CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION TO SATELLITE TELEVISION

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SATELLITE TELEVISION
Satellite television is television delivered by the means of communications satellite and received by a satellite dish and set-top box. In many areas of the world it provides a wide range of channels and services, often to areas that are not serviced by terrestrial or cable providers.

Satellite television or digital television (DTV) is the transmission of audio and video by discrete (digital) signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV but are not truly embedded systems, because they allow different applications to be loaded and peripherals to be connected. The first satellite television signal was relayed from Europe to the Telstar satellite over North America in 1962. The first geosynchronous communication satellite, Syncom 2, was launched in 1963. The world's first commercial communication satellite, called Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird), was launched into synchronous orbit on April 6, 1965. The first national

network of satellite television, called Orbita, was created in Soviet Union in 1967, and was based on the principle of using the highly elliptical Molniya satellite for re-broadcasting and delivering of TV signal to ground downlink stations. The first domestic North American satellite to carry television was Canada’s geostationary Anik 1, which was launched in 1972.[1] ATS-6, the world's first experimental educational and Direct Broadcast Satellite, was launched in 1974. The first Soviet geostationary satellite to carry Direct-To-Home television, called Ekran, was launched in 1976.

1.2 OBJECTIVE
The main objective behind using a Satellite TV or Digital TV over Analogue TV is to reach the modern day demands of picture quality and less cost. Until the advent of digital television, all television was based on the transmission and reception of analog signals, displayed on a cathoderay tube. Although a number of different broadcast television systems were in use worldwide, the same principles of operation apply. While this low-quality analogue signals looked fine on the comparatively small, tube TVs, this is no longer the case with modern flat-panels. Anyone who's tried to "admire" an analog TV signal on a 50-inch plasma TV will know how pitiful it looks: a lackluster, low-resolution picture, plagued by disturbances - in short, TV that'll turn you off. The video signal of analog television was transmitted in AM, while the audio was transmitted in FM. Analog TV was subject to interference, such as ghosting and snow, depending on the distance and geographical location of the TV receiving the signal. In addition, the amount of bandwidth assigned to an analog TV channel restricted the resolution and overall quality of the image. The analog TV transmission standard (in the U.S.) was referred to as NTSC. Satellite TV or Digital TV, or DTV, on the other hand, is transmitted as data bits of information, just as computer data is written or the way music is written on a CD. In this way, the signal is basically "on" or "off". In other words, the intent of DTV technology is that the viewer either sees an image or nothing at all. There is no gradual signal loss as distance from the transmitter increases. If the viewer is too far from the transmitter or is in an undesirable location, there is nothing to see. In addition, since the DTV signal is made up of "bits", the same bandwidth size that takes up a current analog TV signal, can accommodate not only a higher quality image in digital form, but the extra space not used for the TV signal can be used for additional video, audio, and text signals. In other words, broadcasters can supply more features, such as surround sound, multiple language audio, text services, and more in the same space now occupied by a standard analog TV signal. However, there is one more advantage to the ability of a Digital TV channel's space; the ability to transmit a High Definition (HDTV) signal.

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The listing of channels is digitized and therefore one does not have to randomly flip through channels to find where the favourite channel is.4 ORGANISATION OF THESIS . In a digital channel you have to just check out the list and choose the channel that you want to watch.3 CHARACTERISTICS These are some characteristics of Satellite TV: 1) Satellite television uses the digital transmission technology in which images are converted to digital data that is transferred to the television set. 2) This way of transmitting image and audio can result in a picture that is extremely clear and a sound quality that is unparalleled. 3) Satellite television is also extremely convenient because it allows for a better user interface. 5) While all seems in favour of Satellite television. adopting this option also means that you are in a 0-1 bit world. 4) The Satellite television option also allows for a higher number of channel possibilities because the data can be compressed into s smaller bandwidth. 1.  1. There are no grains as there used to be earlier and there are no breakages in the sound either. This is where the digital television set changes the digital data into images and audio. a higher number of channels can be transmitted without investing in additional infrastructure. So using the same cable options. This means that you either get transmission or do not and there is not middle path where you can at least watch some grainy image if the signal is not perfect.

