French Revolution9
g an cuttin d more th eralism pose b “This sup ing. The li and ad of a k the he to underst le. new way nd lifesty brought a , society a d onomy , expande politic, ec t later on tha two ways The wars nsisted in o , Europe c e of them thorough world. On anding ncientwas of underst own as A h ne, kn one whic the old o d the new .” n Regimes,a iberal System L known a


ivision of the museum D
collections storage place

Ground floor:
1 2 3
Zumalakarregi and his time
The Zumalakarregi brothers


The Zumalakarregi Family Game Room: “Explore the 19th cent ury”

2 1
entrance reception shop

First floor:
4 5 6 6 7
researcher’s room offices

Contemporaries Audiovisual “Two worlds against eac Antecedents of the First Carlist War
The Fueros Dynastic affair

5 6 7

h other”

4 11 8 10 9

Carlists Liberals Humanization of the war


Main keys of the war

Help to the Carlists Help to the Liberals War is not limited to armed fights Cities Panorama of San Sebastian Tiredness of the war


Period between wars 2nd Carlist War
Burst of the war Carlist State Publicity Last actions Carlist failure

10 11

Tomas Zumalakarregi. The Myth Multimedia “Military history in the Basque Country of the 19th century”

Peace Weaponry

Two worlds facing each other War, war and more war





The Zumalakarregi Page brothers .6
Zumalakarregi Family Page

The dynastic conflict, a

politic fight The Fueros Armies Foreigner participation ara” The “Agreement of Berg

1st Carlist war (1833-1839)


to the Foundries From the Iron Factories to Bidasoa 1841: customs: from Ebro The industrialization The Railway Enlargement of Cities Fuerism

Period between Page two wars .17 (1839-1872)

2nd Carlist War (1872-1876) Curiosities




The press (newspapers) h century Main characters in the 19t Games



Industrial Revolution


rts The revolution in transpo gi The Viaduct of Ormaizte

LD WORher S TWO each ot g
Ancient Regime

List the main differences between the Ancient Regime and Liberalism.







war and more war…

ues. The fight thing for Basq new nown in pons was not a 40 years was k The use of wea that lasted for es rs was harmed ited by frontie een two regim betw ntry is lim ce for the firsts As Basque Cou used as the pla ifferent ways. d ot only at y wars: it was n ferent troops th considerably b ous pass for dif tinu , s, but as a con d, a and lasts battle rupt. At the en k conomical ban supposed the e orse. this was even w

civil war


1793-1795 1808-1814
Convention War Napoleonic War

Liberal Triennial


1st Carlist War

1835 1872-1876
2nd Carlist War

One hundred thousand children of Saint Luis

He wa

born 5
s in Orm aizteg i


20 32
years years


rs. t all his life between wa mas Zumalakarregi spen To a r being just a kid, chose He met up with the wa ghter r becoming a guerrilla fi military occupation afte finally with his life. and another war ended

47 .I.P. R


alakarregi THE Zum OTHERS BR
ma To
Which were their professions? What did they study for? Which ideology did they support? Which book is in their showcase? Did you know any of them before visiting the museum? Which is, in your opinion more interesting? Why?
te e of TOMAS s last but ondecidfourhimento wa ed family brothers and sisters. His did. be clerk*, like his father

E , th oldest of ily MIGUremLkaeble charbrotheor hisTomas,. fam acter ar e most

was th tes of Cadiz” and He participated in “Cor ion. He also worked as redacting 1812’s Constitut , Senator and Minister of mayor in San Sebastian Grace and Justice.


* Clerk: is a worker of the administration, who is in charge of the realization of duties that nowadays are done by notaries.



el u


Francisco Antonio Zumalakarregi (1741Maria Ana Imaz Altolagirre

2nd wedding


Ana Antonia (1770-1792)

Miguel Antonio (1773-1846) Eusebio Antonio (1778Juana Bautista (1781-1836) Silveria (1783Miguel Romualdo (1785-

Francisco Antonio (1774-

Maria Ignacia (1776-1837)


Liberal politician


housewife priest of Ormaiztegi housewife housewife

Margarita (1786 - 1788)

(1788- 1835) Jose Manuel (1791 - 1883)

rregi Fam The Zumalaka


died with 21 months

Carlist General priest of Mutiloa

the ily was part of d much extende m, which was , stratu hters get their daug y. They used to in order ue countr s to their sons, in all the Basq and give studie ood dowry y. married with g or for the arm for the church ribe, to work as a sc


* Gentleman: According to the Fueros, all inhabitants from Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa were gentlemen, that is to say, free, exempt from going to military service and from paying taxes, and owners of their politic rights.

