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Based on the ASME Y14.5MY14.5M1994 Dimensioning and Tolerancing Standard

Tolerances of Form

Straightness (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.1)

Flatness (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.2)

Circularity (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.3)

Cylindricity (ASME Y14.5M-1994, 6.4.4)

Straightness

(Flat Surfaces)

0.5 0.1

25 +/-0.25

0.1 Tolerance

0.5 Tolerance

Straightness is the condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight line

1 Tolerance Zone In this example each line element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines separated by the specified tolerance value applied to each view. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the applicable straightness limit.5 Tolerance Zone 25.Straightness (Flat Surfaces) 0.75 min 0. The straightness tolerance is applied in the view where the elements to be controlled are represented by a straight line .25 max 24.

1 Tolerance Zone MMC In this example each longitudinal element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel lines separated by the specified tolerance value.Straightness (Surface Elements) 0. The feature must be within the limits of size and the boundary of perfect form at MMC.1 Tolerance Zone MMC 0.1 0.1 Tolerance Zone MMC 0. . Any barreling or waisting of the feature must not exceed the size limits of the feature.

Each circular element of the feature must be within the specified limits of size. . the boundary of perfect form at MMC can be violated up to the maximum outer boundary or virtual condition diameter.1 Diameter Tolerance Zone MMC Outer Boundary (Max) Outer Boundary = Actual Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance In this example the derived median line of the feature’s actual local size must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is equal to the specified tolerance value regardless of the feature size. However.Straightness (RFS) 0.1 0.

85 (LMC) 0. the boundary of perfect form at MMC can be violated up to the virtual condition diameter.Straightness (MMC) 15 14. As each circular element of the feature departs from MMC.1 Virtual Condition Virtual Condition = MMC Feature Size + Straightness Tolerance In this example the derived median line of the feature’s actual local size must lie within a tolerance zone defined by a cylinder whose diameter is equal to the specified tolerance value at MMC.1 Diameter Tolerance Zone 15. However.1 Virtual Condition 14. . the diameter of the tolerance cylinder is allowed to increase by an amount equal to the departure from the local MMC size. Each circular element of the feature must be within the specified limits of size.25 Diameter Tolerance Zone 15.85 0.1 M 15 (MMC) 0.

25 max In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes separated by the specified tolerance value.Flatness 0.1 Tolerance Zone 0.1 Tolerance Zone 24.75 min 25. . The flatness tolerance must be less than the size tolerance. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the flatness limit. Flatness must fall within the limits of size. Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements in one plane.1 25 +/-0.25 0.

Circularity (Roundness) 0. Circularity is the condition of a surface where all points of the surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to a common axis are equidistant from that axis. The circularity tolerance must be less than the size tolerance . All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the circularity limit.1 90 0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone In this example each circular element of the surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two concentric circles separated by the specified tolerance value.1 90 0.

and taper of a cylindrical feature. All points on the surface must lie within the limits of size and the cylindricity limit.Cylindricity 0. Cylindricity is the condition of a surface of revolution in which all points are equidistant from a common axis. .1 Tolerance Zone MMC In this example the entire surface must lie within a tolerance zone defined by two concentric cylinders separated by the specified tolerance value. Cylindricity is a composite control of form which includes circularity (roundness). straightness.1 0.

9. 3. and ____________. . A feature’s form tolerance must be less than it’s size tolerance. straightness straight perfect form cylindricity angularity flatness tapered profile circularity true position Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. 4. Form controls do not directly control a feature’s size. ____________ and ___________ are individual line or circular element (2-D) controls. Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified a feature of size must have ____________at MMC. Form controls require a datum reference. 2.Form Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. ___________. 10. ________. Circularity can be applied to both ________and _______ cylindrical parts. Size limits implicitly control a feature’s form. The four form controls are ____________. 7. 5. 8. ________ and ____________are surface (3-D) controls. Flatness controls the orientation of a feature.

5M-1994 .5M-1994 .3) .4) Parallelism (ASME Y14.5M-1994 .6.Tolerances of Orientation Angularity (ASME Y14.6.6.6.2) Perpendicularity (ASME Y14.6.6.

5 0.Angularity (Feature Surface to Datum Surface) 20 +/-0. Angularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane.3 A o 30 A 19.5 min 20.5 max 30 o 30 o A 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference plane. .3 Wide Tolerance Zone A 0. within the specified tolerance zone.

3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0.3 A 0. within the specified tolerance zone.Angularity (Feature Axis to Datum Surface) NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. . oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference plane.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 60 o A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature. A Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference plane.

3 A NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS A 0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone Datum Axis A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature. within the specified tolerance zone.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 45 o 0.Angularity (Feature Axis to Datum Axis) NOTE: Feature axis must lie within tolerance zone cylinder 0. Angularity is the condition of the feature axis at a specified angle (other than 90 degrees) to the datum reference axis. oriented at the specified angle to the datum reference axis. .

3 A A 0.Perpendicularity (Feature Surface to Datum Surface) 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented perpendicular to the datum reference plane. within the specified tolerance zone.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0. . A Perpendicularity is the condition of the planar feature surface at a right angle to the datum reference plane.