1. for example via the Common Interface (DVB-CI) standard for Europe and via Point Of Deployment (POD) for IS or named differently CableCard. such as DMB and DVB-H.S. such as the U. This way is known as Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT).1: INTRODUCTION TO SATELLITE TV RECEPTION: There are a number of different ways to receive digital television. Other standards. have been devised to allow handheld devices such as mobile phones to receive TV signals. . Signal quality will also vary. Another way is IPTV. Access to encrypted channels can be controlled by a removable smart card. that is receiving TV via Internet Protocol. For example. In some countries where transmissions of TV signals are normally achieved by microwaves. there is P2P (peer-to-peer) Internet television software that can be used to watch TV on a computer. viewers are limited to whatever channels the antenna picks up. an alternative way is to receive digital TV signals via the open Internet. Finally. relying on DSL or optical cable line. Other ways have been devised to receive digital television. Among the most familiar to people are digital cable and digital satellite.4. Some signals carry encryption and specify use conditions (such as "may not be recorded" or "may not be viewed on displays larger than 1 m in diagonal measure") backed up with the force of law under the WIPO Copyright Treaty and national legislation implementing it. Digital Millennium Copyright Act. With DTT. digital MMDS is used. One of the oldest means of receiving DTV (and TV in general) is using an antenna (known as an aerial in some countries).

especially in cases where a clear lineof-sight from the receiving antenna to the transmitter is not available. The use of higher frequencies will add to these problems. Some equipment will show a garbled picture with significant damage. viewers who are too close to the transmitter may find reception difficult or impossible because the strongest part of the broadcast signal passes above them. distant channels that.2: REDUCING EFFECTS OF POOR RECEPTION IN ANALOGUE TECHNIQUE Changes in signal reception from factors such as degrading antenna connections or changing weather conditions may gradually reduce the quality of analog TV. For remote locations. The 8VSB-based standards in use in North American ATSC broadcasts are particularly vulnerable to problems from dynamic multipath. until the receiving equipment starts picking up interference that overpowers the desired signal or if the signal is too weak to decode. Dynamic multipath interference. as digital signals. In areas where transmitting antennas are located on mountains. as analog signals. is particularly problematic for digital reception. be perfectly decodable or may become completely unavailable. The nature of digital TV results in a perfectly-decodable video initially.1. in which the delay and magnitude of reflections are rapidly changing. .4. This phenomenon is known as the digital cliff effect. were previously usable in a snowy and degraded state may. this has the potential to severely limit mobile or portable use of digital television receivers. it can render a digital signal impossible to decode. while other devices may go directly from perfectly-decodable video to no video at all or lock up. While this just produces moving and changing ghost images for analog TV.

The figure below shows an PCI based analog TV receiver: PCI based Analogue Satellite TV receiver .

The figure below showing the block diagram of a PCI based Digital Satellite TV receiver: PCI based Satellite TV receiver .

CHAPTER-2 DIGITAL TELEVISION .

and many subtle intermediate cases exist. in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV. With digital terrestrial television broadcasting in the USA. DTV uses MPEG-2 encoding just like the satellite systems do. larger screen formats. Each of these utilizes a 16:9 . amongst which: 1280 × 720 pixels in progressive scan mode (abbreviated 720p) or 1920 × 1080 pixels in interlace mode (1080i). The formats include: • • • • 480p . and interactive capabilities. but digital TV allows a variety of new.640x480 pixels progressive 720p .1 WHAT IS DIGITAL TV? Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of audio and video by discrete (digital) signals. Digital television supports many different picture formats defined by the combination of size. High-definition television (HDTV). called multicasting.1920x1080 pixels interlaced 1080p . These terms by themselves are not very precise. one of several different formats that can be transmitted over DTV. Digital Television (DTV) is an advanced broadcasting technology that has transformed the television viewing experience. the range of formats can be broadly divided into two categories: HDTV and SDTV. There is also a wide range of set-top boxes that can decode the digital signal and convert it to analog to display it on a normal TV. giving it incredible resolution and stability.1280x720 pixels progressive 1080i . aspect ratio (width to height ratio) and interlacing.2. uses different formats. DTV has enable broadcasters to offer television with better picture and sound quality.1920x1080 pixels progressive A digital TV decodes the MPEG-2 signal and displays it just like a computer monitor does. It also offers multiple programming choices.

by comparison. For 4:3 aspect-ratio broadcasts. or 2. the 640 × 480 format is used in NTSC countries. Digital-TV standards bodies have developed specifications. that receivers must meet to provide good reception of the new digital-TV signals. Instead the broadcast can be subdivided across several video subchannels (aka feeds) of varying quality and compression rates.aspect ratio.) HDTV cannot be transmitted over current analog channels.. such as the ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) A/74. many DVB-T channels in the United Kingdom use a horizontal resolution of 544 or 704 pixels per line). Standard definition TV (SDTV). may use one of several different formats taking the form of various aspect ratios depending on the technology used in the country of broadcast. the 704 × 480 format is used in NTSC countries.[1] Each commercial terrestrial DTV channel in North America is permitted to be broadcast at a data rate up to 19 megabits per second. (Some televisions are capable of receiving an HD resolution of 1920 × 1080 at a 60 Hz progressive scan frame rate — known as 1080p. The figure showing Advanced Television System Committee Digital Television system: A simple digital-TV architecture would include a receiver section for digital-terrestrial signals. the broadcaster does not need to use this entire bandwidth for just one broadcast channel. For 16:9 broadcasts. However. while 720 × 576 is used in PAL countries. However.375 megabytes per second. while 720 × 576 is used in PAL countries. broadcasters may choose to reduce these resolutions to save bandwidth (e. .g. including non-video datacasting services that allow one-way high-bandwidth streaming of data to computers.

