m o c. dl r o w o h s o.

w w w / / : p t t h

86 fo 1 egaP

4,g eku kd uoht zxel skr joæB 4,g hrdl skg Cgu Bskd j,kv rkc oHalv knk;† sl sukt je sd uoht 4,g Cgu kuokHal Bskd hd suje sdlm ],g rofht skt 4,g krje yosd hgo ],g kvqg kje skt go 4hF ;®l hg q;®1e 4kF ri¥fd ]kF kOw> ]kF dekzH uoht df kuukt ]skg q;®1e akgt j,kv 4,g Cgu q;®1e akgo ],g uoht akgt 4,g Cgu /acal Bskd sl q;®1e kd uoht 4kxskg kgj u hg rofht go ],g krdl je skt dfXk;D ]kF Cgu joæB kpπl go ],g k;x je kt df awg krgkp kugd jc[ dS hH Te j,kv skg srgkp kugd skd k;ufqn jc[ dS eqr3kgd suTe sllm 4kxsgj k'seg j,kv ,g hH cv go ]kF joæB kpπl skt udfsy 4Tg Xe yk;[ sd sukt je sd joæB sOw> lm xsky Nqd j,kv Tg Xe yk;[ sd suskg kntV sd joæB sOw> lm xsky Nqd 4,g k;x je joæB kOw> dS 4Cgu hg kF joæB go ,g kje joæB skt df ,g kri Xgéqr k;D j,kv 4,g hugd sl k;ufqn go hH s>qe j,kv ,g jc[ dS hH lki sjse3kgd l henkv lm suTe `,g kyp kri s Xgéqr ],g k;x je joæB df kgd sulm j,kv 4,g kugd s>qe skd k;ufqn slm ],g lki sjse jc[ dS3kgd sulm `skg srkt akgd eqr3kNwi sllm suTe ]krsn jRm Bskd skdlm Te df sygi sdlb `skg srkt akgd df kNwi hH sl>qe su henkv lm 4awg krgkp kugd slikv Te ]hgo 4Bqg rkdkyqe sllm hH hjse j,kv kF k;x hH Te ji L\kgi hlm j,kv 4k;x jrm sphu doq; go j,kv `kxsjd k;D hH ke®keji knjqe ]krdl jd Cgu Nqd knjqe dfXk;D ]sxX;ky Cgu yG hH Bskd aSkuZFkzi j,kv rhx sdlm cv j,kv kxskg u hH Nqd sl sujd <je¬ sdlm cv 4kxskg Cgu hH Nqd sl sujd uk;÷ kdlm 4,g kdqp je go kvqg ;el rqgc ]skg sgj jd uk;÷ kdltf eqr df kxsL\i kujd hg s>qe ekd n[qn kd sukt sy jc[ g; ,g krskg ewyke3kyskc j,kv klag doq; go 4awg krjd uk;÷ kd ke®keji3kgd sulm `skg srjd uk;÷ kdldf `skg srjd urpV kdldf3kgd j,kv kjsk>d> slm su doq; lm 4kF uhy Xe uk;÷ Sqg s;df nac X[akv skt ]kyef q/kl dS j,kv Xe sr¬kj 4kgj krjrm Gjr hd sphu go udfsy 4,g krgkp ku[j hjkt skd tsk[ hH jGf j,kv ,g kdqp je go ],g kgj kt sutsk[ sltf ]henkv g; ,g chtv df kpskl su doq; lm j,kv kxy suP\p L\kgi ]sgd Nqd kucf ji sr¬kj suiv kP\wc go 4,g k;x skg yxki doq; df k>el su henkv sP\wc lm `,g krjd lkoæof u,kd ji suje sd joæB 4Tg srjd Cgu hg lkoæof eg ji rkc hdlm skr Skt je Bskd Ar<jk/kl 4k;df Cgu lkoæof su henkv sP\wc lm udfsy 4,g kdqp je go ]kF krgj joæB skt ji XkL\kgi df awn gd skd Xkxsky j,kv aMkt Xe Xkukn,e df awg kgj jrm sphu jdsy jc[ hgo Te `hpaqgi Cgu dr cv jc[ g; k;D `hxsn kuGn sl XkFkg suiv slm ct ]hxsjd lkoæof hHr k;ufqn k;D j,kv 4k;ki skd 'ky hd joæB ]Cgu skd joæB hH suTe jdkt akgo udfsy ]kF k;x sutsk[ skd joæB hH Te 4awg kgj kv hg sl L\kgi Te `,g kdqp je joæB df hpaqgi Cgu jc[ g; dr cv Xe Xkukn,e sphu j,kv ji uhet k;D `skg sgj kt sutsk[ sldf eqr `,g kdqp je joæB df Cgu kri dr hHv Xgéqr k;D3kgd su rDf;ø lm skr `,g jkpkel kl7u,kd3kNwi su henkv sP\wc lm `kyef Cgu dr hHv jkpkel n[qn go Xgéqr ],g krdl skg hH g; k;D3kgd sulm j,kv kxy sulag sl jskt rqgc jduql g; ]kF kgj kv kjrm Gjr hd sphu sl L\kgi skt ]rDf;ø go j,kv 2Syf sd tsk[ hd ke®keji3kgd su sP\wc slm `skg sgj kt ji L\kgi Syfldf eqr3kNwi sl henkv sP\wc lm su rDf;ø lm 4kF kgj P\p skd jiM ]Gjr hd L\kgi skt ]kyef henkv kP\wc dS slm Xe phc 4kF kgj jrm jskv hd ukn,e sphu j,kv ji sr¬kj sd L\kgi go kF kysdv 4kF kgj skg rhrzi kvqg kjH sl naukv j,kv gkl®m rqgc go 4hF rfx hd susn kpaqgi dr Xkxsky sjlwn skd ;®l lm Xe Xkend sdlm 4hF h'q[ hd susy ukt skd ;®l hldf Xe ;nÔ sdlm 4kF 'kdzi kd susy tsk[ skd rkc hldf Xe Xk[akv hdlm 4kF kgj jrm sphu kvqg krkx rhx rDf;ø dS sl L\kgi dS 4,g rkc hd gcql dS 4kxawgkp kujd Hajkzi Zkpp hd tkv Te sl hukgd hl hIskN dS Cgu hg joæB go Skt je skt
\Sg k;x je jo’Zb k;D

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

86 fo 2 egaP

,g k;x je joæB klsS 4,g Zr' hygi hd tsk[ hd ;®l df skt ]Tg srsn sk[ skd kr_aro¬ lm eg j,kv Tg srkt skg _arji Rpf sjkeg j,kv 4Tg srkt skg nac Xe jkxkjkd 4Tg srkt skg 0ckv Xe ykohn hd Ze/ Sqg Sdf nktB hldf u hldf eg cr j,kv 4,g hy jd nktB hd ˜ke/ suXkgütf ]xsky so Tg sgj dskj 4Tg sgj dskj hnkodrf,kH u j,kv Tg sgj dskj dufkK,o u j,kv skd Ze/ Tg sgj dskj Cgu dr¬fku 4,g kvqg kL\[ phc sd Ze/ j,kv sjkeg ]Ze/ k;ƒef dS ]9uthyjf l¥kG8 dS 4kdl skg Cgu <jrov Bskd kd Ze/ Xe uoht ]hH nkc sd uk;÷ j,kv uue ]urpV jrajuf sl Xkljc jktg 5gN7paki df ,g <jkd hg; j,kv 4,g kvqg k;kN ji ue sd ;‘que sl Xkljc jktg7Xkjktg ]Ze/ kd gjr lb ]joæB kd gjr lb udfsy 4,g Cgu oHal g; 4,g eku kdcl df skt sn L\skt sllm s>qe go ]skg hrsn jd jwn slikv s>qe thp skt df ,g oHal sl,d g; skr awg krkt skg jwn slikv Te jxv 4,g oHalv g; `hxXn suyef sl,d sl ke®keji skd ;‘que Xykohn so ]Tg hrsn jd jwn sl ;‘que sjlwn skd ;‘que dS skt ]Tg Xykohn hd Xkjkpof ]hd ˜ke/ ]hd Xknt¬fe ]hd Xkjnfae 4Cgu `hd Xkukde ]hd jF®i `,g ykohn hl7u,kd phc sd ;‘que sjlwn j,kv ;‘que dS `Tg u,kd syko sujd xyv skd ;‘que sl ;‘que 4Tg srsn L\skr skd ;‘que hH sl ;‘que ]Tg hg srL\skr skd ;‘que sl ke®keji jk} s; 4kxSkt skg nac Xe phc jk} j,kv kxSkt dIv Xe phc jF®i Bskd u Bskd ]hxSkt skg hL\[ ykohn Bskd u Bskd 4kxSkt kv Xe phc Bskd u Bskd ]0,kc j,kv u,t ]ukeylqe ]BklB ]kxSkt kv Xe phc wngV 4kxsdl skg Cgu /acal hH Bskd kdikv sl Ze/ j,kv 4Ze/ Bskd u Bskd j,kv kxSkt kv Xe phc joæB Bskd u Bskd ]kxs;bkt hH akgt 4kryef Cgu hH kri Bskd Cgd Xe k;ufqn kd Ze/ ]9uthyjf8 <jkd sd lathyjf j,kv ˜ke/ Cgüb j,kv 4Tg sOw> cl ]Tg s;df nktB joæB hH surtf su ;‘que 4,g krdl jd 9jod¬Lf8 ji ]krdl jd Cgu 9IXoub8 4krdl jd Cgu jkd‘ofkv kd joæB ]krdl jd Cgu nktB skd joæB ;‘que 4,g krdl jd /çyim skd joæB udfsy ],g krdl jd Cgu re√uf skd joæB ;‘que 4kxskg jqxaH<{ knk;† hH sleg j,kv kOw> knk;† hH sleg ]kpπd knk;† hH sleg go ]sxXdl jd re√uf eg hH skt dfXk;D ]kjk} sd Xkvk[sj u j,kv kjk} sd Xkxaj u ]kjk} sd Xknç' ],g krdl jd re√uf kjk} sd jF®i slm Bskd skr u 4krdl kt k;df Cgu 9IXoub8 ],g krdl kt k;df Cgu nktB joæB 4Tg sOw> hg rpæfuf joæB s; 4Tg Syf jd nktB joæB sd jkdzi surdf ewyke u ]jdyef su cl 4Tg k;D7k;D ewyke u j,kv Tg j?ktjxf sd jkdzi hg surm ]Tg Xnt¬fe hd jkdzi hg surm ]Tg jnfae sd jkdzi hg surm ]Tg ;‘que sd jkdzi surtf j,kv 4Tg Syf jd re√uf sueg joæB sd jkdzi surm ]Tg ;‘que sd jkdzi surtf udfsy 4sy kuc skd joæB ;‘que df ,g krdl skg sl,d g; udfsy 4,g krdl hH skg skr g; ]kxskg k;kuc skd ;‘que su joæB 4,g hrdl skg Cgu rkc Bskd j,kv hOw> knk;† sllb ]s;kuc skd joæB ;‘que 4,g k;df su ;‘que <Zkeuf kdlm dfXk;D ],g kOw> joæB go ],g krkt ktwi skt Xe Xkjnfae `,g kOw> joæB kl7u,kd 4,g ke®keji j,kv ,g ;®l df skt ]Tg hrdl Om Gjr hdlm ]X[akv hd ;‘que skr aSkt skg I‘u j,kv aSkt yt so ]aSkt jxf so 4Tg Sqg sL\[ Ze/ sOw> dsuv Xe phc sd Ze/ j,kv ;‘que 4,g kvqg kL\[ ke®keji kOw> dS Xe phc sd ke®keji j,kv ;‘que 4,g kvqg kL\[ Cgu hH Bskd j,kv rDjfrfv sd joæB sOw> ]Xe phc sjkeg j,kv joæB spπl 4,g uOfd ra;®v kutsk[ skd joæB spπl dr cr ]kxsL\i ewyke rofht joæB kOw> j,kv kxsgj kntV Ze/ kOw> dr ct 4,g Cgu rjWt Bskd hd su[j kntV slm 4Sgfkp kukt hg je go ],g krdl je Ze/ skt dfXk;D ],g kvqg kNπv rqgc g; 4,g h;x skg q;®1e hd Ze/ df kxskg kgd Xe XkiW rqgc slikv su Xkxsky 4Cgu n[qn5qn ],g n[ql jc[ g; skr 4krskg k;x je sygi rqgc go df krskg kvqg kNπv j,kv 4krskg u hg kn,i hHd go df krskg hg kNπv j,kv 4k;x je go df kvqg hg kNπv j,kv 4kF k[j sn uoht kOw> dS slm su Xkxsky Nqd 4kF Cgu hg kntV go ],g kdqp je joæB skt df g; go Xe XkvZkpp hd Xkunf jkp syko sukv ub kxawgkp kugd rkc hjlwn skt slikv Te 4,g kdqp je joæB df hxskg h;x paqgi hg rpæfuf jc[ g; hH dr ikv sl XkxaP rqgc 4Tg aSkF¬o;ø rqgc ]Tg sr¬kj rqgc ]hd sugd sd rkc lm Tg Xchdjr rqgc 4k;x je joæB df hxskg hgd jdkv rkc g; sulm hH slikv jWt 4,g krL\i kukt akgo hH s>qe ],g krkt go hH akgt 4,g kgj L\i kujd kNhi kdlm hH s>qe j,kv ,g krjGf krgd jc[ huiv Xe suskd7suskd sd k;ufqn henkv go
\Sg k;x je jo’Zb k;D

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

86 fo 3 egaP

sl jnüfe lm skd henkv lm skr g; 4hF hgd Cgu hH hHd sl Xkxsky sd hL\ep nsGl sulm rkc g; udfsy 4kxs;kv liko g; u j,kv _ofi ;n„ kxskg u df kxskg kpskl su rgfskjqi lm 4kukv jGf j,kv skjd _ofi skd ;n„ sygi ]skvkt eqr skr 4Tg srskg rDqe sl jkdof skt j,kv Tg srskg rük' ;nÔ sdutf ],g kryef Xgüm yosd skr ke®keji `sxskjd k;D jdkv Xe jnüfe dr cr ]skg u rDqe sl Xkjkdof ue kjkgéqr j,kv skg u rak' ;nÔ kjkgéqr dr cr `kxskg k;D sl sukv Xe jnüfe 2BkH sjse3kgd sl eszi rqgc su rgfskjqi lm 4^bx ync X;k"kH ]s;x ync unf udfsy 4,g dkujr[ hH huL\i k;kN hjkgéqr 4skvkt Ig sl akg;3krskg kgd sllm j,kv hrskg hy ykduf jkoyr sulm skr srskg unf sukjqi nf; 4hF Cgu rkc hyko sukv Xe >el go `s;kv Xe jnüfe sd henkv nsGl j,kv ,g henkv kykd 4k[sn dr jiM sl sphu slm su rgfskjqi 4awg k;kv Xe tsk[ hd ke®keji Te3kgd sulm `s;kv sl,d akg; eqr3kgd sl henkv sykd lm su rgfskjqi sd jnfae lm 4sF xsky sd xaj nsGl so ]kF ke®keji kdutf j,kv kF jnfae kdutf j,kv kF kd xaj sykd henkv go 4,g k[j jd kn,i ZdG Xe henkv j,kv henkv su Xkjnfae dfXk;D ]sF sr>el Cgu henkv slm so ]sF srgj xsky skt Xe Zpp udfsy ]awg kgj gd henkv slm skr Te 4h;kxy dr¬n jdkv su henkv dS gcql7gcql ji jk} sd Zpp dS 4awgd slikv Te go ],g hrkv <je¬ s>qe hukgd hl7hIskN dS 4,g Cgu kuokHal Bskd jGf hd <jrov sd Ze/ df s;ufke rpæfuf skr sxXgj sruke ukF¬Ze/ skd XkukF¬ Cgüb eg df s;x syp srgd skd rkc lb hH cv cl eg jxv `,g Bqg sl rkc hldf j,kv k;D ,g Bqg jdsy skd XkukF¬Ze/ re√uf kjk} sd Xk;‘que k;®g hurtf hd ;‘que `,g kvqg ji eku sd thp hldf j,kv ,g kvqg ji eku sd Xk;r√we j,kv Xkjnüfe ikprDj j,kv Z"?al kurtf dr tkv 4,g hrskg kn,i klgV j,kv /sk∂ 4,g hrskg kn,i k<1? phc sd ;‘que j,kv ;‘que akgo d¥fc 4Cgu yqdycf ]Cgu `Tg srskg re√uf k; Tg sruc ]Tg srskg kn,i akgo ji ;nÔ sd ;‘que ]ywG sd Z;nTkl hldf k; Z;nTkl Bskd k;D `,g hrskg rîkel akgo k<1? j,kv klgV hd uoht sd ;‘que k;D `Tg srskg kn,i akgo thc sd kuZFkzi j,kv eszi Xe uoht sd ;‘que k;D `,g krskg jwn akgo jkd/av j,kv n[qn5[qn kd uoht sd ;‘que k;D `,g hrskg rIf? akgo rfak∂ Bskd Xe uoht sd ;‘que k;D `,g krskg kn,i akgo /ücél Bskd kd joæB sl uoht sd ;‘que k;D `,g k;D krskg Xe Xknt¬fe ub ]Xe Xktjxf ub ]Xe Xkjnüfe ub udfsy 4kxsy js? ukde cl joæB ]sxXpc u ukde d;ky sd sugj sd henkv skr kyp rfakH hlb lkdof g; jxv df ,g krskg ewyke klß j,kv Tg srkt srskg sL\[ s;u7s;u tskj stjxf ]Tg hrkt hrP\c skr Xnt¬fe ]Tg srkt srP\c skr jnüfe `,g kpaqgi Iduf surdf sd joæB ;‘que 4,g kvqg Cgu hH Bskd skr uk/kel j,kv Tg Bqg <jkd sdum aSk;¬el hd ZF;ø hl7rqgc dfXk;D ],g hjWt husn sn knof Xgüm ],g k;x kv ;el kd susy knof sl Xkuk/kel slß skr skg krsn jd hL\[ X;k;¬el h;u j,kv d¥fc ]Bqg Cgu yg k;¬el Bskd hd uoht sllm ],g kvqg Nqd skt ji eku sd Ze/ Xe Xkljc jktg paki j/b 4Tg srsn jd hL\[ X;k;¬el hjlwn uk/kel j,kv Tg hrgj huc Gjr dS skr X;k;¬el dfXk;D ]Xkg u spπl skt Tg srkt skg uk/kel so dkujr[ knk;† hH sl Xkvk;¬el ]s;[fj <je¬ 4Tg hOw> skt ]Tg hrkt skg ak;bkon so drk? knk;† sl Xk;jfkehc s;[fj <je¬ `,g Sqg s;kuc klsS skd rfF¬f lb u,kd j,kv `hxskg k;D j,kv yd g; ],g rfF¬f tkv hd henkv skt g; 4k;krc s>qe su jnüc dS7,g ywH hd jkdagv sd henkv yosd g; 4,g lkdof kd Xkjnac df kF yk;“ skd uo√kL j,kv 4Tg s;x skg henkv j,kv Tg s;x dIH jnüc Nqd g; 4,g uri kdum g; df Tg srpskl j,kv ji henkv Tg srlag jnac 4k;ki Cgu >el uo√kL 4,g uri kd jnac go ],g skt ;‘que df k;krc s>qe su jnac dS udfsy 4,g lkdof kd jnac go ],g skt ;‘que df k;k>el skd Xkxsky sygi ˜k"o Nqd su uo√kL 4hxskg hrkv hlag Xgüm ]sxXkg srlag jWt jd[sn skd henkv so skr kxskg 'skg Xe Xk;{fi7q'i jxv `,g k;D ;‘que hH tkv `,g k;x skg k;D skd ;‘que hH tkv 4,g hyko susn kiad skd ue hH kui¥d hd unf lm kujo ],g hg hujd k<"sk? go 4,g hH Z<wi;≈ZkHqn rqgc j,kv ,g uOfd rqgc kugd g; ]kxskg k;D kd rfkt7;‘que Xe okHv sd Ze/ spπl skr krdl skg u g; srgj ;el jxv 4Sgfkp kukt k;nf kuGn slm s;kt je go df Sgfkp hujd kr;kgl Xgüm ],g eszi sl joæB hH skd Xkxsky utf skr skg kje u nf; 4Sgfkp kukt hg je j,kv
\Sg k;x je jo’Zb k;D