3 Diameter Tolerance Zone NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0. oriented perpendicular to the datum reference plane.Perpendicularity (Feature Axis to Datum Surface) 0. .3 C The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature. within the specified tolerance zone. Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right angle to the datum reference plane.3 Circular Tolerance Zone C 0.

within the specified tolerance zone. Perpendicularity is the condition of the feature axis at a right angle to the datum reference axis.3 A A 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone Datum Axis A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented perpendicular to the datum reference axis. .Perpendicularity (Feature Axis to Datum Axis) NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0.

3 A 25 +/-0.5 min A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented parallel to the datum reference plane. .5 max 24.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 0.Parallelism (Feature Surface to Datum Surface) 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone 25. within the specified tolerance zone. A Parallelism is the condition of the planar feature surface equidistant at all points from the datum reference plane.5 A 0.

within the specified tolerance zone.3 A 0.3 Wide Tolerance Zone A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented parallel to the datum reference plane. .Parallelism (Feature Axis to Datum Surface) NOTE: The specified tolerance does not apply to the orientation of the feature axis in this direction NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. A Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the datum reference plane.

3 A B 0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone B A The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature.3 Circular Tolerance Zone B NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0.3 Circular Tolerance Zone 0.Parallelism (Feature Axis to Datum Surfaces) 0. A Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the two datum reference planes. . oriented parallel to the datum reference planes. within the specified tolerance zone.

NOTE: Tolerance applies to feature at RFS 0. within the specified tolerance zone.1 A A 0. oriented parallel to the datum reference axis. .1 Circular Tolerance Zone Datum Axis A Parallelism is the condition of the feature axis equidistant along its length from the datum reference axis.1 Circular Tolerance Zone 0.Parallelism (Feature Axis to Datum Axis) The tolerance zone in this example is defined by a cylinder equal to the length of the feature.

10. Orientation tolerances do not control the ________ of a feature. ________________ is the appropriate geometric tolerance when controlling the orientation of a feature at right angles to a datum reference. Mathematically all three orientation tolerances are _________. perpendicularity datum feature angularity datum target location identical datum reference parallelism profile Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. To apply a perpendicularity tolerance the desired angle must be indicated as a basic dimension.Orientation Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. . 7. and ________________. 9. 5. Parallelism tolerances do not apply to features of size. 2. To apply an angularity tolerance the desired angle must be indicated as a basic dimension. A _______________ is always required when applying any of the orientation controls. 8. The three orientation controls are __________. ___________. 4. Orientation tolerance zones can be cylindrical. Orientation tolerances indirectly control a feature’s form. 3.

6.5M-1994.5.2b) Profile of a Surface (ASME Y14.Tolerances of Profile Profile of a Line (ASME Y14.2a) . 6.5.5M-1994.

1 A 2 Wide Size Tolerance Zone 18 Max 1 Wide Profile Tolerance Zone 16 Min. . Profile of a Line is a two-dimensional tolerance that can be applied to a part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature surface as a single entity is not required or desired. The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel lines oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The tolerance applies to the line element of the surface at each individual cross section indicated on the drawing. The profile tolerance zone is free to float within the larger size tolerance and applies only to the form and orientation of any individual line element along the entire surface.Profile of a Line 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 C 1 A B C 17 +/.

5 Nominal Location The profile tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The tolerance applies to the entire surface and can be used to control size. Form and Orientation 23. form and/or orientation of a feature surface.Profile of a Surface 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 C 2 A B C 23. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary equally about the true profile of the feature.5 A 2 Wide Tolerance Zone Size. Profile of a Surface is a three-dimensional tolerance that can be applied to a part feature in situations where the control of the entire feature surface as a single entity is desired. location. .

5 Outboard 50 C Nominal Location The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface.5 Inboard 0. When a bilateral value is specified. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary equally about the true profile of the trim. . Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location. the tolerance zone allows the trim edge variation and/or locational error to be on both sides of the true profile.Profile of a Surface (Bilateral Tolerance) 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 1 A B C C 50 1 Wide Total Tolerance Zone B 0. form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface.

When a unilateral value is specified. the tolerance zone limits the trim edge variation and/or locational error to one side of the true profile. form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that allows the trim surface to vary from the true profile only in the inboard direction.Profile of a Surface (Unilateral Tolerance) 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 0.5 Wide Total Tolerance Zone B C 50 Nominal Location The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame. The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface. Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location.5 A B C C 50 0. .

The tolerance applies to the entire edge surface.5 Inboard 0. . Typically when unequal values are specified.2 Wide Total Tolerance Zone B 0. The profile tolerance zone is located and aligned in a way that enables the part surface to vary from the true profile more in one direction (outboard) than in the other (inboard).2 A B C C 50 1.Profile of a Surface (Unequal Bilateral Tolerance) 20 X 20 A1 B 20 X 20 A3 20 X 20 A2 0. Profile of a Surface when applied to trim edges of sheet metal parts will control the location.7 Outboard 50 C Nominal Location The tolerance zone in this example is defined by two parallel planes oriented with respect to the datum reference frame.5 1. the tolerance zone will represent the actual measured trim edge variation and/or locational error. form and orientation of the entire trimmed surface.

1 Wide Tolerance Zone 25.25 24.75 A Composite Profile of Two Coplanar Surfaces w/o Orientation Refinement .Profile of a Surface 0.5 A 0.1 25 Location & Orientation Form Only A 0.

25 A 24.1 Wide Tolerance Zone 25.75 0.Profile of a Surface 0.1 Wide Tolerance Zone A Composite Profile of Two Coplanar Surfaces With Orientation Refinement .1 A 25 Location Form & Orientation A 0.5 A 0.