1. This ability to provide either a single HDTV feed or multiple lower-resolution feeds is often referred to as distributing one's "bit budget" or multicasting. image resolution may be less directly limited by bandwidth. . This can sometimes be arranged automatically. 2.A broadcaster may opt to use a standard-definition digital signal instead of an HDTV signal. using a statistical multiplexer (or "stat-mux").1 TRANSMISSION DTTV is transmitted on radio frequencies through the airwaves that are similar to standard analogue television. providing multiple feeds of entirely different programming on the same channel. with the primary difference being the use of multiplex transmitters to allow reception of multiple channels on a single frequency range (such as a UHF or VHF channel). With some implementations. giving them the option to reduce the transmission bitrate and make reception easier for more distant or mobile viewers. for example in DVB-T. because current convention allows the bandwidth of a DTV channel (or "multiplex") to be subdivided into multiple subchannels (similar to what most FM stations offer with HD Radio). broadcasters can choose from several different modulation schemes.

16 and 64QAM constellations can be combined in a single multiplex. providing a controllable degradation for more important programme streams. This provides considerably more immunity to interference. but is more susceptible to interference. which has similar characteristics to the vestigial sideband modulation used for analogue television. . New developments in compression have resulted in the MPEG-4/AVC standard which enable three high definition services to be coded into a 24 Mbit/s European terrestrial transmission channel.[2] The modulation method in DVB-T is COFDM with either 64 or 16 state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). the ATSC standard calls for 8VSB modulation. This is called hierarchical modulation. Instead. The DVB-T standard is not used for terrestrial digital television in North America. In general a 64QAM channel is capable of transmitting a greater bitrate. but is not immune — as DVB-T is — to multipath distortion and also does not provide for single-frequency network operation (which is in any case not relevant in the United States).The amount of data that can be transmitted (and therefore the number of channels) is directly affected by the modulation method of the channel.

a second digital program on channel 7-2. 2. Today. Some machines and robots will even rely on a multitude of microcontrollers. for example. rather than being limited to providing one analog program. microcontrollers are so cheap and easily available that it is common to use them instead of simple logic circuits like counters for the sole purpose of gaining some design flexibility and saving some space. Most recent microcontrollers are 'In System Programmable'. microcontrollers are an indispensable tool for the robotics hobbyist as well as for the engineer. until you can figure out the whole image and understand how the system works.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 video codec specified in MPEG-2. because you usually can't understand how everything works inside that integrated circuit. 2. without removing the microcontroller from its place. and so on. Starting in this field can be a little difficult. while a station broadcasting in analog on channel 7 is only able to offer viewers one program. a broadcaster is able to offer a super sharp High Definition (HD) digital program or multiple Standard Definition (SD) digital programs simultaneously through a process called “multicasting. and digital is much more efficient than analog. a small part at a time. some of the spectrum can now be auctioned to companies that will be able to provide consumers with more advanced wireless services (such as wireless broadband).2 Why Did We Switch to DTV? An important benefit of the switch to all-digital broadcasting is that it freed up parts of the valuable broadcast spectrum for public safety communications (such as police. DTV provides interactive video and data services that were not possible with analog technology. captions. meaning that you can modify the program being executed. For example. Nowadays. Consumers also benefited because digital broadcasting allows stations to offer improved picture and sound quality. each one dedicated to a certain task. and rescue squads). This means more programming choices for viewers.” Multicasting allows broadcast stations to offer several channels of digital programming at the same time. using the same amount of spectrum required for one analog program. Further. So. and program guides) are encoded. Also.Both systems use the MPEG transport stream and H.3 HISTORY OF DTV . they differ significantly in how related services (such as multichannel audio. a third digital program on channel 7-3. so you have to study the system gradually. a station broadcasting in digital on channel 7 can offer viewers one digital program on channel 7-1. fire departments.