kv _¬k' ]nç' 4.g rfF¬f hd Ze/ hg.kv Crdl kt Cgu hpsc aSkuZFkzi 4hrdl skg Cgu kdofhtkv hdlm 4krdl skg Cgu .kv kjlwn jkpkel n[ql knk.g yxki yqdycf wr df kgd sulm j.k<jk/ cl ]jkpof cl ]ukequv cl akgt ].ke hjktqi sl unf ltf Xe phc sd .kv 4kxsdl ki Cgu 'sozi akgo hH wr ]k.kv u.g eszi rqgc Xgüm sl ke®keji df Cgu Syflb 4sxXgj srjd ktwi j.† sllb ]skg k.D Te3kgd sulm `s.g Cgu hg kntV ke®keji klß dfXk. ke®keji 4kxsyq[ jk} Syf sd sukv cr ]skvkt skg _ofi sygi df .g krdl skg eüt kd Ze/ Xe k. skdikv dfXk.‘que j.g ukdqn akgo ].x sdXG Xe sjs/av so 4.df suTe go ]kF krL\i uc skt sl>qe ]hd ''fskd hd sujd _ofi skd ue suTe `aWd k.D ].g kdofhtkv hdum hg. dl r o w o h s o.g Xe /skjof sd ke®keji sd jnfae sjlwn ke®keji kd jnfae dS j.t ]BklB ]ukeylqe ]wngV 4.D kd .kv `.ø kd eszi j.kv Xkg ykyn akgt 4.D .‘que rak0lf j.kv kF rnfaukv rqgc j.kv eszi 4.x skg sØdb ji uhet hjkl ]_¬k' rqgc sd Xkukequv 4kgj krjd ukequv ]kgj krjd jkpof . k.kv 0.g krskg ykyn Bskd u j.g krskg Wq' akgo skr oHquv kd joæB dfXk.g krdl skg sl.g Cgu knk.kv Xe /skjof sd jnfae sjlwn jnfae dS 4aSkt syp u ji Xkukdqn hjlwn ]jdL\skN skd Xkukdqn hdum so dfkr ].®l lm Cgo ]kxskg /çyim skd jkpo√uf j.D ]sxXn suyp Cgu kri skdikv jc[ hdlb hjktqi skr skg k.ufqn ]eku hHl sd gjr hlb j.‘que hg su Xkxsky um ]k.kl skr akgo 4.g oHalv eszi akgo ]Xkg F¬.jfktqi hHl ]Cgu Xe /ücél sd hjktqi dS rkc g.al skr kukt xy kdum 4krskg Cgu ZFv Bskd kd suxy sdum hH skr skg krkt hH xy skt ]Tg rfakH hd Xkjhr um s.D ]sxXn suki so u j. 4Tg srht sl hlb so 4Tg aSktwi hg so jk/kv kd uoht sdum df Syflb d¥fc ].g Cgu hH Nqd Hq' knk.ufqn hHr ]Sgfkp suskg knof sl k.x je jo’Zb k.kv .nf suki Cgu 'sozi hHd skd ke®keji suXkgüm akgo ]Tg hjktqi hH akgt j.g Zpp skt go ]Xe oakx sjkeg .kv ktsk[ rakdS suTe j.kv kxy sulag jduql g. j.g Cgu .x skg 'kjuf j.D ].df .g krskg uIk?nm kdlm Cgo ]Tg srkt skg .kv ke®keji 4krskg Cgu nwt.kc j.kuc kdofhtkv skd ke®keji su Xkxsky utf 4.kv kdl skg Cgu yGl hg nq[ Te 4krsn sulq? Cgu hg s>qe hjktqi 4awg kgj jd ''fskd hd sulq? Xe Zpp lm hg nq[ Te sl ykl ln 4sn L\skN kujd ''fskd 4.x kyp henkv kykd go 4kF .g k[j jH sl k<1? rqgc ]Gky[f sd Xkukdqn hjlwn ]skd Xkdgkzx sd Xkukdqn um j.kv k.g k[j kuc jnfae suXkgüm ]skd Xkukdqn um huiv udfsy `.kv u.kv s.d jnfae akgo ].kv .kv kvqg rük' Te 4k.g kgd su rgfskjqi sdlm j.ø hjktqi dfXk.† sl Xkukequv sd 0fqc j.x hH je go jxv udfsy 4krdl skg Cgu j.ke Bskd phc sd eszi 4.nf uZ'n Xe uîo¬ s>qe su ke®keji rkj dS j.kv .klo.D j.kv sxXgj srP\i _ae hH lki7lkv sd joæB Sqg sje lm go Syflb 4kxskg dkujr[ rqgc kukt yp kri g.g .®1e hdlb 4.ø j.kim kd su[j jwn \Sg k.÷e j.‘que 4.g krskg Cgu F¬.g jnfae skt go3kgd sllm suTe `. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 4 egaP kdum ]skg k[j >el ke®kv huiv suXkgütf skd Xk_¬k' ]skg k[j L\di suXkgütf skd Xknç' ]Xkg sdIH skt Xe Xknç' Syflb 4.x uc kdofht ke®keji hH akgt skr 4s.®l Bskd Xe Xkvk<jk/ ub ]Xe Xkvkui¥d ub ]Xe Xkukequv ub 4s.g krskg k/hl eszi 4krdl skg Cgu eszi ]kxskg 9u∆xkc8 ]kxskg kn.kv Cgu kjkcskn eqr3kNwi su rgfskjqi lm 4hF hrdy> hu'skj Xe Xk[akv hdlm j.g krskg ZFel Xe suukt skd .g .kim sd sujd jwn sl ke®keji skd .‘que 4.g kvqg <kzi‘uf Ze/ `Tg syef <kzi ].kv 4. j.kv uxe rqgc go 4kL\i Bk[nf skd rgfskjqi lm go ]ji sgkj.÷e Bskd Xe eszi 4Crdl kt Cgu hH hd Syf sd Xkjlwn aSkuZFkzi j.g Cgu joæB Bskd Xeub 4.m o c.D 4.g rckc hd Xkjnüfe hHl ]Cgu rckc hd jnüfe dS rkc g.g hyef rfx skd Ze/ kjk} sdlb k.g Xe /ücél sd Xk.kv Rpf sd .g kjs/av j.kv awg krgkp kujd 'sozi Xelm Te ].g Cgu joæB kd Xkrak0lf j.g uoht 5Arqr¬o df skt hxXkg Wq' huOm X[akv hjkeg Gjr hd uoht sd ke®keji lm ]sl q.klo.kv Xknç' ]Xk_¬k' rfakH hlb 4.g uoht eji ].† sllb ]s.g eszi ke®keji 4krdl skg Cgu ke®keji akgo df kusy ukt ]skg k.kv Tg jnüfe hH akgt 4.klo.x je joæB kd rfakH lb 4.g xsk.kv ukKv akgt7akgt Xe uoht kgj krpskl .ke ]Rpf akgt 4Tg srkt skg rak' X.g uoht ukge ].kp sd sr¬kj nkc suhge Bd 4k.g krjd ''fskd hd suskg _ofi Syfldf wr df kgd sulm j.kt je ke®keji klß 4.g Bx skg ckj[ rkc hjkl sl unf hlm ]kvqg nwt.üw' _¬k' sjkl akgt 4.®l skt .g hjktqi akgt `/ücél k.

kv k.®l7uoht Te df 9ukKv8 klß d¥fc ]Cgu ukK klß 4kxskg k.g j[zi 0fqc hd .kv s.g kRl rauv j.g hd k<"sk? su Xkxsky3kgd sl rkjdql suXkgüm j.g ukKv akgt7akgt 4Tg jk.x skg e{l Xe sukjgskn skd Xk_wl um eg skr . skdutf ]joæB kdum 4k. skr pl 4Xdl jd k_k.kv k.g k.x skg ZFel Xe suukt jkdzi lb skt j.g hukK eji hgo awg krukt Cgu hH Nqd Te df .kv srukt Cgu eg df Xdl gd g.kv Xk_¬k' Cgd hg rpæfuf kuukt kdlm dfXk.x uc ukK kdlm hgo ]kxskg k.kv jkdagv kL\c knk. ukjqd k.t3. ycfbkc k.[ g. Te ct df kugd slum ]skvkt3kgd sulm j.x krj[cf ukK kjse ]hP\c zem hjse sl.x skg F¬Oad gjr hjwi nç' so Xeg jxv j. Zr' hygi hd suyef sl ke®keji dfXk. Xe ue suiv hH ikv nf.ufkK 4kxsn suukt Cgu hH hHd ezH kd suukt g.g krkt sy Gjr hd suukt slm skt]kxskg kn.D ]kxsdl ukt Cgu hHd skd joæB go ]skd joæB awg krukt Te df skg krxy g.kt skg yczi hH j.G Gjr Xkjkp skt go 4sn sk[ Fkl sd Zol ]sn jd rt†feuf Fkl sd Zol skd jkdagv suiv Bskd hg slß ].g g.D 4awg hukKv ukge Te df kF kgd su rkjdql 4kxsn sk[ j.g hrkt IwI ].®l \Sg k.ke ] rak' lb 4.g krkt skg I‘u /skc kd ukKv sjkeg sl sujd lkoæof ji kui¥d lm dfXk.g hukKvkge go df .kv hxsn jd rDqe sl jkH sd Xknç' skd Rpf sd .kv Tg s.g k.g hukKvkge go df . udfsy 4.‘que Xe sujd ukequv 4kxsdl skg Cgu cyre Bskd sl .yf ukt suTe df skg yk.kv awg k.kv Tg s.g krjd hL\[ X.x kry?if j.x skg kn.nÔ sdutf ]hxskg gxt Xe rxt Syf sd joæB sd Xkxsky um skr cv 4.kv 9awg Nqd 9Te8 df okH kd 9Te8 skr kdum ]9skxB8 skr hdum 4.g k. skdltf 4kxs.‘que ltf 4Tg srukt eg df .t jGf 4awg hukK Te df kF ezH klß hH s>qe skr kF koq. go dfXk. skd .x skg ZFel Xe sugd g.g hrkt skg rîkel ].kv _¬k' j.kv Bskd k.D .g kvqg /çyim ukK eji slm df sxXgd eg skr s.k.D ].† sl jkdagv sd Xk.kv s.g k.i ukK rfakH lb Xeg jxv j.D `Xk.g hrskg Hajkzi hHr tsk[ ]9hj.g hukK kL\c slcl rkjdql df Xe lXFS hn jd k<"sk? g.g krskg Cgu kd hldf j.x je joæB kd XkrLfai 4Tg srukt eg df .g hy jd <je¬ krhx sueg jxv ]Tg Xe yk.kt skg rwcte j.yf jd <je¬ sulm Nqd ]kxskg k. su hldf 4.x xsky so 4.t7sl.kv Xkg yjl gjr hd Xkpπc .kv .D ]kxsdl yef Cgu sl ke®keji go awg Nqd Te df Skt skg ego g.i 9u.kv jkdagv skr kdlm ].m o c.yf [hl sulm Nqd 4kxskg jZHuf ji L\di hd Xkrak0lf j.'fskg rqgc eg hH Xe susy daP skd ukKv suiv kjk} sd ukequv j.g Cgu jL Bskd sl hldf s>qe ct j.g jkr¬of ky.kv 4k.g krdl skg eüt kd ukK ct ]kxs.®l7uoht s>qe df /skc kd rkc lb 4awg krukt Cgu hH Nqd Xe /acal sd .g g.g krgd rkjdql df kgd slum ]sF srjGf srjd Xe oakx k<"sk? hdlb xsky skt ]jdkt suXkgüm j.ky Iduf <{ go ke®keji Cgd u Cgd skr Tg srki jd jxv `Tg hukKvukge ikv df Tg srki jd oHquv skd rkc lb Xe <{ hldf hH ikv k.‘que ]Cgu kri s>qe df rfhrzi hlß ]lklgv I‘i¬ kd 9lXjsku≈b8 hlß ]Cgu ukK hH Nqd ]Cgu kri hH Nqd Xe /acal sd .kv k.[ sd suukt Nqd u Nqd hHl eg udfsy 4.kv kxsn kcqL skd suiv Xelm ]jskv Xkjkp .kv ehlv skt go ].x gc j. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 5 egaP ]Tg Xe rfF¬f hd un√qn rqgc eg skr .¬el Bskd hH ct uoht j.g krkt skg kjgx okH kd suukt ct 4Skt skg yczi j.g krgd skr rkjdql df skn gd sl Xkxsky um j.kv kjgx okH kd suukt u ct ].D 4Tg srxy sujd lkoæof ji kui¥d lm sjh/7sjh/ 4Tg srsy jd kui¥d Bskd ]Tg srsy jd ukequv Bskd eg akgo7akgo ].g hrkt skg nac tsk[ skr . go j. dl r o w o h s o.ke Te dfct cv j.x je jo’Zb k.kv krukt Cgu hH Nqd Te df awg krgkp kusn gd rkc hpπl dS Te ].ufkK 4kxs.g hrsn sk[ Xe jxkl skd suiv nawc sl.yfhlb3kgd suXkgüm 4.x lki sd rkjdql xsky 4.g zohr ]. ]ku[j <je¬ skr awg krukt Te df Tg srkjgskn g. .x je joæB kd Xk. skdltf 4Tg srdl yq[ jk} sd suukt hg Xe rfF¬f "∆knuf IXlskub ]u.kv klag rkjdql 4skg hukK sL\c slcl eqr df .[ g.g yk. j.koDab8 hH Bskd df .g krxy Xeg 4.kv Xdl jd tsk[ hd ukF¬ sd suukt u skt ]sdl skg Wq' tsk[ hdutf sl qnücf sd suukt u lm j.yf >el sulm Nqd ]kxskg k.x kv chjd sd r.ke8 go j.

nf sn jRm kdlb hH su hldf sl Xe Xkpπc eqr jxv 4.g k.kv hH Xe oakx lm go 4kF oHalv yqdycf kusn jRm sd Xkuæzi sdlm dfXk.D joæB df XNwi g.g krkt yp kri kd suskg kdi sd Xkyokp hdkc sl hlm 4.kygf Fkg sultf ]kyef s>qe kpπc uke0fqc klß df .kv go 4kxskg k.®l hHd ukK g.kv awg krdl sn hg Te jRm g.ke hH xsky syko susn jRm sdub ]Xkg rxalv sgkp uæzi sjkeg udfsy 4. 4.g hHl dik.df yg r<fx g. Xgütf eg 2XNwi uæzi g.g Cgu hg ukK ].kd ]Tg akgd eg df Cgu kri hH g.g hL\c j.g hurdf3kgd su jIDsi¬ab 4awg krdl sn hg Te ZGlf hH jRm g.g ykol uklkv yqdycf skr .ki sn Cgu jRm dr cv hH Bskd kdlb ]awg kgj Nwi Te uæzi skt3kgd g.d ].x kv Xe oakx lm hg sygi sdlm jc[ 4k.x yef hH syko susn jRm sdub j. 4Sgfkp huskg Z"o ¢¢ zem hdikv 4. ]akg 4.x je jo’Zb k.kv 4Tg rxalv knk.g .g kryp yhe .kv d¥fc ]kF Sqg s[j hjkt skd ekd suiv udfsy ]kF k.g dkujr[ ukK g.g k.D df sF Sqg sjL spπc3awg kgj jd rkc Te hdltf ]k.x skg ckj[ xkenf kd jIDsi¬ab lm df hF h. 4Tg srdl jd hg ikv uæzi kdikv sl. sueqr sl /fof ldf3kgd sulm 4hF hg Z"o ¢¢ zem hdlm 4k.D zem hjse df skg srdl krc jd kxy cklgf eqr k.kv kxsn suukt Cgu skd .† hH sl uæzi sd yxki lb go ]Tg s.g jduql g.g rxalv yqdycf ].ke kygi g.kv 4Tg srsn sn jRm dhO hH yxki hHd7hHd 4.g rkc rxalv hurdf g.g krgj akgd `.t 4kryef Cgu jRm g. eg ]Tg k. hF jsn hGkd Xe suskg kF¬o.g Z"o ¢¢ zem hdikv ]kgd su sdL\y lm `hjse zem .x skg yxki go 4hF jsn hGkd Xe sujd R1ouf sl hjd.÷v skr cr 4Syf sd susn jRm k.kv sl Xknç' skt ukK g. 4kxsn suskg Cgu r/facal hHd ukK g.kv skvkt skg sL\[ eqr 4Syf sd susn jRm k. jIDsi¬ab 4.kv k.g k.† sl .3kgd sulm 4kF kvqg 'q[ rqgc jIDssssssssssssssssi¬ab cr ]kF k.D spπc 4s.kv udfsy `kd zem hdlm kF /acal k.m o c.kv dju j. 4gxt hIskN Cgd ]skg krkt xy jhr Bskd hHd7hHd hH Xe ukKv lb df .x sNwi uæzi skt Xe /ücél sd {ske j.kv .g krdl skg Cgu kL\[ uoht Bskd ji um udfsy 4Tg hrkt skg rcfkl ak.d joæB XNwi eg df .kv Te skr sdl sn Cgu jRm kdlb eqr jxv 4.g akgd `.g krdl skg g.x skg ukj.D skr . sl joæB 4kxsn suukt Cgu hH skd joæB hHd j.kv dik.÷kuk/zi j.g hd Z"o lbkc zem hdlm j. hH skr srsy ew? ji uhet hjkl j. 4.kn Xe jH sI≤? go 4kL\m Gjr hd kRdyd tkgt Bkog dS sl hy¥nf ]kNwi sulm 4kNwi uæzi sulm 4Tg uOfd knk.kv krjGf krjd <{hjuf oakx7oakx go 4ji j? kF Cgu krO.≈ZkHqn rqgc \Sg k.g k.ku slm k.g krdl skg g.bkpπl Xe sjs/av hH sl ukequv skr hHd7hHd j.c go cv 4kxy sujd <{hjuf sl jskt d/fv hH jIDsi¬ab go 4Tg srjd sl rdkr hjwi Tg srjd hH skt so 4Tg srkt skg OZed sL\c Xe sujd ekd yxki 4sl hn.g k.kygf Fkg su spπc dS df hF rkc hd hukj.g akgd joæB df Tg srkrc skt ]Tg nwt.D ]Tg u. sulm sygi slcl 4sNwi uæzi Nqd sulm jdkt Xelm ]hd ywd¬ lm hF k{d skt hL\c slcl j.3kgd su spπc lm 4skn jRm j.g uklkv rqgc3kgd sulm `k.kv Zxo¬ ]dskyji ]Xe /ücél sd Xkvke®kv ]Xe /ücél sd joæB g.g krkv sl Xk_¬k' j.r¬qe hH j.D ]kF krjd ckj[ ZLkdsj kd ywd¬ lm Xe jI¬tfj sd ywd¬ j.g yxki k/kv BkH kL\c kjse 4.g kuql suTe 4.x kL\c? spπc sjkl `. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 6 egaP s'Du suXskgüm 4.kygf Fkg sulm ct 4.x skg ckj[ xkenf kdlm df hH ji sukt yef jc[ g.g kd.D ]kxawNwi Cgu uæzi kjlwn Te jGf skr k.kv jIDsilab dS Syf sd <{hjuf sd ywd¬ dS Xe oakx dS df .ø hd kl®dfpf hdlm hHv ]. dl r o w o h s o.kl . ]Tg srskg ekd hjkdjl udfsy 4.D .† sllb so udfsy ]kxwaNwi uæzi hH j.g kl.kim sd susy kiNf skd ukKv g.g kl. Xe /ücél sd joæB eg ]Cgu kri hg kuiv Xgütf ]eg `.g Cgu Nqd knk.g htkj hH skd susn jRm kpπc dS udfsy ]kF kd uiyxki skr uæzi kdlm 4Sx skg ukj. 4.D sllm ]Skt sl jkr©j hH hldf ]kRdyd Skt tkgt Bkog sl hy¥nf 4kF Cgu hg /acal Bskd Xelm 4kF rxalv yqdycf uæzi 4kF Cgu /acal Bskd sllb 4srkt kjc? hH so skr srskg sP\wc ]k. 4s.g krskg hGkd hg yokp dS skd su[ji dfXk.

D ].D BkL\y 4.g dofkHko¬ kutsH Xe gxt hLaO hH j.g kl.d .®l j.x je jo’Zb k. 4kjlwn jRm kd huhp j. hH . 4sxXtsH gxt ejx eg skd Xk.kv sukohn Syf sd sujd r{fhn skd Xkvktkj ]rgfskjqi o Ze/ sd k.g dofkHko¬ yqdycf g.m o c.kuc sr¬kj sd dju j. skr _¬k' sjkeg ].d xsky syko sukuc skdum df Tg srkrc g.kv Tg hikN hH Xckrdf suXkgüm j.“al Xe hgkox hd . xsky skt jdL\y 4kxs.g hl.g Cgu rjWt hd sukt akgo jGf j.g krkt gj hg dS jGf kr¬kj kd sujd .rfcçrf ikv jxv 4Tg syduf sl oHquv suiv sd .‘que go dfXk.kv .g krdl rht Xe sujke j.g hgl jRm kdlm ].kd j.kt skg r{fhn Xe Ze/ ltf ktkj skt j.hrjkH skr 4Tg sl.ufqn hjkl 4Slfag re ji jIDssssssssssssssssi¬ab sd ywd¬ lm skr 4.† slum ]krhx df ycfbkc df .®g hjkgéqr eg skr sxskL\y eqr jxv df . su Xkxsky sd gjr ldf j.kuc yD' skt skzxhu j.g uk'sji sl LaO rcçrf dfXk.bkL\y ji ub eg jGf j.kv .g dofkHko¬ kuskg kL\x> Xe .D .kv Tg s.d dju kjkgéqr df s. 4.g hH dofkHko¬ kuskg ].g uOfd kujd .kv hxskg hl.kv skdum df .d yD' hd joæB df Xe Xk/acal ub jxv 4.g krdl kyp jkoyr sl jskt hurdf u.kd df Xkg srgkp kujd 0lf g.g rkc hd oHquv yqdycf g.r skd XkL\x> ub 4.kv sr¬kj sd Zxo¬ 4.g ejx go df kd rkc lb u ].g kgj ir tjwl ]Tg uk'sji sl hejx eg dfXk.D Xe dju df XNwi sl Xk.g krdl jke skd Xkxsky sl jskt surdf j.D rwcl kd suskg hgl sd jRm ]Slfag ji XkrLfai ]Slfag ji lkgrfb sd k. _¬k' sjkeg 4.®g hjkeg eqr 4sxXn jd k.®l j.g k.d OXkg sd joæB df . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 7 egaP hjkl ji Xk_¬k' ub j.kd df .g kl.kd j.g kLaO rqgc dju df sxXgd so skr .®l Ze/ go ]kxs.g hrkt uc <Zkeuf kd dju sjkeg ]hd sukrl skdum ]hd sutsH gxt ejx kuekd hjkeg g.‘que j.kv Xe huhp 5ArokHo¬ ].D ]akgo .ifki 4Tg srync ak.kv 4.kv Tg sgj yt sgkL\d ]Tg hgj yt XIiy hd xkv ji akgo skr . skt jdL\y `kxskg u.kv .g yc k.r g.kuc hH \Sg k.kv Tg syduf sl kui¥d hd .t sxXkg slß OXkg j.kv yxki knk.kv kjlwn jRm kd skzxhu ]kxskg kjlwn jRm kd Xk.r g.®l df srkrc Cgu so Xe /ücél sd .g k.g yc kl u.kv Tg s.g dhO k'Du kdldf df .kt skg hL\cL\x hL\c skr cr sxXtsH gxt hL≤O skd Xk. so 4. .kv .kv . 4.krc dr kylkG suXkgüm 4sxXy jd rkc hg sl j? ikv ].ufk/tkj huiv eg skr gxt hLaO 4Tg srtsH skd XkjI¬ufef suiv eg skr gxt hLaO ]Tg srdl tsH Cgu gxt hLaO skd hiki suiv eg 4. rwcl 4skg L\skjd lhc eqr ]Tg L\skjd rkl eg df .g /skjof Xe Xkyko sukuc k'Du ji Xkrkc hjkl ub j.g g. . 4.Nfwi sl Xk.g k.D ].nf kukdOf7kri cl kdlm Xelm j.“al huiv7huiv Ze/ sd k.g yc lki sd ktkj df Syflb go Tg sgj skg yxki j.kv Xkvkui¥d hjkeg 4Tg sl. rwcl `.kv hxskg hykd yD' ]sxXkg sykj?aq? ykc sdlm 4krdl kxy Cgu Oskg kyri go Xelm ]kxs.g ukequv kjkeg g.hrjkH udfsy 4Tg srjd iki skt ]skn tsH Xe gxt hLaO j.g kvqg k.g kLaO k.g dofkHko¬ yqdycf g.ufqn hjkl skr Syflb 4Tg hgl eg Syflb 4sxskvki jd Cgu k.g go k.g kgj kt kykL skd Xkxsky Xe XkgkL\d Sqg sryt um j.kv su e.kv 4Tg Sqg sxaI s'Du so Xe Xkjnfae j.g dofkHko¬ yqdycf ukequv kjkeg g. `.g dofkHko¬ kuskg kL\x> skr 4Tg srskg sd skzxhu sl.kv Tg s. dl r o w o h s o.kuc yD' skt huhp dfXk.g rwcl kd Bkpl hd rkc hldf k.D ].kuc s'Du j.kolf sd k.®l df srkrc Cgu g.g g.ufqn hjkl g.g dofkHko¬ kuskg uüHf kd XkjRm ub udfsy `.hrjkH j.kv 4kxskg hH jcau uskG Xelm skr sd Xkckrdf huiv sxXykduf <jd¬al s.kd ldf df .g kryp kri kd rkc dS yosd sllb 4Cgu k.kv Xkukequv ub 4ji Xkukequv ub ]Tg srL\y ak.g hgl ukjqd df Xkg srgkp kujd .d .g krkt skg ejx dju kjkeg 4.g rh' rqgc ].g uk'sji sl rh' ]. ]kxskg ejx hH dju kjkeg skr .g hgl u.g kl. .g hryef kupwl hdum ]xsky so Tg Xe k'nskue ldf ]Tg Xe rfF¬f ldf xsky syko sujd kui¥d hdlb df Tg srkrc g.ifki 4hxs.g rwcl kd Bkpl Bskd kukt rht df k. dfXk.kv skdum ]Tg srjd iki Xe rcçrf skt7skt skr 4.kt skg .D ]Tg yxki Syf sd sukP\c k.u sl jGf so jxv 4kd ukoxH k[yf Cgu jcau uskG suXkgüm Syflb ]sF srskg Cgu jcau uskG Xe suket sukjqi 4.g kryp kri kd suskg sd dju u sl ukequv lb 4.“al dfXk.g hd kui¥d g.t henkv sd uhp go ]kxs.D ].