I will be the

My da ughte r will be the queen , am I right, Isabel



C“carloriscV ” rown p n e

Isabel II
queen” “The innocent was only
ne knew rnando VII died, everyo not When in 1833 the King Fe de. His brother Carlos did e war was about to explo that th approved, tion, a law that was just cept the Pragmatic Sanc ac erefore, he access to the throne. Th and permitted women the year old niece. This was ion against Isabel, his 3 took posit st t War. beginning of the 1 Carlis

Fernando VII

3 years old

Is there any law that discriminates women? What do you think? Yes No



of the Borbons
Carlos IV
Maria Luisa of Parma

Fernando VII

María Cristina of Borbón

Carlos V

María Teresa of Braganza

Francisco of Paula

Luisa Carlota of Napoles

Francisco of Asis

Isabel II

Luisa Fernanda

Duke of Montpensier

Juan III

Mª Beatriz of Modena

Enrique of Borbón

Princess Isabel

Alfonso XII

María Cristina

Carlos VII

Margarita of Parma

Alfonso XIII

Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg

Blanca of Borbón


Mª Mercedes of Borbón Dos Sicilias

Juan Carlos I

Sofía of Grecia





LO”Satirical magazine “UNA FAMILIA MODE : D.P. lona, 20-II-1870. Autor LA FLACA. Nº35, Barce


Caricatures s of the Borbon

Who is who?

in had a In less than eight years (1868-1876) Spa pretenders queen, two kings and thee different . In this caricature we can to the throne. The see a fight between Borbons for the caricature painting at the left backside of the and his reflects a fight between Fernando VII 7 to 1814 father, Carlos VI, as they did from 180 during the Napoleonic war.


between In this caricature we can see a fight g at the Borbons for the throne. The paintin s a fight left backside of the caricature reflect er, Carlos between Fernando VII and his fath ing the VI, as they did from 1807 to 1814 dur Napoleonic war.

sband of I am Francisco of Asis, hu rt. I have Isabel II, former king conso both arms a moustac he and I have raised.

1 4

Carlos IV I am Fernando VII, son of left arm and father of Isabel II. My is raised.

bel II. The I am Alfonso XII, son of Isa I have a next king (5 years later). weapon.

Fernando I am Carlos IV, father of VII. My right leg is raised.

sier, I am the Duke of Montpen II and brother in law of Isabel I have pretender to the throne. my hair a moustac he and I have in a mess. dress.



2 5

throned I am Isabel II, recently de e striped queen. I am wearing a blu

I am Fernando VII, fathe

r of Isabel II.

11 8
est I am Blanca of Borbon, eld am wearing daughter of Carlos VII. I a red beret. etender, I am Carlos VII, carlist pr ord have my white beret and my sw dropped.

Duke of I am Enrique of Borbon, brother, Sevilla, Francisco of Asis’s law of also cousin and brother in I am Isabel II. In the right hand holding a newspaper.

rnanda, I am the Princess Luisa Fe of duke of sister of Isabel II and wife n. Montpensier. I have a fa

12 6 9


Fernando I am Carlos V, brother of beret. VII. I am wearing a white

successor of I am the princess Isabel, blue dress. Isabel II. I am wearing a



re hand, they we fighting, gun in were eoretical asque people Queen. The th When in 1833 B f of the King or t the option ality in front o t worried abou of speech, equ no most e right ut of hand for lism, such as th on, were just o rights of Libera and so ls politic rights, law, individua at, the Fueros le. Despite of th peop for the country.


n supposed ma


Mark in the next two maps where w were situated the customs* in 1833 and w where were changed in 1841.

customs in

customs in


* Fueros: conjunct of laws that completed the uses and costumes of each territory in writing. a estab * Customs: public office or fiscal institution established generally at the coasts and frontiers, in order to registry the international goods traffic which are imported or exported in and from a tional specific country and charge taxes that they owe.