5. 4. 10.Profile Control Quiz Answer questions #1-13 True or False 1. 9. Profile tolerances only control the location of a surface. Composite profile controls should be avoided because they are more restrictive and very difficult to check. Profile tolerances can be applied in both freestate and restrained datum conditions. Tolerances shown in the lower segment of a composite profile feature control frame control the location of a feature to the specified datums. Profile of a line tolerances should be applied at MMC. Profile of a line controls apply to individual line elements. Profile tolerances always require a datum reference. Profile tolerances can be combined with other geometric controls such as flatness to control a feature. 12. Profile tolerances can be applied either bilateral or unilateral to a feature. 7. 3. 8. 11. Profile of a surface tolerance is a 2-dimensional control. 2. . Profile of a line tolerances apply to an entire surface. 6. Profile tolerances can be applied to features of size. 13. Profile of a surface tolerance should be used to control trim edges on sheet metal parts.

6. The two types of profile tolerances are _________________. 4. the tolerance shown in the upper segment of the feature control frame applies only to the ________ of the feature. composite profile bilateral virtual condition profile of a surface primary datum orientation datum reference unilateral profile of a line location true geometric counterpart form . 3. ___________ . a ______ __________ is not required in the feature control frame. ____. ____________________ tolerances are 3-dimensional controls. and sometimes size of a feature. 5. and ____________________. a _______________ must be included in the feature control frame. 9. _________________ can be used when different tolerances are required for location and form and/or orientation. In composite profile applications. 2. 8. Profile tolerances can be applied _________ or __________. 7. _________________ tolerances are 2-dimensional controls.Profile Control Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. When using profile tolerances to control form only. When using profile tolerances to control the location and/or orientation of a feature. Profile tolerances can be used to control the ________.

5M-1994.12) Symmetry (ASME Y14. 5.2) Concentricity (ASME Y14.13) .5M-1994. 5.5M-1994. 5.Tolerances of Location True Position (ASME Y14.

Notes .

25 +/.4 A B C Circular Tolerance Zone 10.25 10.Coordinate vs Geometric Tolerancing Methods 8.0.1 Rectangular Tolerance Zone 10.5 Rectangular Tolerance Zone Circular Tolerance Zone 57% Larger Tolerance Zone Circular Tolerance Zone Rectangular Tolerance Zone Increased Effective Tolerance .5 B 1.0.0.25 +/.4 +/.0.5 +/.0.5 +/.25 C A Coordinate Dimensioning +/.0.1 8.5 Geometric Dimensioning 1.5 10.

Positional Tolerance Verification (Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated) X Z Feature axis actual location (measured) Positional tolerance zone cylinder Actual feature boundary Y Feature axis true position (designed) Formula to determine the actual radial position of a feature using measured coordinate values (RFS) Z= Z X2 + Y2 positional tolerance /2 Z = total radial deviation X2 = “X” measured deviation Y2 = “Y” measured deviation .

Positional Tolerance Verification (Applies when a circular tolerance is indicated) X Z Feature axis actual location (measured) Positional tolerance zone cylinder Actual feature boundary Y Feature axis true position (designed) Formula to determine the actual radial position of a feature using measured coordinate values (MMC) Z = Z X2 + Y2 +( actual .MMC) 2 = positional tolerance Z = total radial deviation X2 = “X” measured deviation Y2 = “Y” measured deviation .

25 Means This: 1.5 Wide Tolerance Zone Each axis must lie within the 1.5 rectangular tolerance zone basically located to the datum reference frame .5 A B C 2X 0.Bi-directional True Position Rectangular Coordinate Method 2X 1.5 A B C C A 10 10 35 B As Shown on Drawing 2X 6 +/-0.5 X 0.5 Wide Tolerance Zone True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame C 10 10 35 B 0.

5 A B C A 10 10 35 B As Shown on Drawing Means This: 1.5 Wide Tolerance Zone Each axis must lie within the 1.Bi-directional True Position Multiple Single-Segment Method 2X 6 +/-0.5 Wide Tolerance Zone True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame C 10 10 35 B 0.25 1.5 rectangular tolerance zone basically located to the datum reference frame .5 X 0.5 A B C 0.

5 M A B C BOUNDARY 2X 6 +/-0.5 M A B C BOUNDARY C A 10 10 35 B As Shown on Drawing Means This: Both holes must be within the size limits and no portion of their surfaces may lie within the area described by the 11.25 0.25 x 5. True position boundary related to datum reference frame 5.75 MMC length of slot -0.25 maximum boundary 12.50 Position tolerance 11. The boundary concept can only be applied on an MMC basis.50 Position tolerance 5.75 MMC width of slot -1.25 Maximum boundary C 90 o 10 10 35 A B .25 maximum boundaries when the part is positioned with respect to the datum reference frame.Bi-directional True Position Noncylndrical Features (Boundary Concept) 2X 13 +/-0.25 1.