krl kurb Xgéqr3kNwi su henkv dS 4Sqg ukj.g krkt skg de√k/ go ].g Sqg sugi _¬o skt go ] .x je jo’Zb k.kv sykL Ikd j.x s.g drDf.nÔ sdlm ]ji XkOXkg sdlm ]Xe Xk[akv hdlm j.g krkt skg jwn sl Ze/ go ]. 4.kv Bx j[cf L\hH 4.®l ]lki7lkv sd Xkukequv ]lki7lkv sd Xknç' 4.rZ<wi sl tkel skt Xe Rpf suiv udfsy 4krskg Cgu hH Nqd skr jdskg kl¬gf kd tkel 4. kd k.kv kF kgj lag go udfsy ]sF sgj jd r{of7r{ skd jhj' sdlm skt ]sF sgj kt sjke jF®i ji lm 4kF chjd sd suje go 4sF s.kuc uOxal jdskg sØdb 4Cgu tkel j.®1e cl skr rDjfrfv sdlm 4.g hL\[ jdskg rtfkHof k.kv Cgüdf eg skr Xe uOxal j.g krkt Zxo¬ go ].®l 4.kv 4sF sgj dXG jF®i ji lm j. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 8 egaP jwlae hH g.g rkc hd sysdv ku/kl 4.x k. Cgu kri df sr>el xsky skr krsn Cgu Fkl kd L\hH Te jxv 4Syf sd susn Fkl kd L\hH3kgd sulm skr kjke Xk.kv Tg sgj kt sjke jF®i sl Xkunf rqgc skd jhdG udfsy `kxskg k.g krskg u.g krukt slm j.kv .g krkt skg Z<wijfi k.g kL\[ skt henkv go udfsy 4kF Cgu [5qn Bskd s>qe Syflb ]kF krjd kuZFkzi Syf sdum sl ke®keji Syflb ]Tg >elku df kF krpskl Te skr skdcl j.kt skg htkj Syf sd sujd nZkcc skd uhet Xe krdql®m hd sukt Zxo¬ df skt ]Tg Cgu uOfd susy tsk[ >elku slß cr j.®v oHquv kd .g s>qe skr kjke jF®i s>qe hH sulm ]sd ke®keji .g krkt skg rDqe skt sl XkuOxal ub 4krskg Cgu de√k/ Bskd skr skg kl¬gf kd uOxal 4sllb .®l 4Tg srdl skg sL\[ hg chjd sd Ow> k'seg uOxal 4krdl skg Cgu kL\[ uOxal Bskd Iduf sd .d 4.g kvqg Znxf7Znb sd Cgüm ]lki7lkv sd XkjoæB sOw> slß ]lkgrfb kjkeg kjkl g.kv 2.H lb 4Tg srskg kØdb Syf sd suL\y sl hldf ]Syf sd k<1? hldf ]Syf sd k{jql hldf ]<jkd sd .g krskg de√k/ Bskd sl sukt skg kl¬gf kd uOxal dS hldf 2Tg Xrkc hd uiyxki hl.kv kF kgj kjd¬qe jhdG go udfsy 4sF sgj kt sdXG jF®i ji lm j.nf Ikd j.kv kL\hi hjkl lb ]Xe .g jhdG skt go ].g krcwL jrhH suiv Xe uisysdv ]Xe Bkgur ]Xe rakdS suiv rDf.g kukt skg de√k/ kukt skg wngV df Tg sr>el eg 4Tg srgj sr>el rkc hd uOxal j.c sØdb henkv ln 4.g q.g uoht kysdv hgo 4.g krskg rak' ].H hldf 4Tg srskg sØdb sl Xk<jkd j.g sL\c xsky 4kxy suskj jwlae skr kF kL\[ Xe L\hH skt ]kdXG su jhdG dS kysP dS kd hÈef udfsy 4kF eszi hH phc sd [qn j.kv .x je skr jwlae henkv go j.yf sd suukt skdlm 4Cgu hg .ufqn \Sg k.ø j.kv rDf.kv sxX.x je joæB kd XkuOxal 4.®l df Syflb krdl skg Cgu 4krdl skg Cgu kL\[ u'stbkuZxkv Bskd ]uOxal Bskd Znxf7Znb sd .g kIym Nqd hg ZFv kd suskg de√k/ `.x skg ykg g.g Cgu /acal Bskd kdlm sl gwel 4.g hjWt kuukt Xe ku/kl ]Cgu Xe uOxal s.D .ki Cgu skd Ze/ jdskg sØdb udfsy 4.ø dS 4.D jF®i sueqr df kNwi su XkjhdG sjlwn Nqd sl jhdG lm 4Bx L\m skr lkoql j.kv hg rkc go `joæB kd Ze/ udfsy 4Sgfkp kukt je slm ].kv L\hH ]uOxal 4.ufqn Syflb j.kv k.®g hd sjlwn dS eg ji Xkrkc Bkog ub j.x kv wlakv Xe Xk[akv hjse 4Bqg hukj.kv gwel skd Ze/ dr cv xsky sjkl eg 4hd gwel j. dl r o w o h s o.kv3kgd sulm `sL\i skj eqr sl sudXG sd sysP sl7sIskN dS sd hÈef j.o ra.skj Cgu eqr ]k.kv s.ø go so j.g k.®l yosd hg o®rDf.m o c.g Cgu kr¬ko Bskd kdlm sl L\hH ]srdl jd Cgu oHquv kd .ke ].g kukt skg de√k/ kukt skg hljki ]kukt skg ukeylqe 4.kv gwel ]Tg srukt skd .g krkv kte rqgc Xe suskg nhg' Xgütf ]Tg hGkd ji uhet yxki slß j.D kd k.g Cgu Iduf sd .g krdl kt k.i sdlm ]CykL L\skG X[akv hdlm 4Tg srjd xsky de√k/ rFfdkFr k'seg Fkl sd henkv sd joæB skt ]sF sgj jd jkgo.kv tkel 4.ufqn skr kxsjke jF®i hg jhdG ct 4s.ø 4.g Nqd skr rDjfrfv sdlm ].g krdl kt k.®l jdO..g j.g krje Syf sd Ze/ skt 4skjd re ∂Gf ]skje eqr df Tg sgj srk>el skd Xkxsky eg 4Tg sgj srjd k.i sdlm 4kF kgj gc uw[ slum ]CF Bx hn L\skG X[akv hdlm 4kF kgj kjd¬qe dr cv jwlae 4kdXG Gjr hdlm jd kOm kysP kd hØef dS ]kF kL\[ Xe L\hH lm skt ]hH su jhdG dS hHr 4kF kgj jd kuZFkzi sl ke®keji go j.kv sF sgj skg sØdb xsky Xk[ky 4sF sgj Ikd Fkg sdlm xsky 4hF hgj kt Bkxy hlakG skd jwlae ]skd jhdG dS 4aMkt skg Fkl sd ln Te 4awg jskted rqgc kysdv Te df <jkd sd .g k.

d Ze/v Xe k.g Gjr Xkjkp uoht akgt ]phc sd hxntV 4krdl skg Cgu Ze/ kpπl ]Ze/ kyko suxkH sl hxntV 4Tg xsky Sqg sjL so 4Tg rhH.kv Xn L\skN skd L\hH ikv df awg kgj gd g.‰kc j.x je joæB kd gwel 4.g g.kv htuf dS go 4.g hIskN rqgc uhet 4aSkt syp Xe yxat j.x syp Xe Xkyxat xsky sjkl jxv ].kv kukt skg rDqe slub ]Tg s. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 9 egaP 4.g de√k/v skr L\hH `krskg akgd j.®l dfXk.g krkt kv kte kd sukt skg de√k/ stsk[ kucf skdikv 4. ykol 4skg u kyko sukjL df .nf sn skdikv suTe df skg ycsjGlak≠I df ].kv kd gwel ].Hv skr go 4skvkt skg rDqe j.‘que dS ]kd Bkdb dS7dS ]kd rDf.kc Xn sukt je 4skd ukeylqe ]skd wngV Xn sukt je 4. slum ct 4.nf lkoæof skt su L\hH .g Cgu kd uOxal j.g cyre kd suskg rDqe 4kusn L\skr skd hekyqx dlfuke .kjc? u ]Cgu Xdskj slm 4Xn sukt skr .g krdl kv Cgu Ze/ Xe k.r¬fc akgo skr s.m o c.nf sn skd j.kv Xn L\skN oakx ikv df awg kgj gd Cgu Te g.g kusn eüt skd Ze/ sd rDf.g jnaql hH skt Xe uoht ]. 4kxsL\i Cgu ZdG Bskd sllm 4hxaSkt lc ak.g Cgu rDfqe .g k.g krjd nali skd \Sg k.g cyre kd suskg rDqe 4.g krjL sl L\hH skt 4krdl skg Cgu de√k/ go ].kv djfhjk' Bskd cyre kd suskg rDqe 4.g tsk[ drDf.g krkt yef [ql kd suukt ]sukt kucf 4.ufqn sl sukt sdlm df X. ]kuuke Cgu _ofi skd jnfae lm ]kuuke _ofi skd jnfae lb ]kuskg ukeylqe ]kuskg wngV3Tg hn kL\di Xrkc skt su L\hH 4kukt IwN slum ]Tg s.ufqn skn sukt skg knof ]skd 0. ykol `u. slikv Te df Cgu cyre g.g k..Gf ]skd .ki skg Cgu de√k/ hH hHd go 4.o j.o¬ s/hl skr slm 4..[ g.g o'f hH skt Xe uoht ].g krdl skg Cgu hHd 9Lskjkc8 go ]. ]Tg hn kL\di Xrkc skt s.g k/ofql hL\c Xe joæB sd gwel 4.g hd hH hryx g.H sl L\hH skt Syflb 4.nf Cgu Xe Fkg sjlwn sl Fkg dS hH Nqd go ].o htuf hd .ø Skt hg je go df Xn kjkgl 4Xn sukt je ]. skr aSkt skg rDqe df .nf 9Ghycf8 ]Tg s.i yk.kv k.ø skt 4kujd Wq' tsk[ drDf.g krskg kn.g Cgu thp hlß Bskd ke®keji 4krdl kt k.g cyre kd suskg rDqe 4kr_aro¬ dlfuke .yf Cgu jk/m skd ke®keji 4.nf hH Fkl 4kF kysdv skt ]kF kusn kdlm skr kF kusn hg Fkl jxv 2yxki3kgd su XkjhdG um 4.kv 4hxskg hd jklal go ].kv jdjL sl L\hH skr Tg srgj Xe L\hH 4Tg xsky sd gjr skn 4kxskg rwcl kd lsulsyj. hHd ct skd Xkxsky Sqg sjL Cgüb 4Tg srgj jdcn j.kv kuZFkzi Syf sd joæB lm ]Xjd klîhHv hd joæB lm ]Xjd k{akdkv hd joæB lm 4Xn hg sukt slm 4.nf kL\di rak0lf skt s.®l tsk[ hd henkv lm ].g krgj kuc xav kd L\hH go ]. dl r o w o h s o.g krjL sl L\hH skt dfXk.kd kxSkjL skr hxsgj Cgu hg L\hH akgo dfXk.ø skt ]XjH sl eszi j. ]Tg s.g Cgu g.x je jo’Zb k.®l jk/m sd sjlwn rDf.®l jdki skd kr_aro¬ lm hd ue j.kv hldf suikv j.x kyp joæB kd uOxal 4.H so ]Tg srxkH yxat skt 4kxskg Cgu hH Nqd sl sukt yxat Syflb 4Xgj u syko sujL ikv df .g krdl kt kvqg rDqe Cgo ].g kd rDf.g kyko sujL hH kyko suxkH 4krskg Cgu rDqe hHd kyko suxkH 4Tg srxy suxkH jdL\skN L\hH so skr skvkt skg rDqe sl L\hH eqr df .D ]Tg srxkH Gjr hd yxat g.g krdl skg joæB kpπl hg joæB kd .zi sd uoht suiv ]aSkuZFkzi hd .g kd Bkdb ]. su Xkxsky Nqd 4aSkt syp Xe Xkyxat j.g krskg kuki hg sl lk.g krkt kgd g.g rhH.g hrdl kt hy jk/m thp hH skt 4. kdlb 4Sgfkp kuskg rDqe sl L\hH skd ue 4kxs.®l hH skt ].ufqn skr hrskg de√k/ hg L\hH jxv 4krskg Cgu de√k/ hHd go ].g .g kuskg rDqe jxv 4.g krkt skg iqp sdjd jkdho¬ skd Xk.kv Ze/v jGf skr hrskg de√k/ jxv `srskg sl.g hrdl skg hd ke®keji yosd hgo ]hrdl kt Bki Cgu jk/m hHd thp skt j.g krdl kt k.g krkt skg P\1n jkdagv kd suskg de√k/ ]Sqg de√k/ kucf 4.D .nf kL\di nç' skt s.ø dS7dS 4.nÔ suiv ]uysknakv sd Xk<kzi suiv ]tsk[ huiv hd a.D ]sn L\skN sL\id sd hjhdG3kgd jGf sllm su XkjhdG um `sF rqgc skt kdum skr k.ufqn hg sl gto hd suskg sdlm 4kxSkt kyp Ze/ kd k.g O‘sJ hH skt Xe uoht 4k.kv skgj Xe phc skr .ø dS7dS ]skd joæB sd rDf.D ]Cgu Syf sd .g krdl skg Cgu jk/m hHd .g Cgu rjWt Bskd 4sl k.

‘que j.D .g g.kv 4kIg Cgu sl jk} lm udfsy 4krsy hi huki go skr krkt sn huki Bskd 4krsy jd utskH skr krkt sn Nqd j.x je jo’Zb k.‘ofH Bskd Syf sd . j.g k.x gj Ze/ kd XkuOxal ub j. skr cv df kgd sulm j. 4.yf P\i jxv dfXk.kv hn dXG hL\dy sulm 4kF k.k' df .g krsy kjgskn go skdutf ]Tg s.G Fkg jGf skr . ]rfakH hd uh'e ]go .x je jWt df kgd ji L\kgi lm sl henkv lm suTe skr 4Xn hg sukt skd Ze/ slß 4. udfsy ]joæB . `kxsyef k.g jlov kd h'q[ g.g ZF.u Bskd Xe sjgsp s.g j? u.k' cr kxskg kP\i sulm ct unf sygi 4rfakH hd _a.yf ki Nqd cl suTe j.kv skg kvqg u rr√ojfi hH Bskd ].yf ukt sulm jxv 4hrskg Cgu rjWt hd sukjgskn kjkcskn skr krskg k.† sleg udfsy ]hxXkg hgj h/av jWt hdlm X[akv 4k.ø kugj Sky.kv .x dQ Cgo go `.kv Skv el.x kv uoht k. jxv ]Tg de√k/ xsky syko suP\i skd ckrdf hldf ]jdOm gcql tskj jxv 4awg de√k/ Te df Tg srukt j.kv henkv k/av go ]k.®1u kdlm 4kF kgj gd rhx kdlm 4kF kgj gd rhxal kdlm 4kF kgj gd naukv kdlm 4hgj Cgu hH rjWt Bskd hd suNwi sllm df k[sn su Xkxsky j.kv krkt kv Bskd 4kgj kO.o kd sl. `.g yxki wr3kgd su sryp gkj hldf 4Skt yef Nqd s>qe3kgd j.g Cgu .t ]skg kl.x Ief skr Te df awg kgj [sn Te j.kv kF kgj pku go j.yf kOm Fkg suiv sulm 4hF rdkr Xelm hd su[sn knk.kv Cgd ].kv Cgu q.o .kv 4.nv dS hH Xe Xk[akv h/av hdlm j. sllb dfXk.x kv j? erfav skr g.ufqn skr Tg de√k/ xsky syko sukt Xe jnfae tskj s.kv aSktwi hd Ze/ j. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 01 egaP Xkxsky skr kxskg Ze/ Xe k.g Cgu rjWt hd suP\i dfXk.kv sxm nakp 4Sx j.kv skg Cgj hryp Gjr dS aSkuZFkzi j.kv Tg srsy P\i jdkOm skd ckrdf hldf gcql tskj 4awg de√k/ Te df Tg sryp sl L\dv j.ky.x O.D ]kxs>el Cgu hH Nqd ]kxsP\i skt go nkc sd suP\i Z"o lkpi 4kxskg hH k>el Nqd n.≈ZkHqn j.kv Xrkj 2Sx ]Skv unf 4kIg Cgu sl jk} lm go dr Z"o dS 4s.sk[ suTe skt .D akg.D Ze/v kurb Xe k.D ].3kgd sulm `kvqg k.kv [qn j.D3kNwi su Xkxsky 4kF kgj yskc nç' sd krKrÎ j.g k.g j? kd ke®keji skr g.‘que Xe Ze/ slß 4. udfsy 4.®1e Bskd Cgd df awg kgj [sn Te cv j.D ]kxSkt yef Nqd ct sxXkg knof hHr sl akg. sl>qe ikv 4sk>el j.kv X[sn s>qe cv `.m o c.kv Zk"o 4C.g Ze/ go df sxXgd eg skr Skt jH sl dskykv j.g kyko suyef Cgu akg.c Cgo go `kxsyef sl j? ldf jGf skr kxsyef Cgu Nqd sl j? sd ke®keji ct3kgd sulm 4kxskg kgj chtv hH jhdG go 4xake j. `.D ]kxskg kP\i Cgu Xe unf skn7dS skd ckrdf lm sulm df kxaWd unsouf Te8 ].g kgj krkjgskn tskj slm udfsy 4krskg Cgu ykol Bskd kjkcskn skr krskg k.kv k.x kv j? hj[fkv skr g.g Arqr¬o df skt ]Xdl tsk[ skd joæB lm eg n.ufqn jxv 4kF kgj gd . sd rxko¬ g.kv kd Xknç' ub Ze/ kjkeg 4.g xsky 4syP j.g .g tsk[ hdltf ]skdlm awg kgj [sn Te cv 4.g akgd j? sxkv sdlb cv 4k.kv 4skNwi re sl>qe g.g Cgu [qn Bskd Cgd df wag kgj [sn Te cv j.c Cgo jhdG go ]sF ukj. dfXk.g nt¬fe skr g.¥weqgc knk.kv kF kgj pku go df k[sn su Xkxsky gcql unf dS srskg7srskg sjwi ljc j.kv hF hgj skg ewyke dy> hd Z. nf.g kvqg k.G Fkg ji jk} sd nt¬fe sulm 4CF Cgu X[akv ]kF k/av 4kF kryduf sl lki sd nt¬fe dS gcql dS jhdG dS `sxXjd k.sk[ u Nqd suTe 4.† rqgc hH sllm skt ]k. dl r o w o h s o.kv sk[sn s>qe 4skNwi re sl>qe g.ufqn j.D df XNwi re g.x skg sØdb nç' lki sdlm skr cv 4.D jd[j kntV skd Ze/ slß `sxXjd k.kd j. 4.kv sl naukv ]sl eszi uoht kjk} sdlb 4kxsn jd rjfrakiW skd uoht df skt Xdl skg ukerfx Xe tsk[ hd Ze/ lm eg n.kv `.kv Tg srkv skg Xe jnfae hldf jdOm gcql tskj \Sg k.g Xk.g kgj krP\i tskj7tskj skd ckrdf hg dS dr Z"o lkpi henkv skt df .g Cgu rkc hd krpV g.kv kr–jfn j.≈sk.D jdsy skd Ze/ slß skr kF sygi ykl jktg7Xkjktg kl.g jrhH sjkgéqr skt ]skdlm d¥fc ]Cgu skdeqr 4awg kgj [sn Te cv 4. 4.g kuI? .g k.ke 2hrhc ]h.kv kruhn hd k.nTkl rqH.Zk>qe sdlm j.g k. skr pl `.kv .yf ki Nqd suTe hH jd Ief udfsy ]awg k.kv s.k' 4.g kgj kv sl akgd Ze/v g.g kxy suL\i Bk[nf Xe Xk[akv h/av hjse 4X>el j.kv nkc sdlb 4k. `aMkt akgd sxkv cv jGf `.kv skg kgj gxt huiv jkd/av ]skg kjH u sl Xkrkc hjkl ub uoht kjk} sdltf j.x ]C.g hruc kuokHal g.

s eji kr g krk[ kd .‘que 4g kruc l jxkl deu ]g kuc sl s s . w X q wa hHv jdkxy kri kd Bkjgx jkv g krkt e 2kjgO3kgd ulm jkv k.kolf lki sd Xkxsky skr hHv 4sxXgd rhx sd Xkxsky 4kxsgd eszi kd Xkxsky 4kxsgd naukv kd \Sg k.kv eszi surb skd Xkrkc hjse 4.‘que kr g krIef Cgu df kt . .kolf d‘r¬fe sdum 4. s s a s s . s s T T Sg rF¬fim uæzi l7rgc Xe /cl lm 4hF hgd likv sue rkc dS k. kvg Cgu 'i¬ Fkl dlm kd jxkl df krkg Fv kdlm kr krkv Iky jxv q Z s s Z s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 11 egaP 4Xjd jkdho¬ ek<zi sjse 4awg krjd ek<zi skd ke®keji sO.‘ue .g krdl je kt 4kF Cgu hg joæB go ]g k.x je joæB kt 4g krki kd ke®k s q . s s s t utk[ .≈kH. Cgu kukuc kd joæB ]g krLi kuIef hg a. xky hHl o jkv kF kye Bkd 4Bg hØdb LhH hd kxky rgc jkc d s s .∂fufv ]kd Skucuv lm 4kxIef go ]g k. s s s a .‘que 4g kuc l ke®keji .kv awg rhg1xquv rqgc7rqgc sllm ]kuql sl rfak' j.kuc ltf u .o¬ jkv g hrkg hun k<ji hg kd a. s q s s X q 2kr go kF kyrqi s kd deu 4k. wa T s s . z q . a hH kyri kd deu dS hHr jkv 4g hurdf Bkjgx hd –el df xy ujd j q .÷l yd q s q a a s T a kx.m o c.c jrhH sdcl ]Xe rav j.g krdl skg sl. liko kd kj? suiv xky ]h.d Ze/ Xe rykg lb 4.g Cgu hH Nqd sd jkd/av . \ s q s s s oæB roæk' lm 4g joæB hgo ]g roæk' jkv g knl 4g rjofv kt 4g Cgu h .g Cgu hH Nqd sd Xkvqlakv . . kxm tjl 4.kv okur ]u>ym .x Iky . s ]g kuukt kd LI. kujd Cgu re√uf joæB kd .‘ue Syf d uki kd joæB roæk' lm 4g krL\i s q s s s . .o¬ kd .g Cgu Ze/ go ].x je joæB kt dfk s .x je jo’Zb k. q . . s .x IN LhH ]kxy uLtm kye jh/7jh/ 4kcL jkv s X s a \ s \ s s s w .®l skt ]Xdl ukt slm n. s X q s . . .‘u .g k. s.ki hgo ]kxIef kt s s s . dl r o w o h s o. s .kv kgo .D b 4g krtk[ e jxkl kyri kd deu lt hg lo ]kxtk[ kd ke®keji ]kxSk . g joæB go ]. s ss s s . 4.kv unf 4k.k' skr aSkt skg sL\[ Xe kryjl hd ukKv ikv j.‘ue 4g krkg /çyim joæB kr g krIef . 4Tg Cgu rpfjfi sl thp hjlwn hldf sd rfak'v j.x je joæB kyko jkd/av j. q s s kpof g. s s .x jkv s. 4kdl Iky Cgu go ]kIky Cgu go udfsy 4g Bkjgx hurdf hd jxkl df .x je joæB df kgd kdikv yd ue 4g .d eüt kd joæB syko 'kdzi 4.kv Xkvqlakv g.g ykg kd Xkxsky sd uhet g.o¬ kd . s X . deu jxkl 4g Cgu knk. .kv ikv Syflb 4Tg hrdl uc Cgu ukK Syf sdlm Xrkc hjse 4krdl skg Cgu eüt kdlm sl Xkrkc hjse3awn gd rkc dS udfsy 4kxaWd rkc sl ikv Xe XkvZkpp hyko sukv Te g. .g k.krc . Z w .g rwcl kdlb jkd/av kd Xkxsky ]Tg rwcl kdlb wlakv sd Xkxsky 4. ].g Ze/ skt Syflb `. s s a q .x nd e jxkl kyri kd deu go 4g krkv w s .x kg uhyof e suukt lm kr hukt ulm Bkjgx hd jxkl jkv s X s s . s jkv Iky go df hgj k{hri rgc 4kdl Iky Cgu liko kyri go 4s.g .† l syri d deu .‘ue s .‘ue ]Syf d uukt kd j s .kv Skt uNf ukK cl kdikv ]sjd ke®keji 4aSkt skg hukKv ikv 4awy uhN ukK kjkl kdikv df kxaWd ''fskd Xe Xkunf uhr ub skr Te 4ukK skdikv sxXkg srsn so ]sxXkg srkt suuql skd Xkxsky j.o¬ ct .‘ue go ]g k.o¬ ujo ]g krskg . s .g krdl skg sl. s .kl kuI? go jkv .D ]g <i. s s q \ X s q S jkudf d –el df F rgd go 4F rjd kgd hukgd hl7hIkN dS <‘Îekj s s q s s s s s 4g hjWt kuk[ kd .nÔ sdum 4. s s q e 4kF joæB re√uf kjk} d .g kNπv skr . q 4g krkg kun kIef kd . s s zs s .kolf Xe .el rjrm e ke®keji hH . s .