[1] ATS-6. so reception of the digital signal must be very nearly complete. common problems with analog television include ghosting of images. provide high-definition television service. called Orbita. 1965. The world's first commercial communication satellite. Analogue to digital transition by country The broadcasting of digital terrestrial transmissions has led to many countries planning to phase out existing analogue broadcasts. The first Soviet geostationary satellite to carry Direct-To-Home television. "blocky" video is seen when the digital signal experiences interference. called Ekran. Digital signals react differently to interference than analog signals.3. In 1996. called Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird).1 THE DTV TRANSITION The switch from analog to digital broadcast television is referred to as the Digital TV (DTV) Transition. For example. noise from weak signals. and was based on the principle of using the highly elliptical Molniya satellite for re-broadcasting and delivering of TV signal to ground downlink stations.S. Congress authorized the distribution of an additional broadcast channel to each broadcast TV station so that they could start a digital broadcast channel while simultaneously continuing their analog broadcast channel. The first national network of satellite television. the world's first experimental educational and Direct Broadcast Satellite. 2.History The first satellite television signal was relayed from Europe to the Telstar satellite over North America in 1962. which was launched in 1972. neither audio nor video will be usable. The first geosynchronous communication satellite. With digital television. DTV has several advantages over analog TV. the audio and video must be synchronized digitally. the most significant being that digital channels take up less bandwidth. Short of this complete failure. DTV also permits special services such as multiplexing (more than one program on the same channel). the U. This means that digital broadcasters can provide more digital channels in the same space. was created in Soviet Union in 1967. at a corresponding reduction in image quality depending on the level of compression as well as the resolution of the transmitted image. was launched in 1974. The sale of non-television services may provide an additional revenue source. otherwise. was launched into synchronous orbit on April 6. electronic program guides and additional languages (spoken or subtitled). and many other potential problems which degrade the quality of the image and sound. The first domestic North American satellite to carry television was Canada’s geostationary Anik 1. . was launched in 1963. Syncom 2. was launched in 1976. or provide other non-television services such as multimedia or interactivity. This table shows the launches of DTT and the closing down of analogue television in several countries. and the bandwidth needs are continuously variable. although the program material may still be watchable.

With DTT. ATSC or ISDB-T.264. Compression: Video compression standard used. digital MMDS is used. Signal quality will also vary. 2. End of closedown: The date when analogue television is definitely closed down. for example France which uses MPEG-2 for standard definition free content but MPEG-4 for HD broadcasts and pay services. Among the most familiar to people are digital cable and digital satellite. Finally. that is receiving TV via Internet Protocol. Most systems use MPEG-2. Other standards. not the start for trial broadcasts. Interactive: System used for interactive services. such as MHP and MHEG-5. Some countries use both MPEG-2 and H. there is P2P (peer-to-peer) Internet television software that can be used to watch TV on a computer. DVB-T. Other ways have been devised to receive digital television. Another way is IPTV. relying on DSL or optical cable line. System: Transmission system. e. One of the oldest means of receiving DTV (and TV in general) is using an antenna (known as an aerial in some countries). such as DMB and DVB-H.264/MPEG-4 AVC has become increasingly popular among networks launching later on. Start of closedown: The date for the first major closedown of analogue transmitters.• • • • • • Official launch: The official launch date of digital terrestrial television in the country. In some countries where transmissions of TV signals are normally achieved by microwaves. but the more efficient H. For example. an alternative way is to receive digital TV signals via the open Internet. g. have been devised to allow handheld devices such as mobile phones to receive TV signals. Figure showing the reception of Digital signal by antenna dishes: . This way is known as Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT). viewers are limited to whatever channels the antenna picks up.4 DTV RECEPTION There are a number of different ways to receive digital television.

2. Access to encrypted channels can be controlled by a removable smart card.5 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DTV . Digital Millennium Copyright Act. such as the U.Some signals carry encryption and specify use conditions (such as "may not be recorded" or "may not be viewed on displays larger than 1 m in diagonal measure") backed up with the force of law under the WIPO Copyright Treaty and national legislation implementing it. for example via the Common Interface (DVB-CI) standard for Europe and via Point Of Deployment (POD) for IS or named differently CableCard.S.

