This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Persuasive communication mastery is an invaluable skill not only for use in NLP but for life in general, especially if you're a person who likes to make an impact on the world rather than a person who just goes with the flow. Many of the most powerful, influential and successful people throughout history were made so by the very fact that they were such artfully persuasive communicators. From a personal development standpoint learning to utilise your communication skills with volition is fundamental to producing your desired outcomes with ease and finesse. If you're a leader your ability to communicate persuasively and effectively will play a major role in convincing others to follow you. If you're a coach or a therapist your communication skills will help to determine whether your client makes effective changes and achieves break-through results. If you're a sales person, your ability to communicate effectively may be the major determining factor in convincing you prospect that your product or service is right for them. In this section of the site we're going to focus primarily on the use of language - the Linguistic element of Neuro Linguistic Programming.
When we look at the world through a window we see a particular view. Look through another window, even a small distance from the first and although the world outside the window remains the same, your unique view of it through that second frame may be subtly, or radically different from the view through the first frame. More importantly for our purposes here, your thoughts and feelings about the two views and the internal representations resulting from the two experiences are likely to be equally different. Similar results can be achieved linguistically using linguistic frames, and if you're familiar with the common expression 'it's not what you said, it's how you said it' then you are likely to appreciate just how useful linguistic frames can be in inter-personal communication. Using linguistic frames we can adjust the meaning of one language structure by framing it inside a second language structure, and this is something you probably do every day without realising it. In the following examples we'll examine ways to utilise linguistic frames to:•
Disagree with another person's point of view and get them to agree with our point of view without them even being aware of it (agreement frame).
Satisfy another person's request by giving them something other than what they asked for (purpose frame).
Move a person from a stuck state by getting them to think in new ways and imagine doing the very thing don't want to do or think that they can't do (what if frame).
The fourth indicator of rapport is our ability to pace and lead the person we are communicating with. The agreement frame is a linguistic tool that we can use to verbally pace the person we are communicating with and then lead them to where we want the communication to go. The agreement frame takes one of the following forms:• • •
I agree........and........ I appreciate........and........ I respect........and........
For the purposes of our illustrative example let's consider an imaginary communication between two characters - A and B. A says: We've got so much work to do to complete this project. We're going to have to work late to get everything finished on time. B says: I understand how you feel, but I've had enough for one day and I'd much rather go home now and finish things up tomorrow. For the purposes of our example we're going to assume that A's response to B's disagreement is to feel displeased (remember - the meaning of your communication is the response that you get). B could have elegantly achieved his desired outcome - going home for the day - in such a way that A was more likely to feel agreeable, simply by wrapping an agreement frame around his disagreement as in the following example:A says: We've got so much work to do to complete this project. We're going to have to work late to get everything finished on time. B says: I agree that we have a lot to do, and I think that if we go home now and recharge our batteries we'll finish the job in half the time tomorrow.
In the second example B uses one of the agreement frame forms mentioned above .. The agreement frame wraps neatly around any negative in such a way that overall the communication is received in a positive light. By agreeing with part of A's communication B begins to pace A by acknowledging A's model of the world. The fact is that as B's model of the world differs from A's model. So far B's second communication has two pacing elements ...e. The final element of the agreement frame switches to leading the person we are communicating with in the direction of our desired outcome i. Claiming to understand another person whilst at the same time holding a belief or opinion which differs from theirs is like to result in a polarity response in that person i.Let's look at some of the fundamental differences between the two examples. Used in a sentence the word but negates everything that comes before it..I agree + and...and. Ever been on the receving end of a stream of positive communication and thought to yourself 'wait for the but.. Firstly B avoids claiming to understand A.wait for the but. In the first example B may as well have said 'I understand how you feel . Linguistically the word but is known as a negation operator... but my wants and needs are more important than anything else and I'm going home'...'? When the but comes along it negates all the positive aspects of the communication and we're left with the negative...e. . B could never truly understand A...you don't understand! Thus by avoiding claiming to understand A. B presents less opportunity for resistance and avoids the polarity response. In this regard but is a very powerful word....I agree. in this case the polarity response is likely to be no . In the second example B the continues to pace A by replacing but with the and part of the agreement frame.
.......and....(X).and......... Illustrative examples don't have to be dull and boring .Billy and Johnny... it really isn't. On the following pages we'll examine some of the other tools we can add to our linguistic toolbox to boost our inter-personal communication skills further still..(X) I appreciate....(X) for the purpose of (Y). Johnny offers an alternative to (X) that satisfies Johnny's purpose of (Y)..........• • • I agree. The purpose frame is elegantly designed to produce win-win outcomes..let's inject a little tongue-in-cheek humour:- .. • • • • Billy makes a request (X) of Johnny Johnny responds .. The form of the purpose frame is very simple and to illustrate it we'll use two imaginary individuals ...and. For our purposes Johnny will be using the purpose frame to address a request made by Billy.. for what purpose? Billy responds . Purpose frame The purpose frame is a linguistic tool which we can use to satisfy the purpose of a person's request without necessarily giving them what they actually ask for....(X) I respect. Whilst that may sound manipulative or akin to some form of trickery.(X) Where X is our desired outcome.
options and ideas which they may previously have considered beyond the scope of their abilities or the realms of possibility.okay. safe in the knowledge that they are only 'pretending' to believe something different and that they can easily return to their original belief if they wish.• • • • The eskimo asks his boss for underfloor heating in his 'igloo-office' Boss replies .underfloor heating. The added bonus is that the result is a win-win . For the purposes of illustration let's imagine that you are coaching a friend or work colleague:- . also know as the as if frame is used to negotiate resistance and limiting beliefs by assisting a person in considering more fully those possibilities. The what if frame allows a person to suspend those limiting beliefs which have negative impacts on their lives and try on more useful beliefs. What if frame The what if frame.so I can have nice warm feet! Boss replies . I'll supply you with some extra-thick socks. The intention is that by facilitating that person in trying on those different beliefs their rigid model of the world is given a good hard shake (or a gentle shake if that's more appropriate) and they push past their limiting beliefs in the direction of more useful beliefs. for what purpose? Eskimo responds . Thus the boss was able to satisfy the purpose/intention of his eskimo employee's request without actually providing exactly what was asked for.our eskimo friend has nice warm feet and the boss keeps his employee happy and avoids the cost and inconvenience of installing underfloor heating.
What would happen if you did tell her how you feel? What specifically would you say to her? What would her reaction most likely be? or • Friend says .• Friend says .What if there are lots of people who do truly like you for who you are and you're too wrapped up in your thoughts to see those people in the first place .I could never get that promotion. what would happen if you did get that promotion? If you had that promotion now what would you look like? What skills and abilities would you have? or • • Friend says .I could never tell her how I feel You respond . .if it wasn't for bad luck I'd have no luck at all • You respond -What if something good did happen to you . over or through a limiting belief and begin to generate more useful beliefs and generalisations. Rather it is a catalyst intended to trigger a chain reaction of processes in the subject to go around. I just don't have what it takes • You respond .how would you recognise it? Would you even notice if something good happened to you. the what if frame is the key process that triggers the collapse of that dam and releases the flow of generative change which acts to enrich a person's model of the world.how are they ever going to show you that they like you? The what if frame is not a complete intervention in and of itself. or would you be too busy searching for bad luck? or • Friend says .Nothing good ever happens to me .I can't think of one person who truly likes me for who I am • You respond . If we think of the limiting beliefs and generalisations as a dam across the river of creativity and infinite possibility.Well.
) When you give another person an instruction or even a suggestion that involves negation such as:• • • Don't think about (X) Don't do (X) Try not to mention (X) they have to think about the negative part of what you've said just to make sense of it. in other words. (You're thinking about it again. One way in which they do this is by being aware of the other person's model of the world and of the internal representations their communication is likely to elicit in that person. in order to process the sentence the child has to think about spilling the drink. Confused? That's OK as confusion always precedes understanding.Say it the way you want it Master communicators tailor their communication to suit the person they are communicating with in a number of different and subtle ways. we can't think about what we don't want to think about without thinking about it. .right? When you're told Don't think of a blue tree you have to think about the blue tree just to be able to make sense of the sentence and thus you cannot avoid thinking about what you are told not to think about. If someone said to you Don't think of a blue tree what's the first thing you think about? A blue tree . One key aspect of this process is the recognition that the unconscious mind cannot process a negative or. when you tell a child Don't spill your drink. aren't you. When we start to think about the negation we begin to imagine doing it and thus become more likely to do the very thing we are trying not to do! For example. Just take a moment to think about that.
state our outcome in the positive. they are likely to experience the negative kinesthetics that go along with that. we actually create internal representations in the person we are communicating with that significantly increase the chances of getting our desired outcome. concentrating on where they are going to clumsily carrying the drink in a nervous manner whilst paying attention to internal experience.they probably hadn't even thought of it until we mentioned it! A better instruction would have been That's right. . nice and carefully or. tell the person what we want rather than what we don't want. Quotes allow you to get your message across and neatly bypass any resistance that may arise from the person you are communicating with. resulting in increased muscle tension. carry the drink just like that.Whilst they are internally imagining spilling the drink they focus on their internal map of reality instead of paying attention to what's going on in current external experience. with a simpler form commonly used with small children or when time is of the essence . Ironically. They've now switched from calmly carrying the drink in a relaxed manner.the drink stays in the cup. telling them not to spill the drink is more likely to produce that undesired result than if we'd said nothing at all . When we say it the way we want it . Remember the rule and say it the way you want it! "Speaking in quotes" Speaking in quotes is a very powerful way to verbally convey a direct message or instruction in an indirect way. Having experienced spilling the drink internally and the associated consequences.