nf jd W' sulm kukuc kd joæB jkv k. q s s s . s T s s . X ld eg df g rNi ikv 4g h. df g kyp kri ld df g kNwi . s a 4h.‘ue .x je jo’Zb k.x je joæB g.x kg re√uf joæB d jkdi rgc ArokHo¬ s s q s w s s z q 4k.D kurb 4sxSkt pc l ukjdI ler ed s s .x kg UNπfof /acl jkeg llm ]kF rkÛ kd 'kdi e uoht kt kF rkÛ k a s s s z X s s d nukv g.‘ue s s s . s s . a s s s q 7l7ed kr go ]hxLi h. ]d BklB ]d ukeyle ]d ngV3s.x >c uIyky df yp kri ld kd henkv s/v T s w . a wa a kr e `kxLi dG k. . go jkv hd upc l joæB hd nktB chdjr dS u . q s lß 4k. . . 4Syf kuc u kxky hHl ukoxH d T s s s T T s s s X s s pfQ huiv7huiv 4. \ ]jkdgv kurb ][n kurb e uoht d henkv dS7dS 4g xky jkl eg kr hgk a q X s T s s s ox hd ukt je d joæB ]Cgu 4g kje go suekl dutf g gkox xky l ukd s s . df kxsxy kri g. s .‘ue Syfl .x je joæB df g kryp kri g.g h.x Cgu end kl B q . jd[n kd . df kxsyef hg jF®i kvg kxy ji cd hldf u jkv hxyef Cgu 'ky hd a q z .x k. q s s s . . s s q `g k. q .nf jd nc ulm kutk[ kd q s .x >c e phc Cgd uIyky hdikv 2okHukge3kgd u henkv jln kr `hrL\i C q X s q s s w s gu h. 4kxn jRm kdikv e ygi kdum 4g r/fc aw s T s T a al l rkc hlb d/fv l eutf ]g Sx sNi uæi l7rgc l>e 2g H' g.m o c. w a a T s s g .D . jkv s s X T w z s q s q . .x kjdI llm henkv Bkd df kxkg k.x kg jdDI df kxyp kri l rkc lb 4. kg.kuGn s s s X s s s s s .x pc hH .x kg re√uf joæB d jkdi jktg7jktg 4d 0kc ]d ut s s s z s . s a s X s s s s s go ji ukt rhc rkj h/kv 4kvg ukege henkv k/av dS e j? dS rkj dS s q s X 4g k.t ]kxy sulg henkv k/v 4kvkt ry e Fkg uIyky dS e a a s s s X s qr 4g rkj hd lokev 4g kj/v kr¬kj3kgd u kxky d j? kr kxy ukg knof .x k. .yf jd re√uf hH joæB jkv k. w a .k[nf uIyky kr kd kxky jln Sg rkv e j/av ud s s s \ s s s X s s w q s X ss fy 4kxLi Cgu dG Bkd l uIyky ]Syf d k[kv hjkgér ]e Fkg jkgér df s s \ Z s s s s X a q X s q g pl kr g. s joæB l utk[ Cgd 4g k. g . df hd rkc lb `g kupl hd rkc ldf rfk'v jkv kLhi hurb a .x II /cl go 4 .x je . kd go udfsy 4kyduf jdsy uIyky go jkv kLi kukt d> kd henkv /v l s s . s s a . g hjs/v rkj 4g k/v \ Z s .x s s s s >c uIyky df yp kri ld kd henkv /v 2g k. . a s s s joæB df g. s .D kr hxkg uIyky e Fkg jkv g kj/v cl kr Syf je 4 X s s s s X . s X q s s s s \ s d j? lm udfy ]hF dhO hdlm kr rkc 4kxkg Cgu Nd hH cr ]kxkg tjwl s s s s q s e 'kdkv `kxkg k. s s s q \Sg k.D l ukg u jkv sukg uIyky e Fkg je3kgd ulm 4kF s T s \ Z s s s . s s X ss s dofkHko¬ df kl. dl r o w o h s o. . ]kgd yd ue3g joæB kt .k[nf uIyky hd Fkg je ]kg /v hH ikv k.D 2_ef je3kNi ulm 4kv s ss s s a ss w s g ukjg rgc go 4k. s a s ss krLi Cgu dG hH llb ]rkj k.x je joæB df yp kri q s s s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 21 egaP w cl kd rkc lb kukg jdDI 4h. \ q s s a m uekl d yhyn lb jkv `g ed k. . g unf jkv hyktm k.3kgd sukgüm 4Sg u htkj kd uuke go 4F dd√kr Lc hH xky . ji uy tk[ e ukd7ukd d uhet u jkv 4g k.

4g k. s rkc lb `g _' k.x >c uIyky df g r . a a s s s s s s `aSkt kg 'kjuf eg k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 31 egaP `kxkg kni ld lkoæof cr ]Skt jH l gnl l gjr lb eg nf. s s s s s s s kd . æn Bkd l kjhg u kjF®i 4g jhg hydu ]g Cgu jF®i ueæn d kjhg 4.gl e uoht d jln7dS `g gj uhN k. \ s X s 4krdl gj Cgu dr¬fku dr unf rgc kr kji7kji g dr¬fku jxv Bkd 4kxS q s w w .df Cgu xk. . s . `g Cgu T s X . a q dS henkv df g hrdl kg jc[ k. s kt kg dr¬fkv l kLhi hd krdr¬fku huiv unf dS kr dr¬fku 4kukjc? re s s \ s s X l kdr¬fku Syflb 4g k. \ s . 4g k>qc7k>c cl ]Cgu hH Nd kvg kryt jkv uoht 4g kne cl jrhH . s s .i kd rDf' lm hd gnl ulm 4g hrn kjxf kd joæB sO> kt s z sa s . jkv hldf suNi lb 4g k. q s s ukt kr kg hrjd kni klgV jkv /k∂ ]kg hrjd kni IgkjdI lki7lkv go j s s . `g hrdl kg nc Skupwl T s a a s llb k. g k. s s s w .yf jd lkoæof hH ulm . s . ]g kNwi s .x je Cgu k. 4g Cgu /cl Bkd kd ukg 'kjuf l uje d joæB 2Cgu s . q s . Z q sdlm 4Cgu xkv Bkd hd uoht ]g [kj jrhH dlm 4g kgj ht rfkH hd ∆ne s . xv jkv kusy [n kd hxntV huiv `Cgu df g k. s . jxv jkv 4g kupl hg. s s .t ]k. z B henkv 4g kryp kri jd[n kd henkv `g k. s s w s ]hF rDf' go hg gnl dfk. . w s s k. . s s s 4k.x II /cl jkgér jkv 4 Bx >c uIyky hd Fkg df kuy s s T w a a s q . s . g gj ht ` s s w T s s T s zs T \ T s g gj k. a s sa s .x uc cd hd joæ . g hxk. rcl kd ukt >c d uIyky g. g gj jd ei `4g gj Ly k. s s . s s s q \ l hd krdr¬fku güm dfk. w s .D `g Cgu rcl kd ukt je d joæB g.x je joæB jxv df g kNwi s s .x je jo’Zb k.yf Px joæB sO> uXkgütf ]g gj jd xky o kr_' hd j q X T s \ w s T s s s q oæB 4g Cgu joæB g rgd kt ]Cgu /kjof kd kxky um l joæB 4g ueæn d . w s q s s . s . .x je joæB df kxyef rwcl sl . w . g.x je joæB df kukt re sl .yf dkj Syf d k'eg ]Syf d ukt dr joæB pπl .D ]xdl kg Cgu dr¬fkv hHd o ]g dr¬fkv sO> kt X X s X s s T w s udfsy 4g hPhl kr krdr¬fku hxSkt sy e krdr¬fkv lm hg krdr¬fku hdlm .D kr g k. ld >e 4g Cgu rjWt Bkd hH kd hldf hd sukt jkv Cgd k. k. s ]g gj jd lkoæof xky jkl jkv l.x kg rîkel ]g gj r>el joæB eg s q s s s s T s s ltf ]joæB kOw> nf.D jkv jGf kr g Cgu kupl hH g.D ]kxdl kg Cgu ukerfx Gjr hd joæB pπl h sa X s s s H hHd henkv go ]k. dl r o w o h s o. T s s s X s s T q s X kjhg hylv ]jhg hydu 4g Cgu kræjf7krku Bkd kdum lum 4g hd Cgu hue s . w s q s s .x je joæB df g kyp kri .‘ue sukgüm 4g . q q q .yf jd lkoæof kd joæB Ow> ulm T s s s . \Sg k. s q .D . ]g jc[ . s s . utk[ lb 4sl s s . . .D 4g hgj kg jdDI l jln7dS hd cl eg jkv h. w .df Cgu gsnl ji kvk<jk/ ryfpi hd joæB l ue sji a X z s w hHd sultf 4g hrdl kv krdr¬fkv Bkd djd jki ltf ]Bg Cgu /çyim hPh .D jd e hxntV eg 4g rcl hg kd ukt >c d uIyky g. g gj sn T q T s X s s w T s T s kd jln7dS `g gj jd /k∂ k. s s s rkÛ d uoht g s.D jkv hLc llb 4g k.g hrd q s s X s X T s T q s X l kg W' tk[ hd joæB spπl kr kg k.m o c.

jfkcjn gcl hg gcl e jkcjn u ktkj dS q s X q q X s 4Skt kv e >el n. df g krdl Ni Te k.x je jo’Zb k. s \Sg k. s \ s fjfiv hH yD' hdlm 4F rLi eyke Cgu l Sg ukpgi _¬o dlm 4kxkg ky s s \ w s q s s s ko ugj kd 'n jn hldf go 4k. g krdl kt k.D ]g krjL l ujd gnl go Syflb 4kxkg kO sa .kyc kd k. . s w .H l gnl Syflb 4g krdl kt k.D kr g kdkj l sukt Gjr hd ukK d joæB ]Gjr hd q q s . s s s kt l gsnl 4kukg re rhH.ki kg Cgu de√k/ hHd go g krkt kg rhH. d gnl l . kdikv k.D ]g rjL l ujd gnl kt C w .iQ lhpπi7lhc hLxi \ s \ g.† l s. .kv kgo h_k. .él kt ]g hryef knil hd lko T s sa s s . s s s joæB kd .H hH s .ufo÷xi hd gnl df sa s s T q s a sa ku[j ukt ]Skv lkoæof lki dikv df ygi dlb Syflb 4g . . 4hrLi ewyke Cgu hd knk. X s X s s .≈kH jkv e uoht kd kxky Cgüm yod df g Cgu kri g. s s sa s > lkoæof kdlm ]g krjL l ujd gnl kt dfk.r kd ujtqx l e k{hji7u≈fv hd gsnl lkoæof kt 4g Cgu htkj kd sujtx . hcutv dS df kF krkt hg s s w a krjH jkcjn kdlm 4k. s s jd lkoæof df kg kr>el g. 2uk/okl3kgd e ukd d ktkj sulm `kxs. dl r o w o h s o. q X s X s Cgu hH Nd hjkti k. a \ wa w D 2Ffrfv3kNi u ktkj 4CF hxy thp jkndep jiM 4hF jknikN hxjcf7xj w s X s a a rgc go 4hF h.ø hyk'ojkx jkv hyk'kejfx Lc go udfy ]hF rp s w .®l hg o yod jkv g . a æof e .D `rukt q .g Bx hnhj[ l kgd jkv g hxge hurdf hLxi g. X s T s q q s s rm kr rkg hukKv o jxv 4g kjr[ kr hg. 4kxs.jfkti df kgd ue df g kNwi s q s X s qZ X a X q s T . s q s X l e k{hji7u≈fv hd gnl 4g kOw> lkoæof kdlm df kuy >el ]Cgu gsnal ]k sa . uf .m o c. X T \ jd p[ s>e k–e <o¬ jktg dS 4g hLxi hxge rgc g. 4g rukt Nd rgc hjkti ]Cgu s s s s . s T s . .D . s T s q q q `g hu T kKv ydycf so k. s s s X a s .df rjfk/kv kd uoht df ji utf ]g rkv Iky liko jd j[ .®lv kt g rkt et lkoæof e gnl lm ]g krj s s .df ukerfx ] a s s sa . X s T s s rkg dkykp ArokHo¬ jhto jkv 4kF kOc e yxc hd ktkj jhto 4g hLi hu .D ]kjd re gnal T q s s X sa X s s df g rk>el kd kxky jln xky syko lkoæof O> Syflb 4k. T s T s X sa .‘ue ]u krgfkjie/ ]su krLfi ]su k.x lkoæof df k T s s X s s w s sw .D `g kukt Cgu hH Nd sukgüm l ykl kjktg k.k' rkc hje llm kr gd hukgd hl7hIk X s s s wa s N dS 4g kjr[ hg e suukt dum ]g rukt Nd rgc o 4krkg Cgu kjr[ ku .df gnl df g krukt go dfk. s a . a q Sk–e Z<o¬ jktg g.nÔ zxel kt 4g hjWt huul sygi dlm ]k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 41 egaP 4g knkjb kd uIy kdlb 4g kgj krc .x h[n Cgu hHd e 'sn lm hL\xi hlo 4hF h[j ugi hLxi j q s X .®l hgo ]g jk s s s .3kgd u henkv lm Z q q Z .D X . hH kt Syflb 4sxSkt yt ]xdl gj Cgu kntV s s a s X ]g htxkd ydycf kt ]lkoæof dum e xkv hd gnl dfk.kuc jhto ukd güm kr Cgu ]g X s . \ a q s `. X . \ knuk' hLc dS sulm 4Sx gj hg r[n Gjr hdlm xsky d jkcjn jkl4kF kr \ s s s s kg eyke hu/ kd o®rDf. s s sa s X T s s s sa s gu xky o 4g rkg /çyim kd knil hd lkoæof xky hg o g rukt kt kujd s s T s s s a s s T s s 9ImkL Ibkj8 4g rukt kujd gnl l iW d.

x je jo’Zb k. X X q Z s \ s ]ji uhet lb g ktkj hg dS df g k.jfkted hdlm 4elm g k.kv Nhi s s X q Z .t u jhto 4F [n ktkj jkv jhto e kjkcjn rgc jkv F [sn j s s s s s .m o c.‘ue udfy s .D3kykc drxkou go ]k.\ T s s s q s .jfkted hd henkv ]g rukt Cgu kr kd joæB Qxe/ jkv rgfkji ]hjnki T s s s q Z . a s Z .jfkted Cgüm 4g kjr[ lum hg. T wa X s T . q s . s a . s k' kd ak. s X q Z kvQxe/ <"k' kjgx lcl udfsy 4g gj jd xky d gjr ldf7ldf eyke s s T s s s w u jkv g gj jd Qqxe/ ]g gj jd Krfhutkj <"k' kd k. s wa s X s q T a l rgc e `Mkt jkv Cgd e `g e tk[ e df hdltf g Cgu jkcjn go ] . df >el e jkv 4l jkcjn lb Mkt Iky e k. eku d nt¬fe jkv jnfe ]ji eku d e/ ]g kgj yp <"k' kd .jfkted hd .[flfku Bkd hH Ffrfv go 4k. .kv liko l kjkcjn . T s s X s k. 2_ q s s s Z z as s w ef3kgd e ukd d jhto su Ffrfv Sg Skv lm kr kxy uyp jhto ct 4kv X s q s s g ukjg rgc jhto 4ky nhj[ hL\xi jkv kn Sk–e <o¬ jktg kn3kgd u ktkj q .df u q X . s q s 4g o . .D . B s s s s s .D . kdlm s . `Mkt Iky e k. kd 4g jkneétf Syf dlm henkv dS7dS cl go ]g kgj kg Nd kt ji uhe s s . s T <"k' lb cl eg jkv 4g kryp <"k' g.D kt 4g krdl nhj[ e kvk–e <o¬ jktg dS kd hLxi kt a . . Bkd ]g gj kg iki hH kt ji uhet 4g hxl ]g hFkl e u[ s s T s s s T a T X s j Skuc kd <"k' lm eg kr g gj n ukg ji uiv kd <"k' lm eg jxv s s s T s s s s s s s udfy ]kg gj jd u kd <"k' lm eg df g krdl kg hH g. jkv g rukt kd .D 4g ktkj hg dS 4 wa T . s q 4g wa krukt k. s . T s Z T s s X s q 4g hxk. jkcjn g. Z X s s s l Nhi rgc 4e Lkn lm g . l k"o kjktg7kjktg jkv 4ji s . X X q . s jgp dlm ]kF kgj gd e ukd d ktkj kt ]kd jhto lm hH u Ffrfv lm s s s X s s s s \Sg k.jfkted hLc jkv g jkted rgc henkv s s X T a s \ . . 4g hxkHgl Xe s X s s s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 51 egaP /kjof d kvQxe/ go ]g rfhutkj kt hd kut7Nhi Syflb jkv g k. s X s . T s .x kgd > s \ s qe `Mkt Iky jGf e k.gl eg ]g gj sn T s T s Fkl uktuv7sukt eg 4krdl pc Cgu Bkd 4kxSkt pc go df pkl u g. s q 4g kgj yp <"k' kd k. dl r o w o h s o. s 7Nhi hHv Krfhutkj `g kgj jd k.‘ue . k. s ed Bkd ji uhet Syf dlm ]g krukt kd rDf' hd ke®keji kt3[j <je¬ s s .x kgd >qe 4g k. s s kcjn rgc hH ulm 4kF Cgu k. T s q a w s s kuiv hg l.kIg jn l ukd d ktkj gaqe a . . T .kv l Nhi rgc kr Krfhutkj hHv 4g k. s s X 4g kgj kg <" . s X s . Hlv <"k' Syf dlm ]g krukpgi kd ke®keji kt jkv hrkt gj Cgu hjkt a s s . s s ˜ X X .jfkted hd kvktkj e udfy ]g urdf ekn d hLxi df kg rukt e a s X T s T s s \ s s r 4l≈dV n Gkv lludho ku bkv Ic]ucI n Gkv lbki n xbku hc e . z g Ikel hg dS ji uhet hjkl kyko sunhj[ kd hLxi lb df kF k.D Qqxe/ df Bkv e >el rkc g.yf ukpgi sl q s . s q s t 4g Sg rIf? e hxkHgl dcl eg iki Sg ji uhet 4kxSkt pc lum go T q X s q s df >el u g. s s . s a q Z s s `g Cgu jkcjn go jkcjn g.

a a X X X s T . hn¥t Syflb ]g rhH. utkj e k.nf jd knof kd j w s \ s .u ]hHv7hHv ]g Krfhutkj kt kyNif Syflb X q s . kukn 4g kyeg kd kukn ji henkv hg dS `k. s df kusy >el re g.kv 4>el kd k. T s e/ jkv Mkt u je e df g krjL .r s s T a z s a a √e Bu ]. s henkv ukot Syfhlb 4g jev ke®kv df g krgkp kuy jd lkoæof g.®e ]e/ hHl Syflb ]g krjL l q. s .H l q. s s X s q a ldf jkv `hd . q hc d kukn ub 4g henkv jkted hgo ]g kuuc kd henkv hg dS jkd'f kd s X s . q s s X kjc? df g rjd ''fkd hd uk>el g. .H l q.ø ]hd henkv eg 4g rukt eg hH go ]g rdl kt . ugd e jkr¬of Nd lb `g kgj kg <"k' kd k.jfkted hd . .D 4n eüt kd kurp hik.®e henkv jg 4g rukt hjkted hd rDf q 1 Z . s \ z q s .‘ue 4g rjd <"k' ji ukei Lc kd Z .D . s . .nf kIg kd e/ l kd¥e Bd 4g e ''fkd hd sun kIg s a .x k. s . dl r o w o h s o. 4krgk T s s s s q Z s q p kuje Cgu Bkd df g kri kdcl 4g jev ke®kv df g k. .m o c.† leg ]ji uhet g Ceg s .u ]bx kg rifkF¬ kgo k.u7k. .®e kurm ]g h s . s . s s s y jd lkoæof ]ky uke df g hrkg hn¥t 4g krkt kg ohr ue e uy uke kd s .‘que kt ]g hg o xky de√k/ df g krgkp kujd unouf g. T s s 4g rgkp kupc cl eg 4kxpc kr e 4hxpc kr ke®kv 4kn T s wa s T s s s s ukt kyp ]kxSkt kyp jhj' 4Cgu ∂Gf Bkd kr g jev ke®kv df g rk>el s s .jfkted g k. s z X s s s krjev hd ke®kv kd henkv jkv g krkv chjd hH . . rkv chjd hurtf rke 4g krkg de√k/ knk.x k. s 1 T s s .u gxt hdum 4g k. \ X \Sg k.H l . a T . s 4g Sg Skxy [kv j T q a i Rfil hd henkv hg dS jkp kn 4g Cgu <jkd jkv Bkd kdlm 4g hL[ e a s .®e jkv 4g jev ydycf ke®kv ]Cgu hg krje Bkd3kg k.ufn g.kv g rukt k. q a s T X s s X /kjof d k<"k' gj yp e k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 61 egaP kn g. s . s X s <"k' kd henkv udfy 4g s. 4g /cl e krkc kukn ub 4g Cgu Cgd jkv ji uhet hH xky yko u s .nf jd Wq' kuPx joæB .yf jd lkoæof Xe s .éd go gkp ]g rfh s .‘ue k.† henkv kPc ]g krkg de√k/ ed .‘ue lm rfkH s X q s . s s s 1 kd kt Syfhlb jkv jrhH jkeg g hjkted hg. s . q T s s s . ikv kr g jev ke®kv df g rjd lkoæof eg kt g.‘ue lm j.ufn hjkl kt ]k.jfkte s s X s s X X s q X s X s d hd . . s koæof hd ke®kv hg hurm ekd go ]g hrkg hyko ujd .®e ikv ]Cgu 4g jev ke®kv df g kri kdikv T s 1 . .df nc <"k' su dS 4g jkjdjc hjkted hd henkv dfk.D ]kxgj hjkt a s . s oæB l jnfe 4g k. q s s s s s .®e hurtf e .H kd .D sr s q 1 . 4krgkp Cgu kuje hH Bkd 4k .jfkted hd .nf eg uHkyi k.jfkted huiv cl eg 4g Cgu rkc hd s s T s a s . q 1 .D7k. s \ . s Z s X q T X s s kd e/ Krfhutkj jkv 4g Bx kg Pkxi rgc hHv udfy ]g hukji jdDI p s Z . s .x je jo’Zb k. likv Te s T s s wa s s 4kxn jd W' kd <"k' lm kjlwn k s q s s s r k.D T s T s s X s z Syf d hjkted lm j.‘u . s q e rhH. s X q Z um ]kg jkv Nd go gkp ]kg e†lfkG go gkp ]kg e†ufw.D 4g l kvQxe/ jdDI hd cl X s X . . s X s . s .øoæof dS e . rgfkji7e/ hHl d k. s . s s s jd krjev hd ke®kv `kxkg krjL ukd l rke knk. s w\ . s T 4g hrkg hlkoæof hd krjev ]g hrkg hl . .x uc kgo ukerfi s.