 Increased electricity consumption by the digital receiving equipment if both TV and additional set-top box is plugged.5. because of the lack of feedback that would be provided by a gradually degraded analog picture. in fact analogue can be better. . The picture is usually either totally on or totally off.  It is easier to obtain the optimum digital picture than the optimum analogue picture. 2.2 Disadvantages  It can be quite difficult to adjust the antenna. providing no information about which direction to move the antenna.  Interactive (red button) services can be provided. particularly with a good signal.  Many more channels can fit on the digital transmission.1 Advantages  Digital reception tends to be better overall. A signal meter provided on most tuners helps considerably with this problem.5. The same problem can also make it very difficult to select and test antennas. With a weaker signal there is little perceptible difference. but some televisions (such as the very popular Vizio branded ones) lack a signal meter.  New equipment (Set-top box) may be required.  An upgraded antenna installation may be required.2.

digital does not degrade as gracefully as analogue. with low signal strength an analogue picture gets fuzzy (but is still viewable) while a digital picture freezes and stops updating.  Switching channels is slower because of the time delays in decoding digital signals. . Analogue requires lower signal strength to get a viewable picture. For example. By extension.

CHAPTER-3 C-BAND DIGITAL SATELLITE TV RECEIVER .

Frequencies range from 2. The electromagnetic spectrum extends from low frequencies used for modern radio to gamma radiation at the short-wavelength end. while it is thought that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length. although in principle the spectrum is infinite and continuous.3. Wavelength is inversely proportional to the wave frequency. The long wavelength limit is the size of the universe itself. specially after the live telecasting of Gulfwar by CNN. Aralisat. 3. C-band signals are beamed from various satellites like Asiasat.1 TYPES OF RADIATION . although their language is a barrier. whereas wavelengths can be as long as the universe. The popular satellite programmes which can be received on C-band include Star-TV. 3. China. EM waves are typically described by any of the following three physical properties: the frequency f. so gamma rays have very short wavelengths that are fractions of the size of atoms.2. PTV2. The "electromagnetic spectrum" of an object is the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular object.4×1023 Hz (1 GeV gamma rays) down to the local plasma frequency of the ionized interstellar medium (~1 kHz). or photon energy E.1 C-BAND SATELLITE TV RECEIVER : AN INTRODUCTION As we all know that Satellite TV reception has gained much popularity in India over the last three decades. and Doordarshan. the C-band reception is much more popular than the S-band. In India. CNN. Both the S-Band and C-Band satellite signals are available to India. wavelength λ. ATN. Saudi Arabia are also available on C-band channels. Sun TV. Zee TV.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atom. Besides programmes from Russia. and Insat 2B.

microwave. The brief types of EM radiation are on the basis of region in the EM spectrum. infrared. as mentioned below: 1) Radio 2) Microwave 3) Infrared 4) Visible 5) Ultraviolet 6) X-rays 7) Gamma rays The region classification is shown in the figure below: . X-rays and gamma rays. the visible region we perceive as light. ultraviolet.EM radiation is classified by wavelength into radio wave.

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This broad definition includes both UHF and EHF (millimeter waves). Ka. Satellite TV either operates in the C band for the traditional large dish fixed satellite service or Ku band for direct-broadcast satellite.3 GHz) and 300 GHz. or equivalently. with RF engineering often putting the lower boundary at 1 GHz (30 cm).3 MICROWAVES Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter. with Ka band being used for Milstar. .Here we have a program to ADD Instruction. or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum. Most satellite communications systems operate in the C. microwave includes the entire SHF band (3 to 30 GHz. or Ku bands of the microwave spectrum. microwaves are used in television news to transmit a signal from a remote location to a television station from a specially equipped van. X. remote pickup unit (RPU).3. Typically. and the upper around 100 GHz (3mm). with frequencies between 300 MHz (0. These frequencies allow large bandwidth while avoiding the crowded UHF frequencies and staying below the atmospheric absorption of EHF frequencies. See broadcast auxiliary service (BAS). and studio/transmitter link (STL). and various sources use different boundaries. In all cases. Military communications run primarily over X or Ku-band links.

and by some weather radar systems. as well as a range of wavelengths of microwaves that are used for long-distance radio telecommunications.0 GHz to 30 GHz in frequency. The table below showing the different Microwave frequency bands: Band L band S band C band X band KU band K band KA band Q band U band V band E band W band F band D band Frequency range 1 to 2 GHz 2 to 4 GHz 4 to 8 GHz 8 to12 GHz 12 to 18 GHz 18 to 26.and its slight variations . as defined by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB). or 1. are shown in the table below. by some Wi-Fi devices.5 GHz 26.contains frequency ranges that are used for many satellite communications transmissions. The IEEE C-band . the microwave frequencies of . Microwave frequency bands.5 to 40 GHz 30 to 50 GHz 40 to 60 GHz 50 to 75 GHz 60 to 90 GHz 75 to 110 GHz 90 to 140 GHz 110 to 170 GHz 3.0 centimeter.4 C – BAND The C band is a name given to certain portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. For satellite communications. by some cordless telephones.3. Note that frequencies above 30 GHz are typically said to be in the "millimeter wave" because their wavelengths can be conveniently measured in millimeters (mm).0 to 30 GHz range. The frequency of 30 GHz corresponds quite closely to a wavelength of 10 mm.3. Most common applications are within the 1. but some antiquated usages includes lower frequencies.2 MICROWAVE FREQUENCY BANDS The microwave spectrum is usually defined as the electromagnetic spectrum that ranges from 1.