**Composite True Position
**

Without Pattern Orientation Control

2X 6 +/-0.25

1.5 A B C 0.5 A

C

A

10 10 35

B

As Shown on Drawing

Means This:

0.5 Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Cylinder

pattern orientation relative to Datum A only (perpendicularity)

**1.5 Pattern-Locating Tolerance Zone Cylinder
**

pattern location relative to Datums A, B, and C

C

10 10 35

B

True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame

Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously

**Composite True Position
**

With Pattern Orientation Control

2X 6 +/-0.25

1.5 A B C 0.5 A B

C

A

10 10 35

B

As Shown on Drawing

Means This:

True Position Related to Datum Reference Frame 1.5 Pattern-Locating Tolerance Zone Cylinder

pattern location relative to Datums A, B, and C

C

10 10 35

B

**0.5 Feature-Relating Tolerance Zone Cylinder
**

pattern orientation relative to Datums A and B

Each axis must lie within each tolerance zone simultaneously

Location (Concentricity)

Datum Features at RFS

6.35 +/- 0.05 0.5 A

A

15.95 15.90

**As Shown on Drawing
**

Means This:

Axis of Datum Feature A 0.5 Coaxial Tolerance Zone

Derived Median Points of Diametrically Opposed Elements Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size, all median points of diametrically opposed elements must lie within a 0.5 cylindrical tolerance zone. The axis of the tolerance zone coincides with the axis of datum feature A. Concentricity can only be applied on an RFS basis.

.0.35 +/.5 Wide Tolerance Zone Derived Median Points Within the limits of size and regardless of feature size.90 As Shown on Drawing Means This: Center Plane of Datum Feature A 0.05 0. all median points of opposed elements must lie between two parallel planes equally disposed about datum plane A.5 apart.5 A A 15. Symmetry can only be applied on an RFS basis.95 15. 0.Location (Symmetry) Datum Features at RFS 6.

7. True position tolerances can be used to control center distance relationships between features of size. Composite true position tolerances should be avoided because it is overly restrictive and difficult to check. 8.True Position Quiz Answer questions #1-11 True or False 1. . The tolerance value shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. 10. True position tolerances can control a feature’s size. 9. Positional tolerances are applied to individual or patterns of features of size. 5. LMC. Composite true position tolerances can only be applied to patterns of related features. 3. Positional tolerances are applied on an MMC. Positional tolerances can be used to control circularity 11. True position tolerance values are used to calculate the minimum size of a feature required for assembly. 4. 6. 2. Cylindrical tolerance zones more closely represent the functional requirements of a pattern of clearance holes. The tolerance value shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. or RFS basis.

_____ and ________ fastener equations are used to determine appropriate clearance hole sizes for mating details 6. 4. Functional gaging principles can be applied when __________ ________ condition is specified surface boundary floating feature-relating pattern-locating rectangular cylindrical 3-dimensional basic dimensions projected location maximum material axis fixed . 8. _________ tolerance zones are recommended to prevent fastener interference in mating details. 3. Positional tolerance zones can be ___________. 7. ___________. Positional tolerance can apply to the ____ or ________________ of a feature. 9. or spherical 2. Positional tolerancing is a _____________ control. ________________ are used to establish the true (theoretically exact) position of a feature from specified datums. The tolerance shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the ________________ tolerance zone. The tolerance shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the ________________ tolerance zone.True Position Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. 5.

2.Tolerances of Runout Circular Runout (ASME Y14.7.1.1) Total Runout (ASME Y14.2. 6.5M-1994.6.7.5M-1994 .1.2) .

Features Applicable to Runout Tolerancing Internal surfaces constructed around a datum axis External surfaces constructed around a datum axis Datum axis (established from datum feature Angled surfaces constructed around a datum axis Datum feature Surfaces constructed perpendicular to a datum axis .

the indicator must be reset to zero at each measuring position along the feature surface.Circular Runout Total Tolerance Circular runout can only be applied on an RFS basis and cannot be modified to MMC or LMC. Maximum Minimum Full Indicator Movement Maximum Reading Minimum Reading 0 Measuring position #1 (circular element #1) + Full Part Rotation Measuring position #2 (circular element #2) When measuring circular runout. Each individual circular element of the surface is independently allowed the full specified tolerance. but not 3-dimensional characteristics such as surface profile (overall form) or surface wobble (overall orientation). circular runout can be used to detect 2dimensional wobble (orientation) and waviness (form). . In this example.

Collet or Chuck + When measuring circular runout. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.Circular Runout (Angled Surface to Datum Axis) 0.25 o o 50 +/.75 max. Full Indicator Movement ( ) 0 The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis.2 As Shown on Drawing Means This: Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 A A 50 +/-0. Datum axis A 360 o Part Rotation NOTE: Circular runout in this example only controls the 2-dimensional circular elements (circularity and coaxiality) of the angled feature surface not the entire angled feature surface Single circular element .

Datum axis A NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the planar surface (wobble and waviness) not the entire feature surface .Circular Runout (Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis) 0.75 A A 50 +/-0. 0 + When measuring circular runout. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.25 As Shown on Drawing Means This: Single circular element The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis.75 max. 360 o Part Rotation Allowable indicator reading = 0. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.

Single circular element 360 o Part Rotation Datum axis A NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the surface (circularity and coaxiality) not the entire feature surface .Circular Runout (Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis) 0. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. When measuring circular runout.75 A A 50 +/-0. + 0 - Allowable indicator reading = 0.75 max.25 As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface.

+ 0 - Allowable indicator reading = 0. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface. When measuring circular runout.75 A-B A B As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.75 max. Machine center Single circular element Datum axis A-B 360 o Part Rotation Machine center NOTE: Circular runout in this example will only control variation in the 2-dimensional circular elements of the surface (circularity and coaxiality) not the entire feature surface .Circular Runout (Surface Coaxial to Datum Axis) 0.