. Now you may say "Nobody likes to be told what to do" and you'd be right. • Imparting wisdom .. Quotes can be used in many ways including:• Giving commands ..think of something you want to say. put it in quotes and attribute it to someone else:I remember watching a movie about a guy who could never make his mind up and his best friend said to him ". One drawback in this method of communication is that it can trigger resistance from the other person .. The answer is to put your communication inside quotes.some people are just so rude and inconsiderate that they deserve to be slapped .. By being very direct and explicit in our communication we leave the other person in no doubt about what we want.a fitness instructor friend of mine told me ". wouldn't you agree? " When I decided to write about speaking in quotes on this website I said to myself "quotes is such a powerful and flexible technique and so easy to . When we wish to communicate clearly and effectively with other people we tend to be very direct in our communication. Speaking in quotes is really easy to do .".. what we want them to do.they may not want to do what we ask or they may not want to do it exactly how we want them to. learn to use quotes" and I did.one of the best things you can do for health is learn to relax and unwind fully each day" and he was right. I hear you ask. "How can we communicate precisely in a way that doesn't give rise to resistance?".A book I once read said ". if you don't like your choice you can change it later"...if you only learn one NLP pattern.. how we want them to do it etc.The first time I read about about this pattern (quotes) I remember saying to myself "This pattern is so easy you've just got to learn how to do it" and that's exactly what I did.arrogant @! ~@##*!. • Speaking the unspeakable .just stop wasting time and make your mind up already.
learn that those who read it will already be thinking about how they can use it even before they reach the end of the article" And I bet you are. Now I'm not saying that negatives are a magical tool for influencing others towards your way of thinking. Afterall. because you must find out how useful they are for yourself. • Whilst I wouldn't suggest this test will be easy for you I know you've studied hard and you have all the knowledge to do well. What we must also remember is that negatives. when used with volition. you wouldn't want to just take my word for it. can be equally useful and often more elegant and subtly influential in achieving the same results. would you? As an illustrative example let's consider a teacher and student scenario which of the following statements spoken by the teacher to the student is most likely to assist the student in doing well in the test? • This test is going to be difficult but just try to focus and do your best. with little or no resistance from the person we are communicating with. . aren't you? Utilising negatives The section on positivity showed us that framing our communication positively was more likely to create positive internal representations in the people we communicate with and thus to lead them toward our desired outcome for the communication. I wouldn't say that we can choose with certainty which one would work best but I'd put my money on the second one.
In the first example the teacher also tells the student to try to focus and do his best. i.. This phrasing reinforces to the student that he has the tools to do the job.In the first example the teacher tries to motivate the student by telling him that the test will be difficult. which again implies that he will fail or at least not be entirely successful.. Whilst the teacher isn't suggesting that the test will be easy for this particular student. And whilst I don't know if it's important.this test will be easy for you. On the other hand the internal representation he may generate from this statement is 'this test will be difficult for you because you're not up to it'... The teacher is actually indicating that the test has been set at a level which will provide a worthwhile measure of the hard work that they've both put in and the learning that has taken place. by telling you what I'm not saying or what I'm not thinking or what I'm not going to do. This student may respond well to this type of 'away-from' motivation and sharpen his focus. 3. The teacher reinforces belief in the student's abilities with the phrase '.you have all the knowledge to do well.e. you may ..e. 2.let's consider just a few of them:1. The teacher is indicating that he is aware of the match between the level of the test and the level of the student's knowledge..I wouldn't suggest this test will be easy for you' alone there are multiple messages expressed and implied .. I have noticed another interesting aspect to utilising negatives that could be very useful.. In the second example just in the phrase '. those are the phrases that the student's unconscious mind will place most emphasis on . 4. the student will have to imagine the test being easy just to make sense of the statement '. with a lowered voice tone. If the teacher also marks out the key phrases verbally i.this test will be easy for you'.the meaning of your communication is the response that you get)..you have all the knowledge to do well'. If I begin my communication with a negative. (Remember .
but are implied in the way those words are put together. In other words parts of our communication are not included in the words we use. In other words only part of our communication is direct (which presupposes that there are parts of our communication which are something other than direct). Our linguistic communications also convey meaning which is not expressly stated in the words that we use. But it probably isn't important or even that useful. The portions of our communication which are implied rather than expressly stated are known linguistically as presuppositions. All sentences contain or imply presuppositions as we could not communicate effectively if we had to prove everything we say all of the time. is it? Presuppositions When we communicate with another human being using natural language.find that you actually pay more attention consciously to what I am saying or thinking or to what I am going to do. Presuppositions are powerful elements of communication in three main ways:• When we are on the receiving end of the communication the implied meaning available to us in the presuppositions (assuming we are practising sensory acuity and are thus able to detect them) . Presupposition is the name given to an implied fact that must be assumed before a given sentence can be accepted as true. the words that we use convey explicitly only a portion of the meaning behind our communication. either verbally or in written form.
simply in order to process our communication. What you were . the receiver is likely to accept with less resistance than might be the case had we communicated them overtly. Consider the following phrase:I can't decide which shoes to wear At face value this simple utterance is entirely unremarkable and if someone said it to us we would be unlikely to even raise an eyebrow. what people don't say often reveals more about their model of the world than what they do say. Just think about this for a second . In other words.you read the above natural language phrase and probably found it entirely unremarkable. maybe not. It's about as interesting as watching paint dry (unless watching paint dry is your idea of an incredibly interesting pastime in which case you go girl!) If we probe a little deeper we realise that this simple phrase contains a number of presuppositions including:• • • • • • • • I exist Shoes exist More than one shoe(s) exist(s) Shoes can be worn I have the potential to wear shoes I have the potential to make a decision I have access to a range of shoes I have the option to make a choice from the range Suddenly this simple phrase becomes far more interesting (well. but you need to learn to think this way if you want to be able to detect and utilise presuppositions effectively). • We can use presuppositions in our language to lead the person we are communicating with to create particular internal representations that will usefully suit our purposes. • When we are on the transmitting end of the communication we can actively utilise presuppositions with volition to convey information and meaning which.often provides us with far more information and insight than the meaning expressed by the words themselves.
can still be verified from the linguistic structures present. Ergo it is useful at this point to take a little time to differentiate between a presupposition and a mindread. So that you can become proficient in detecting presuppositions and the difference between presuppositions and mind-reads. we want to be certain that we detect only information that is actually present. Presuppositions (2) So presuppositions are those parts of a linguistic communication which are implied in the communication as opposed to being overtly expressed. when you learn to utilise presuppositions with volition in your own communication.and now decide which of the following is a presupposition or a mindread:1. Now. rather than information that we think is present. and possibly some of your own. Presuppositions are those things that whilst not overtly mentioned. simply in order to make sense of the sentence.probably unaware of was the fact that unconsciously you accepted all of the presuppositions listed above. consider the following statement:'I'm not sure whether or not I should stop eating cream cakes' . She currently eats cream cakes . Now that we know that a person's linguistic communication can contain far more information than is expressly spoken or written.. A mind-read on the other hand is pure speculation on the part of the person receiving the communication which cannot be verified from the presented linguistic structures.. you have a very powerful tool for influencing the way others think without their being consciously aware of it.
On the other hand we cannot ascertain whether his belief that all his friends are doing it is based on fact. Point 3 could be a presupposition and it could also be a mind-read. He feels that he is treated unfairly 2. Therefore they may not be doing it at all and it may actually be a mind-read on his part. She loves cream cakes 3. In this instance she mentions stopping eating cream cakes. He wants to learn new behaviours 4. which presupposes that she previously started eating cream cakes.2. Let's try one more for good luck:'If I don't learn how to communicate with my boss I won't get a pay rise' 1. He wants to be liked by his friends 3. He feels that he is treated unfairly 2. His salary is linked to his communication skills . She eats exclusively cream cakes Only the first one is a presupposition. Points 2 and 3 are not mentioned or implied in any way in the original statement and are therefore mind-reads (as is our choice to assign the female gender to the writer. Let's try another example:'I don't see why I can't do it. Insofar as he states in the sentence that all of his friends are doing it (whatever it is) it's a presupposition. all of my friends are doing it' 1. as that isn't mentioned in the original statement either). The other two are mind-reads. This person's friends do something he currently does not do Points 1 and 2 are mind-reads . The key is the fact that the presuppositions are mentioned or implied somewhere within the communication. He doesn't know how to communicate with his boss 3.they are not mentioned or implied in any way in the original statement.