2 GHz for their downlinks.[2]. The IEEE C-band The IEEE C-band is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4.7 to 4. This use contrasts with direct broadcast satellite. each transponder utilizes about 36 MHz.425 GHz for their uplinks.5 to 3.5 GHz) microwave frequencies. sleet storms. The satellite communications portion of the C-band is highly associated with television receiveonly satellite reception systems.1 C-BAND CLASSIFICATIONS The NATO C-band The NATO C-band is that portion of the radio spectrum between 500 megahertz (MHz) and 1000 MHz. and snowstorms.5 meters) on consumer satellite dishes.[1] The adverse weather conditions all have to do with moisture in the air. Nearly all C-band communication satellites use the band of frequencies from 3.5 to 12 feet (2.0 MHz between the pairs of transponders acts as "guard bands" for the likely case of imperfections in the microwave electronics. since small receiving antennas are not optimal for C-band systems.0 gigahertz (GHz). Typical antenna sizes on C-band capable systems ranges from 7. The C-band communication satellites typically have 24 radio transponders spaced 20 MHz apart. although larger ones also can be used.4. 3. such as during rainfalls. thunderstorms. which are used by another large set of communication satellites. (The unused 8. Note that by using the band from 3.) The C-band is primarily used for open satellite communications. although subscription programming also exists. but this definition is the one that is followed by radar manufacturers and users. the transponders on the same polarization are always 40 MHz apart. commonly called "big dish" systems. The communications C-band was the first frequency band that was allocated for commercial telecommunications via satellites.7 to 4.2 GHz to 14.the C-band perform better in comparison with Ku band (11. but with the adjacent transponders on opposite polarizations. this C-band overlaps somewhat into the IEEE S-band for radars. which is a completely closed system used to deliver subscription programming to small satellite dishes that are connected with proprietary receiving equipment.0 GHz. and the band of frequencies from 5. Of this 40 MHz. under adverse weather conditions. but this terminology is rarely used in the two very large NATO members that are located in North America.925 GHz to 6. whether for full-time satellite TV networks or raw satellite feeds. Hence.0 to 8. but not necessarily by microwave radio telecommunications users. .

700–4. and Southeast Asia. Note that one region includes all of the Americas. since it includes the People's Republic of China.425 5. plus Australia and New Zealand. starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility.2 C-BAND VARIATIONS Slight variations in the assignments of C-band frequencies have been approved for use in various parts of the world.025 5.625–4.7250–6.725 6.500–4.025 Receive Frequency (GHz) 3. plus all of Russia.725 to 5.650–4. Pakistan. The uplink dish is pointed toward a .200 4.975–6. depending on their locations in the three International Telecommunications Union radio regions.4. 3.47 to 5. Uplink satellite dishes are very large. like other communications relayed by satellite.725 GHz.000 Russian C-Band LMI C-Band 3.11a Wi-Fi and cordless telephone applications. leading to occasional interference with some weather radars that are also allocated to the C-band. Japan.4 GHz band [5.150 3. India.400–4. depending on the region of the world] is used for IEEE 802.475 5. a second includes all of Europe and Africa. or 5. or 5.The C-band frequencies of 5. This latter region is the most populous one.15 to 5.800 3.875 GHz.850–6. The increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The Table below shows the variations in C band across various countries of the world Band Standard C-Band Extended C-Band INSAT/Super-Extended C-Band Transmit Frequency (GHz) 5.200 3.5 PRINCIPLE OF C-BAND SATELLITE TV RECEPTION Principle: Satellite television. and the third region includes all of Asia outside of Russia. as much as 9 to 12 meters (30 to 40 feet) in diameter.35 GHz.725–7.850–6.