75 max.Circular Runout (Surface Related to Datum Surface and Axis) A 0. Single circular element Allowable indicator reading = 0. The tolerance limit is applied independently to each individual measuring position along the feature surface. the indicator must be reset when repositioned along the feature surface.25 B As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for any individual circular element is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator fixed in a position normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is located against the datum surface and rotated 360 degrees about the datum axis. Datum plane A .75 A B 50 +/-0. Stop collar 360 o Part Rotation 0 + - Collet or Chuck Datum axis B When measuring circular runout.

It is also acceptable to measure total runout by evaluating an appropriate number of individual circular elements along the surface while the part is rotated about the datum axis. Maximum Minimum Full Indicator Movement Maximum Reading Minimum Reading + 0 Full Part Rotation Indicator Path + 0 - When measuring total runout. . Because the tolerance value is applied to the entire surface. total runout can be used to measure surface profile (overall form) and surface wobble (overall orientation). the indicator is moved in a straight line along the feature surface while the part is rotated about the datum axis.Total Runout Total Tolerance Total runout can only be applied on an RFS basis and cannot be modified to MMC or LMC. In this example. the indicator must not be reset to zero when moved to each measuring position.

25 o o 50 +/.2 As Shown on Drawing Means This: When measuring total runout.75 max.Total Runout (Angled Surface to Datum Axis) 0. the use of total runout will provide 3-dimensional composite control of the cumulative variations of circularity. + + Allowable indicator reading = 0. the indicator must not be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. coaxiality. 0 0 The tolerance zone for the entire angled surface is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is moved along the entire length of the feature surface. (applies to the entire feature surface) Collet or Chuck Full Part Rotation Datum axis A NOTE: Unlike circular runout.75 A A 50 +/-0. angularity. taper and profile of the angled surface .

Allowable indicator reading = 0.Total Runout (Surface Perpendicular to Datum Axis) 0. the indicator must not be reset when repositioned along the feature surface. .75 max. - 0 + + 10 35 Full Part Rotation - 0 When measuring total runout.75 A 10 35 50 +/-0. (applies to portion of feature surface indicated) Datum axis A NOTE: The use of total runout in this example will provide composite control of the cumulative variations of perpendicularity (wobble) and flatness (concavity or convexity) of the feature surface.25 A As Shown on Drawing Means This: The tolerance zone for the portion of the feature surface indicated is equal to the total allowable movement of a dial indicator positioned normal to the true geometric shape of the feature surface when the part is rotated about the datum axis and the indicator is moved along the portion of the feature surface within the area described by the basic dimensions.

Runout tolerances are used to control a feature’s size. 2. . 7. Circular runout tolerances are used to control an entire feature surface. coaxiality. Total runout tolerances are an appropriate way to limit “wobble” of a rotating surface. Total runout can control circularity. Runout tolerances always require a datum reference. Runout tolerances are used on rotating parts. taper. 4. 6. straightness. 10. angularity and any other surface variation.Runout Control Quiz Answer questions #1-12 True or False 1. 11. Circular runout and total runout both control axis to surface relationships. 12. Circular runout tolerances apply to single elements . 3. 9. 5. Runout tolerances can be applied to surfaces at right angles to the datum reference. 8. Total runout tolerances should be applied at MMC. Circular runout can be applied to control taper of a part. Total runout is a 2-dimensional control.

Notes .

Notes .

Fixed and Floating Fastener Exercises .

0.5 (Reference) General Equation Applies to Each Part Individually A B H=F+T or T=H-F H= Min.25 10 A Calculate Nominal Size T = 10.25 ?. The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance 2x M10 X 1. the floating fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate hole sizes or positional tolerance requirements to ensure assembly.5 +/.25 remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.50 +/. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10 0. and all parts have clearance holes for the fasteners.50 H = ______ .0.50 B H = 10 + 0.?? 0.25 -10 T = ______ 2x ??. Fastener Size = 10.Floating Fasteners In applications where two or more mating details are assembled. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter 2x 10. M H = F +T F = Max.? M Calculate Required Positional Tolerance T=H-F H = Minimum Hole Size = F = Max.

5 B H= H= 10 + .5 10.5 Minimum REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC . Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10 0. and all parts have clearance holes for the fasteners. Fastener Size = 10.0.Floating Fasteners In applications where two or more mating details are assembled.25 10 A Calculate Nominal Size T = 10. M H = F +T F = Max.5 +/.25 M Calculate Required Positional Tolerance T=H-F H = Minimum Hole Size = F = Max. The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance 2x M10 X 1.25 remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.25 0.25 2x 10.25 -10 T = 0.50 +/.5 (Reference) General Equation Applies to Each Part Individually A B H=F+T or T=H-F H= Min.0. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter 2x 10. the floating fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate hole sizes or positional tolerance requirements to ensure assembly.75 0.

00 0.8 M P Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) H = F + 2T F = Max.80 10 H = 10. A 2X M10 X 1.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A B H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min.8 +/. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.0.5 0. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly.Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.8) H = _____ B .?? 0.00 + 2(0. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts. 2x ??.25 M remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC size to obtain the correct nominal value.

5 0. 2x 11.80 10 H = 10.8) H = 11. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly.8 +/. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC size to obtain the correct nominal value.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A B H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10.8 M P Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) H = F + 2T F = Max.60 Minimum B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .25 M A 2X M10 X 1.0. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts.00 0.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.00 + 2(0. Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances.85 0.