Detecting presuppositions So far we've loosly defined what linguistic presuppositions are and considered how presuppositions differ from mind reads. Detecting the presuppositions inherent in a person's communication can be as simple as asking the question What would have to be true (in this person's model of the world) for this person to say this? Or. including the presuppositions. in short What would have to be true? Notice the caveat contained in the brackets . And whilst it's important to respect the other person's model of the world. Having the ability to recognise mind-reads assists us in avoiding the common mistake of paying attention to what we think we know and instead to focus on the true meaning of another person's communication. arises from their unique model of the world and thus 'true' in the world may differ from 'true' in their model. .Points 1 and 3 are mind reads. We must always remember that every aspect of a person's communication. the ability to challenge and thus assist them in usefully enriching their world model is just one of the ways NLP techniques can be used to assist people to gain more flexibility in their behaviours and thus operate in more effective and appropriate ways on that world.in this person's model of the world. 2 and 4 are implied in the original phrase and thus are presuppositions.
is that something is stopping them from doing the thing they want to do or having the skill they want to have. under. would have to be presupposed. Thus in the above statement there is a presupposition of existence of John. • The mountain behind the house caused John to decide that he would climb it . Types of presupposition To assist you in detecting the different types of presupposition common in natural language some useful and illustrative examples follow. around or through this obstacle that's getting in the way of them having that thing that they want.when a person says that there is something they would like to be able do but just cannot do or a particular skill they are unable to acquire we can examine the presuppositions inherent in their statement by asking the question what would have to be true? One of the things that would have to be true. It's just possible therefore that if we ask them a Meta Model question What specifically stops you from having (X)? we can cause them to focus upon the obstacle which previously lay outside their conscious attention and begin to work towards a solution which will assist them in gaining their desired outcome. Read the bullet-point statements and try to detect the presuppositions in each:• John knew that there was a mountain behind the house All nouns are presuppositions .when we name an object it is presupposed that the object exists.For example . of the house and of the mountain. It may also be true that this person is unaware of specifically what is stopping them and thus has not recognised the opportunity to focus their energy on getting over.
as you heard. • John knew that at six o'clock he would climb the mountain behind the house Includes a presupposition of time. • John thought that as the mountain behind the house was there he should climb it Presuppositions of necessity often include words and phrases such as should/shouldn't. Common phrases of this type include . may. Sentence constructions of this type may include phrases such as . earlier that day.In addition to the presuppositions of existence this statement includes presuppositions of possibility . made and triggered.that John was able to be aware of the existence of the mountain. led. In this case the very fact that John has previous mountain climbing experience means that he can climb this one. • John's previous mountain climbing experience meant that he could climb the mountain behind the house Adds a presupposition of complex equivalence . must/mustn't. Often include phrases such as caused. • John realised that there was a mountain behind the house Includes a presupposition of awareness . you can feel and you may already have noticed (but you already knew that. present. later. might and will and their associated opposites couldn't.that it's possible for John to climb the mountain and that it's possible for him to know that there's a mountain behind the house.as you can see. • The mountain behind the house caused John to climb it Adds a presupposition of cause and effect . have to and ought to. some time in the past. future. need to. before breakfast and during the last ice age.that it's possible for the mountain to cause John to do something.one thing means another.past. might not and won't. • John knew there was a beautiful mountain behind the house . right?). previously. would. Presuppositions of possibility often include words such as could. wouldn't. forced. may not. tomorrow.
Consider each of the following statements and identify the presuppositional types contained in each:• John knew that there was a mountain behind the house so he either had to climb it or stay in bed Includes a type of presupposition known as an exclusive OR . You may already have noticed as we progress through these phrases that we are stacking layer upon layer of presupposition.you have to choose one thing or the other. When you put those two things together it can be quite easy to understand how. An exclusive OR allows only two possibilities . This type of language construction can be used where there is a need to provide choice which is limited. The NLP Communication Model tells us that the conscious mind can only attend to 7+/-2 chunks of information at one time. More presuppositional types Let's continue learning now some of the types of presupposition commonly found in natural language so that we can both recognise them and construct them as we wish. . In order to process the sentence the reader accepts the presupposition the the mountain actually has the property described by the word beautiful. For example.Includes a presupposition of the adverb/adjective type. of the mountain and of the house. in each of the phrases that follows the first there is still the presupposition of the existence of John. when presented with a linguistic communication containing stacked layer upon stacked layer of presupposition. we find ourselves accepting the presuppositions simply in order to process the communication and keep up with the flow of the conversation (if you didn't get all that in one go you can go back and read it again). especially when that communication is spoken.
When we use an ordinal we offer the person we are communicating with a pattern and a prediction of future events which they will quickly familiarise themselves with in order to understand our communication.e. This type of language construction offers choices or suggestions and can also stimulate the person we are communicating with to generate choices of their own useful if the person had not considered what choices might be available to them.• John knew that there was a mountain behind the house so he either had to climb it or do something else Includes an inclusive OR. Both the exclusive OR and the inclusive OR.e. first you'll notice certain sensations in your body and then you'll begin to relax deeply. whilst offering choices / suggestions. We tend to pay more attention to events which do not conform to recognised and familiar patterns . the inclusive OR allows more options (1+n).the physical threat of a dangerous wild animal entering our previously familiar environment for example. In order to make sense of the world around us and to differentiate between those things in the world that require our full and immediate attention and those things which are of less importance and thus require less of our attention. our brains have evolved to seek out and be more comfortable with patterns and sequences. An ordinal presupposes an order or sequence to events that may or may not exist i. also presuppose a need for action on the part of the person we are communicating with i. they send the message DO SOMETHING. . • John first realised there was a mountain behind the house and then realised he would have to climb it Includes a type of presupposition known as an ordinal. the occurence of the first event often causes the person we are communicating with to more naturally expect and to accept the subsequent steps without resistance. So long as the order or sequence presupposed by the ordinal is plausible. We tend to pay less attention to those things which are familiar to us and which we expect. Where an exlusive OR allows only two options (1+1).
Hypnotic Language Hierarchy of ideas In inter-personal communication the person who controls the level of abstraction within the communication controls the communication itself. If we take the word car as an example. If you do those two things you are sure to feel the benefit when we reach the stuff on the Milton Model in the section on Hypnotic Language. the word car is at a particular level of abstraction. The hierarchy of ideas also utilises this concept of chunks of information and our ability to take such a chunk and 'chunk up' to a higher level of abstraction. 'chunk down' to a lower level of abstraction and even 'chunk sideways' or laterally between two chunks at the same level of abstraction. .To build up your skills in utilising presuppositions first spend some time practicing detection of presuppositions in other people's communications by asking the question what would have to be true? Then spend some time utilising particular presuppositions in your daily communication with other people and measure the responses that you get. The hierarchy of ideas is a model which assists us in our ability to move through and between different levels of abstraction from vague and ambiguous to concrete and specific. The NLP Communication Model introduces the concept of information being divided into chunks of variable size and the idea that the conscious mind can usefully attend to 7+/-2 (seven plus or minus two) chunks of information at any one point in time.
we could also have chunked down from Car to engine to spark plug. down through levels of abstraction.e. With each increasing level of specificity we are moving down through the hierarchy of ideas. Chunking up and down We can gain specificity in inter-personal communication by chunking down to uncover increasingly fine levels of detail by asking the questions 'What are examples of this?' or 'What specifically?'. At the other end of the spectrum there are circumstances and applications that are better served by taking an overall or 'Big Picture' view. . instead of chunking down from Car to manufacturer to model. or 'What specifically?' So if the subject of the communication was car we might ask 'What type of car specifically?' and chunk down to Ford. An alternative available to us to gain specificity is to chunk down on parts i. If we required further detail we could chunk down one more level by asking something like 'What model of Ford specifically?' and we might get a response of 'Mondeo' or 'Focus'. Detail and specificity are useful under certain particular circumstances and for certain applications. We can chunk down and gain specificity by asking 'What are examples of this?'. In this particular example we've chunked down on the class or category of the subject in question.If we then chunk down on car we move to a lower level of abstraction something more concrete and specific.
So far we've looked at chunking down to fine detail and chunking up to the big picture. You will benefit from being able to chunk up and down skilfully and you will benefit even more from being able to chunk laterally or sideways. Chunk up again and we may arrive at transportation and eventually to movement or even existence. another way to say it is that being able to chunk better will help you to think better and communicate better. if you like. Questions that we can ask to assist us in chunking up include:• • • What is this an example of? For what purpose? What is your intention? If we return to our previous example of car and chunk up one level by asking the question 'What is this an example of?' we may chunk up to motor vehicle. If we chunk up one more level by asking the question again we may chunk up to vehicle. Chunking laterally You can significantly enhance your cognitive abilities and communication skills by developing your abilities to utilise chunking more effectively. If you prefer plain speaking.When we've been 'down in the detail' and we want to move up to take look at the 'Big Picture' or. Each time we chunk up one level we move to a higher level of abstraction and I'm pretty sure you would agree that existence is a far more abstract concept than car. take a 'bird's eye view' of things we chunk up. .
When you become skilled at chunking up. down and sideways one of the things you will notice is an exponential increase in your communication skills. If we then ask ourselves 'What are other examples of art?' we could chunk down to sculpture. As we move forward through the topic areas of Hypnotic Language. Thus the chunk(s) we end with are on the same level as the chunk we started with.first chunk up one level. For the time being I'm going to leave the concept of chunking here as a single building block without further explaining it's nature or it's uses.How do we chunk sideways? Simple . For example if we take the word Painting and chunk up one level we could chunk up to Art. music. dance etc. music. Communication tends to flow better and be more useful when all of the people involved are using similar sized chunks from the same hierarchical level. gentle reader. to engage in the inductive learning process of discovering the uses of chunking inherent therein for yourself. A particularly good use of lateral chunking is in negotiation and although it wasn't stated overtly at the time we've already looked at an example of this in the purpose frame. then chunk down some place else.in this particular context we chunked from up from painting to art. dance or any number of art forms. . By using this process of chunking up then back down we've effectively chunked sideways . This is also one of the reasons why the person controlling the level of abstraction also controls the communication. Another thing that you'll notice is your increasing ability to think circles around the people you communicate with. I make this choice because sometimes we learn more and learn better when we discover the AHA! moments for ourselves. When we chunk sideways we begin by chunking up by one hierarchical level and end by chunking back down to the same hierarchical level we started from. and then sideways and down again to sculpture. Precise Communication and beyond I invite you.
are far more sophisticated than computers in their powers of discernment and analysis. Humans can think for themselves and can analyse almost microscopically any communication offered to them. An example of a situation in which a direct. These languages are unambiguous in nature and the computer follows to the letter the instructions given to it without question as it has no critical faculty. guide or otherwise influence another person's thinking linquistically you might adopt a particular strategy with the intent of making your communication effective in yielding your desired outcome (begin with the end in mind).Read on! Utilising ambiguity If you're looking to instruct. . Humans. You may give these instructions in a very direct even authoritarian manner so that the person you're communicating with understands exactly what your expectations are. Humans do possess a highly developed critical faculty. however. Your strategy may include the use of very clear. In order to process a linguistic communication from another person we have to use our own model of the world to apply meaning to the words and phrases that they use. This type of strategy can be perfectly useful in certain sets of circumstances. In other circumstances this type of strategy can actually lead to the protraction and frustration of the entire process and ultimately stop you from getting your desired outcome. specific instructions with little or no ambiguity. authoritarian strategy would be applicable and useful is in programming a computer. Humans program computers using certain specific computer languages developed expressly for the task in hand.