. s q s w s a t IN cl ]g krxy cr 4g hrkv chjd rke ]g hrkv k.H l joæB `xkjL ld sl s s s s s s s s s .H kt dfk. jkv g kekt k.H jkeg udfsy 4krn Cgu uukt hH Nd kr j.kyt u eg e xkv Cgd 4g Sg jL cl eg ]g jL kd rke k X X X T q s . s . s t g. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 71 egaP X elm kr kIyi kkËi kjln sue `kxgkp kugj Cgu ukd `g ji kgd gxt hlß s w T s . s X s s . X s s . s s . . 4g <"k' kd k.krl eg Cgd ]Skt kdl u e kgkLd ryt T q s X s X X \ s eg Cgd ]Skt k.jfkted ] w .ø l . s \ tV 4g krkg ewyke .Gf ` s s s s q s xukt ld kd ke®keji `sxjd ei ld kd ke®keji `xjd ei ld xky rhH s X s . s .H df g kgj kt k. 4g Cgu xyv7xyv rkc ku s s s X X s s T X X \Sg k.®e x . s .k[lf . rgfkjie/ ]sxkjL ld l hjkti kr sxkjL Cgu l joæB jxv dfk. T a a s srkg ewyke Cgu uiv _ef krkg eyke Cgu kuiv kdLy ]hrkg eyke Cgu hui s s s w \ s w v hu®i ct ]g rkv <{ 4krkg ewyke Cgu hFkl7hxl Bkd 4g hydv hLc hxn T s s a s . s s Z lb 4g krdl kt k. 4g r{fjlv henkv df kd . .H ]g krdl jd ei yod hgo ]g Rpf kdltf e lulyj. dl r o w o h s o. s X zs s .Gf ]g .H hg urtf kvkt kg rhH. s q s s s X X s jL l joæB8 9xjV.D `k.df <"k' kd hjkted lb cr jkv kit eku kdlm 4g Fkl .H kd d T s X s z s Z . d jkv g krkv lki rgfkji cr 4krkg eyke Cgu kuiv Bkd Rfil7u/ 2kxSk .D kjkglc g rgd o 4g rjd tjx s s X s T s s T s s f jkv jnfe ]g rjd rgfkji ]rLfi 4g krjd e/ <"k' kd hjkted lm 4g .Dlf8 hdlm g.D jkv 4kekF Fkg s T s s X .Hv kt .nf txkd >e jdky u kygfe dS 4kF kryduf e l gxt dS s s q s T s 4g rgfkjrf cl eg e uHkyi d xo¬ 4g kvg kL[ .k>el eg ]g s s s . Bkd Cgd 4g ykLkokL hxntV ]hrkg eyke Cgu k{jl Bkd Cgd 4hd gjr cl s . s s X zs s . q X s s 4ky ekF Fkg kd ukoxH er 4g no kdum go 4g srjd hykyn hdum s q . T X 1 s \ s \ X s X X a jkue df kgt ]g rgkp kugj e syxc sNπv rgc ikv k.D ]kxyef Cgu s a a s s zs . q s s q 1 s X s s T w pkl kr 4g ygi kn d dDlf hg dS rkc kukn . . . s T o Syfhlb ]g F¬.x je jo’Zb k. q \ ju 4g Sg jL cl eg 4Skt u k.df <"k' kd .Gf Lkx8 4kvkt kg rhH. s q s jkgér kr go 4kit eku kdlm ]g hFkl ke®keji 4re kvkjc? 2_ef ]g krg s .jfkted hjkl hjkeg ]g <"k' cl g.H 4e ydv g kvg k. a df kvg ukjg e 4kg {o jknk. s .kjc? 4g kvg kjL e ydv henkv . s .H hg l uipc ji eku d e/ Syf s s . q .D . hjkted dS kukg kjkglc kd henkv 4g kjkglc henkv 4g kryef Cgu kjkgl s s s . s a s w q s 4g 9hIjfk. 4kvkt kg rhH. .m o c. X . T s s T s s X g rhH.jfkehc ]k.Hv 4g krdl kt k.D 9]k s qZ s s . kr g rsy jd ikv ]ikt kd ke®keji kt g s s s T s s . s s . a T s s q a . s kd ukoxH 4ky kjkgl kd ukoxH `kg k. Z s s . s .H ikv 4g gj jd ikt ikv Syfhlb ]g k. kgj kt k. s 4g k .H dlm ]skd . zs q l ke®keji df kuy >el re g. s X s . .D df kF kvg k[yf s a T s X a q q jiM dlm 4k. s s s H ]l thp jg kjL df g krkt k.df <"k' hg .x kg kni kdikv ei rgc T T s . s kurm ]sxkvkt kg rhH. rdl kg Cgu /cl Bkd hHd l ei kdlm g rhH.kN Lc7Lc ]kg uj> e lki ]kg hrgc Skog e q .df <"k' kd rDf. s X s Fkl Bkd klß jkv g gj tk[ Fkl kd ke®keji Syfhlb g ydv e hxntV ] s .÷e o phc d suekF Fkg kd ukoxH dfk. zs s .

q e hjkeg 4g <"k' kdlm ]g .jfkted hdlm df u ]xy e ujd r s X s s X s X X s De l k. kvkP\p li l LkF ]kvkt e jnfe df g r¬l rgc `g s z s s .ø u [n Bkd kgt `kd s .H kjkeg 4g <"sk' kdlm ]g uHkyi kjkeg kt 1 . . kt ]kxkg >elku ukd ]kxkg yxki ukd `g r¬l urdf ]kn jd ukn . s s 4g e dju ukF¬ kdum ]xjd l . 4g rukt llsudho uew. ]jkpof ]kr_ro¬ ]Hkyv . jkv 4.® T s s s T s q q q . T s s s s s 0c ]d jhokge ]d neégke ]g sxy hH sNhi d <‘Î ]g xy hH Nhi d ekj q s s s T s T s s s 4Cgu klß ]g rrjd g. g k. q T s s kt kvg ukjg rgc e 4ky jd jkdho¬ kd I¬bk∂ llht jGf3kF k[yf Nhi s q .ufn l kxky ub 4Cgu xky yko ujd s s q s X s s s s u'otjf kuiv e xo¬ jdkuc jnfe .jfkted hdlm df g Cgu kri kd rkc lb dr cv kd henkv jkv X s .®g e rgf s s X s q . s s ov kd joæB lub 4hrkg Cgu de√k/ k. udfsy 4g lk.ø dum ''fkd hdum 4g rpæfuf g.Hv kd . s .ufqn q s X s s s Z s X 4g kgj kg <"k' kurdf jkv g kvg <"k' kur . z s s . s s q s hH.‘que 4n uyp <"k' kd k. s q z s X hg dlm eg kr kg hujd k. . s .H Sg jL . s .ufn de√k/ dS xky lß 4dl kg kL[ q s s X q q s s s s \ gk–of dS ]rokxc dS jrhH dlm ]e /kjof d <"k' jg go dfkr ]dl s s X s s s s kg kL[ uoht <iojkx dS ]kurp ]urpV ]kejfx dS jrhH dlm dfkr ]g u s \ Z w .m o c. dl r o w o h s o. q q s X s r¬el Sgfkp Syf dlm 4g joæB kpπl df kt ]krdl kg Cgu ji uhet <jr s . z s s . . . ]Cgu xky Sg xy e ''fkd hd up ∆ X Z a s s q s X s s c l dju s. . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 81 egaP uiv kd krgfkji jxv jkv 4Sgfkp kun jd W' jkpi kd ujd k. T s s s kx kd <‰kc dS k. q s s hdlm kd .‘que ct kxkg hHr eüt kd e/ pπl e k.jfkted hdlm ]kd .kN ]jkudf d kuj> ]ukde Nπv s . s z s `kxSkt dp kd w ke g. q s df kd k.‘que 4g kujd rDe l hjkted a s s . 4Cgu xky r s s\ q s. s s a s q s a ugj e k.jfkted . s s . s s \ hGlkyGf hNπv hldf kr kg kujd ekd kjc Bkd eg ct 4Sgfkp uy jd n s s q s X s s k.nf sukg Cgu u kvQqxe/ jkv krgfkji g. w T s .D . X s X koæof Cgu kt jkv sxyef phu d k{o jknk. jku sNπv kr kg rgkp kujd ekd ryx Bkd hH ct eg df hg kxkg rkK s s X s s s kdikv kr g.i d sukpc kd n[ 4g Cgu lk. s s X Z . ]Cgu xky Sg rjd aSkuFki hd ujd dhO hjkehc ]Sg rxke p s s q s Z z s q s a s πc Gjr hd 'kdkv Lkt Fkg ]Sg Oc ji uhet jddI uI? s. X s q . 4n sukg u hH xkv df g Sg xy e ''fkd o jkv X s s T q s X s s . s . s s s\ s X a T s q T sr¬l urdf jkv 4kg krkv u I‘d Bkd kgt ]kg krik. hg hdum ]g sxy kt ukr' Nhi d I¬bk∂ llht g. q T s s s \Sg k.ufn hyko kvkog hLO7hLO kxSkt kg Cgu ue kdldf 4kd ujd <"k s X q X a a s s s s ' kd hjkted hd henkv g gj jd nktB o jkv 4g xy Nhi dcl ]Nhi d s T s s .Ô ]g rukt Nd rgc hjkti 4g <"k' kdlm ]g .x je jo’Zb k. X X s s s ho¬ kd I¬bk∂ llht kt kvg ukjg rgc e 4ky jd jkdho¬ kd I¬bk∂ llht s s q .‘ue rDe l k.i jkl dum 4g <ki kd . X s s X 1 s s X s 7Nπv kdlm 4g e 9Lkx Gkv eLxdV8 go e Hky d ke®keji kxy jd jkd s s . s s .®g hd hldf eg ct jkv 4Sgfkp huy y Lkv hd s X s s X . s s T s s n cl g. 4sxuc rkvQ' hd k.klo.i d ukpc sl ke® s s T z s s q T z s s keji lk.

. s ji g. .klo.D .rfF¬f hd suuke u jkv `g rkg k.kuc Cgu ukF¬ Syf d ke®keji jkv kxgj hjkt .D s s X T X jL kurb k. X 8 4Cgu kri hH Nd `g hgj yp k. .kOm kn. cyre kdlm `g k. s . kd lIîlDS uku ]kuuke u `g cyre k.m o c. s s .i yk. s 4kxpc Cgu e/ kr kxpc rgfkjqi s Z s s s 4g krdl pc rgfkji kr Skt hn .[ g.D `g hrkt k. s .D cyre q s T . T 4g kgj yp kn. jkv T s q a .D eg kr sxaSkt IN ydv eg jGf kr cr 4uke u s s w s s s X s kd nç' 4Xuke u kd _¬k' df kgd ue df g kNi 4rkc hl7rgc jkv g hNwi s s T . s s s wa T s s c gkp ]kg rgd jhokge gkp ]g kd jgkc kt 4kjgO Syflb 4g Cgd jrhH sj q X X s s . . X . q .D go g kgj yp uoht kt d X . kd kvQqxe/ e kunf yko ukv ji uhet kr k. s a S hH e rfF¬f hd <{ dS d uuke u 4hxSkt kg rfk∂ dS hH e rfF¬f hd X s s s a X <{ dS jxv kd uuke u df krkv Cgu hHd e yk. 4g rukt eg df g krkt kg kn. `g k.† ]rDe knk. q . . s . T s s X s s s w s s `xXuke k. 4g Cgu jnkuv kd ukK d jgkc g. Z .klo. ]g k. a X s T . T s .ø kuk s s .D kd uuke u 4g hrdl kg rfk∂ d X s . s [ eg kr g hrkt kg hØdb Skupl hl7rgc ]u'ejkGub hl7rgc ]g hrkt skg X s T s a w q s Œ q T eyke eg rkc hl7rgc ct 4g kuI? hd tkj ydycf kukt kg kni eH kd w X X q . s X ukgüm kdlb jkv g rukt hjkted hd dr sukd hj[fkv d henkv o 4g hjg .®l l Rpf _ro¬ knk. k.kG g.kG . jG s a q . q . e df aMk s a .'fkg hdum ]hdkykp hdum 4g rukt Nd rgc rgfkji `g rukt \ s T s q q s q T s Cgu hH Nd rgfkji k. dl r o w o h s o. .klo.D lkoæ df Cgu kri hH g. q s .ø X s s X s T s \Sg k. X s d güm 4Sgfkp hujd k<"k? hd sukpc kd ke®keji güm kr g ukpc . w s X s a X s . v jkpof kd jgkc df kg u klß Cgd 4Skt dQ jgkc jkpof go 4Skt jgO g s o df kgd llm ]g kgj gd l jgkc kt hH Bkd3g kgj gd e ]Bkd gkp ]0 s s . . kxdl kt k.D 4g Cgu htkj kd ujd jkdho¬ k s wa T X wa s s s d ukK hH hldf Sg Skv l jgkc e df g g.ø g. 4g k/hl i¥dof uekl q X Z X X s s s . s f g Cgu hH kri 4hxSkt kg . 4g ukK hH je jrhH df Mkt yH g. s s wa e kt ]g krgkp kutk[ lm e 4g krOm l k<ki d k<ki kt ]g krgkp kuki s s T . X s . s a f k. s X z s X z s wa s kd ukK lm e df kd htk[ g unsouf kurb Glf 4g Cgu jnkuv kd <kji7kr T s . ss a w T t kg nd rfkH lb e jkpof d jgkc e jkv y j? kd Rpf jkl je jkv Sk s .D `g h q .D rhH.î kd ukK lm e df Syflb `k. gj yp k.®Lfki 4g kvg g.D lkoæ df g Cgu kri hH g.x je jo’Zb k.† dS eg jkv kxkg nc .[ g. q . x hLc hjk. qd ]g rukt Cgu hH Nd eg kgt ]g kvg kOc ukK jrhH kt ]yk. z ukK kd .kv l jrhH df a T s s kt g klk. s s s s ss .D df g kNi dhO Syflb 4xdl kg u≈yl e tk[ hd q s q . s 4kxWgO e Syflb ]kg k. .D 4g Cgu kri hH Nd 4g kjgx rgc ukKv 4g kjgx 9ljsku≈b . s q s . . w X q . `g k. . q hx 4g Cgu jkd¬jrf kd ukK d jgkc g.H urb l uIN ydv a .®e ld ]g kvg eüt ld df g kri Cgu hH N . s q s kyG rkc g. s q 1 s . jxv ]g e jr[ ke®keji 4g e jr[ ke®keji df Sgfkp kug . T s s s s s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 91 egaP dikv g kri k.

\ s a s a Cgu uNi l hldf ikv jGf 4sxaSkt kg jgkc hg r[n kd xkv ]ikv jkv kx s w s s s s s . X s .¥Ff' Bkd df g rki Cgu hH X . s 4kd ukKv jgx lb g rkt yH e eH jkv e k. X. s s T s s s s T s hukK jd Ldi kd ukK kt g Cgu so jkn>el Syflb 4ukKv yod e Fkl k \ s s T s X xSkt gj jkv hxy uhN kd ukK jkl lm rke ]hxSkt kg rfF¬f dkujr[ g. s Z s kni ld ukK kje 4g krdl Lkr kd ukKv je hg ukK kje `g krdl Lkr sl . ]g hxy xkv kgd df kg kgj k>el j s q . s\ d kd ukKv je ukK kd kjln 4g kd kjln ukK 4g kje ukKv3S[fj <je¬ .ke kr cl g.yf jd jkdho¬ 4Wd . hrjd Ui®m ikr jkv kLhi Id®m knk. X s X z a a z s uf jgkc d ukK cl kr g e ukKv ydycf e df Skt kv yk.D eum df Ski Cgu hH [n eg kdutf jkv X .D e cv df xN s s a T s X i ikv k.H knk.D kr Mkt jgO e ukKv uiv j s . X . s X s s 4krky Cgu jgkc Qx Bkd 4g hrkv y jgkc klîhHv ]k{kdkv hgo ]g q s . z s . `Sgfkp kujd k. X s . . s ss X w . s X kv xykduf _¬k' Bkd jdyk[ k.bk>l xke kpπl >qe kr cv 2onQx g d s s s q Z s s s q s f xgd jkv sxOc e k<jp dlm jkv sxjd 'kyr hd Qx hldf e uoH lm s X . s\ s ss s .kN hd ukK jkv g ry jd s s T s w X z . s a . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 02 egaP r ekj7ekj kr er 4g k. X w . w s s a X s kv Wd u jkdho¬ e jxv 4hxSkt kg nc hg tk[ kr k. jkv 4g s s wa X q T . \ z s s kg hxy xkv go kr Skt kg uZ'n kji kd ukKv 4hxkg rIf? rfk∂ dS Xe uo s s s w s a ht l uZ'n d .D kr Gjr kjkp kg hxy xkv ct df xjd jkpof j s X s s X . ]g kje ukKv 2kjgO df g rgd kd ukK d jgkc kt ]g rkt skg s . s T s <{ dS ikv 4g hrkt kg rOfxl ktM roht hjkl hdikv 4g hrn jd kØdb .† hH l u .[ kdikv n. a T s a s s a u jkdho¬ kd ukK jk/m jkv Skji e df g g. s s \Sg k. hrkt kg kni e <d7<d d k<ki ]k{kdkv ]klîhHv ryo† ohr dS ]hd uyd s . . s a Z a T s kd Xk<ki jkl dikv ]g hxy xkv df kuLi Bk[nf kdikv 4Wd k.† ]ohr knk.ƒr kji kdlm jkv kg hxy xkv s s s \ w .ƒr lm kr Skt Li Bk[nf .m o c. s .† ]duk. s . .D `aWd k. s . kri kdikv jkv kg jrhH d ukde ikv jkv kg hxy xkv e ukde dS jxv s .D . X q X ikv k. T s s kØdb ukK eg hH jGf udfy ]g rpfjfiv hH lkoæ dS7dS `kd hldf `k s . X s s . s 4kxdl Lkr kd ukKv je hgo ]kxkg ukK kje unf ltf 4g k. X X s .[ g. T . dl r o w o h s o. s f df g rki ikv e <{ dS 4Cgu hr¬l Bkd ]Cgu nkei Bkd df g rki ikv T s X q s z s T s e <{ dS 4g k–uf Bkd ]g .D kr Xxy uLi Bk[nf kdikv Iiy ]g hxy xkv jgkc df Skt xy w s s \ s X . kr r' hygi hdlm `kxkg s .x je jo’Zb k.D kr kg hxy xkv ct df . s s s . .jfkeykv ikv k. s `jd k.k' jd yduf jgkc 4g srkt yduf jgkc ]g rtk[ x s T T s s Z ke e kIiy 4Zxke l hldf Cgu rNi ikv jkv g rxkt kurp ]g rpl jkpo X X s s w .D eg 4g k[yf k.kji s s\ s ss s s . a s dOc eg Bkd jkv kg hxy xkv e j? 4Skt jrm >kc kd ukKv jxv udfy .¬ykv Bkd ]g .D df xSkt s z s s . kr ukK g. gj jdyt Cgo _¬k' go 4xgj jrhH d ukde hlm hH onQx ]Cgu `Sgfkp k s s X s s q ujd k. s X 4Cgu 4xSkt s a gj hg hukKv eg kr jGf ]g kNi `kxkg k. s . s . Ski Cgu ky eg kdutf ]g Sx gj jrhH _¬k' ]g Sx gj jrhH onQx df S s T T s q kt kv yk.

ki u nhjG .x go 4d ukt Pp g s s q . .nf uOm u kd jlf dlm 4hn kcn phu d huki unx hdlm u nhjG ] s s s s s Z s Bkxy hdcL e huki u lkKtf lm hg lt jkv jrm ujd uku¬ kukn 4k.x je jo’Zb k. w 4g kgj Om jiM l rdkr hji henkv kyko uOm go jkv . 4g Cgu hg hxy kr xkv 2g hxy xkv s s X s s . Pp dul kd kxky Bd 4kd ujd uZ'n d joæB g krkt kg kni jrGf kd kxk \ s X s s s . dl r o w o h s o. q q . s .x Li e ydæfe lkKtf 4kF henkv kLxr n s s z s \ X q q \ hjG 4k. q g hg. s z . s . s i luj.d e d .x kv lki d yxki ldf e `hF rkc kgd elb hd u>el 4F ry s. a .D e jk/ hd hnu s . s w s . a X q .î go 4g rpæfuf rîfkzi kr l lk. . T s s a a .sov dS ]g krky tk[ dS ]g krky rfxkt dS ]/kc kd ukK d n[ . . T s a z s s T f g krkg kni /kc kd krohr dS jkv g hrkg kni krohr dS jkv g hrkg kn . s s a s a z s H sd rDf. s s X s 4kg cy s re Bkd g krdl kg ]g rkc hd kjhdG udfy `kxSkrc k. s . s . 4hxkg rîkel hg jdy eg xkv 4kxSkt kg oHlv kuyduf jgkc jWt s s X s a jGf kr xgj rpkl sOc kgo eg hg. s q X 4g kgj kg hg. s\ wa X s ke df g krdl kg hH g.x go q X s q s . s X . g Bx Li ed rDo d sukcn ]rdkr hd n[ ]rdkr hdlm df k.x kv gxt ryx e df kF kvg hHr >e kr d' 4kxn krc hg Xe s T q s q s wa jk/ hd hnu kr kxy kdke df kgd uikv ct ]kF kvg hHr >e kr d' `k s .yf <kzi s T a X s s s s ss s s s je ]F ry s. s . s . . q krgj e L\ik> dS ]jkudf d hnu dS 4nhjG kF eku kdum 4kF jhdG dS X s s s s 4kxSkt jd <e∂rfv kdlm ]kxSkt jd jki kd lk. s \Sg k. 1 s s q 4k rky Cgu rf1xkt ]g krky k–uf 4g Cgu krxkt ]g krn kyl eg ukK kd jk/m . s . s .kcn ]kF krkt kyp . . w s X s y Bd 4g ujd uZ'n d joæB s>e3kgd sulm jkv k. s s uku¬ kLkF 4kvkv hH er ]g krkt sujd uku¬ e hnu e kr hHv3kgd u nhjG s\ s q wa X T s s 4g T ujd uZ'n d joæB s>e df kgd jkv lki d nhjG k.ø ltf jkv g rkt skg u≈yl <ki jkl 4aMkt yduf jgkc l. \ s q s e jn hLkF udfy 4kF krkt kyp .yf hg <ki kr ikv 4k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 12 egaP s s y . e uoht ]g kv . jkv kxMkrc gér jdOc ji jkudf jGf 4ky jd .D .kcn nhjG udfy ]k X s s\ s s s s xy ujd kI‘sp l <i<ki jkl 4k. s s s \ T <jkd Bd 4hxkg Bx Pp hH kd henkv lm 4hd ujd u'n d joæB g hrkt s \ s s Z s . . z .kv yduf jiM henkv go jdkOm kd q ss w s s s nhjG udfy ]kF henkv jkted jkv kyri7kycn lkKtf jkv kF rcte nhjG s s . kgd df g gj pkl e ue jkv g gj it ekj7ekj djd nc [kv eg jkv ki a T s s X . s q s q s .D df kgd u henkv lm kr s s s `>el s Nd 2_ef je3kNi llm u nhjG 4k.î hldf Skt kg u≈yl <ki jkl jrh s . X s X df kvg ukjg kLkF henkv go 4kxn krc hH e jk/ hd hnu kr Skt xy kd q .yf ukt hje ikv `kr>el dk[ k.m o c.kv gcl henkv dS 4kF T s s q .kv kyp Fkl dikv kr kF krdl Cgu hH kt end z s s s S udfy ]k.