The downlinked satellite signal. This feed horn is essentially the flared front-end of a section of waveguide that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and 'conducts' them to a probe or pickup connected to a lownoise block down converter or LNB. typically in the C-band (4–8 GHz) or Ku-band (12–18 GHz) or both. the receiver includes the capability to unscramble or decrypt the received signal. which reflects the weak signal to the dish’s focal point. Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feed horn. The evolution of LNBs was one of necessity and invention. audio. Sometimes. The LNB amplifies the relatively weak signals. The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable could be used to connect the indoor receiver with the satellite TV dish and LNB. data. and that the technology for handling the signal at L-Band and UHF was far cheaper than that for handling the signal at CBand frequencies. 3. The leg of the signal path from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called the downlink.). the receiver is then called an Integrated receiver/decoder or IRD. so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite.specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range. etc. filters the block of frequencies in which the satellite TV signals are transmitted. is collected by a parabolic receiving dish.6 C-BAND SATELLITE TV RECEIVER: The direct C-band reception system compromises of the following: 1) Dish antenna 2) LNB (low-noise block converter) 3) Satellite receiver . quite weak after traveling the great distance (see inversesquare law). used to avoid interference with the uplink signal). The transponder 'retransmits' the signals back to Earth but at a different frequency band (a process known as translation. and converts the block of frequencies to a lower frequency range in the L-band range. The satellite receiver or [Set-top box] demodulates and converts the signals to the desired form (outputs for television.

There are different types of Dish antenna available in various sizes ranging from 1. . The size of the dish depend on the size of distribution network and the strength of the signal. which is mounted on the feed horn itself. The parabolic reflector receives the signals from the satellite and focuses them to the focal point where the feed horn is positioned.Dish antenna: A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive microwaves from communications satellites. such as satellite television. which transmit data transmissions or broadcasts. c) The electromechanical arrangement to move dish in horizontal and vertical planes to track the satellite. and vice-versa. b) The parabolic reflector. To withstand the windloads during heavy winds or storms. The base structure should be strong enough to withstand the entire load of the dish.8 metres. The area where the signal is weak requires a large dish. d) LNB mounting arrangement. A dish consists of the following parts: a) The stand or the base structure which supports the entire dish. the base structure should be firmly grounded in the concrete.8 metres to 4. The focused signal picked up by the feed horn is fed into the LNB.

c) LNB. which are received and reflected by the dish. The motor responds to the width of the pulse supplied by the receiver. the scalar ring is the integral part of the feed horn and the distance ‘X’ is fixed. b) Polarator: Inside the feed horn. as mentioned earlier. LNB comprises as amplifier and a frequency converter. are fed to the amplifier inside LNB via the feed horn probe. The signal to noise ratio of the amplifier has to be rather good because the received signals are very weak.7 GHz to 4. namely. and LNB.8 to 2.7GHz). the better will be the picture quality. polarator. The pulsewidth can be varied from 0. 3. a) The scalar ring: There are 2 types of scalar rings. The lower the noise. which is required to move according to the polarization of the satellite signals. Fixed scalar ring: Here. respectively.6. a motorized polarator is preferred. The audio and video output signals are finally fed into the TV monitor’s audio and video input terminals. ground. The LNB stands for low-noise block converter. The motor used in polarator has 3 terminals: +5V. adjustable and fixed. The signals in C-band (3.8ms with the help of the ‘trim’ controls in the receiver and the position of the V/H switch. there is a probe. (i) (ii) Adjustable scalar ring: In this the adjustable ring slides on the feed horn and can be positioned to suit the focal distance to diameter ratio (F/d) of the dish. and pulse. .1 C-band receiver The main function of the receiver is to select a particular channel from the converted block of frequencies (between 950 and 1450 MHz) and retrieve the audio and video signal information. For large dish assemblies.LNB assembly: The LNB assembly consists of the following three parts: the scalar ring. the probe can be rotate by almost 140. In ‘H’ position.

the feed the audio and video output signals from receiver to an RF modulator which modulates the RF and provides a modulated VHF RF output (corresponding to anyone of the channels in the VHF band from channel 2 to channel 12) to operate the domestic receiver directly. The block diagram of a satellite receiver is shown in Figure below: .If the TV does not have separate audio and video input points.

Pin-out of the tuner are shown in figure below: The specifications of the tuner are shown in the table II. coaxial cable type RG-8 or RG-11. It is a readymade tuner with tunable range from 950 MHz to 1450 MHz. To simplify the design for an average constructor. the Mitsumi TSU2-EOIP tuner is used in the circuit. The module itself is fed +12V and +5V DC for its operation. giving baseband output directly with audio subcarrier.The coaxial cable from LNB is connected to the tuner (which contains RF and IF modules) through ‘F’ socket. The tuner module is tuned with a voltage (VT) between 0 and 20V and requires no high/low band switch. It has a terminal for applying the supply voltage for LNB via the down lead. The complete circuit diagram of the receiver is shown in Figure below: .