Ultimately. heartfelt plea than you would to a forcefully delivered demand? Are the words '.how do I feel about this communication?'.. the potential effects of acting on the instructions given to us.. Compare and contrast those thoughts and your reactions to them . Our critical faculty facilitates us in analysing the communication further still to think about.We also use our own model of the world to answer questions such as '.... for example....* *I've purposely offered some interchangeable words in the above paragraph to describe some common types of linguistic communication words which often carry varying degrees of emotional charge.'? It is fairly common to find that people are more resistant to being told what to do than they are to being asked to do something. or to being offered a suggestion which they can freely choose to accept or reject. And some people think computers are tricky! If the communication or any part of it is not congruent with our model of the world we are likely to disagree with or reject or otherwise resist that communication / suggestion / plea / instruction / order / demand. Imagine finding yourself on the receiving end of a plea.. we can choose to respond to the communication or any part of it in a myriad different ways. Linguistic transformation .. Then imagine being on the receiving end of an order or a demand..' more or less appealing than the words '..Do it now and do it like I told you.how does this communication relate to ME?' and '.are they different? Would you react differently to a sincere.it would be ever so useful if you wouldn't mind. unlike a computer.
if spoken. The representation of the way it sounds. because it's unique. or the way it appears if written . Our communication with other people is based on our own unique model of the world and.In linguistic communication the use of vague and ambiguous language often yields more useful results than the use of a direct. The representation of it's meaning . authoritarian approach.known as the Surface Structure 2. we create a context in which the natural response is resistance. In other words. According to the TG model every linguistic communication includes two distinct representations:1. A useful starting point which will assist you in understanding how/why this works and how we process natural language in order to apply meaning to the words is that of transformational grammar.known as the Deep Structure . our model of the world differs from that of every person we communicate with. We can use vague and ambiguous language to create instead a context in which the natural response is acceptance of our communication. When we communicate in a very specific manner we make it easy for the person we are communicating with to identify any parts of our communication which conflict with their model of the world and thus we make it easy for them to disagree with or otherwise resist our communication. and there are a number of reasons why this is so. The transformational grammar (TG) model has evolved over the years but we can express the basic concepts here with a couple of illustrative examples.
Some event occured in the past b. window. unspoken Deep Structure could be represented in formal notation as:PAST(BREAK [someone. They have postulated that our linguistic communications undergo a number . but someone or something had to break the window with something. The event was a complex event c. here represented by the window. The statement The window was broken implies to native speakers that not only was the window broken. and b. It consisted of the following parts:- 1. The instrument .some person or thing being broken. An action.Consider the following sentence:The window was broken Here the Surface Structure representation is simply the four words used in the sentence. The agent .some person or thing doing the breaking.the thing used to do the breaking. The object . The ways in which Surface Structures differ from their associated Deep Structure meanings is the domain of transformational linguists. the native speaker of English has that information available in their understanding of the sentence. The underlying. here represented by with something Notice that even though not all parts of the Deep Structure represented appear in the Surface Structure (in this case the agent and the instrument are not represented in the Surface Structure). here represented by someone. break. and c. which occurred between: a. with something]) Any native speaker of the English language understands from the Surface Structure that:a.
Vague and ambiguous language . specific Deep Structure meaning. A Surface Structure constructed using vague and ambiguous language on the other hand. The very fact that there is no ambiguity makes it highly probable that the Surface Structure has a single. usually has not one but multiple possible Deep Structure meanings. Thus the unconscious processes used to 'translate' the Surface Structure into the underlying Deep Structure meaning operate with relative speed and accuracy. The entire process which links a Deep Structure to it's Surface Structure is called a derivation. The process of derivation for very specific language is relatively simple. Such a Surface Structure reduces the likelihood of resistance in the person we are communicating with by:• Creating a context in which they have to work harder to establish the possible meaning(s) of our communication • • Inducing a mild state of confusion Offering them a communication in which they can choose a meaning which best fits their model of the world • Offering them a communication in which they have to actually supply content from their model of the world to 'fill the gaps' in order to make sense of the communication These are some of the things which contribute towards providing a context in which the natural response of the person we are communicating with is to willingly accept our communication.transformations in order to transform the Deep Structure meaning into the Surface Structures that we actually speak or write.
... now. for a second. and change.. Read the following passage to yourself at a relaxed pace and focus your attention internally so that you can notice your reactions to it:As you just sit back...... your unconscious.. and that's a good thing. in such a way that your behaviours may begin to.....your investment will be rewarded on subsequent pages.. I know that you're wondering You're wondering about certain things. new neurological connections which will allow you to see things in new ways and understand things at deeper levels..... and as you're thinking...... and at the conscious level... shift...... change things in your life.......... or hypnotic and enticing... Is making new connections..... and support the direction that you're moving in your life now Now I don't know if your unconscious.... right...Congratulations if you've read and gained a reasonable understanding of the sections on Utilising ambiguity and Linguistic transformation . because it is a good thing to wonder And the very fact that you're wondering means that you can come to new insights and new understandings about the materials that you're learning And those insights and understandings will allow you to begin to..... Let's dive right in now and experience some examples of language that might be considered artfully vague and ambiguous.. knows more or less than you think it does And when you think about it.. at the unconscious level. haven't you Already begun to make those connections now .
. During his lifetime Milton was widely considered to be the world's greatest medical hypnotist and he was widely known for his successful and often 'miraculous' work with 'impossible' clients... And whilst. . you may have experienced certain responses to it as you were reading it. Or feelings. all of the italic text above was hypnotic language purposely constructed to be vague and ambiguous...... as well as for his extensive writings on hypnosis.. The milton model The Milton Model is named after Milton H. places or sounds or ideas. One of the important things to notice is that the permissive style and the vague and ambiguous nature of the language reduces the likelihood of a clash with the world model of the reader.. in my experience. Erickson (1901 .. that you're destined to make Now.And I don't know if those connections are going to come in the form of pictures or.. feelings that will lead you in the direction of making the kinds of changes. an American psychiatrist specialising in medical hypnosis and family therapy.1980). hypnotic language tends to be more influential when spoken than it is when written. and thus provides a context where the most natural response is acceptance of the communication.
eight siblings. This aroused so much of his interest that he intensified his observations at every opportunity and began to develop the patterns he would later use in his hypnotic techniques. Richard Bandler and John Grinder met with Erickson on a regular basis and engaged in careful and systematic observation of Erickson's work in order to ascertain how he performed his theraputic 'miracles'. but with his vision. maps which could in turn be used to teach Erickson's skills to others in a clear and systematic way. . Such was his fascination with psychiatry that he got a psychology degree while he was still studying medicine. They discovered that whilst the behaviours demonstrated by Erickson in the induction and utilisation of hypnotic states of consciousness were extremely complex. Quarantined at home on the farm Erickson whiled away the hours by turning his attention to the observation and study of human behaviour.e.An attack of anterior poliomyelitis at the age of 17 rendered Erickson almost totally paralysed for several months. and the practical nurse responsible for his care. hearing and thinking unimpaired. Erickson was amazed to discover the frequent and often startling contradictions between the verbal and non-verbal communications within a single interchange. The model that Bandler and Grinder constructed from their studies of Erickson became affectionately known as the Milton Model. Having already a little knowledge of body language and other forms of non-verbal communication. his behaviour had distinctive patterns. Bandler and Grinder then used their skills to build explicit models or maps of Erickson's complex behaviours. Erickson's continued study of human behaviour and his need to make his way in the world and make a living for himself led him into the medical profession where he was an avid student. he was very systematic i. particularly that of his parents.
and the letters of the alphabet. I know that you're wondering In the above example.. you are doing the same things that you did when first you went to school.. And those learnings. And you don't even know how you learned those things. Things which will be useful in many ways in the days and weeks ahead. I know that you're wondering is a mind read. because it is a good thing to wonder This statement makes the claim that the act of wondering is a good thing. Let's examine now in some detail and name some of the hypnotic language patterns found in the Milton Model. stayed with you.. so that you can master many more complex things without even thinking about it. the numbers and counting.... because that claim is insubstantiated in that we don't specify how we know that the other person is wondering. so long ago now. As you just sit back.. You're wondering about certain things. Mind Read A mind read is simply claiming to know the thoughts or feelings of another person without specifying the process by which you came by the information... You are learning new things and that's a good thing. Lost Performative A lost performative is a value judgement where the performer of the value judgement is left out. and that's a good thing.Hypnotic patterns And even as you are sitting there.. and as you're thinking. reading this.. and thinking those thoughts that you are thinking. The question according to who? cannot be answered because the person .. deep in your unconscious.
or thing making the statement (the performer) is not mentioned anywhere in the statement. it is likely to be accepted by the person we are communicating with as long as it is plausible.. as in if you study these materials... listening to the sound of my voice.if condition X is true then outcome Y will be true. Hence we are left to wonder who thinks it's a good thing (and maybe even why it's a good thing and so on.... Hypnotic patterns 2 . In light trance the implied causative may be more useful:And those insights and understandings will allow you to begin to. Cause and Effect A cause and effect statement claims that one thing necessarily causes another:. then you'll produce the results that you want. Implied Causative The linkage between the elements in a cause and effect statement is strong.. And even though the cause and effect statement isn't necessarily true.).. This statement could also be written:. Then.sitting there.. Cause and effect statements are best suited to deep trance where the likelihood of resistance is less... sharply defined and as plain as the nose of your face .if you sit there and listen to the sound of my voice you will relax more and more. Cause and effect statements often take the form of an If. change things in your life In this form the link between the cause (insights and understandings) and the effect (life changes) is less pronounced and so less open to resistance..... will make you relax more and more....