kv g j . 4Wd e g. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 22 egaP 4kn uk. s ukK 4g krkg /çyim ukK kr e lk. s s . w q ki e klîhHv jkv e lk.[ g s o kr .î dfk.D ]g krkg Cgu /çyim l jgkc Syfhlb ukK 4g rfHuv Bx B X .x Li e Idl <ki jkl ct jkv 4kgj dr jn hLkF hH go3kgd ulm s s \ X a z s . X X z . T s s s 4g rîfr hdlm e ukt kg Ødb hg d lk.î unf ltf jgx hg urm ]xkcL e ukKv sjgx s s w X s s s s w X hg surb e tk[ hd joæB unf ltf3kgd u nhjG X s s 4k.D . T s s \ s .î hldf g rkt kg Ødb <ki jkl ct ]LI . df kF Cgu 9k.î ]g hrkt kg nc tk[ ]g rkt kg nc jk} kr z . X X z s s Cgu hH Nd g.[ hg dS ]kF Cgu j a kpof Bkd `kg rjd dkte k.m o c.kcn s>r sue jrhH ct `Ni ler e rkc dS3kgd u nhjG s s q T aw w s q T s `krjd u' Z n ukd 4F rkt Sg rîkel <ki hg uiv 4jn gj kr u'n d ke®keji 4gj sr .î7[H xel hd k<kzi g kryef ukK 2ukK g kryef Cgu l k_¬k' zs a s w z X . s s\ s `kgj yk. . s s X T s s s z s s xhIb ]l lk. s s q s s Bx jd jki kd Okl em hd krif dlm 4kF kOc lki d krif uiv do. 1 X s s s s .x k[hl l _¬k' X . s s q 4g kvg hg klß Xe . rhH lk.î hd k<ki d¥fc ]g Cgu e∂im k.x Ief hH yk. 4kF .î hd k<ki kt .x je jo’Zb k. s s s b <ki ]g hrkt kg yFf'f lk. kd unf hg Nd e df g krdl kg df kgd kd do. s .î g.ki u T s \ s s T s q s T q e ]Bg hØdb rDf' hjkl hje hg l.[ Bkd kdlb 4kF kgj kg g. e rv gér e kr 4k[n rjd xl®l hHd u ]k[n rPi dr¬i q wa X a X q T s s s a s s \ q hd e/ hHd u ]k[sn rkt jnfe hHd kr u gér ue udfy 4Mkg jkv ukegse Z s a s X q s T s a s .Lf. .î Bkd jrhH j.î lm ]g lk. X z s go 4hxkg hgj hd jgkc hH lk. dl r o w o h s o.[ go dr jn hurdf df kNi u nhjG s w s 4Skt yef kog ]lkl dS gjr ldf df kF yk. lm u krif dlm 4hF q T . q ykxc 4krki skg Cgu yg ]g rht ]g rkjgkn nç' jd7jd <je¬ 4g rdIH e a T s T s s T s g e sukg Ic L[7L[ lb e krycn lb e kryFf'f lb jkv rki kg Cgu Ød X s sa a a X Z q X .[ Bkd s s s s kdlb 4kF u≈yl <d dS7dS 4F u≈yl <ki jkl 4l jrhH ]kF kgj Om jiM a s a z s s Nd 4kF Cgu jkpof Bkd ]kF Cgu yk.kv8 Bkd kdlb ]kF Cgu jkpo q a T s f Bkd kdlb 4kF Cgu yk.x kv jiM e ]sxy uLi yhP Fkg dikv 4g jkted rgc ikv df k. s X 4g krkt kg W' ke®keji jkv kg rkt Ief er kgt ]kd kehl lm kg Sx .D3kgd ulm kr `F e ue jkgér jkpof urd s s s s s s X s q s f7urdf kr kF k. s s q z s w s s Z s s \Sg k.[ Bkd 4hF hgj kOm jiM kt ]hF k<j q s s s zs w i >cv7huktuv dS ]lc 4kgj u hH Bkd yk.t jkv hF Bx kg hØdb rDf' hjkl hjse c s s . df ky ukt ]kg hrkt >c kt l huki d s s s q s s s jgkc jkv 4hxdl >c Cgu l huki hldf d jgkc lk. s s q a s s jd jki er 4Sx jd <e∂rfv er df sxkvki eqr 4hxSki Cgu dkj gér rd q q s s X q kr Bkd unf lm ]sxkcL e lk. s t jkv 4kF kgj Om jiM jkv kF k.[ jGf 4k.x xt e k<ki Bkd 4kF kgj kg g.÷ Nd hH Gjr lm e s q r df gd g. s q s s s . s a s T s s a s g sry Ldi ct jkv g ry Ldi kdlm jkv g rtk[ 9ukK8 jgkc eg udfy T s \ . s q . 4kF Cgu yk. dS s z s .

Pfhl kt ]g hgo kyko sukuqxux dfk. go a q s wa s s T q s s s s q g krpkl dr kgt kr e3kgd jGf ulm `l uk. q s q \Sg k.÷ Nd3kgd u do. v ]hg kukt kg kØdb kji kdikv df g g. ykol 4g kd yko ukuxux ykol 4g hH jrhH d k. s . ' >e jkv 4g rn e k. s s . X ti hdikv u jkv kyduf Fv Bkd e kvkuFki hdikv kr u udfy ]g kr[sn w .† l ukx he¥Gf . g rPi k.D ]kxWd <je¬ jkc hg dS udfy ]kxWd s X a s a <je¬ hH e hHd df kgd sxkv u dL\y lm 4e uk.D l ujd jkc hjlhr jkv kxgj hg e kr kyko ujd <je¬ dfk. T \ .kG s w s s s k. SPfi _¬k'dkd k.x jnfe g s\ X a .x Cgu jnfe hHd 4kF dr¬fku kd jH h s a . s \ s jkc dS 4kxMkt jnfe jkc dS 4kxWd jkc dS `kxkg k. Z s X X Z z s s wa hH jiM l k"o lhr 4kdikv j/b g kr[n e df l krif uiv kgd sulm kr s ˜ s wa s T s s s 4g rkc hylv ikv dfk. s \ Z u dr cr jnfe kdLy kdum jkv F rofht o kr Sg d "o hl¬v Bkd krif a \ . T s s X q T s s X a q T s fe ikv gcl tkj 4g kr[n tkj e Sg rn kdikv kr uk. ko ukg Nd dr cr ]kxMkg kL[ kj/v dr ct 4dl skg kL[ kji kd ji e s s q a s \ w wa \ w sw T unf ltf ]hd unf lm e g e k{hri udfsy ]g kukg kL[ ji jk} d ke®keji T wa X z .÷ "s' 4g rn e jnfe uk. s . a xntV go 4Sx kg ukjg xky jkl 4g kgj kt Gjr hd jnfe gcl7gcl go df s .Pfhl hgo 4kF jgkc d k . q X s s s ¥e kdum udfsy ]kg krkx hg utH jrhH d jnfe g krdl kg `g krdl kx w s s a . a s X s z X a T s . Z . klt ikv jnfe go ]xjd 'oi ikv e jnfe ltf 4g ikv lt hxSkt kg hg . d s . s . ld utH e jnfe go ]kg krkuqxuqx ukx he¥Gf ji k. .D kd sujd <je¬ jkc kn dfk. s kr hgo 4kukt kg kØdb ]Cgu kvg kII ]Cgu LIzsxIfblLf 2Cgu L[7L[ ]kukt s s q w s a a a kg xel kd k<ki jkl dikv ]kukt kg Iqt dS kdikv ]kukt kg kØdb kji kd s z X z s s s s w ikv 4jgkc Cgu g ke®keji Bkd kr jkv 4g /çfyim hd ke®keji Gjr hdik . a . T ikv 4g Cgu ykol g.m o c.D sl <je¬ jkc hjln kr kxkg Cgu l <je¬ jkc dS jxv `kn. X a sa s X q sa s s . \ s . T s \ .÷ Nd 2g rkt jn s q . 4g Cgu ky . d gkp k.D ikv 4g krkuxux k. . l gj ld e jnfe I? dS go ]kg krgj e k. uk.÷ Nd df hg. s \ . dl r o w o h s o. ]g k. .x Cg s s X s .ki sl wa s a s T s s q . a q q k[n u kxky um unf dS jkv kF k. s a o udfy 4kF kgj kt jnfe jkv kF k.D l ujd jkc jkt a a a s s s g `kxkg k.x je jo’Zb k.Pfhl hd jnfe kt jkv X a s s X \ a s .¬gj Lc jkv s w . s X \ s X .D . `g krd .D ]krdl kg Cgu knk.D q s \ s \ s s . a X \ .x kg hH kdLy kd "o Okl 4kF k. SPfi _¬k'7no gkp ikv 4g ykol g. X . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 32 egaP jdLkt Fkg go e jnfe jkv 4l jnfe kIky Cgu liko jGf kr k.÷ hldf dikv u jkv e k T s s X s . s s q q . rkc hd nukv jkv . s s s q s Z s 4g kgj kg go jkv g kuy ukt kdikv .D go df g Cgu g. wa T s s X `kxkg k.÷ Nd `g krdl kt k. s a .ufn I? lBr kt df g g.ufn uk. lm q T s X .D s s s . q q .÷ Nd hH ke®keji `ikv g rjd rkc hld `uk. s s .D ]kxkg T X s klt ikv ukoxH go df sxSki ]sxy Ldi Fkg kd ukoxH ltf jkv kxSkt skg . a s hlo ckrdf 2rkc hjkl g jHuf hg ji ikv jkv ]g ikv ]ikv 4SPfi jkv N .

† hg hurdf rfe¬ 4Cgu tyku ]Cgu ukK ]g hruc 9hjkese s z a 1 s . g hd ruge hurb ulm kr hHr ]g kyko suuke kd _¬k' lb hH kyko ukxy s s s . e ]Cgu X w wa T 4g rgj /c hg l jgkc kr Skxy xkv k. s s X X k. s 8 4g hruc rfe¬ hje yod go ]Cgu 4g krdl uc ukK kje go ]g kry [hl .rfF¬f kukn 2Cgu 4g Sx sukxy x X X X s T kv Syflb ]g rhH. s s xkv dfk.D df g kd uukt kd . s kt ]g krkg jrhH d Cgüm yod jkv 4g IkG¬of dS g utkyîlDS dS e/ s s . s T sw s Skt kg rhgxl knk. s s iv dlm /cl kd ujd d rkc lm 4g kvg e jnfe lm kt ]krkt kg kr kr s a a s s . s . s s X m jkv no jkv krhx eg e uipc jxv df g kgd u hldf 4g O> jRm o .D ]Stfhn kxy xkv ]Sjfd re kti df g kgj gd Cgu g.î go hxSkt y kr kgo 4g ke®keji akgt .x je jo’Zb k.m o c. .î lb ]n jd u yFf'f kd lk.î hje df g e kF¬ov lm e tkv3kF k[yf elm 4kyef kvg k[y s wa X T X q f _i dS e lh[ dlm lki dlm 4Sx Lm <kzi dlm 4bx gj jrhH ]hF jr X s s s \ s Z hH kt ]Bx gj jgkc go ]hF jgkc kt lkl 4k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 42 egaP 4rkv Cgu hg uul rkc hdikv eg kr hrkg hn u k{'f s s q s s Xeg u krif jkeg jkv su ke hjkeg jkv krkg Cgu /kc kd kvkFd hd n"ufi s s . jd kti eg e rykg kukn u T s s a s s a X w X X s dfy 4sxn kxy xkv df g rgd eg k.î lm 4e l s s s a s . wa s q s s s T . a a s s fae lm ]Cgu 4jdkt F rkg L[ tkj kgo kr e jnfe dfk. 1 s s . q \ \Sg k. . . X ss fct ]tkv jkv 4g k.H llm df kvg g. s wa s l jgkc hH kt k.¥e rgc kd thp hd jgkc eg e k. a . s s Bkd ]IkG¬of Bkd ]rfk∂ Bkd 4g hrdl kg rIf? rkc Bkd e lk. s s \ X a s 4dl yduf jgkc e n. cyre kdlm kr Sx ukxy xkv eu T s q s s X b jxv 4Sx sudG kr hHr ]g Fv Nd7Nd eub df kxkg cyre kdlm kr X s . s Z 4g krdl kg ytkyîlDS . s T a s s a . kr 4g ikv kgt ]lk.D jkv `jdkg L[ `jdkt e jnfe lm ulm k. q .D `g l jnfae lm s s s s \ s a s X a X . jdkg kL[ hH Cgd henkv go 4g Cgu /cl Bkd kd ujd lm ]sl jn s \ . s s s . ]ycfbkc jkv ukjd jkv nso ]_¬k' hg u ]e ckrdf hg u df kgd ue Syflb . s jd kti u jkv g Cgu ykol kd ukxy xkv ]Cgu 4g kgj kt ukxy xkv df w . k.D g kNi kr s X s X X s . q s s rLfi hldf df Cgu kr kul dr cv 4g rki ukt kd . ]kgo sxdl kt y Cgu upo hH d hldf ]e upo d 0qc jkv jhokge hg u a X s s X s . s .î lb _¬k s X a s X s ' jkv nç' g.x kg rîkel cl jkv kvg kL[ s s a s . w s 4Cgu hH kxkg jkv g Cgu kvg klß dr cv 4kg kukt .D `g F.k' ]g hxy Gjr kjkp je xkv d wa T . s .D a a s . s . X s T 4g Cgu rkiNf kdlm e ukK sO> jkv g rht e kL\hi hji hd ukKv uiv T s s X w . X X . q X a s s s jd g. Z q q X s s Sx udG kdub jxv `n dG kdcl ub k. ]hg l ydæfe hukK Syflb 4[kj g Sx uc 4Skt uc u [kj s q T a jiM d hjkxpV lb ]n u dP kd lk.®l hg l ydæfe hukK a s q T s s s q rFfdkFr g.D .x kg h[n <iWzxel l ukKv uiv e jkv g Bx xt hj .df k. s /cl kd ujd lm k.î hd hldf g dl kg Ødb jdkv l k<jkd Cgüdf <ki dlm 4g l jrhH u T s s s s X z s . Z .®l /hl lb ykol 4g ykol kd u s s . 4g s X T s X w T s s T s s s w q s rn n .®l u s . . dl r o w o h s o.ø cl g. sxjd kti eg g rgd eg kr k. w w i7hji lk. T s X w s s .

Z s a X D ]kg _ro¬ skt ]kg u kvg k/c l _¬k' j. s a . q s . s q a X phc rkc s. s s c jkv ukjd 4Fkl dikv ]g Cgu Fkl d krhx ykol 4g kgj gd kd ujd N .kv nç' kt ]kg rDe l _¬k' jkv s a s q a s s s q s . ss ss s 4g r' hygi hd tk[ hd . \ s s s s q s s \Sg k. q c BkiN 4g Bx Pc rgc rdkr hd li dfk. s . q s . ]g kvg l kjnc uri kd henkv df g kgd >e u jnc dS . Z X . s \ ht ]g hrkv l [n d uoht kr k<ji hd tk[ hd joæB 4hrdl kg Cgu sl Xkc . s s 4kxSkt Pc c[ jo \ w æB e unf LkF e k. s \ q s s . \ . s q a . s \ joæB kr `sxjd tk[ hd joæB kt sxkg u kni xky o e k. s s X q T s s ikv k.x je jo’Zb k. Cgu lkdof g.D ]sxaSki Cgu ul ]sxkg ezH d uul ]ku[j <je¬ kd rkc d X X q X s s q S kr g Skv suul rkc hje ikv jxv jd[hl kd krkc ub udfy 4hF Cgu s T q s s X s hH rjWt hLc Bkd hd ukv 4rkv u ikv uul rkc hje df kF krdl kg g. q X . s s s a klß jkv Skt gj ip kt jkv rdl Cgu hg gj ip jnc 4g uOfd rgc kuy .D .[ kd joæB .D kr aSkt kg I‘u ckrdf hjkl jxv s T s s s s X `g uiyxki kld `kF krdl kg kni ld hg yk. s z .D ]Sgfkp kukt Pc joæB g. T s s w s a . Cgd df kxkg d' kr Skt yef jxv jnc . q s s X a wa s `g rykc hH jnc k. s q s a df kgd sue yd3g kNi l>e u hldf 4kxWd rkc klji e hdum xSkt gj T . s q s s zs s s krdf k<ji hd tk[ hd joæB e rxt 4Nd phc d kukn g /cl kIym `g k zs s X q s X s . w s q s s .ø lm kr g T s s a . dfk.®l hg kr_ro¬ dfk. jkv hxXn Cgu uul j. xLi hujd tk[ hg huiv kd henkv kr cr 4sxaSkt kg oHlv uyef "skral sr s \ s s s s a s ¬l kr kg u _¬k' jxv 4g rkt yef "krl r¬l <jkd d k_¬k' d¥fc 4Skt s X T s s a s s X a gkp ]gj _¬k' gkp 4hxgj hrkg kni tk[ hd joæB dr cr ]g rfk'v jkv s X s s s . \ q zs X \ s cr jkv 4g jkted kLc joæB 4g jHuf ji kckrdf df g jkted kLc jGf . rkg ed joæB hg kurm ]g hrPc ckrdf hurtf df g kri kdikv k.kv hxSkt kv e w X . s wa s s qd 9Fkl dikv8 4kuy >el u ryx kd rkc hje 4g kgj gd Cgu kd ujd N s s s s wa s s qd Fkl d _¬k' 4hxkg Cgu UHf l kti hdikv go kr Bkxy hH xkv u ikv s s s w s s jxv ]g rjd kti kt ikv dfk.nÔ dr ct 4g hrkv l rfk'v ]g hrkv l kLhi hd uo . s \ . q s X a .D df g kNi l>e u rDf.ufn hjkl jxv `kx s a X q Skt kg I‘u hg joæB df g rpkl ikv k.D kr aSkt hn jd dk[ ]Skt hn kyt ckrdf hd k. kr . g kLhi ]g [n e .m o c. jkv krhx g. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 52 egaP kdikv df g rkc hjlwn 4g rykc c[ kr jnc 4g oHlv ]lybkl ]uke 2S s .D udfy s T \ X . . ueg jxv df3uæi X s s s \ X . 4ku[j re e yk.ufn df g rpkl s X s s X . a . l nç' kt ]Sgfkp kukg klß Rpf kdikv 4g Fkl dikv ]Cgu Fkl d ycfbk s s s . . q kc u ]g dofkHko¬ ydycf kr kuykc kd kjnc df kxgkp kujd unouf g. e ue jkeg kr Crkg hPi u rkc cl g. kt gj iqp 4g Cgu kr henkv g. .[ hH g.g kNi g. a a . s .D ]g krgd Cgu hd ukxy xkv3g unouf k T s w s X wa s . Te s . a X . s je 4kxdl yef "krl Nd l hlm jkv kxLi kuki Nd l eJ hg uiv jkv h s s s a q s .ufqn kr g hriN gkrîl jg ckrdf jktg pki Bkd 4g rg X s s\ X s T X a s . w s q s a X T s a uæi Nd kt jGf ]y jd rkc hH e hdum 4g uæi jhHx7jx IkN7IkN kn7dS z q s wa T T z a . s . dl r o w o h s o.

x [hl kuykc go 4k. \ s Z s s t kg kru go ]g krdl [hl kuykc hH kt 4k. q a F hg kuLkn ]F gj k.kl go df g ekd kd kjknjgi hHl df klt 4kF s a T s s . s .[ g. X X s s s \ Bkd kgo 4F rjd Cgu lkoæof e rzsi7rH o dfk.D ]hxkg Bg hg l iW rîx Nd s s X s q s q q Bkd jWt rkc 4Cgu kri >e kr go 4Bg rkc k.kjc? rgc Wgsu 2ht s a s s X w s X q rLfi3kgd ulm jkv k.† kurb l k/x Sg rykc e 4gj ∂Gfc ydycf r3kgd su Wgu s s s X q s s T s q w s `sxkg Cgu kr tkjku ikv 4g krykc kjt e df g hje X s wa s T . db kd k/x hdkc df k. kvg k.df g. s .x kg kru kdum jkv k.df kØ s s . s s \ w s s s s jkv k[hl kuykc k/x go `g krLi kg dG k. xjd nli kuyef l>e ikv ]Cgu kri df a s s s X a s q kF krjL kr e3kgd u /x 4ykc r 4jd re ∂Gf ydycf r df g rpfjfi s T s s s w q w wa tkj7tkj knk. q k.kl hjrl hHl lt udfy ]kF kL[ hjral q s a T s s a s .x je jo’Zb k.m o c.D ]s.x L\xcf hH k/x go 4g hrn Lkxcf Cgu kdldf .D yp ]F gj e? l ykp tr hLc kr Wgu jkv dum k .'fLhGkd Bkd ]hl∂hl Bkd s s X a s s s 4Cgu kikN dr cv u jkc[v hldf lb dfk. \ s lb ArokHo¬ jkv 4k. hd hy¥nf sulm jkv hF hPhi hjlhr nkc d . s yH hg dS Glf 4g kL[ suekl kr e ]jd Gke3kgd u /x lm 4kvkv uekl w Z wa \ s T s s s s s ]kg hH kt 2g Cgu kyko ujd lkoæof e ri7rH Te `Skv uekl je `g uk s s wa s X zs w s ss . dl r o w o h s o.x [hl kuykc go ct s X s s jkv 4k. s \ s rxal hd henkv 4kF k. s \ ji tkojn 4kyp suyef l Wgu rLfi go ]g rkc hukji go3ekd kygi ulm s s s a . . Z s v 4g hHl kr rykc 4g krukt kuykc hgo df gj u e eH lb henkv udfy T s s s .\ s s s s w s s \ s s .xfc huiv Wgu jkv kF rDo kd gcl7gcql s s s w X s . s s s s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 62 egaP /çyim kd rfF¬f hd xdVhi¬uku 4kg rfF¬f hd uykc u 4g Fel henkv kyd s s s s .kl hH hjrl go ]g rgj s. ]hF h.kl hH hjrl go 4g rgj s. d3kgd l jkt rgc sukgüm 4kF kvg kL[ k/x dS Glf 2kLi u Bk[nf Bkd s s q X q \ Z \ s kgo 4k[n l jkx Gjr kjkp sukgüm 4kg krykc kt kF krLi Cgu Bk[nf henkv a s s . s s q s Xe >el hdutf ]g rdl >el ikv hH rckc hdum ]jd[n kdum ]kg hrkv T s s s s e >el hdikv k"kH hd kjnc utf udfy ]kg hrkv u e >el k"kH hdum X X a s s X \Sg k.D llb ]kg k/x go jGf 4kxSk .D .krc kuI? dS u hldf >e 4kg krkv Cgu . .kolf d k . q 4k.D e kukn um ]Cgu kri jGf s s q s q X X X s `g ukd krkv jkv uyef . . X s . s .x kyp jrhH d _i7'oi s s z kucf k/x go 4hd Cgu ∂Gf Bkd sulm ]kF kgj kt k/x dS udfy 4krkg jL s s s s l henkv 4krkg I‘pl kLkF hjrl go kr krkt henkv Bkd jGf jkv kF kvg s s s\ a s s . s s X /x kg. Z s v 4g krdl kg /çyim kd rfF¬f hd suykc u df kt g Fel kydv hg henk . s s X z s 4 dr cv Cgu hikN u jkc[v hldf 4hxkg rkc y. s s s s . df kgd u Wgu 2Cgu k.x sNhi kvg krGkg gjr hldf hH k/x ]chjd7chjd k a s .x [hl kuykc rgj7rgj e rxl hd henkv ]k/x dS s s s X a 4g Bx kv yk.x Nhi k/x go 4F gj e? e k. ekd kygi sulm kr k.x kg kru go ]hF hPhl hjln kt nkc d u[hl kuykc . q s 4hd k_k.