0.8 +/.25 M A 2X M10 X 1.Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have equal positional tolerances. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A B H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min. 2x 11.8 M P Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) H = F + 2T F = Max.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.5 0.8) H = 11.6 Minimum B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .8 10 H = 10 + 2(0. Fastener Size = T = Positional Tolerance = 10 0. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are the same for both parts. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerance required to ensure assembly. Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC size to obtain the correct nominal value.85 0.

5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Equal 10 A B H=F+2T or T=(H-F)/2 H= Min.5 0.0.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.Fixed Fasteners In applications where two mating details are assembled. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate appropriate hole sizes and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly. (Both Parts) A Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) T = (H . The formula will provide a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.10)/2 T = 0.5 M P H = Minimum Hole Size = F = Max. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of fastener T= Positional tolerance diameter 2x 11.5 M Calculate Required Positional Tolerance . Fastener Size = 10 11 10 T = (11 . (Note: in this example the resultant positional tolerance is applied to both parts equally.25 +/.50 B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .25 0. and one part has restrained fasteners.F)/2 2X M10 X 1.

5 + 1) H = ____ B . (A) = T2 = Positional Tol.?? +/. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance.0. diameter of clearance hole F = Maximum diameter of fastener T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.25 0.5 1 M P Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) H=F+(T1 + T2) F = Max. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are not equal.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1.5 M A 2X M10 X 1. Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size. 2x ??.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Not Equal 10 A B H=F+(T1 + T2) H = Min. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly.Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional tolerances. (B) = 10 0.50 1 10 H = 10+ (0. Fastener Size = T1 = Positional Tol.

5 M A 2X M10 X 1.5 1 M P Nominal Size (MMC For Calculations) H=F+(T1 + T2) F = Max. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at their extreme of positional tolerance. diameter of clearance hole F = Maximum diameter of fastener T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value.5 + 1) H = 11.25 0. Fastener Size = T1 = Positional Tol. (B) = 10 0.5 1 10 H = 10 + (0.75 +/. (Note that in this example the positional tolerances indicated are not equal.0. 2x 11. (A) = T2 = Positional Tol.) APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS USED 2x M10 X 1. Calculate Required Clearance Hole Size.5 (Reference) General Equation Used When Positional Tolerances Are Not Equal 10 A B H= F+(T1 + T2) H = Min. the fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size and/or positional tolerances required to ensure assembly.Fixed Fasteners In fixed fastener applications where two mating details have unequal positional tolerances.5 Minimum B REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC .

25 0. (A) = 0. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at the extreme positional tolerance. pin size = 10 T1 = Positional Tol. APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED H P F A B D H= Min. pin depth = 20.Fixed Fasteners In applications where a projected tolerance zone is not indicated.5 M remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value. P = Max.5(1 + 2(15/20)) H= __________ .00 + 0. depth of pin (Part A) P= Maximum projection of pin Calculate Nominal Size 2x ??.05 0.5 M F = Max. The modified fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size required to ensure assembly.05 +/-0. pin projection = 15 B H = 10. (B) = 0.5 T2 = Positional Tol.5 + 0.5 D = Min. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of pin T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) D= Min.?? +/-0. it is necessary to select a positional tolerance and minimum clearance hole size combination that will allow for any out-of-squareness of the feature containing the fastener. H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D)) A 2x 10.

(A) T2 = Positional tol.5 = 0.5 M F = Max. (B) = Min.5 + 0.5(1 + 2(15/20)) H= 11. H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D)) A 2x 10. The modified fixed fastener formula shown below can be used to calculate the appropriate minimum clearance hole size required to ensure assembly.05 +/-0.25 0.5 M remember: the size tolerance must be added to the calculated MMC hole size to obtain the correct nominal value. it is necessary to select a positional tolerance and minimum clearance hole size combination that will allow for any out-of-squareness of the feature containing the fastener. diameter of clearance hole F= Maximum diameter of pin T1= Positional tolerance (Part A) T2= Positional tolerance (Part B) D= Min. pin depth = Max. pin projection = 10 = 0. depth of pin (Part A) P= Maximum projection of pin A B D Calculate Nominal Size 2x 12 +/-0.5 D = 20 P = 15 B H = 10 + 0.05 0.75 Minimum REMEMBER!!! All Calculations Apply at MMC . APPLIES WHEN A PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE IS NOT USED H P F H= F + T1 + T2 (1+(2P/D)) H= Min. The formula provides a “zero-interference” fit when the features are at MMC and at the extreme positional tolerance. pin size T1 = Positional tol.Fixed Fasteners In applications where a projected tolerance zone is not indicated.

Answers to Quizzes and Exercises .

7. 8. 2. Size tolerances control both orientation and position. 10. 9. Title block default tolerances apply to basic dimensions. A material modifier symbol is not required for MMC. 4. 6. Tight tolerances ensure high quality and performance. Bilateral tolerances allow variation in two directions. 12. 3. A material modifier symbol is not required for RFS. A free state datum modifier applies to “assists” & “rests”. A surface on a part is considered a feature. The use of GD&T improves productivity. FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE . 11.Rules and Definitions Quiz Questions #1-12 True or False 1. Unless otherwise specified size tolerances control form. 5. A free state modifier can only be applied to a tolerance. Virtual condition applies regardless of feature size.