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Capacitor C17 and resistor R19 used to suppress the interference. SIF signal is fed to pin 6 (limiter section) of IC1 (NE564). and sound output stage. A suitable positive bias is given to pin 1 and pin 14 through resistors R22 to R24. The positive DC voltage is fed to pins 1. 1V peak to peak video output is taken from the emitter of transistor T5 through capacitor C25 and resistor R29. video driver.The baseband output from the tuner module is fed to the audio stage. an AF output is available at pin 14. Signal from the baseband output of the tuner module is fed via resistor R17 (2. sound driver stage. Potmeter VR1 generally changes the phase of the audio signal. Video signal is taken from the emitter of the transistor T3 and fed to video detector IC2 (NE592) through an LC network comprising of the capacitors C18 through C20 and inductor L4 (a video take-off coil).7k) is a video gain control. The audio signal from the baseband output of the tuner module is separated with the help of an LC tuned wave-trap circuit compromising capacitors C1 through C4 and inductors L1 through L3. which develop 1V peak to peak audio output across resistor R16. R20 (1k) id used for emitter bias. video amplifier. Potmeter VR4 (4. .2 K-ohm) to the base of video amplifier compromising transistor T3 (2SC2458). Video section: This is divided into four stages. and signal-strength indication circuit. The output is taken from pin 8 of IC (positive video) and fed to the video driver as well as the output stage comprising transistors T4 and T5. Audio IF frequency can be varied by varying the voltage of VCO of the IC. After amplification of video signal. 9. The audio output is further amplified by transistor amplifiers built around transistors T1 and T2 (2SC2458). The VCO voltage is controlled with the help of potmeter VR2. After processing of the audio IF signal. and video-output stage. including its amplification and rectification. video stage. Potmeter VR3 acts as an audio gain control. namely. and 10 of IC1. which is used to adjust the contrast of the picture. Audio section: It consists of three stages: sound intermediate frequency (SIF) stage. which is connected to pin 13 of IC1 and acts as an audio IF frequency-controller. Varactor diode D1 (MV2109) is connected across pins 12 and 13 through capacitors C9 and C13. Pin 1 of IC is takes as reference input and pin 14 is taken as signal input. video detector. Audio bandwidth can also be adjusted with the help of potmeter by changing the voltage at pin 2 (phase comparator section) of IC. 3.

CHAPTER-4 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE .

education and entertainment at the click of a button. in spectral line observations below 400MHz. linearity. as the minimum separation distance is 90 meters with the assumption that there is no DTH system in 100 meter circle from any of the GMRT antennas. or both to either the digital or the analog tuner to further increase performance. Generally. and AGC range and response than their analog counterparts. size. amplification. Direct to home connects urban. 2. On the other hand. Digital-tuner modules offer these specifications. and power consumption of the designs. it also allowed designers to include additional filtering. most early hybrid analog/digital-TV designs used two tuner modules—one for receiving analog signals and the other for receiving digital signals. overall gain. A simple digital-TV architecture would include a receiver section for digital-terrestrial signals. if located at about 2 km from a GMR Also the DBS-TV systems operate with small antennas and low cost receiving systems. . However. 1. This approach increased the cost. Care must be taken for arm antennas. the digital-terrestrial-TV receivers have a better noise figure. selectivity. making them attractive to customers. Delivery of bit stream through direct broadcast satellite could be adapted to allow to serve Internet users who requires to download larger blocks of data. Digital-TV standards bodies have developed specifications. Broadband noise will have negligible effect on GMRT Observations. Narrow band noise can cause RFI. rural and remote areas of the country and provides desire information communication.Conclusion: DTH projects in India are just a beginning and we are taking the advantage of DTH revolution. and offer a very large number of video and audio channels. that receivers must meet to provide good reception of the new digital-TV signals. such as the ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) A/74.

In some cases. New TV designs employ these modules.” “digital. .” and “cable” labels. the TV manufacturer adds application-specific gain or filtering between the tuner module and the connector to enhance the receiver performance. More recently. These types of designs frequently include low-noise amplifiers that provide additional gain to achieve better sensitivity when the system is operating in digital mode. sometimes with an RF switch so that dual input connectors could still be available at the back of the TV. These new designs provide the performance for DTV and meet the demanding requirements of TV manufacturers for analog-terrestrial and cable reception. F-type RF connectors with “analog. designers have developed hybrid analog/digital-capable tuner modules. To keep up with flat-panel TV screens. A hybrid tuner and RF switch provide dual inputs with a single tuner module.” “air. TV developers must work with constantly shrinking PCBs (printed-circuitboards).Most digital TVs also included two threaded.

References: “The digital satellite TV handbook” by Mark E Long. Varsha Agrawal “Consumer Electronics” by J.S Chitode .Maini. “Satellite Technology: Principles and Applications” by Anil.K.

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