As confusion always precedes understanding. most people who have had the experience of coming to new insights and new understandings will previously have wondered about the particular topic that they come to understand more about. if you prefer. The complex equivalence therefore isn't necessarily true. Presuppositions . Lucky for us that the complex equivalence doesn't have to be true to be useful in hypnosis. suggesting to a person that their wondering will lead to new insights and new understandings is a meaningful. It's entirely possible to wonder about something for even a long period of time without experiencing even one new insight or understanding. Thus. So long as it sounds meaningful and plausible to the person we are communicating with it's most likely that they will apply appropriate meaning to our words from their own world model to make the complex equivalence 'true' for them. one thing doesn't necessarily mean the other. where one thing means another:And the very fact that you're wondering means that you can come to new insights and new understandings about the materials that you're learning Fact is that in isolation a person engaging in the act of wondering isn't necessarily going to come to new insights and new understandings.And the very fact that you're studying the hypnotic language patterns found in the Milton Model means that you're exactly the type of person who appreciates the benefits and can learn with ease to enhance your skills and fluency in the effective use of language Complex equivalence A complex equivalence is a statement where two meanings are equated as being equal or. plausible suggestion that they are likely to accept easily.
at the time.. let's consider an experience that you yourself may have had.. meaning which is outside of their conscious awareness and thus bypasses conscious resistance. (We looked at presuppositions in some detail earlier so you can see these pages if you wish a fuller explanation). As stated earlier. I can't believe I agreed to that' ? Chances are that there were presuppositions inherent in what the other person said and how they said them that. agreed to do something for someone and later thought to yourself 'hold on a minute.e. so it's fair to suppose that you too will have had an experience like this. isn't it? Have you ever.The presuppositions inherent in almost everything we say can be utilised to great effect in hypnotic techniques. your attention was elsewhere. in the flow of conversation. The very fact that presuppositions are usually outside of awareness means that once we become aware of them we can use them actively and with volition to convey meaning to another person. you were not consciously aware of i. ambiguous and hypnotic in nature such as:• • • • You possess an unconscious It's possible for your unconscious to know stuff It's possible for you to think about what stuff your unconscious knows It's possible for your unconscious to know stuff that you may or may not be aware of And so on (see if you can identify other presuppositions contained in the statement that aren't mentioned here). presuppositions are present in almost everything we say and are mostly outside of our conscious awareness. To clarify. Now I don't know if your unconscious. Many human beings have experienced something like this and you are a human being. knows more or less than you think it does The statement above includes many presuppositions which are vague.. .
. ...A person can achieve anything if they put their mind to it. Universal quantifier You may discover that the best way to integrate these hypnotic linguistic patterns into your neuro-physiology is to say them aloud each time you study them..... . when you review the situation and focus consciously on what occurred the presuppositions become obvious.You will never know... so that you can be delighted when you find yourself using them in your daily interactions without even thinking about it. . Universal Quantifier A universal quantifier is universal generalisation used to displace resistance.. . or at least you'll be fully aware of exactly what's involved before you agree.. Universal quantifiers always have an element of exaggeration.. .. An example of how universal quantifiers might be used? Consider the following statement:Every intelligent person knows that key to success and the rich rewards that it brings is attention to detail.Every time you study these materials you will find that you understand them at deeper levels..Trust your instincts and you'll always make the right choices. until you try... All of the words above in bold text are universal quantifiers.Then later. So learning all about presuppositions means that you'll be less likely to end up doing things for other people that you would really rather not do.
. I bet you even imagined exactly what those rich rewards would be. didn't you? Successful how exactly? What kind of rich rewards specifically? Intelligent compared to who or what? Who says that every intelligent person knows these things? The answers to these questions and many more are not found anywhere in the original statement and that's fine because in order to simply understand the sentence you kindly supplied the answers yourself from your own model of the world which further adds to the credibility of what I'm saying. Modal Operators Modal operators are words which imply possibility or necessity. And because every intelligent person 'knows' that attention to detail is the key to success and you yourself are desirous of being 'successful' and in receipt of the 'rich rewards' you probably accepted as true the idea that attention to detail is the key to success. Hypnotic patterns 4 You may find that you need to practice daily these hypnotic patterns if you want them to become a part of your every-day vocabulary. A person should never underestimate the power of universal quantifiers..Would you like to be considered an intelligent person? Would you like to be successful? Is the idea of rich rewards appealing to you? It's highly probable that you answered Yes to the three questions above. without a scrap of proof or even evidence to back up that claim. and they are also used to form our rules in life:You can achieve great things each and every day. and then you'll begin to notice the benefits that come from integrating those learnings..
hours. such as love or memory or aspirations.. .. present or future in our communication and thus pace their verifiable experience.do I mean seconds. years.. In order to ascribe meaning to the word learnings you have to consult your model of the world to ascertain what meanings that word has for you and then map those meanings onto the word that I use. Nominalisation A nominalisation is a process word that has been frozen in time by turning into a noun. past.. weeks. if I said to you '.. such as a football or a pencil case then the noun isn't a nominalisation. months... And the same for the nominalisation of time . centuries or millenia? Again you apply from your own model of the world the meaning that is most appropriate in allowing you to understand and process the communication. A RELATIONSHIP is a word that we use to encapsulate the meaning of an ongoing process of one person or thing RELATING to another person or thing over time.. We freeze that complex. If the noun describes something that could be put into a wheelbarrow.You must focus your attention on the right things at the right times. days.' I've used at least two nominalisations .and in time you will make many useful learnings... If the noun describes something that couldn't be put into a wheelbarrow.. A person will always make new and exciting learnings if they want to. ongoing process of RELATING into a single instance of time and call it a RELATIONSHIP.time and learnings (neither of which can be put into a wheelbarrow). For example. Nominalisations are particularly useful in hypnotic language in that they allow us to use simple words to reference and include complex aspects of the other person's experiences. A useful technique for checking if a particular noun is a nominalisation is to ask the question '. such as the word RELATIONSHIP.could I put it in a wheelbarrow?'. minutes. then the noun is a nominalisation.
In the phrase 'he touched her' the verb. and then you'll begin to notice to benefits that come from integrating those learnings.touched her how? where? with what? If instead we said 'he touched her gently' the verb.where and with what? If we said 'he touched her gently on the hand with his wet nose' the verb is still further specified and we can represent more fully what the verb means.And because you provide the meaning of each nominalisation that I use. Hypnotic patterns 5 You may find that you need to practice daily these hypnotic patterns if you want them to become a part of your every-day vocabulary. as in the English words eat. Unspecified verbs In most languages the verb is the part of language that expresses action. collide and think. touched. the fit with your model of the world is a perfect one and hence you are more likely to accept the communcation. Unspecified verbs are used in hypnotic language as they present fewer opportunities for resistance. is more specified than in the previous statement and only two of the earlier questions remain unanswered . touched. The person receiving the communication makes sense of the communication by providing meaning to the verbs from their own model of the world and thus is presented with a context in which the natural response is to accept the communication. ocurrence or existence. Unspecified verbs commonly used in hypnotic language include:- . is relatively unspecified .
understand. do you? Tag questions are probably the easiest hypnotic language pattern to learn. wonder. move. put. recall. go.e the person agreeing that they can understand either verbally or non-verbally such as with a nod of the head. The person responding readily in the desired way can be an indicator that a good level of rapport is being maintained. isn't it? Tag questions are great.Think. can you not? Hypnotic patterns 6 . have. be. question as in:And you can understand that. So the format for using a tag question is usually statement. aren't they? So you can have fun using tag questions in your day-to-day communication. learn. feel. enjoy. use. travel. and it's just as easy to utilise tag questions which include negatives as in:And you don't even know how you learned those things. discover. are they not? And they are a really useful way of getting people to agree with you. forget. change and renew. do. sense.The aim of the above tag questions is a positive response i. right? That's a tag question. touch. remember. Tag questions A tag question is a question placed directly after a statement and is designed to displace resistance and can also be used to check the level of rapport. know. aren't they? The intended outcome of using the tag question is that the person responds in the way that we want them to. All of the above tag questions were in the positive. experience.