1 .890 MMC LMC 10.895 LMC External Features 10.75 +0/-0.25 23. 5 +/-0.1 .05/-0.890 10.5 123.885 10.895 .885 Calculate appropriate values .890 MMC 11 23.75 +0.75 23.45 +0.5 23. 5 +/-0.6 .4 .5 123.4 .25 123.45 +0.2 123.6 .05/-0.25/-0 23.Material Condition Quiz Fill in blanks Internal Features 10.2 123.890 .75 23.25 123.

The 6 Degrees of Freedom are U/D. 4. 3. Tertiary datums are not always required. & C/C. Datums should represent functional features. F/A. 12. Datum target areas are theoretically exact. Primary datums have only three points of contact. Datum simulators are used to represent datums. All tooling locators (CD’s) are used as datums. FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE . Datum simulators are part of the gage or tool. 7. 5.Datum Quiz Questions #1-12 True or False 1. 9. 6. All datum features must be dimensionally stable. 2. Datums are actual part features. 8. Datum planes constrain degrees of freedom. Datum features are imaginary. 10. 11.

A datum feature is an actual feature on a part. 4. A datum is a theoretically exact point. secondary. An unrestrained part will exhibit 3-linear and 3-rotational degrees of freedom. The three planes that make up a basic datum reference frame are called primary. The purpose of a datum reference frame is to restrain movement of a part in a gage or tool. The primary. repeatable. restrain movement five coordinated repeatable tertiary two 3-rotational primary 2-rotational three functional one datum simulator 1-linear datum feature datum secondary 3-linear six . A datum simulator is a precise surface used to establish a simulated datum.Datum Quiz Questions #1-10 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. secondary and tertiary datum planes together will restrain all six degrees of freedom. 9. 5. A planar primary datum plane will restrain 1-linear and 2-rotational degrees of freedom. The primary and secondary datum planes together will restrain five degrees of freedom. 3. 7. 8. 2. and tertiary. 6. 10. A datum must be functional. axis or plane. and coordinated.

flatness. straightness straight perfect form cylindricity angularity flatness tapered profile circularity true position Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. 2. Rule #1 states that unless otherwise specified a feature of size must have perfect form at MMC. FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE 9. 10. and cylindricity. Circularity can be applied to both straight and tapered cylindrical parts. Form controls do not directly control a feature’s size. . 3. 5. 7. Form controls require a datum reference. The four form controls are straightness. 4. Flatness controls the orientation of a feature.Form Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. 8. Size limits implicitly control a feature’s form. Flatness and cylindricity are surface (3-D) controls. Straightness and circularity are individual line or circular element (2-D) controls. A feature’s form tolerance must be less than it’s size tolerance. circularity.

The three orientation controls are angularity.Orientation Control Quiz Questions #1-5 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. To apply an angularity tolerance the desired angle must be indicated as a basic dimension. Orientation tolerances indirectly control a feature’s form. 4. Orientation tolerance zones can be cylindrical. Mathematically all three orientation tolerances are identical. 3. 5. Orientation tolerances do not control the location of a feature. Parallelism tolerances do not apply to features of size. perpendicularity datum feature angularity datum target location identical datum reference parallelism profile Answer questions #6-10 True or False 6. Perpendicularity is the appropriate geometric tolerance when controlling the orientation of a feature at right angles to a datum reference. and perpendicularity. parallelism. 10. A datum reference is always required when applying any of the orientation controls. 8. 2. . 7. To apply a perpendicularity tolerance the desired angle must be indicated as a basic dimension. TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE 9.

11. Circular runout tolerances apply to single elements . 9. 7. Circular runout can be applied to control taper of a part. taper. 12. 10. 6. Total runout can control circularity. . Circular runout tolerances are used to control an entire feature surface.Runout Control Quiz Answer questions #1-12 True or False 1. 3. 8. coaxiality. straightness. Runout tolerances always require a datum reference. Runout tolerances are used on rotating parts. Total runout is a 2-dimensional control. 5. Circular runout and total runout both control axis to surface relationships. Runout tolerances can be applied to surfaces at right angles to the datum reference. Runout tolerances are used to control a feature’s size. Total runout tolerances are an appropriate way to limit “wobble” of a rotating surface. FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE 2. Total runout tolerances should be applied at MMC. angularity and any other surface variation. 4.

The two types of profile tolerances are profile of a line. Profile of a surface tolerances are 3-dimensional controls. 5. When using profile tolerances to control form only. Composite Profile can be used when different tolerances are required for location and form and/or orientation. 8. Profile of a line tolerances are 2-dimensional controls. form. 3. and profile of a surface. a datum reference is not required in the feature control frame. When using profile tolerances to control the location and/or orientation of a feature. Profile tolerances can be applied bilateral or unilateral. and sometimes size of a feature. In composite profile applications. Profile tolerances can be used to control the location. a datum reference must be included in the feature control frame. 7. orientation.Profile Control Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. composite profile bilateral virtual condition profile of a surface primary datum orientation datum reference unilateral profile of a line location true geometric counterpart form . 6. 4. 2. the tolerance shown in the upper segment of the feature control frame applies only to the location of the feature. 9.