s \Sg k.nf kjgO jdky ]kd ukeg s .kjl dS 4kxWd Hjki l kuI? hl7hIkN dS e kpp hd tkv q X a a z s s T Z <jdf hygi hd ukK 4jd jkdho¬ ek<i je 4g krjd ek<i kd ke®keji Oc jrhH d X z s s wa z s s.m o c. wa X s X .x k.D e/ kr Ski >el Cg a s s s q \ a Z s u hH dkte ikv jxv jkv hF hgd e dkte rkc hd jnc ue kr g. dl r o w o h s o.k' kr Sk s s s s s qa s a t yp jdk[ cl ikv df aSkt lß j? ikv unf hldf df jd ke®keji 4g sr s s s s T kt jdk[ Nd kr g rkt j? ikv 4g krsy uhN jkv Nd likv kr kyko uk[ s q s T s .[ lb g.kv Skt II ukK kO> kdikv jd ke®keji X s w w s 4n Lkr kdlm g kdikv eH kd ukK kt df g Syf d rkc lb d¥fc ]wan ukK wa s\ s .D ]Cgu rkc hd ukg s X s s ukjg Bkd kr kg hrxy u dhO jxv rkc hje Syflb 4g krk[lf ukKv kr Te .D 2_ef3kNi llm ue kr hLi Bk[nf Cgu q s w s s T s \ s q >e kuokHl hd sukv nCu lm hH jGf 4kxy uync Iojd go jGf ]k. X a s T s . .D .i ' a X s s \ \ a \ \ s z s o≈fS go ]ikrl go ]kg kni Igkjc? go ]ikr go ]kLhi go e ukKv lm n. . s s T s\ s 4g uOfd rgc `xSki . T s s Sx kg knk. \ s ]hrkg Cgu gxt Bkd Syflb 4g rkt kv ukege lß e k. 4g kd .† ukegse jkv kF kIkN kjed 4kF k. ]kx X z wa s s s T s gd rkc kt klji jkv yd kFr g hgd kdikv hHv ue rkc hl7hLkF kt g. \ s s d suiv er df kxkg Cgu rpfm k. \ X k' kr jrhH df kt ]kd ukKv dyfke lm 4g df kt ]kd ljku≈b yutfjfkv s s s . s s Xs s lm ]dl ukt ikv kd ukKv lb j. s Nd kdikv df g Cgu Syf d rkc lb ''fkd hjkl hje ]Cgu 4 q s .x y T a ef kjed dS >e hH jGf 4hF u hH gxt ]F sjgO xky l7rgc e .D kd ke®keji o ]rki >el Cgu hH dkte df e k.x kv e kgo ]Sx rkj h/kv 4k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 72 egaP `kdl kl l ekjkv dfkr ]kn jd xyv srt jkv hLxi kn jkrm L\i s s s s w . s z s . q s a >el k. q s s s lf ukKv 4g rIky jd[hl Nd ikv llm dfk. .D ]g krdl xy dhO kyko u T s .x kg ukjg e jd [n udfy 4 s q s s .kjl hHl hg k'seg s s T s s s X X 4k. q s a s . ke®keji kt g kry[ jk} go l rfF¬f rk' hlm ]ykcv hlm 4g krdl kg s . s s se Su hg e jed lm ]kF Xe jed ltf e 4g hrLi hukuc gxt jGf udfy X s s T .x Iy a s s X s ji jr¬cf jkv syk[ Cgu hH rwt uiv ]hd Cgu xyv ulm hH hLxi huiv ] . s s s s \ ukege kvg kdF go ]hF Bx kg rkj h/kv 4k.[ g. s s s g krdl yef ukK Bkd l>e df re hg kukv kr kg yk. s X X s wa s 4kxWd ''fkd unf jkp Syf d ukKv hlm 4Skt skg a s s rfk∂ e uoht dikv l IgkLGLr lm df Skt kLGLr urb <ki 4kg kn. a a s . q s a . s k[lf ukK 4krdl xy Cgu dhO kyko uk[lf ukKv dfk. 4kugj Cgu y . s s q s s q dycf e eH lb 4g kgj n ukK Bkd kdikv e df Cgu l yk.ufn g Sx kg j s s s X q T s hHx urb xky 4hxSkt kg ydæfe hLc `sxSki >el k. s cl 4g rhg1xuv rgc7rgc llm 4g kul l rfk' jkv ei urb kd krkc hjse wa q q q s . zs s s X 4kg ke®keji go ]yef kt kdikv ji upgi j? unf hlm n.kjl 4kF s q s s s q X kujgO s>e e . q s X .x je jo’Zb k.

4kvkt xkH 4g rjd uk'ji jdkv tkj kg. kd uk s s q s s ege lm ue kr 4hxkg krI‘'fv g.nf kIky liko hg l jgkc e 4F Cgu Fkl sj T s X \ . kr d‘r¬fe kdikv3kykc ktkj go 4ky k[ lb hLxi hje ]ky k[ lb Ikd jse s s s s \ s s s s s df kgd kd kLid uiv jkv k. s s .≈k.kv jrhH s s T s s s X X wa e <jkd d kLid utf 4k. s T s s s \ e Lid s. T xSkt kg ryx kuukpgi hH kd n[ kr Skt kg L[ u≈u ydycf eg jxv 4g s s q s a s s \ q T rukpgi l kL\id suiv ]kd hg uiv kr hH n[ eg 4g srukpgi l kLid Xgé s s X s s s q T s X \ qr jln df kg rgd dhO er hH g.x k. w e kvkrofd huiv ofd udfsy 4ukpgi Bkd gér df Cgu . X q .x go jkv kF kyH . .D X . s g sr[n kd suiv eg hg l jtu hd kxky jln 4g rukpgi kd uiv xky jl T s s s X s s w T s s s s s w n gjr ltf g rukpgi kd uiv rfkH hlm eg 4g krukpgi Cgu kd uiv k/ T s s s a . s s s s .ufn ]g rkt ukpgi l kLid hHl e k. s a s \ s Lid d cl ikv jxv 4hF hpπl hg ydycf ydæfe hje `g ukd ikv jkv q q s T . dl r o w o h s o. s wa s \ T s s s \Sg k.kOm utkH sulm 4Bx hn kxy hykF hd utkH s X \ s . s q s s . T g ukd e df kxWd .kv ikv ]kgj krjd k{hri e yd3kNi jdkt y e gx7 s q s z T w s X 1 utkH suiv lm u gk'nkc `g jk/i l kgd 4ikv .kv jrhH tkjkge3kgd j s s s T s s a X .nf kIg lm yd sultf ]ykijk} 4k.m o c. kuI? dS s>e jkv 4kg rgd dhO hg ydycf er rkc df kgd uTe q . s \ s .ufqn . T s s X \ s ln7dS kr xky hHl eg `kxdl ukpgi kdldf ukd kr Skt Snf jd xyv w s s s s . s q s X \ wa \ q q s T . T q s m 4k.kv hH yd kr e ]Cgu3kgd ulm `Sx kg Cgu kr hg s s T s s s o 4g rxy ujd krofd yxki k.x je jo’Zb k. T s s s w m jkv 4g Lid d gjr7gjr e k. >e <jkd d kLid 4g LdDyH rgc l okHo¬ e df g g.nf kIky liko u ykijk} 4kvg kF kukg kt jkv k. kj . s kv SN ji dlm ulm ]kF k. 4g rkt kg yxki xky rjd7rjd krofd ` T s s T s s s s s g krkt kg jlDv df klt ]Sx kg Cgu kr yxki rjd7rjd krofd `g dhO . s s hl Bkd 4g rukpgi rGke hd kjln hH kd uiv eg dfk.x Iky go s \ s w s T s X s .r ld gcl skr Snf jd xyv ue Lid 4g hg e ]e d a s . kr n u sygi ukeél güm ]g k. T s \ s X q T s s s X \ X 4kg rgd dhO er kr rkc ]kgd g. s . s s X \ s X s df r_feuf ji utkH j? suiv u gk'nkc dS ]kd ofdkge Lc rgc dS 4B a s s s s \ q x kv nk. . 4x X X s s X q s s \ s s n kIky liko gér hg ykijk} ji stkojn 4g ydæfe kuyef l gk'nkc dfk. s s 4kgj krkjd¬e ]Cgu k q ykc Nd go `Cgu . jkv 4g rukpgi kd jln7dS eg sl Cgü s w s s q . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 82 egaP s s X kr xkg u Lid jxv ]Syflb `g kr[sn kd uiv ukd l jtu huiv s/hl 4 s \ . q s T s \ wa T T f g hrgj nk. q . udfy ]kF k.x go jd u s s gi Lid jk/m unf jln 4kF kgd ygi sue3kgd u k_ef dlm 4k. q s X ]kvkt re jd ugi kd kLid ub3kgd u k_ef dlm 4ofd kF chjx go 4k. yxk s T s s s a i lß 4hH kLkN3kgd ukgüm udfsy 4kn ukt >e ]g ukd e df kgd rgc ul s s s\ s X s s s q wa .\ ukt Sdf Ødb Lid jkv Lid kr Syfhlb jkv 4g rukpgi l kLid kd sj s s s \ . r[ 4g kjr[ dS udfy ]n jd xyv Lid df kF hH e kr krpkl3kykc go .D ]g ukd e df k s T s Z X w s s X wa . wa . .D . s s q q s 4g Lkn huiv hd . lb Lid .

ky¥pf go tc jkp Bkd s s \ \ s s . 4kOm yk. s T s s q s klß df kgd llm sue kr 4g k. 4g rhprkc rckc hd jr¬cf cl s.D . . 4g kgj yp Cgu kri Cgd kd henkv lm dr tkv udfy 4n n Lid dlm k . s s T s \ s s . s s a T X . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 92 egaP nc eku kdikv 4g hd kLid cl . q kje3kgd sulm `g k.m o c. T w s .Lfx jkv g k/c e j. q . q T s 4g ukd e df Cgu kri lm udfy ` wa . s wa s s \ s s r Skt yef Cgd go 4kF kgj e? Syf e Fkl Lid d uhnnQlu ky¥e e kr w X s \ s . wa s a X .D3kNwi sue llm ]g ukd e df kF kgj Ni henkv . d j? kdikv jkv g k. .Lfx lb jkv g krn /kc e ji jkgéqr e kd jkcçx df kjd s q s \q .Lfqx hIkN dS jkv g k. dl r o w o h s o.D ]Bx kg jn hLkF udfy ]k . s \q hdlm jkv k. wa .i q s . T w s s s \ phu d Lk> dS kr k.kv jgkc 4k. .L\fx lki dlm jkv k.yf /kc e ji suiv jd ykduf kjkcçx kdlm ue kOm e jkv .[fn3kgd jkv k. Li ewyke kvg krNi henkv hgo kr g kr[n l jkx hH kd henkv ltf jkv \ q w s wa s s .D eku kjkgér3kNi sue 4kuy ugi Lid uiv er jd s .x LkN k.x LkN Sg s T s .kygf s>e jkv kOm go 4Bx kg df g krkg e .[ dS e ue je kr hxy ukv tkokv hd Igkj?j? hdlm ct jkv X ss s s .x kl jdkg rüpæfuf go 4hn [j k.D eku kdikv df g kri kdikv df g krLi Cgu dG . \ Z l rkc lb `g ukd go df g Cgu kri kd henkv hH hldf dfk. s\ q s s ry[ kjkcçqx kuiv kpπc kIkN dS Bkd l eum ]gj jgO skt e jed lm y s s s X s s X s s gi leg 4g chdjr dS 2_ef3kgd ue `g ukd ikv jkv g ukd e df kxskg s . a X dikv kjkcçqx df Bx kg g. wa . s q .r ld gcl kr kxn jd xyv Lid hHv e 4krkt kl djd xyv sLid e s . q q T s wa .x kgo e kr `g ukd e ]kF kgj Ni Bkd 4hF hgj kv tkokv sl a T s wa . q s wa s \ T s s \ T kr krkg kydv e jed 4g hgj kv Cgu nCu s>e e rchle hlb kgd sulm kr s s s X s . q X q s 4xkvki ukpg s s i u kd uiv er df kg rgd dhO er hH g.Lfx q s . T .x yduf jn henkv go dr cr jkv ugi s w . s wa . 4g Cgu kri go hH kd hldf 4g ukd e df g kr .x je jo’Zb k. .nf /kc kjkcçx s s q s . T .‘ue cl kr henkv go df kyp kri >e udfy 4kF klg hH e jkv z X q s s q s a T . kgj Li kukj dr tkv Syf d hlg lm udfsy 4klg hH e lo ]lg ikv slt \ s s a a T s .D3kgd ue 4SOfm ] s s q s q s T g Bx kg rchle df kgd jkv k. kr 4xSki ukpgi u gér jlwn s s q s s q s s a X q s \Sg k. 4k. s\ \ s .nQlu ky¥e ikv jxv kr 4g ji jr¬cf dikv k. s X rfi kd k.D ]g s .x yduf jgkc jdyk[ ktkojn go kr klg e dfk. s s 4kvg hgo ]kF kukg klt jkv 4hy [j ji jr¬cf uiv jdkOm k. q s T T . s . X \ s . . . s T T . s s \ s T Lid ue jd Om jkv kF ji jr¬cf hH e dfk. s \q . . s . s a lg eg ji henkv lm g. kt jkv k. q w T s s \ s q Om gcl kr 4kg Cgér er df gj hIIfLbkv ]gj ukpgi dfkr ]g krn [j l q s s q q s X s wa s s ki jkgér kd k.x kg ydæfe kukv e >el hje jkv `g ukd e df s s s T s q X s . T X s s s\ s . `g ukd e kr wa . . . s a . a X . a q e ji dlm ue 4Snf jkrm Lid ulm kr 4g uhnnQlu ky¥e eku kjse `eku X . T s s s kg uhnnQlu ky¥e er k. T kxy uky¥pf jkv k. . T s T g uhn.D ]kF /fuf s . 4g akg . s w yke kr hF hyko sukg LcLx 2ht .x Nhi7Nhi dlm e 4k. rchle3kgd ulm `kvg k. s .

q s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 03 egaP v 4kd sukg r/fcl l ke®keji ]g jk} hgo ]g xke hgo ]g rl hgo ]g _wl h s a a s .®l hldf df sygi dlb ]Skt utk[ kd ke®keji e jnfae X s a s s s X hldf df ygi dlb kr `kxdl kg rpfjfi ld go ]g erjn kt kr g rp s s s s s s . 4g krdl kt kuhN ni kdikv 4sxXync Cgu ikv jkv g krdl kt kync hH uk .† hygi hd ukK z X . de ]g rdl kt ync Lid dikv jkv 4xXync Cgu ikv ji ]g krdl kt ky T s s s \ s . s kg rofht†Qui joæB Syf dlm ]g kry ukt kd .x je joæB df kgd unf ygi uTe s . s s a s s a o¬ Bkd df g k.D ]kxWd rkc tkv hg hdlm ]g krdl kg r/fcl l . s s a . s s s .ø lm ]dIH e k_ s . 1 s . hgo ]g . . .‘ .o¬ jh/7jh/ ]krki Cgu hg ukt kr kd jln go ]g rkc hd s s s a s s s s s w .x je jo’Zb k.ø . s . . s s a s . . . . s q . w s s T fjfiv hgo jxv ]g erIduf je kt dfk.el e uukt jln kt jkv 4g kry ukt s \ . s s s w T s kg rpfjfi l kjln xky hHl 4Cgu dl®m kd sukg rpfjfi l a. s a s s s s `kx syef ld . s s s kdlm `g ukpgi Bkd hdlm 4g ntke Sg ync kucf kt ]jrhH g ukd go .r√e ]Skuc jnfe jkv jd aSkuZpv hg hurdf jkv jd kti hg q . a . . . .o¬ Bkd udfy s s X w s q s s s s s 4g ikv df kt kxkg kukg rpfjfi llm ]eFi lcl jkv y T s s s s z s . Z s \ .‘ue klß jkv `g k.D ]g hjWt kuukpgi kd . X s s w s . q s s . s s q . s s a s .®l g krjd tk[ . \Sg k.o¬ ]ygi d uukt kd ke®keji s .pjfi kt l jln kr 4g e/ hgo . s w hurdf go gkp 4g re joæB Syf dlm ]g krukt Cgu kd . s . s\ s d jkv Skuc k. s . T s w X X X ¬k' e 'kyr hd . a w a . Z .o¬ Bkd sld 4 X a . w . s s s w s . e®keji g krjd tk[ . s z s 4g rkt kg nc dlm hH j T s s a s k} d uukt kd . kukt kg r/fcl l . Z .o¬ kt jkv 4g krkt s q s . .o¬ ]g k[j LkN sulm jxv ekd dS 4jd hH N X s s s a .o¬ hH skt 4y ukt kd .x je Syflb joæB 4g k. . .o¬ kt 4g uthyjf s s w .®l ]hd . go dfk.o¬ <jdf hygi hd ukK . q s . . dl r o w o h s o.o¬ ]g r' rHjk/kv hnk. .o¬ ]ygi T ss s X . kd . . . krkt kg rofht†Qui joæB Syf dlm ]g kry ukt kd .®l jkv 4g hjWt kuukt kd .o¬ kt jkv 4g s .x ync cl ]Sx kg Pc ]Sx kg ukot ]pπc ikv 4xync Cgu ikv hH jG s s w\ s s s X f ]g rdl kg hjk[Hf d dLl ikv jkv g hrdl kt huhN rykn7u/ hdikv T s s s \ .ufc hygi hd /cl l ke®keji s a a s a . s \ s 'kdi kdlm e uoht r¬el jGf jkv g hryt e . s gi lcl jkv sygi 4g ikv df kt kukt yH re kd rDf.m o c. X a s 4g hrkt yG ji Zol jh/7jh/ jkv g hrkg Idi l a.pækv Lc ]g kry ukt kd . 4ync Cgu ikv hH jGf s ]k.D go df Cgu kri hH g.D .pjfi kt l . s a s . Z ]g .pjfi kt l n[ ]g lbkl hgo g . .‘que klß `kxyef ld ke®keji ]hd k s . .pjfi kt l jln 4g rgkp ku . s s . s . s hH kd jln go ]g rkc hd . s s 4g krxy uLi Bk[nf dkykv kdlm ] . s a s s s d uukt kd . . Z w q a a s 4kxdl kg Cgu hHd /cl Bkd kdlm l ke®keji df sl d s s a a s s hO y ukt kr kd uukt kd .o¬ jkv g ukKof hgo ]g . s a a s a s .pækv Lc hH jkv g krjd rhr. .o¬ rfk. s que 4g Cgu ukpgi hH Bkd hdlm ]Cgu `g xjVcéejf Bkd hdlm ]<je¬ Bkd .

s s a s X s .df hgo u _ef kr `g krkg kld /n g. . s \ s . az s . df xkvkrc N s s s . v dS 2[i dlm jkv kyxc g. kui¥d hd ke®keji re√uf kjk} . q q\ s\ F Fkg kje gjr ltf df kgd jkv kvkjGf Fkg df kgd jd[j ji Fkg uiv s . w . df xX. s s q s .D .\ s \ X .g Cg u kehl Bkd hdlm jGf 4Cgu rv ]Cgu nfkv kdlm ]Cgu eku ]Cgu iW Bkd s a s kdlm 4g ke®keji ]lc go cr ]g Cgu kd BklB jkv kd ut]g Cgu ke®keji . . s q 1 s . a s s . s . kg rfx hg. s a s q\ w s . kd ey¬fe jkv g Cgu ke®keji kd ngV go cr 4g kt ]g hgo d¥fc ]g Cgu q .m o c.D 4Bx kg BkuOf T s s s . q s X s q s d jkv dS 2[i dlm jkv kyqxc g. .krc >e k. q w s T s g rjd dkte3kykc henkv k/v go ]rfkH hd k[i hd yxc 4nGl 0' g T s s a a X a s q s q . \Sg k. df x. q ss X s . s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 13 egaP kuje kd ke®keji Syflb 4g /v eg 4g nc [kv hjkeg df g Bg Syflb s T s a T a X a . w s s qd >e `sxkvk>el Nd s>e e /acl d /n jkv xkjd kiÎ er k.D 4Bx kg BkuOfd jk .krc >e k. a nGl d yqxc . s z s .x >el 4g krkg /n rfkH hd Fkg Sg Le 4 a q s q\ w . s X a . dl r o w o h s o.x >el e df kykc jkv kxy supku jdOm go 4kjsG Fkg ji kFkg Sg sLe T s . 4g rukt Cgu df kF kNπv hg kuukt g. 4. jkv `kxLi Bk[nf ld ]g Sg j? Gjr cl eg kt ]g . wa s T . s s q s henkv /v lm 4BkOef huc l /n3kgd u _ef dlm 4hF BkOef Bkd huc sl s a s w s s s /n `g k.®e hdlm 4g krn kdikv kupl h.o¬ . X q q\ s u henkv /v lm 4g hrkg Bg hLe uZnx hd yxc gjr hlm ]g kvg kLe kLk s a . w a q s s a q gc e rxko¬ dlm u _ef 4kF ukege j? d _ef dS uiv henkv k/v dS q X s s s s s a 4kxSkuc u kge jkv kxjd ugx jkv kd ukKv jkeg go rfkH lm xy ukt hH kt eg j . s q q\ s q .u dS hH l q. s . s s jkv kLdi Fkg kd /v 4k. krkg /n3kgd su _ef dS 4Sx xy uk>el kdlm o 4g srgj rjd l k'eg s w s s s T s s s hukK rFfdkFr kt k. .x je jo’Zb k. s w s . . . q T s s .D g. a kg Le go `g krkg kld ke®keji 4g hrkt kg rfx hg.¬el hygi s s s s s \ z w s 2kxMki >el kd /n kr >el kd yxc ygi e ` a s w s aw s s q s T g rkg ld [i nGl dlm jkv kyxc g.\ s s s X s a eg nf.®l kt klo . . dfk. a s .kv 4g rkH hg l Wq' Lkn go kr Sx Li e Lkn hd u[n lm ]ukt kd . lo 4g krkt Ldi e >el hd kvke®keji lß ]g krkg /n lt rfkH hd F \ X X s . s . kr kuukt g.D3kgd u s q s q q X a s w . df k. q q 1 . . rfkH hd Fkg Sg Le /n df k. kNi sulm 4Skv nli Nd kd /v lm 4Skuc UkO‘ef rgc7r w . 4kgj ki >el Cgu hg /n kr e `ikv l>qe a s . s .‘ue go ]g krkg Ixi ke®keji kt cr jk q . hd krk0lf ]g hrkt s q\ . \ s a s 4Sx Li e tjpv _ef 4g krkg kld kyxc s. ]Bx gj Cgo kr k. s w a q s q\ k. . ]g srkg ld [i \ X . s .D ]rk>el u s T s X s s kd henkv /v o df kF jrgc kr llb 4Sx kg uk'ji rgc _ef o 4g krskg s a s s s s s s q s .o¬ ukgütf s X X X s s s X a s X 4g krkg rfkH hd Fkg Le /n df k.®e hdlm jkv 4g kvg kN wa s s w s 1 . .kOm Fkg kuiv sulm 4hykduf chdjr u _ef dS . q πv jkv 4g kgj jd rkc likv e ji hlb 4g Bx kg .x kg dkujr[ jkv .®e hd ke®keji ryx . hd k_¬k' e kFkg dum ]k[n Cgu jdyk[ [kv hd a.x kg kL[ uæi kjln g.