Next Wednesday. On Monday you will learn Matching and Mirroring. Matching and Mirroring. Tuesday. what was it about paragraph 2 that enabled you to accept it more easily? Paragraph 1 includes specific referential indices . Lack of referential index Lack of referential index is a type of generalisation and refers to a phrase which fails to identify directly a portion of the listener's experience.As our use of language relies heavily on subconscious processes you may be surprised and delighted to discover that increasingly the hypnotic language patterns you are learning emerge automatically at appropriate and useful times in your day-to-day communication with others. Next Wednesday you will use tag questions all day.Monday. The likelihood is that you found paragraph 2 more acceptable and if you did. . In the days and weeks ahead you will learn a number of new things. blanks which the listener fills with content from their own model of the world. we can utilise a lack of referential index to leave 'blanks' in our communication. and those learnings can lead you in the direction of making useful changes that will support the direction that you're moving in your life now. perhaps without even realising you are doing it. Phrases which are generalised in this way are more likely to fit with the world model of the listener and thus be accepted by the listener. On Tuesday you will learn all about Representational Systems. 2. Consider the following two paragraphs and think about which one you would be able to accept more easily:1. tag questions. In simple terms. Representational Systems.
.e. Another statement which is difficult to disagree with as unless you lose the cognitive power of thought.... Thus the absence of the referential indices on the type and number of learnings to be made again creates a context where acceptance is easy and failure is almost impossible. so any number will make this statement true. ..These indices reference the specific times and the specific topics you will learn which creates a context in which two occurences are more likely:a) The referential indices clash with your world model i. you decide that you are unwilling or unable or that's it's just not possible to learn those specific things in accordance with the specific timetable given. -orb) You accept the inherent presuppositions and believe both that you can and will learn the specific subjects within the timetable given and then fail to do so.without even realising you're doing it. the sheer volume of data flowing into your sensory systems every moment that you're alive forces you to learn new things from moment to moment.you will learn a number of new things.. How many new things will you learn? A number of them. One of the particularly useful aspects of the permissive style of the Milton Model for hypnosis and hypnotic language is that language is used in a way that reduces considerably any possibility of failure.. The phrase days and weeks ahead sounds specific but it's actually completely open-ended and imposes no deadline by which learning must be achieved. . or at least of it's detection. . let's dissect paragraph 2:In the days and weeks ahead you will learn a number of new things The referential indices of specific times and specific learning outcomes present in paragraph 1 are not present in paragraph 2.. To explain. What new things will you learn? Anything that you learn will make this statement true.
The lack of referential index on those learnings and useful changes allows the listener to identify which learnings and which changes are most appropriate and applicable.. Comparative deletion . And if you don't even realise how/what/why/when you're learning that's fine too .practice speaking them out loud.support the direction that you're moving in your life now. ...Wondering how you're going to make those new learnings? Good! The lack of referential index on doing it creates a context in which doing anything that leads to a learning will fit with the statement given.most importantly .many useful learnings are made below the level of consciousness anyway. Then you can imagine the dialogue which would arise.. Hypnotic patterns 7 One of the best ways to practice using these hypnotic patterns in your daily communication is first to think about specific contexts and scenario's in which they will be useful.the lack of referential index on the direction means that whatever direction you happen to be moving in will fit the statement. Language and language patterns are best learned by speaking them... we get what we look for. .e..and those learnings can lead you the direction of making useful changes. Which direction are you moving in your life now? It doesn't matter .. It's also probable that by beginning to think about what you might learn you will focus the flashlight of your attention on finding opportunities for learning those very things i. 'script' useful responses using the hypnotic language patterns and then .
e. reading these words and thinking those thought's that you're thinking The above words should be an undeniably accurate pace of your current experience because: • • • You ARE here today You ARE reading these words And you ARE thinking those thoughts that you're thinking Thus the context created is one in which your natural response is agreement. In sales this is known as a YES SET and is used to lead the prospective customer into a pattern of agreement i. . Thinking metaphorically.A comparative deletion is a phrase in which a comparison is made but the thing.. if we consider the person we are communicating with (or at least their thought processes) to be a steam train then each pacing statement that they agree with is equivalent to an increase in the steam pressure propelling them along the track in the direction of our intended destination. person or standard to which the comparison is made is not mentioned:It's more or less the right thing to do It's better to do it that way You will enjoy things more and more She's a better person The information that's been deleted means that we can neither prove nor disprove the claim made in the comparison.and you are here today. into a pattern of saying or at least thinking YES and to encourage momentum in that direction. . Pacing current experience One way to elegantly pace the current experience of another person is to describe in a way which is undeniable those aspects of their experience that we are able to observe through our input channels.. our senses.
and you're learning many new things that will be useful to you in the days and weeks ahead. the pacing statements set you moving along the 'train track' of agreement and increase the likelihood that you'll agree with the leading statement too.. externally verifiable pacing statements and the person is engaged in a pattern of agreement.e. Would you like to go to bed at quarter to nine or eight forty five? (Good fun to use if you have kids) Would you like to pay by cash or credit card? (It doesn't matter to me so long as you BUY ONE) Would you like to go quickly into trance today? Or perhaps you'd like to go into trance slowly..and you are here today. you could be learning stuff which isn't useful or you could be learning nothing at all. Hypnotic patterns 8 Double bind A double bind is a statement which creates the illusion of choice where in fact there is no choice. a plausible leading statement can be offered and again a context is provided in which the natural response is agreement.Once sufficient momentum is built up using undeniable. Would you like to finish reading this text now or later? (It doesn't matter because you're going to finish reading it at some point). reading these words and thinking those thought's that you're thinking . or perhaps you'll simply enjoy noticing the . Even though the leading statement isn't necessarily true i... .
The young woman reacted strongly.increasing sense of pleasant relaxation as you become settled in that chair. A Book About Language & Therapy by Richard Bandler & John Grinder. through Meta model question techniques." Further investigation revealed that the young woman believed that anyone she said "NO" to would be badly hurt and might even die. As a result of this the young woman had blamed herself for her father's death and more specifically attributed that blame to the act of saying "NO" to him. This generalisation had arisen from an event in her past when she had refused her father's request to stay at home with him and subsequently returned home later that evening to find him dead. The therapist utilised a theraputic double bind by asking the young woman to speak to each of the other members of the group and say "NO" to them about something. you can't expect me to do it just because you ask me to". refusing to perform the task and made statements such as "NO! It's impossible for me to say NO to people. This experience then becomes a reference structure which enriches the model and increases choice. The Structure of Magic I. (Technically this is a triple bind as the listener is presented with three choices. Double binds can be used to enrich a person's world model by providing them with an experience which contradicts impoverishing limitations inherent in their current model. had arrived at a generalisation that was true in her model of the world. refusing repeatedly to carry out the task until the therapist pointed out that the young woman had in fact been saying NO during this time. all of which lead the listener in the direction of the desired state). namely "I can't say NO to anyone because I can't hurt anyone's feelings. includes a tale of one such theraputic use of the double bind. The tale concerns a young woman who. The young woman continued in this way for several minutes. .
Hypnotic patterns 9 You are probably already aware that using a direct. right? Can you imagine how good you will feel when those around you are happy to do the things that you ask? Is that worth a small modification in your behaviour to achieve your desired outcome? Conversational postulate A conversational postulate is a question which would normally elicit a ' Yes'or 'No' response but instead causes the listener to perform some action. she would still effectively have been refusing to comply with the therapist's request . effectively saying NO to the therapist Even if the young woman had done nothing. Comply with the therapist's request and say NO to the group members 2. nobody had been hurt and certainly nobody had died. The double bind was constructed in such a way that the young woman had only two options:1. This revelation and the resultant expansion of the young woman's world model were so powerful that she immediately found herself able to move around the room and say NO to other members of the group. authoritarian approach to get people to willingly do the things you want them to do can be difficult.The therapist also pointed out that despite the young woman saying NO a number of times. Now that is probably one of the best illustrations of the elegant and effective use of the double bind as you are likely to find. . Refuse the therapist's request to say NO to the group members.effectively saying NO.
closing the door or finding the T. Most native speakers of the English language however will respond by telling you what the time is. In other words a person is more likely to respond by willingly carrying out commands / requests if they are framed as questions. However. Taken literally this question should generate a 'Yes' or 'No' response. This phenomena is leveraged through the conversational postulate to deliver commands to another person whilst at the same time displacing any potential resistance. or even by apologising for the fact that they don't currently know the correct time.Consider the question . The literal Deep Structure recovered by the listener from the surface structure 'Can you tell me the time?' requires only that the listener responds with a 'Yes' or 'No' answer. remote is? Is that the telephone ringing? Was that the doorbell? Did you know that you needed this? Native speakers of English will usually respond to these types of questions by performing the embedded command i. as it enquires as to whether it's possible for the person to tell us the time and whether they have the means and ability to do so (i. there seems to be an additional element of mental / linguistic processing which leads the listener to respond as if given a command.e. • • • Can you close your eyes now? Will you allow yourself to relax deeply? Will you really enjoy those pleasant sensations? . The theory behind this phenomena stems from the Surface Structure / Deep Structure relationship described in the section on linguistic transformation.V. they are wearing a watch and know how to use it to tell the time). even though no command is actually given.V.e. remote or answering the telephone or the doorbell.'Can you tell me the time?'. Other common questions of this type include:• • • • • Can you close the door? Do you know where the T.
influences all the times that follow. This allows you to easily establish a relationship with them. Nevertheless. .• Isn't it better to use those learnings fully? Authoritarian forms of hypnosis where the listener is given direct commands present a context in which resistance is more likely. Can you imagine yourself using this pattern to gently influence others to willingly do the things that you ask? 1 Persuasive Techniques To Influence People 22 OCTOBER 2009 "He who influences the thoughts of his times. you make them feel good. I created a list of all the known persuasion techniques that master persuaders use to influence people and get what they want. The very fact that the listener resists the command is also likely to lead them to belive that the hypnosis isn't 'working'. Always use your knowledge for the benefit of everyone and not just your own. Conversational postulates on the other hand form part of a more naturally flowing process as no direct commands are given to the listener . He has made his impress on eternity" . please take note that with great power comes great responsibility. For that reason. Humor – If you can make people laugh.they are merely asked questions to which they can choose to respond or not. Spidey? How To Make People Cooperate 1.Hypatia of Alexandria All of us live different lives and there may be some of you out there who go into battle each and every day within your own society. Do you get that.