. Tolerances shown in the lower segment of a composite profile feature control frame control the location of a feature to the specified datums. Profile of a line tolerances apply to an entire surface. 11. 7. Profile of a line tolerances should be applied at MMC. Profile of a line controls apply to individual line elements.Profile Control Quiz Answer questions #1-13 True or False 1. 2. 13. Composite profile controls should be avoided because they are more restrictive and very difficult to check. 12. Profile tolerances can be applied either bilateral or unilateral to a feature. Profile tolerances only control the location of a surface. Profile of a surface tolerance is a 2-dimensional control. Profile tolerances can be applied to features of size. Profile tolerances can be combined with other geometric controls such as flatness to control a feature. 3. 6. 9. Profile tolerances always require a datum reference. Profile of a surface tolerance should be used to control trim edges on sheet metal parts. 10. FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE 4. Profile tolerances can be applied in both freestate and restrained datum conditions. 8. 5.

LMC. 6. TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE 2. Composite true position tolerances can only be applied to patterns of related features. Cylindrical tolerance zones more closely represent the functional requirements of a pattern of clearance holes. The tolerance value shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. 4.True Position Quiz Answer questions #1-11 True or False 1. FALSE 10. True position tolerance values are used to calculate the minimum size of a feature required for assembly. Positional tolerances are applied on an MMC. 7. Composite true position tolerances should be avoided because it is overly restrictive and difficult to check. Positional tolerances can be used to control circularity 11. True position tolerances can be used to control center distance relationships between features of size. 9. 3. The tolerance value shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame applies to the location of a pattern of features to the specified datums. True position tolerances can control a feature’s size. 8. 5. or RFS basis. FALSE TRUE . Positional tolerances are applied to individual or patterns of features of size.

8. or spherical 2. 9. Positional tolerance can apply to the axis or surface boundary of a feature.True Position Quiz Questions #1-9 Fill in blanks (choose from below) 1. Functional gaging principles can be applied when maximum material condition is specified surface boundary floating feature-relating pattern-locating rectangular cylindrical 3-dimensional basic dimensions projected location maximum material axis fixed . 3. Positional tolerancing is a 3-dimensional control. 5. cylindrical. Fixed and floating fastener equations are used to determine appropriate clearance hole sizes for mating details 6. The tolerance shown in the lower segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the feature-relating tolerance zone. The tolerance shown in the upper segment of a composite true position feature control frame is called the pattern-locating tolerance zone. 7. Projected tolerance zones are recommended to prevent fastener interference in mating details. Positional tolerance zones can be rectangular. Basic dimensions are used to establish the true (theoretically exact) position of a feature from specified datums. 4.

Virtual and Resultant Condition Boundaries Internal and External Features (MMC Concept) .

5 1 12.5 1M A B C C XX.X A B XX.0.Virtual Condition Boundary Internal Feature (MMC Concept) 14 +/.5 MMC Size of Feature Applicable Geometric Tolerance Virtual Condition Boundary .X As Shown on Drawing Virtual Condition Inner Boundary Maximum Inscribed Diameter 1 Positional Tolerance Zone at MMC ( ) True (Basic) Position of Hole Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of MMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Hole Axis Location of MMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit Calculating Virtual Condition 13.

Resultant Condition Boundary Internal Feature (MMC Concept) 14 +/.X A B XX.X As Shown on Drawing 2 Positional Tolerance Zone at LMC ( Resultant Condition Outer Boundary Minimum Circumscribed Diameter ) True (Basic) Position of Hole Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of LMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Hole Axis Location of LMC Hole Shown at Extreme Limit Calculating Resultant Condition (Internal Feature) 14.0.5 2 16.5 1M A B C C XX.5 LMC Size of Feature Geometric Tolerance (at LMC) Resultant Condition Boundary .

**Virtual Condition Boundary
**

External Feature (MMC Concept)

14 +/- 0.5 1M A B C

C

XX.XX

A

B

XX.X

**As Shown on Drawing
**

Virtual Condition Outer Boundary Minimum Circumscribed Diameter 1 Positional Tolerance Zone at MMC

(

)

True (Basic) Position of Feature

Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of MMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Feature Axis Location of MMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit

Calculating Virtual Condition 14.5 1 15.5 MMC Size of Feature Applicable Geometric Tolerance Virtual Condition Boundary

**Resultant Condition Boundary
**

External Feature (MMC Concept)

14 +/- 0.5 1M A B C

C

XX.X

A

B

XX.X

**As Shown on Drawing
**

Resultant Condition Inner Boundary Maximum Inscribed Diameter 2 Positional Tolerance Zone at LMC

(

)

True (Basic) Position of Feature

Other Possible Extreme Locations Boundary of LMC feature Shown at Extreme Limit True (Basic) Position of Feature Axis Location of LMC Feature Shown at Extreme Limit

Calculating Resultant Condition (External Feature) 13.5 2 11.5 LMC Size of Feature Geometric Tolerance (at LMC) Resultant Condition Boundary

**Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance
**

25.1 25

25 (MMC)

25.1 (LMC)

25.1 (LMC)

MMC Perfect Form Boundary 25 (MMC)

25.1 (LMC)

Internal Feature of Size

Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance 25 24.9 (LMC) External Feature of Size .9 (LMC) MMC Perfect Form Boundary 25 (MMC) 24.9 (LMC) 25 (MMC) 24.9 24.

1 (LMC) 24.Extreme Variations of Form Allowed By Size Tolerance 25.1 (LMC) 24.9 (LMC) MMC Perfect Form Boundary 25 (MMC) 25 (MMC) 25.1 (LMC) 24.9 (LMC) 25 (MMC) 25.9 (LMC) .9 25 (MMC) 25.1 25 25 24.

E N D .

Notes .

Notes .

Notes .

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