Classify next concepts in the correct column

rned rivileges conce own Fueros, p ns gion had its s recompilatio Each Basque re ge. If those law gration e middle a t easy their inte by law from th tism, it was no legal e absolu their fiscal and only limited th mostly because em, in a Liberal syst ros from ent of the Fue peculiarities. d the abolishm on cause French revoluti beroa. re arrase and Zu longer and mo urdi, Low Nav Lap is process for a ions suffered th Peninsular reg e. complicate tim

Bourgeois without institutional position

Fiscal exempt

Military service exempt Frontiers situated at the Ebro Better dressed

Lack of protection in front of European competition Facilities to import American and European products Lack of integration in the Spanish market

cheaper tobacco

e Advantagms on people: co m
of the Fueros for

of the Fueros for the lib

Disadvantages : als



: www.zumalakarregimuseoa.net/ekintzak-eta-zerbitzuak/ikerketa-eta-dokumentazioa/xix.mendekohistoria-euskal-herrian Troops: ere Troops: g, the carlists w at the beginnin s the ps of guerrilla re equipped a only some grou the liberals we est announced. adly. The bigg ns of the time ldiers armed b so s cano alakarregi wa wed French success of Zum e uniforms follo Th h only gular army wit se of their bad facing up a re models. Becau ht in lays who were taug ey suffered de 1000 farmers, organization, th military tactics. visioning eir pay and pro in th ey ven though, th nstantly, but e co rs. 100.000 soldie moved around



osed the How many soldiers comp Liberal Infantry? Why is the soldier of the image naked?

And the Carlist Infantry?

Who were known as “Txapelgorriak”?



When the war started th ey did not take any priso ners, the enemies were directly . Lord Elliot made both parts sign an agreem ent in order to exchange prisoners. The British colla boration also affected to the “Agreement of Be rgara”. As it does nowa days, the humanitarian goals kept political and econom ical interests.


Whic h kind of help did the Liberals received? What about Carlists?

igner Does nowadays any fore participate in civil wars?

Where? What kind of participation?



Although Muñagorri pr

oposed the declaration , it did not success, but e same a, one year later, had th the Agreement of Bergar ros” r for strengthen the “Fue swap the end of the wa basis: a ficers. The hug of Bergar d salaries of the Carlist of an n between both sides. represents the conciliatio

“Paz y Fueros”

ona ñagor rik di Mu ian: ere proklam b aitu ondatzen g gerrak n; arren urtia bostg os ri zan Karl igaz jar ian, adrilgo bid M zera, za zuten at bult an... rra bere oñi ge
“Muñagorr verse from A Lertxundi by Benito iren kanta k”

nt of What says the “Agreeme os? Bergara” about the Fuer

And about the dynastic af


st of After the war ended, mo nded Fueros. the Basque liberals defe Why?


l revolutions ccess of politica the su l It is not possible and ideologica al, economical soci ories, if there are no sm, paper fact and rmation. Touri transfo es, economical xpansion of citi factors, emigration, e d many other l decadence an d the ideologica nges, as showe been easy cha had not ar. e 2nd Carlist W explosion of th




The importance of the iro n has been the main ch aracteristics of the Basque industrialization process. Iron factories did not ins tall modern technologies , as Europeans did. As a result, most of those factories disappear ed during the 2nd half of the 19th Century and new foundr ies brought , process to the Basque Country.

Is it made in a foundry or What is it made of ? Only iron? What is written on it? What was it used for?

in an Iron factory?



in Is it made in a foundry or What is it made of ? Only iron? What was it used for? Do modern ploughs have this form?

an Iron factory?

17 17

Aft most changing. The system started to dification was important mo s. change custom

: CUSTOMS 1841 O ROM EBRO T F BIDASOA War, the local t er the 1 Carlis

innovation on The railway was the main munication lines. the development of com n see the viaduct In the engraving you ca ed in 1864. of Ormaiztegi, inaugurat The industrialization sta rted with the paper production, where the fa ctories situated in Tolosa took 80% contro l of the Spanish paper market.

became In the politic area fuerism ading of much stronger. The spre the song of the Iparragirre is a sample of e popularity reached by th ferent fuerism, defended by dif political options.

“Gernikako arbola”


Demolishing walls of Sa n Sebastian in 1863 justifies the necessity of expansion of the cities.


up during the 1st The injuries that showed properly, so that Carlist war did not cure the 2nd Carlist War

started in 1872 and finished in 1876.


nd Why did the 2 Carlist War explode?

es Whic h were the differenc e between the First and th Second War? Where did occur the first failure of the Carlists? polemic Who has been the most character of this war? Why? State. Carlists tried to create a velop? Whic h areas did they de

mbol Whic h fight became a sy for the carlists?



2nd C.War





d was was Carlos V, in the secon e 1st Carlist War the king If during th e ection of most part of th . He was also under prot

II Carlos Vitants. inhab
Basque rural

1st As happened during the d the Carlist war, who controlle ere cities? And which cities wh besieged?