to any person you meet. Use body language – Understanding body language is part of the plan.2. 3. initially. The Halo Effect – We usually categorize people as generally good or generally bad. don’t they? If you can always find a way to immediately learn what’s similar between you and the other person. 4. 7. This bond will eventually develop into trust which is always what you need to get people to do something for you. Goodwill – Always be genuine when showing interest in other people. Although you get the signals unconsciously from the people you talk to. Similarity – Birds of the same feather. you should always give respect. Try smiling at every person you come across the street and you’ll see what I mean. flock together. Any trait that you show to a person in the future can be influenced by what you show today. you can easily create a bond. 5. Respect – We all know that respect is earned and not given. Build instant rapport – People who can create rapport instantly with anyone has more friends and can establish good relationships than those who can’t. 6. Being sincere about your concern for . knowing how to consciously recognize these signals is a plus in the art of persuasion. Our everyday communication is 55% body language. Smile – First impressions last. Make sure that anyone you meet today will get the impression that you are generally good. 8. However. and first impressions created with a smile is definitely an advantage. It’s always easy to do a favor for someone who shows you respect.
Mirror their language – Mirroring is a technique used in neuro-linguistic programming to unconsciously establish rapport with a person. Bonding – People’s names sound like jingle bells to their ears. Applying Cognitive Dissonance . it may be much easier for you to lead them toward your plan. 14. Match their breathing – Breathing alone can help you establish rapport that you will use in persuasion.other people will make them like you quicker. Match their energy level – A person’s energy level will give you an indication of how prone they are to suggestions. Who will ever notice that someone is trying to copy their breathing pattern anyway? 12. 11. Always determine people’s mood before you try and make them do what you want. 13. do you approach them with a joke? Of course not. Call people by their names and they will give you more attention. Using the same kind of language that the other person is using can help you build that rapport in no time at all. If you can be as happy or lively as they are. The effectiveness of this technique relies on its concealment. The Mirroring and Matching Techniques 10. Mirror their moods – When a friend of yours is in a bad mood. 9. Match their voice – Matching a person’s voice works on the unconscious level as all of the mirroring techniques you see here.
it can serve as some kind of contract between you and the other person. Always make them say “Yes” – This is a kind of conditioning wherein the person’s response is matched with the stimulus you provide which. . Although the motivation it provides only lasts for a short period. 17. Use external incentives – Business people always use incentives for their employees. Use written commitments – Written commitments are stronger than verbal agreements. it still gets the job done. Aside from that. Not only will there be a concern about the relationship. it is more likely for that person to do what you’ve asked them to do. the person’s reputation is also at stake. in this case. Create public commitments – Even stronger than written commitments are public commitments. is your request. They will be left with an uncomfortable feeling that will last for a certain time if they do so otherwise. 20. Create commitments – If you can get people to commit.15. 19. 16. just make sure to offer a way out. 18. it’s more likely that they will stick to your plans or execute your requests. 21. Make them give an effort – If you can get people to invest an effort. Create dissonance and offer a solution – If you’re planning to make someone feel uncomfortable to get them to do what you want.
. isn’t it? You’ll likely say. Mutual concession – There will be times when someone will try to influence your mind wherein you might feel helpless after realizing you don’t agree to what just happened. the kinds of secrets you share should depend on the kind of person you’re sharing it with. Just let me know if you need anything…” Ain’t that powerful? 23. 25. Gift giving – How do you feel when someone gives you a gift and you don’t have anything to give back? Pretty awful.Creating A Sense Of Obligation 22. just make sure you let them know. If you’re a generous person who finds happiness in giving favors for other people without expecting anything in return. 24. Humans have a strong need to socialize. Give a favor. People attach themselves to groups to have a sense of belonging. get one back – Sometimes. The problem with this is that it generates a need to reciprocate within the recipient’s mind. Don’t worry! What the other person does not know is that he/she is just as vulnerable when it’s your turn to make them agree to your demand. people will do things for you whether you like it or not. a sense of obligation. the better. and a feeling of trust. strengthen the group and make it grow. The Power Of Groupthink 26. If you want people to conform with your ideals. don’t have anything for you. Create a group – The larger the group. Just remember. Sharing secrets – Share a secret to create a bond. “Geez.
If you can get people to strongly identify with your group. Increase demand. People are always inclined to purchase that which is in-demand. Freedom of choice may have something to do with it. Also make sure that everyone is similar in the way they think. limit the supply – When there’s a strong demand for a product or a service. When you’re offering a product or a service. Make everyone familiar . the easier it will be to influence their behavior. It’s important that people within your organization or your group learn to adhere to these principles. Sometimes. Tell them they can’t have it – At times it makes you wonder why you’ll try everything to get something you can’t have. 30. Surround yourself with good company and fancy objects to attract more people. 32. Show exclusivity – When you try the previous . 33. 28. Illustrate the potential loss – The possibility of losing someone or something may sometimes make us feel that our freedom is being restricted. The Law Of Scarcity 29. Establish your principles – Companies usually have principles which they package in the form of mission and vision statements. 31. people act irrational when this happens. create an appeal by making yourself appear special. people tend to flock toward it.27. Create an appeal – To generate interest in you or what you have. add a sense of potential loss and see how much difference it makes.
For example: use “mentally challenged” instead of “idiot. Try something like. Believe me. The mere effort of trying to get close to you will give you an assurance that they will do anything to please you.” “enhanced interrogation” instead of “torture. Use double speak – Avoid using offensive words and substitute them with less offensive ones. “close to nine out of ten” or “fewer than five out of every…” 38. this trick is a favorite amongst presidents. Just look at . 35. use positive words whenever you’re trying to communicate.” “communication” instead of “propaganda.suggestion. 39. Hence. Once you tell people that they can’t have something. play around with numbers in your attempt to persuade. 37. always put up a deadline.” and so on. People just can’t get to you and they have to work their way through obstacles (if you want to call it that). Play with numbers – When you are demonstrating something. you’re already making yourself exclusive. Restrict their freedom – A person’s desire always influences his/her behavior. Announce a deadline – Procrastination is your biggest enemy. Pack words with emotion – Emotion packed words are extremely useful in making people act. To make sure that your requests or instructions are executed at the time you expect it to be done. Use positive words – What you want is for people to feel confident and comfortable in doing what you want. The Language of Persuasion 36. 34. the more they will clamor for it.
how George W. Bush used the word “terrorist” in his campaign against enemies of the U.S. 40. Be silent - After closing a deal, the best thing to do is to be silent. The person has already made his choice and you don’t want to ruin the whole thing by accidentally giving the other guy contradicting ideas. 41. Paint pictures with words – Isn’t it nice to spend some time walking at the park with those lovely trees all over the place, swaying back and forth to the flow of fresh air? You can just feel the rays of the morning sun gently touching your soft skin until, suddenly; you step on a pile of dog poo… (hehe! Just giving you a break. We’re not even half-way through the list) 42. Choose the right words – Using the right words can sometimes make a big difference. Instead of saying, “Sir, I’m sure we’ll have trouble convincing the staff about your plans.” try, “Sir, I’m sure the staff will greatly appreciate it and give you more approval if we try other means.” 43. Replace “you” with “let’s” – You can get more cooperation from people by replacing “you” with “let’s.” The phrase “let us” gives a hint of involvement on your part. So let’s try using “let’s” from now on. 44. Use simple statements – Give your instructions in simple, direct, and brief statements. Not only is it easier to remember, but it is also easier to understand and absorb. 45. Use everyday language – Complicated language will only confuse your listeners and/or your readers. Sure you got an enormous vocabulary, but if you talk like an intellectually dexterous individual (geek) all the time, it’s
46. Avoid vulgar and curse words – As much as possible, try to avoid using profanity in your statements (especially with new acquaintances). Most of the time, your credibility depends on the kinds of words you use. 47. Avoid jargon and technical language – If the person you’re talking to is working in the same field as you are, then there’s no problem with this. In most cases, however, you interact with different people. Like I said earlier, just use everyday language. 48. Keep sentences short – In the early centuries, a single sentence can stand as a whole paragraph. Today, we’re clearly living in a world where a single word such as “party” is enough to say it all. With that said, “let’s” “party.” 49. Don’t beat around the bush – If you have something to say, say it directly. 50. Use verbs – Action words are more likely to make people move. Keep in mind that the words you say are being imagined by the person you’re talking to. Thought precedes movement. 51. Use words that grab attention – Words like FREE, EARN NOW, EASY, SEXY, and GUARANTEED are just few of the numerous attention grabbing words that you can use. Try to EXPERIMENT with these words by adding them in your statements. 52. Emphasize what you want – Take a look at the last sentence above.
