :hreal"lil. br~ugh' to :eJ.mm,a,dn [rom 1 rn.irz>ek." see ,tiJ '·mr]uiaf.1 Khtl'tcllktlJ'S', mi.. (iB .. 7U. ~'S· The Qnly e'xc~ptuO:I'D ~s tim f·a.m ~{one' o~r I, :57:8, AHa'an~: nranln:, ,'i"Nrlktm~, fh , 1l:li.C., - 'If Fig. ·4 I"· •

50

I '1 .~. Z9[H.L J ~ lill;H~ f~ ttl stones, aJ ~ ~lII.d~:red. 3.. wiU~. h!llllqJI.e~ SO~~e,! b, \~tith ~jit~; t: 01' 'I,~ n~ ~!C I see ne, ~. ornate head, d. pla i n, sI8.n.cl i'l'lI.g OOJ:bEe jl;ae-l:'k'" ® rs and ¥~sl:ige:'li of ,~~, "w~ 1.1. Pb~I~.o~ B~t~r~Ui!:iJ:5.

29 ell

meats, The vem:y last. of them tFmg>s. 30..31) are calved ,Oil] three, four, ,fiv,&, and, mor-e planes; ·th~y nre "'mpecc(lbly sculpted with pronounced ufl!dercntti.1ikg', displaying ill mastery of 'toneow'ott that is at times silupe(ying: tn its intrlca·cy and near wonderow in its tlesth tic 11,annony.

In this es,s~y~ besides 'pubU;s,h[ng the valnabie documents earefuUy assembled haJf a century ago b'y one of us, we have tried to underline the richness o.f Ithi s group of carved funerary mon umen ts a nd their n.ear]y .inexhaustible potenHal for study and tlJna]fy~.is. In addition to

~"! IG. ;10. J ulfa, N:at k' a.r 'w.ho Chr.i:St. sun uud me on or 160~. Photo after A~ Ij (Jil'/l kfllr E~,'ti#)utfJ'l. ~ 11 ~i',O Docu-

Ul,lo: flli Ilicnrui.' rrnent ,.:. 'flaIl.

''!i I ~ • " ~~ k~

iIi"'lU. ;1.,. BJI:L~ U:h:: I.I~.., xae. lEU'

'rom .J ulfa or J. 602 executed b,Y master G rigmr., Photo after Anmmi(.w J(hafcl~b4r:'$" fLg. 196"

the thorough arehaeo logieaJ :s;urv'ejl ,,;ye' called for ,~t 1th~ 'begill;tl~'1,8 of. this stlldy,~, W~ also sU;ig~st 'that a x~e.'l'k.!' 9.11" museum be' oi,ganiz,ed speIc]ftc~lill, for th:i~ material (96).t perhaps :~t. l1l11f&l\ itself: For tb.e moment one can -cully; bope the.re fs I~A) filJ.rther d.eterfo:dmtion. OIlf' abuse to the slte and that the .Azed:n~djani authoritie s allow scholars '[0 ·-Uho[.()'u,gllidy ,snfV,ey the ~xis~]ng mOJl~m~lS in Ill] s Armenian region,

AdJdi'UI'IlJa] Brule: 'Wb] le ;tl1Li~ 'vlolttme was, in press there appeared I~;Q imp ortant arti de on the J'tllf.a, fluueJ.ltry man uments: Suren Sa hlmyan :~n,dl Vttlt-da~ H,a:r1].~~Yllnya.-n~ ,({V,i:ltll1lgJrel Hill ll].bl·:Y]C~ (Inscriptions f' em r]l[d[ JuJfa)>>,~ Lraber (198 3Jj no, ill 2; Up,. 42--61 i Tbml!h it is, .im.ptQssib~e to iudtud,e' its findi~lg.S WiU:ll:n aUi s:tlad'y ~ ,i t should be , ointed out tha~ the' authors visited Jnlfa in ·uriE. 'They report counting ne:ady Jj!OOO xa,cn;:~ ars, a:nuf, 11 ave pll.bHs'ltBed 81 of their insa'iptk~11'S,!, the em:~ ie11l'f of whioh lB, :tl0TJ;11 tJlcn. and 'U1e latest from. l'6ijI8,.

(:96) AplDa:reliL'~Y t~e Idea, w~;s already binted at .by a li!I;\G~J~rr.1~r i'liI)' th~ b~gi~'~iing,

of this ~~j~~ury~ ~ fi{-IJ~~~ni;e,~i J,fJY}I.[1:0. 3·~ ~6QI)lj S~I}t~mlb~r' :l;96G,~ reference froID • A.yvtn;ytln, fJ'tm~Jtrfl,~~;lt, p. 74., lwte .21.