Biba Karlos septimo eta Margarita, laister ikusiko deu tronuan jarrita. Txapela zuri eta borlia berdia, zaldi gañian dator Don Karlos guria Borondate guztiaz artu nuben arma, negarrez utzirikan aita eta ama Karlosek bidali du Frantzitik ordena txanponian saltzeko beltzik aundiena

Who lost the war? Whic h was the most important consequence of this failure?



ean does not only m e word war it ounce th would have When we pron ps. d n two troo for a group an a fight betwee vertising tools f the main ad retty much on become one o ss worked on p e European pre for another. Th nd Carlists War. downs of the 2 the ups and


ess issues Whic h of the following pr st War? concerns to the First Carli nd What about the 2 ?


Satirical magazines:


ame f ate a n

or your

irical m own sat


chnical progress, From 1879, factors like te by the new political or opportunities offered nce of satirical situation, carried abunda ines reflect their magazines. These magaz eir titles. style and intentions at th

Fray Gerundio. Madrid Arlequín. Madrid El Burro. Madrid a El Pájaro Verde. Barcelon a El Pájaro Azul. Barcelon El Cascabel. Madrid El Tiburón. Barcelona Gil Blas. Madrid La Víbora. Barcelona drid Aventuras de Pichichi. Ma Barcelona La Campana de Gracia. Jeremias. Madrid El Trueno. Madrid Don Quijote. Madrid La Flaca. Barcelona La Gorda. Madrid

La Bomba. Barcelona El Cohete. Madrid Robinson. Barcelona La Porra. Barcelona La Calavera. Barcelona Barcelona La Carcajada. Madrid, El Loro. Barcelona id Chorizos y Polacos. Madr La Mosca. Barcelona drid El Rompe-Cabezas. Ma a La Marsellesa. Barcelon El Gallo. Barcelona El Motín. Madrid El Tupé. Barcelona La Avispa. Madrid El Busilis. Barcelona

El Alacrán. Valladolid El Caimán. Madrid La Caricatura. Madrid El Charlatán. Barcelona Letras y Cuernos. Madrid Madrid El Caballero de Gracia. stián. La Semana en San Seba El Coco. Madrid . Barcelona La Esquella de la Torratxa El Danzarín. Vitoria La Cigala. Barcelona El Matute. Madrid La Retaguardia. Madrid La Jota. Logroño. El Último Mono. Madrid


al magazine, ÍTICA”satiric MADEJA POL “LA 4 celona, 2-V-187 number 22 Bar

Liberal caricature

The trunk

Carlist symbol: GOD COUNTRY KING (Dios, Patria y Rey).

h tre re ra the th e Tthe e ebpresentnchrees of bears

Although the decline of the 1st Republic of Spain , after the knock of Pavia


feminine re esent figurIne rstillndprwe cans e. he ha ,

the Stat wn the see the axe that cuts do Gernika Tree.

are Gernika Tree ed priests. Carlists and always arm es, some As many other caricatur ms, carlists look like mushroo of them others seem rats, but all ret on are wearing a Basque be their heads.

n r a ca o reprha by sa s GeorteeofrrepulbliCns, isncesented, whoawaw. a supp

z de la Concha was the General Manuel Gutierre s in the North provinces, leader of Spanish troop their triumph. He died in and it was also hope for er. Lizarra, two months lat

t The rooy: s of Gernika ry sturd

e re etCarlo el petrok re ed Tehochup“Don rols otanleo”, crematains th br

is brochure reflects by Vicente Manterola. Th ort, where the image of carlist´s ideological supp proclaim law and order. churches on fire is used to ge Don Carlos with the At this time, they exchan ”. Basque law code “foruak


at bli ns a generally less sts carices. Thurescaarearebit clumsy, more Carli e repu d imag

funny, in both, texts an republicans s cruel. If carlist identified eys or ive and funny, but no les creat gs, lambs, monkeys, donk publicans carlists are do with pigs, for re even rats.

politician and In this caricature, priest, erola, adores the carlists ideologist Vicente Mant .


? What is written on the flag nce in this Is there any other refere museum?


El maestro de escuela EL MOTIN. 9). Madrid AÑO IX. Nº11 (17-III-8 de Madrid Hemeroteca Municipal

ite and black rmat, starting from a wh cation has a different fo Each publi where used for singing in luias” in big format which e one simple sheet, until “alle about different topics, th s. The “alleluias” talked streets and square above is about teachers.