53. Pace – Studies have found that speaking faster is more persuasive than speaking in a slow and monotonous way. 54. Avoid vocal fillers – What this means is that… uhm… well… to make… uhm… your ideas accepted… er… don’t use these kinds of words when speaking. 55. Determine your pitch – Adjusting the pitch of your voice by making it lower is proven to be more effective in persuasive speech. 56. Adjust your volume – Always speak loud enough so that people can hear you. If you’re speaking in front of a crowd, test the sound system first to ensure that your audience will not end up being deaf after your presentation. 57. Be more articulate – Ideas that are communicated in a smooth flow and a coherent way adds more credibility. People are more likely to act on your requests or instructions when they are able to fully understand what you’re trying to say. 58. Take some time to pause – Emphasis does not necessarily mean you should only speak louder, more fluently, in a low voice, and so on. There are times when you need to pause so that people will have time to absorb what you just said. Distinction and Contrast
59. Triple the value – If you are selling a product, people are more likely to buy it when they see an extra value. Whatever you are selling, try adding a discount, bonus products, a warranty, or anything else that will give
66. always state your real request immediately after the earlier ones. 64. make another request that is reasonable for the other person. Start high with your request – When asking for a request. The Door-In-The Face – Make an initially huge request that has a possibility of being turned down. 65. You compare your product or request to something similar but undesirable in order to get the person to agree with you. Use Comparison – Another technique used in advertising. Shift their focus – This is a technique used by advertisers to put your attention on the “lighter” side of the picture. Take note of the situation – Are you in the office. 60. Be aware of the situation to . try to observe how they breakdown the price of what they are selling into ridiculously small easy monthly payments. ask for something bigger first. try to make your way through in getting a “yes” by starting off high. 63. in a party. or inside a bar? Different places have different moods. Is the glass half full or is it half empty? Is it bad for your purse or is it good for your health? 62. Change their perspective – When you talk to a salesperson. I’m sure you see a lot of this on television. inside a church. in class. Use the right timing – In order for the previous technique to be effective. After getting the response.the impression of a good deal. Large request usually get a “no” so make sure before you get down to the real request. 61. This is called reframing.
Use their reputation – Most people strongly identify themselves with their reputation. 69. You can actually use the same principle to make people do what you want them to do. 70. you’re not supposed to be the one to say this. Pacing and leading – Make the person feel comfortable and in agreement with you then try to move them in the direction that you want. Whenever you send out instructions. Did you know that you can affect people’s behavior just by showing them your expectations? 68. Did you get the point? 71. “Boss. just imagine the other person uttering these words to give strength to your unconscious signals.be The able to match the of person’s mood. Consider it done! – You’ve probably heard this before. Expect to affect – Expectation is a self-fulfilling prophecy. (Embedded command: "try this one right away") 73. I know you’re a generous guy. Use persuasive suggestions – Doctors are not the only ones who can use the placebo effect. Use embedded commands – Here’s an example of an embedded command: “You can try this one right away after you finish this article. Power Suggestion 67. However. . Emphasize the time – What time is it? Well. How about giving me a raise?” 72. it’s time for you to make people do what you want instead of the other way around.
create tension then offer a resolution at the end. Allow hands-on experience – Computer software companies release Beta versions of their products not only to test it. Use role-playing – Celebrities often experience difficulty getting out of their roles. Just like the plot in a movie or a novel. 79. you’re more inclined to buy. Keep human contact – If you own a store. 77. Create tension – If there’s tension. Ask for people’s advice – Another way to get people involved is by asking for their advice. 78. 75. Make people pretend and you’ll be able to tap into their unconscious mind.Getting People Involved 74. The Visualization technique – People who sell cars will offer a test-ride to a potential buyer. Create an atmosphere – Visual appeal. 80. approaching your customers and making a conversation with a friendly touch is more likely to make a sale than just hanging around near your cash deposit box. 76. Pretending is an easy way to change your beliefs. Surely. Some will even teach you how to do it the right way. if you can visualize yourself riding a car more vividly. Increase their participation – The more a person is involved in what you are doing. 81. there has to be a release. the more likely it is for that person to feel connected with you. and music are used by many types of business establishments to create an atmosphere and to attract more customers. but to make consumers actually purchase the . aroma.
try to stimulate the five senses as much as you can through the methods mentioned earlier. then they won’t be able to escape your charm. Push it deeper inside other people’s minds. 87. but if you know how to handle objections. Tell mesmerizing stories – If you have the ability to tell interesting stories to your listeners or your readers. Use repetition – Advertisers know that a single exposure of their brand on television is not enough. Engage the five senses – What enters our mind passes through our five senses. Repackage your message – You can use repetition. When persuading other people. it keeps people coming back for more. 82. 83. Build a competition – In order to make people loyal to your brand or to your group. the more likely people will give you attention and the chance to persuade. 85.” 88. Learn how to repackage your message just like how companies repackage their products. 86. but you don’t want people to take you or your ideas for granted. You won’t be able to get people to agree with you all the time. You should do the same thing with your ideas.final version. 84. That’s why they continuously show the product to push it deeper inside your mind. Create an atmosphere of “them” versus “us. Build suspense – Isn’t it annoying to leave something unfinished? How about seeing that “to be continued…” message on the television series you’re watching? Indeed. there must be a competition. Learn how to handle objections – Let’s face it. .
our fears and above all our vanity. 95. Why not share something that is beneficial for all.Eric Hoffer (July 25. Try these questioning techniques. Don’t give them the chance to do so. They can leave you easily when they find something better. Do you have any questions? How To Use Flattery . Learn the art of questioning – Indeed. Use quotes – “The real persuaders are our appetites. There are more choices today than there were before. you should also offer something new from time to time. 93.” . The skillful propagandist stirs and coaches these internal persuaders.Getting People’s Attention 89. We’ve all had it with this game we call life. 1983) 91. Make them ask – You’re not the only one who should ask questions. When people don’t ask. questioning is an art. 94. that means they are not interested. Give relevant examples – I think I’ll leave this one alone. 92. you can enter other people’s minds easily. Present new and innovative ideas – If you know how to repeat and repackage. Give shortcuts and tips – People want and need things that will make their life easier. If you know how to use it well. 90. Make shocking statements – Just watch the primetime news and you’ll learn how to do this in no time. 1902 – May 21.
your favorite and you are sure to get them to do things for you. find out how you can capitalize on your relationship with them.96. Favoritism at its finest – Favoritism in the workplace is definitely undesirable. in any place. just respond – Persuasion is not about you. 100. 99. Give them a supply of importance. but once you’ve learned your lesson. Make them feel important – Hitting on people’s self-esteem by making them feel important is a very effective technique in persuasion. brush it off and move on. So make everyone. and your purpose is to influence other people. Persuasion also involves the help of other people. It’s all about your purpose. Learn how to praise – Aside from making them “feel” important. 97. If you know people with good reputations. Failure is sometimes inevitable. Show appreciation – Every effort made from the other person’s part should be responded to with gratitude and appreciation. Companies rely on famous celebrities to endorse their products. Challenge the person’s ego – Do you have the guts to try out everything you’ve read here? Let’s see! 98. 101. Don’t react. . it is also necessary that you tell people directly what you find nice about them. How To Use Association 102. they’ll give you a supply of favors. Use endorsements – You don’t always need to work alone.
Associate positive experience – Salespeople take their clients out to lunch or dinner. 104. If you watch sports. Speaking of feelings. you can try studying semiotics. Envy – Envy is what a person feels when he . Just look around your room and see how many signs and symbols you can identify. If you know what each color represents. Use the Anchor technique – Study how to tap emotions and experiences of events. 107. Other businessmen do the same. Make use of colors – There are many different meanings of colors.103. Produce use different qualities they tried lasting images . take a look at the banners all over the venue and try to distinguish which companies they represent. The right kind of stimulus at the right setting is proven to be an effective persuasion tool. 106. 105. Use sponsorship – Many companies sponsor various events to make positive associations. you can use this knowledge to elicit a certain mood or feeling. Have you ever wearing a bling-bling? 108. Why? So that they can be remembered. Using Emotions To Take Them Over 109. If you want to take this seriously. It’s just like taking your girlfriend out on a first date.Well-known personalities kinds of images to project the kind of want people to perceive. let’s try to find out how to use them. Use signs and symbols – You see these everywhere. places. and things inside other people’s mind by using the anchor technique.
114. or material possession. 110. but you can also persuade people by invoking fear with the use of your words. You just need to know how to diffuse the person’s anger when it’s time for you to persuade. Shame – When people do something they regret. 112. tortured animals. 115. Starving children. Making others feel envy. Sympathy – You see this being used a lot of times on television.perceives in himself a lack of other people’s qualities. Help the person get back to reality first by using positive and affirming words before applying any of the techniques here. 116. accomplishments. 111. 113. When people feel sympathy towards something. Anger – Someone who is angry may be someone who wants attention. they are more willing to help. There’s a good chance that you can persuade a person who is jealous. help them get up. Fear – Fear is commonly used as a marketing strategy. but is still an effective persuasion technique. If they still see a little bit of hope. however. is undesirable. Worry – Persuasion may be ineffective if the person you’re trying to persuade is worried about something. and so on. Pity – Pity is what you feel for people who have . Jealousy – Jealousy is what you feel when you see other’s possessing something that you don’t want them to have. they may or may not be motivated to make up for their mistakes. war victims.
and so on. 119. just adding the words “scientific findings have proven…” in your words can already make a big difference. charts. Use statistics – Graphs.been treated unfortunate Using unjustly or events Facts have in experienced their some lives. Show published reports – If it’s documented or published on a newspaper. then you can use it to support your claim . 118. Cite empirical studies – People are more inclined to believe your claim if you back it up with scientific evidence. etc. Sometimes. and Figures 117. 120. Create an analogy – You can sometimes go on explaining something for a long time. Gather testimony – There’s a reason why we look at product reviews. 121. but people may still not be able to understand. movie reviews. statistical data. book reviews. The more testimonies you can get. Using analogies is just like making people watch a theatrical version of a novel. the more you add to the appeal of your product or claim. All of these have numbers that will help you provide stronger evidence to your listeners or readers.