Juan era un hombre honrado,gordo, lucio y colorado

Pero le dió la manía de estudiar pedagogía

Y diez arrobas cabales pesaba entonces Juan Bales

Obtubo escuela, y en breve solo llegó a pesar nueve

A todas las horas el cura le quemaba la figura

Si algún bruto no aprendía, la madre le escarnecía

O el padre de algún inculto quería buscarle el bulto

Su sueldo pedía en balde al gobierno y al alcalde

Y como nunca cobraba, el hambre le devoraba

Al dormir, sus pesadillas eran panes y tortillas

Se iba al sol frecuentemente por tomar algo caliente

La libertad de enseñanza practicaba de esta traza

Se desmayó cierto día frente à una pastelería

Contemplaba su alacena más limpia que una patena

Como no daba dinero le echó a la calle el casero

Y el hombre salió del paso habitando à campo raso

Quiere atraer,¡vano intento! las aves con el aliento

Tan flacucho ya se hallaba que ni sombra proyectaba

Cuando el viento oir se deja tiene que subir a una reja

Una día de hambres crueles se engulló cuatro carteles

Y de allí a pocos momentos le dieron los sacramentos

Murió, y à su cuerpo enjuto sirvió de caja un canuto

Sin clérigos y si canto lleváronle al camposanto

Y España que tal consiente, mantiene gorda à esta gente.


Why were they famous?



amo s… o were not that fitzuak/ikeruta-etaand wh ke
a.net/ekintzak-eta-zerb w.zumalakarregimuseo : ww eak endeko-pertsonaia-xum dokumentazioa/xix.m

Miguel Joaquín Eleizegi

(1818-1861) ll and had Alzo giant was 2,42m ta a 64cm tall 203kg weigh. He needed ves and chair, used 33cm large glo alent of shoe 42cm size brogues, equiv number 63.

(1806-1826) He composed his first wo rk when he was eleven years old, th e assay was titled “Nada y mucho”. When he was fourteen, he debuted in Bilbao with the successful opera “Los esclavos felices”.

Juan Crisostomo de Arriaga

“El moro vizcaino”

(1827-1876) He worked in Morocco, t, as a storyteller, merchan pilgrim or even beggar. After having all those an professions, he became expert on Maghreb daily life and also, mosques.

(1792-1872 spy, and He was conspirator and (1782-1854) carlists provoked division inside When she was 22 years ad around old troops. To do so, he spre published “Ipui onac”, Ba sque false documents and rumours, translation of Esopo`s leg ends. decreasing confidence between This is the first legends bo ent ok officials and discouragem published in Basque lan guage. between soldiers.

Bizenta Mogel

Eugenio Avir)aneta



Send the answers

and you GAMES t will get a presena.net
mzumalakarregi@gipuz ko
Code used by carlists

Gaztelumendi: de this “bertso” of Beñat Deco

a k t

b l ll u

c d e f g

h i


m n ñ o p q r s y z

v x

What are those objects?

Some people say that Tomas Zumalakarregi invented the potato omelette “patata tortilla”. What do you think about it? Is it true? Yes No


VIRTUAL ZM, Education virtual service of the Zumalakarregi Museum: www.zumalakarregimuseoa.net/actividades/educacion

which sector Look at the map and say uzkoa. was distinguished in Gip What about Bizkaia?

During the

2nd half of th the 19 century, e rted in th

industrial revolution sta ments were Basque Country. Develop d Bizkaia, but located in Gipuzkoa an with different models.

Classify each transport be low on each map:

On wheel(stagecoach, carriage, galley), on food, cavalry (muleteer), sailboat, steamboat (wheel steamboat, propeller steamboat, locomotive). Also communications (railway, roads, highway, county road)




important work of This viaduct is the most ts Madrid with Paris the railway that connec the 15th of august, in and it was inaugurated 1864. It is , that is and to cross the valley how it gives de possibility above below. s the engineering four main columns; it wa , Eiffel, who constructed a predecessor of Gustave al e and light viaduct. A re wide, comfortable, secur , which ade of keynote work mostly m ng revolutionary constructi was an innovating and any options in building. material that offered m

s 288metreiglarge 34metres h h 1800tons weigh Alexander Lavalley iron

has been working for duct of Ormaiztegi, which old via they foresee Result of his work is the traffic duplicated what use, even when the train of daily ated the new definitely closed and cre en the old viaduct was in 1864. It was in 1995 wh nstruction was ruinous. s, plying that Lavalley`s co viaduct, without im its technical characteristic Country comparable to sque igners. There is no work in all Ba mired by locals and fore n made architecture, ad iro are historical importance or is not in sight, the building ts among other bridges But the most admirable forces calculation highligh deep and the

131 years

20emetres time.
of th



of th viaduct uguration act e cities of e Ina on 1864 th Double trackght acetime brou

1864 1912
Pe improvements and new technologies.

Since it was inaugurated our connected by train and Madrid and Paris were It has a very important ry changed completely. histo rst y wars have been its wo strategic value that is wh nd rlist war 1872-1876, the enemy. During the 2 ca was fired, but only a few Train Station of Beasain duct of Ormaiztegi. faults affected to the via


1928 1936
Wartime destruction

Reinforce with concrete made 1941 columns

th war, on the 15 and During the Spanish Civil ers from the blast 16th of September, work down the bridge furnace of Bergara cut in order to stop with their soldering irons an excellent work, Francoist troops. It was sives… But francoist clean and without explo y, and shooted all soldiers arrive the next da ll of the cemetery of workers against the wa to the bridge. Ormaiztegi, which is next


Inauguration of the new viaduct


ced with concrete made nstruction, it was reinfor For its reco viaduct appearance. ns. This configures today’s colum

thout the train Everyone knows that wi t. They constructed world would be differen ment signal and the viaduct as a develop odel of that time. it became a progress m new viaduct was Next to the old one, the that the old bridge inaugurated in 1995, so viaduct will also stopped working. Today’s ay and somebody become obsolete somed to future needs. will purpose to adapt it

nt We have a very importa characters connection with the main past, because and witnesses from the rstand our it is not possible to unde out them. nowadays life-style with

Our nts. Some of has a variety of compone others express them offer information, increase feelings, and all of them lves. knowledge about ourse

historic heritage

ke Metres are not what ma ut… b the viaduct important,
Eiffel Tower Viduct of Ormaiztegi

320 m.

a lot to say with the Identity of a nation has dscape. Usually, each natural and human lan big city has its own : Statue of Liberty r in Paris, and so on. in New York, Eiffel Towe s which have a special There are also small town different from the element that makes them e of those. You can see others; Ormaiztegi is on rspective of the town. the viaduct from each pe an important element Besides, it has become in tegi. Nowadays, it is of the daily life of Ormaiz maiztegi without old impossible imagining Or bridge.

meaningful monuments

Column of the viaduct

Blue whale


51 m.

34 m.

Pisa Tower

Underground foundation and columns


pass at Madrid-Paris railway hing special the point th et conjunction. Nowadays, it is not som e an important railway that Irun-Hendaya mak tructed in the through Gipuzkoa, or the train would be cons ows, been different. What if But it could have ugh Pamplona? Who kn uld arrive to Baiona thro u co ns Alduides? And what if yo their holidays in the regio se Pyrenees could spend rre n, although inhabitants of the Nava t strongly for that optio ea, maybe. Navarrese be of Goierri or Tolosald possible. nowadays, it seems not


Baiona Iruña

would go through If Madrid-Paris railway me the Industrial Navarra, would be the sa Revolution of Gipuzkoa?


Baiona Donostia Ormaiztegi Gasteiz Iruña

What What about your town? the train? influence had or will have

on the Miles of Basques worked ay directed construction of the railw machinery and by French engineering; ch. 600 workers materials were also Fren , specialised from on in the Franco on the tunnels constructi , at the gap between Italian Beasain and Olazagutia. with some Those workers together rked Basque workers, who wo on the , continued with works of French company at the . One of them rn in Tolosa. was Nemesio Artola, bo



Ormaiztegi 1863



00 tons from NE TRAIN could carry 10UR… In 1864, O stian in ONE HO Ormaiztegi to San Seba


1 hour
…the same load would need


100 CARRIAGES during a

1000 tons

1 day


This alleluia expresses a perspective

of the railway.


Idea, texts and graphic design realization: K6 Gestión Cultural

Zumalakarregi Museum: www.zumalakarregimuseoa.net “XIX Century Album” www.albumsiglo19mendea.net/en/index.php?

ZUMALAKARREGI MUSEUM Muxika egurastokia 6. 20216 Ormaiztegi (Gipuzkoa) Tel.: +34 943 88 99 00 Fax.: +34 943 88 01 38 mzumalakarregi@gipuzkoa.net www.zumalakarregimuseoa.net

© zumalakarregi museum 2011
impreso con materiales reciclados

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