wa q T s q s q . ]kg rukt hH kd a.x uy güm okx kjkl kr Iky liko okx uiv nkc d "o gjkc 0c s s X a s s. s X s w z s 4g srLi eyke Sg rukt kd kthp hHl eg 4k.¬gj kurb 4g krukt Cgu hH kd _i uiv kr s . s 4k.x gj rpfjfiv go llm ]kd T \ w q s s X s uoht kF . . dl r o w o h s o. hlß 4g krukt rfkH7hyH gér e df g krgd l pπc uiv krif dS hg slß wa a X q T . q s g kgj ukt Cgu hH Nd e df g rukt l iW I‘i¬ eg kgt ]k'n hd Rpf sl wa q T T s s a ß dS 4xbku Iku LIîlDS 4ukKv d¥fc Cgu ukK ]kgd ue klt ]g _l kygi as s .®l ]l uoht g ei kdutf s s X s s s X a s s . s . s s s 4F jtqx l lki je er ygi jn hLkF dfk. w 4kxgd likv e k. s X 4kF k. . s q s . ywH uer df ky xke ke{ jkv j? suiv skvkv Iky liko 4g krdl jd ke{ s q s a . s e 4g rjd yH ikv hH kr `Sx ukt s>e ikv llb ]g _i kdikv e k. a . X a s .kv jdkg l r¬jkp ltf e hHv s s s \ s .D T T s w s q s wa q T `xXdl ukt ld >e kr g /≈nfl hH g.‘ue 4kxLi kuLkN kd ukK \ . s z s Xe rxt jkl kr kg htkj kd uyk[ [kv so ]l .¬gj e uoht hg kr Sgfkp kuIN eH kd uukt g.D 2hn jd k. w kr g _l kygi rfÎho¬ I‘i¬ hd ukKv /kcv lß 4g Cgu kri hH Nd >qe ] s s .¬gj kt go ]hF hI¬ef kt e eH d uukt lb jkv kuukt udfy s ≠ s X z s s . wa s s s . a s s Z q 4g krukt rfakH7h aw yH gér e 4kg dL\y je er df g krgd jkdgv kd krif 4g rukt Nd eg X q T s s ss q .D . s q s if 4g krukt Cgu hH kd hu®i huiv rfi4g rukt Cgu hH Nd eg dfct 4g . X T a kt jk} d .÷l hd tkv _l Nd dum ]xyk[ ld güm 4g nc wa s T a w q s s X s s .ufn jkv kjtqx kpπc lltf ]krif kF kr¬jkp dS 4g kgj jd hryx go X q . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 23 egaP rDe kt l Ir d rkK 4g hrkg W' huy[ [kv rfi d rkKv jkv ukuuv q s s s T s q q X a z s . g <i.jfhI¬ef kurb .D ]g krukt rfkH7hyH géqr e 2 s s s ss q s s s\ X wa a X T kjgO df gd jdkg kL[ rDo rIky go ]g k.o¬ 4g srjd hry s s . s .kv e k.D u 0c T s s q T s w s q s q 4g hd . a T s q df g krgd jkdgv kjkeg udfsy 4g kvg kjH . \Sg k. a kgi jkv kjF®i 4g y>fkc rgc ukK ji ue d . a X s s T x g.† llb ]F Zxke ikv 4g Cgu yko sukuc je 4Syf d ukv e k. zs s `g htkj kd uyk[ [kv eg k.o¬ ]hxXy[ ld [kv o 4g krdl kg r'fkdi dkykv kd ke®keji s s a q s .®g hdlm u ui/av jkeg 4g kL\i T s s s X a s s s . q ukuuv kurb e uoht 4g rukt Cgu eg kr hH Nd 2rukt Cgu hH kdum ] s X T s s q s s g ry[f yG kt e uxkv dikv 4g rukt Cgu ikv hH lm ]g kLi jF®i kt T s w s X a s T s s . wa hH hHv gér jkv g krif kjkgér e 2kul3kgd kd 0c erkx hg srkt ukgüm X q . s s wa q . s q s q s \ s\ s s .x xkH jd L kN kdLy df F Sg jH l /k∂ d sygi "o gjkc kr krif udfy ]Sx uy hH s\ \ s q s s s s Z s s s s krif 4k. \ s ji jk} dikv 4nç' g. s hg kr 4g krkg eüt kd . .ufqn s s T s ss s s X F kr¬kj Syf je ikv 4g kvg Cgu kni l ikv udfy ]g kvg kni kjk} dikv s ss wa q . T 4Cgu knk.x je jo’Zb k. ]g rukt ikv >e 4g rjd yH ikv df kgd u 0c `kgd k.m o c. s T . X . Z w .¬gj kurb l. s T s q T s s rkg ewyke Sg rukt Nd cl eg 4g jkol ukK ji hrkN hdlm ]rfkH hd XkL q s q .

q X a dS ]rkj dS 4Skt kv e >el rkc hje n. kd joæB kt ]g kd ke®keji df kt ]g krki jd k_k. q s s Z q s x kg rhrv go ]k.D jrhH jkeg jkv g rkKv ydycf . a s sd Sg je lm 4k. X . s s s s s s s X 4xkg dp xkt xky d okx 4yp jd Iky s X s q s s a X . ycfbkc k.k' llm ]gd kuI? hl7hIkN dS X s s wa s 4hxdl kg Cgu s s k_k. ]g <jkd kd ukK jkeg kt g. .ø eJ kd jHrkj 4gj rkyp ]gj rkyp jk q s Z s s s s ori so 4hF h/c Cgo oku 4F Sx yH kuyk[ kd rkj jhtt 4Sg ukjg rgc a s w s s a q .g k. a s T s s g krL[m k'u kd uoht jkv g hrkv aSkog hLO hd rke ct ]xky jrd/fv . ukgüm jkv h. 4k. .df rgc kr eJ 4k.x F.m o c.D ]g krkt /c l rhrv go ]g kr/c l ukK kt q s s X . dycf kr ke®keji jkv 4g Cgu Syf dlm k_k. q q \ s hldf 4g /c eg l hlm ]g rukt eg kt g.‘ofH hdlm ]g krgj k/c kt Fkl s .x kg s s s .x je go ]k.kOm jkori 4Sg jkol e oku dS 4Sx ji yh> o s X .D 4g w s\ a s s X T s L\[ Cgo ]hF hrkg W' k_k. \ . s s s X s . s s m kr Sx /c eg jxv l Sg ukt lb kr 4ukuuv ]kuktuv g ke®keji jkv s a s q s s s . q df kgd ukgüm 4hF rkj hd ke<√i 4kF nkp e 'kdkv kr l kyk'/e yduf s X w a X s s q s jgkc 4jdhi ckj' Sx kg 'kgc dL\y 4kvg hH e okx lm ]g krkg e okx j s s s s q X a . . krhx 4k. 4gj r[ ]gj r[ kd oku 4gj rkyp jkori jH rkj o 4Bx rhc rkj 4hn j s s s s s s s s s s d Wq' k_k. s . hd jxkl rkKv ]g krkg Cgu q s . . a s q . s .x je jo’Zb k. Nd u hldf 4jkv Nd k. X 1 s \ ukot Nd df g krkg e kokx hHl A. e jxkl d rkKv lm s . s s 4Sx yH kuLkN jhtt l jkudf dfk.t 4Sx kg 'kgc jdhi ckj' jkv Sx e gx7ckj' dS dLy s s s . ]k. s X X a z .x go ]k.yf Pi _¬k' dS u q s . a s . .yf ukt uikv hH kt 4g kvg krhc k'eg kr ukK `kxS s s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 33 egaP 4g . e .yf ukt kt 4. X q X s 4yp ji yh> ]kyp 4g rkj hNπv rgc X s .D . s kd Sg rhc k'eg ukK dfk.yf jd oHuv jkv Nd u hldf ]k. s s s kr cv `e k'nf ldf eyke u `]Skv yduf jn hurdf eyke u ]kgd u hl s X w w w s df l eum cr 4kjrm Nd k'u kdum kr Cxy ukv Skog hLO ct gcl jkv s X q s s a a q . . ukjd k. q s q .yf ul jkv . dl r o w o h s o. liko 4g Sx kv kgd eg df kvkxy kri 4g Bx kv chjd d ukg hH gcql T a s . s s s .ki rkj jg df klt kvg klß e okx q . q jd jrm phu o 4F sL[ rkj kgt ]g L[ Cgo eg `kvkv jrm phu ]re kv s s s \ a T s \ s s s kjc?3kgd jkv sOm ky¥pf l hukjg jkv jrm phu l jkudf xky kn l eum . a s s 4g k/c hg llm go ]k. T s a s T s s .x go ]k. T q a . s X a g rkj jg df kl. T a . s \Sg k.x kg kne go 4k. s .x rhc ]g 9I¬ki8 go 4g k. e rkKv lb kr gj Ldi eg jxv kd hlm ]g rukt eg kt kr rukt X s X s \ s T s s s s Cgu eg ]g k. q s s kt ld sxkv go `hxdl kg ld k_k. X s hgo ]g krn jkrm kt hjOx hd ukKv Syflb `xdl ukt ld kd uktuv l .yf ukt u ikv kt 4g k. l kgt 4g h/c oku hg ji jkudf df g rki kr s q s a . s 4Cgu Sx Cgd 4gj Cgo F kgt udfy ]hd rgc kr s s a s q s k_k. s .o¬ eg jkv 4g rkKv y .

w \Sg k. s\ s s s . s s\ s X .D 4g –jfn l ke®kv kt 94Ii¬f ub jvi8 df g kgd u I¬bk∂ T s s z q .† l rLfi 4g rkt kg kne jkv g rkt jgO s s q s a T s s Z q . w 4ji uhet Sgfkp kukg q/kl 4g s .D g. w `lgkl kd ukg rDe l ukK jGf 4g k s s q s . s s q q .D . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 43 egaP ]rukt Cgu hH Nd eg 4hyko uukt 4g Cgu knil Bkd jrhH lki jkeg df k s q s . s a s\ s 4g srkt y Fkl jd /kc kr¬c kdum ]g rnhj[ ckrdf skt l u/ hlm udfy T s a T s X s s 4g rkt xkH jdLkN u/ ]rLkN Cgu ukK xky o ]g rkt xkH jdLkN u/ T s s\ s s\ s s T s s\ xky kt Syflb 4g uOfd rgc kuLkN ukK udfy ]g uklkv rgc kun Ls\kN u s s .x je jo’Zb k. . s . X X a . rkc hd uiyxki k. a .D kuLkN lm ]Cgu rIwN o ]kd ut ]kd ukeyle ]kd s X s\ s s s . . rkuc de√k/ kd rDf. ]ukeyle jkv BklB ]ngV s s q T s . q . q q . Z q .®Lfki kurtf e k . cyre kdlm kr 4. n hHd henkv Bkd kvg kje knk. . q s\ a . s a s s . s s\ . . Z . s\ s a rhH 4g Cgu uOfd rgc kuLkN Rfil hd jgkc 4g Rfil hd jrhH ukK ]g R .pækv rgc ]g hrkg hukjg r T \ s . . T s Cgo ]g rkt kg hukK kt kr 4sxaSkt dQ ]sxSkt jgO Cgo ]xSkt kg nc Cgo T s s s s a s a s a ikv df kyef ukK 4Skt yef ukK Cgd kdikv df jd u ukoxH 4Skt yef k s s a gd ukK df g e tk[ lb kr cl eg 4g e 'kyr hd ukK kr cl eg udfy T X s s T X s s 4kukt kg rDe l ukK3g _l kygi s q s . a a `rgkp Cgu k. . q .ufn 4g uOfd endS ]g ydæfe ydycf ]g ydæfe ]Cgu `LL kurb `g k[ q .pækv jkv s s . s 4g Cgu e . q s d rkc ryx rgc u lI¬bk∂ kr g .ü/ hg o jxv 4g Cgu hIkxy lki sdut q s s T s . kgd u I¬bk∂ 4g krkg 0cl l ke®keji yod hgo ]g krLkN kt Rfil hd j s . s q q . s q . gc jd[n kd k.m o c. rHnv hld 4g krLkN Cgu kd ukg ut ]g krLkN Cgu kd ukg ukeylqe ]g q . X s a s X s ®kv `cyre k. Fkl d /klv `g sxy ld Nhi d /kl eku s. a X . krLkN Cgu kd sukg ngV udfy 4g krn LkN kd kpπc jkv hu®i ]g krsn LkN s\ s s w s . 4g krkg /kl BklB ]g krkg /kl ukeyle ]g krskg .ø hldf hg lgkl kd sukg rDqe l ukK ]lgkl kd ukg r s s s s s De l ukK 4g rkt /c l uhet j. s Z q . s a f ]lki dum `lki dudf 4g –jfn kt o g .jfkehc q s s X s q . X uFel d kr–jfn jkv kruhn ]hchjx go df kvg g.D s a T s a s s s s s X X 4g krP\c uikne kurm ]g krP\c . s s s \ s Rpf dum ]u/c go 4g rkt /c l ukK uiv ]sl uukt uiv o dfk. q s\ s .D `k. dl r o w o h s o.ül henkv dS 4srLkN Cgu ukK o . a s s gd ukgütf jkv k. s\ s s s .ü/ 49jvi n jkv L¬yç8 df g s s T s s T q .g hg Z s . q s / 4hxsxy Igkjc? hLc 4Stfhn Lkr jhtat huiv ji Ir d ukK3g _l kygi \ s\ X s .nf dG kd knil hd ukK ukgütf ]o cyre kd –jfn sl ke s X .jfkehc ub Fkl d /kl 4g krkv e >el ]gj hxy k. q w ngV ]g Sx Syf Ldi kt ukK udfsy 4g krkg .i dum 4g rkt kg Felv o e ukt e uk q s T s a s s T s s Z s X s X Lm hd ke®keji ]hd 'kdkv ]hd jxkl ruv 4g krn uy Cgu ukLm jGf kd \ a . s\ jkojfi ]g krn LkN j? ]g krkt kg hlk.iQ 4g u/ dS hH go Syflb ]g knil djfrkv dS hH go a . q w /kl ngV 2rkg Cgu kni 9/kl8 ji uhet dr cv df g rkc hd . . fil hd jgkc k.

. T s \ T s s s s jhto uiv ulm 4e –el F rkt jkv F rkv tkgt kLdl 4ji rN kF kvg s s X q s s . hjkl hd ktkgt kn ub jkv 4g tkgt kd ukK dS jkv g tkgt kd .ü/ 4g k[j Cgu /kc kd suiv 4g e ukKv ydycf eg s s T .®l xky l LkF hg o yod `xky hg o g k.ufn ]S[fj <je¬ jkv 4hx .r hd uLkN kd u/ `n LkN kd ukK ikv df hd rkc lb g hjk. s s T s Bk[nf tkgt kn yod >e l unf Nd 4F rLi Bk[nf kLdl hH >e ygi3 s s s q s q s s \ X \ T s q s kgd u jhto dlm 4g gj kt jkv g gj kv tkgt XkLdl kg r[n3kgd kd s s T s . s T T s w u/ g krkt yef kLid 4g hrkt yef hIIfLbkv 4g Bkd ]hLcel ]g Nd e . go jGf kr kxSkt uNf u/ kdl wa . a .x je 4g krkt gj h_e ZoirH ]g krkt gj 9]Cgu8 kr g h_e Bkd a .m o c. s s s T s T s X T s \ g rLi Bk[nf tkgt kn `g k. g kgj kt utk[ u/ Bkd kr k. a s T X q \Sg k. s s\ s X s\ s . T s s s m jxv udfy `g ukd e df Cgu rukt ]kxgd kr n kdD/ kd hu/ hldf kj s wa . w X z s wa q T e eH d 9g Nd e8 lb 4g ukd e df g krn okH g. xy kdD/ hH kd k. 4e ke®kv g X T –jfn kt ]xky so g . T s s s . s q s `g ukd e df Cgu rukt ]kjgO df krgd kr g krkt wa . oHuv ]ni ]u/ kr wa . 4kLc g Cgu ykol Bkd kd suLkN u/ 4g Sg rcfkl ryx xky yko ujd hj \ .D kr .[ g. s 1 s s ss .x je jo’Zb k. X wa s wa q T 4g hrkg rîfr l tk[ hd u/ 4lki je g u/ 4g krkg rîr jkdgv hH sl u/ . h_e jxv go yd udfsy 4Bx xy Cgu kr Ikp kdikv Cgd df kxgd go d¥ a s s s s fc 4g ukd e df krgd Cgu ydycf go ]kn kdD/ kdlm 4kykP7kyhP ydyc wa . a 4kF Nd go kr kF u/ q s `g ukd e df Cgu rukt df kxgd Cgu g. _e go 4k.r k. s s \ s .x kg ckj[ xkenf3kgd u ktkj lm 4g gj L\i s . dl r o w o h s o. X s . . a w w . s s\ T q s s s k. u/ kr dS 4g rLi Bk[nf tkgt hg kn s>e hH jGf udfy ]kg krLi Bk[nf s T s \ s q s s \ ryx >e df g krdl kg 4kgd u jhto dlm 4g gj kt ]g gj kv kL\dTl ` s q . T s s s X s t 4g Nd e ]lki je g u/ 4krukt Cgu kd suiv e df eg g rkt yH 4sl wa q T ss . s . T T . s s s s T s s s kv 4d ukK jkv d u/3g dDlf hg kn yod e k. s s s s 4g k_k.nf LkN kd Rfial hd s s s s s\ s s s s . a s ]g krkg tkj df klt ]Skt gj u h_e go 4g Nd go skr g h_e henkv dS .kN hdikv ]jdn kdD/ rkt yduf l lki ikv jkv kF s s s . q . s\ s ukK sukgütf ]g cyre kd kr–jfn hd ke®kv `cyre kd kr–jfn hd ke®kv X . T X z d 9Nd8 4g ukd e df krukt Cgu g. .o ]Skt yduf th∂ hd Lid lt 4k.D . T q s s q f 4g krkt kg henkv kl. s s X \ T q kL[ go >kl dS 4kF krjd lkouf e yge suiv jkudf d –el gk'nkc dS \ a X s s q 4xky yko u s s s jd kØdb kd ukK jkv xky yko ujd kØdb kd u/ g xky d gjr hg kn j s . \ . s 1 a 4utk[ ukK Bkd k. s s s X q . s s s . . e df g krkt yH hg yk. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 53 egaP 4krkt gj Cgu <je¬ kd rkc lb 9]g ukd e8 e eH wa . go s q wa . s 4g rdl ukt kd ke® T s s keji ]kd . . T . kg hd jrhH go hxkg /çfyim kt kr ikv Stfhn LkN lm jxv 4g jgkc u/ s s s s s\ s . s s .x gj Cgu cv h . s . s .

\Sg k.D ]g krkg hHn knk. s s a a g krkg Cgu kyko ukt y Gjr hd ke®keji jkdgv Syflb ]g krLkr jkdagv . \ q s k.m o c. s s\ a s s\ n Lkr g. a .D jkv d jkdgv . df g krgd g.D g. X s s "o lhpπi7lhc3kNi ue `k. . s s s q\ T X w ]g okH kd uukt kt g.D rfe¬ hdlm `g k. ]u/ 4g htk[ d ukK kr eg ]g hn s s .kolf kgo ]g krkv okH kd ukjg kd hldf akgt s .D3kgd ukgüm 4Bki Cgu xy l dhO rky . dl r o w o h s o. ]jkdgv g. s .kLy hH kd k. dr cv hdlm ]hjke rky kt ygi T X 1 . w . a s X s w s `kxkg k. s s `rjd rtfkji j s kv rkjg kd jln7dS jkv `re? rjd FkÛk' hukK kr Cgu 4jkdgv kxyef .D ]g krkg dkujr[ knk. q q s\ kdltf hn jd hL[ ykohn hlß jkv k. s a \ u Bk[nf jkv g e”l knk.D X wa q T . w . s\ 4g rkt II lcl ikv 4gjr hd ihn l IkN dS ]gjr hd ubkv dS g srkt T s w s s ss s T gj sydv ikv 4lcl g krLkr kdikv go 4g Bkdb hyko uLkr jkdgv 4hx s s . . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 63 egaP Nd e8 ]g kgt jkdgv 4g krdl jH l kiW udf jkv urdf eyke u 4sl q T T a a . 4Tg .‘ue hH kurtf 4g ntke kgo cl go g h z s s w X s q . s . s . s s wa T . s a \ Z s s s s\ s .iQ k[ky l s\ s X s T a s\ T s X ki je df hxkg Cgu 9kxB8 g.D X . X .D nk. s\ s . s s s w . s a s jkv 4g Nd e df g krkt kg kni Hn hH kd hukK 4hd ukK g tk[ jkv dS . s w a s . wa s s X X a k. s X . . s nf LkN . q s X s s X ub jxv `e tkyx7hykx ]knuV ]uL[ d k_¬k' jln ]r[yf _¬k' hukK k.x kv jkdgv cr ]hn LkN ct 4g .ufn jkv kLy hH n[ u s \ .† go dfk. s 1 jGf jkdgv 4g krLi Cgu dG Bkd l uLkN kr n hH LkN kd u/ jxv hu a . s w s Z s a s ]hxyef Cgu rfk' kgo ]Stfk[ jkv SPfP lki7lkv dum ]S[fn e k[kv hd s a a s .iQ k[ky ue3kgd l>e u /kl dS s X s T s q s q 4g krkg rîr hH . s . . df Z w s T X s X s s kxgkp kugd g. 4g ykohn hjrhH ere”l g.jfIfe hnkodrfkH kr g. s w u/ ]l ukK ]l kol ]l Fko¬ 4g krdl jH kd uiv rfkH hH hldf jkdgv 4 s s s s Z . T X a s . q s T s s s T koe®k. cr ]gj lki dikv .÷v kr eg ]eg 2g I¬yf. s a . 4g Rfil hd jgkc s . a s . s s lgV rfi d . 4l Zol ]l zxel hxn suLt Cgu g.® 4g krkg jkdgv kd Ze Z a .® jkv 4g krkg jkdgv kd hxk.iQ k[ky 4. 4g kgj kt kvg ydæfe kuLkr s .‘que jln ]e ue d . \ Z s s s s\ s X s\ s kK .ufkK ub `g k.iQ k[ky ue df k. 4g ntke kgo cl go ]g krdl kg /k∂ j. . go dfk. ss s s a s s s X s nf LkN .x je jo’Zb k. a . s a a . s s s a . s a / 4g krkg jkdgv 4kLi Cgu dG Bkd l uLkN dikv 4g gxt huiv jkdagv . a kr u/ g. e kr Xuke u kjc jxv3kgd lum ue 4Sg "o lhpπi7lhc wa T s q s s T q Z Bkd3ykc go `hF hjke cd rky df kNi lum ue kr 4kgd jkc uhr ]kgd s s s w s s T s jkc kn ]kgd jkc dS 4hn jke rky ji s.D jkc7jkc 4rky hxkg Bki Cgu x s\ s X s T T s X s y go `g k. w X .† l jkdgv d .iQ k[ky ue df g rjd <je¬ k. s hH kd ukK lb udfy 4g nko–{ kr g.ufkK .ufkK 49g Nd e8 df g kgj kg rcte jkdgv hH l ukK `g kgj kg k. jkv g ykohn hd jkdgv cl Xykohn . \ s q . 4g krukt e df g krkg jkdgv kd hukK 4krLi Cg .† Cgd l hu/ hukK s . s s a s e/ jkdgv kd hxk. wa q T .D . rdl kt hd tkyx7hykx hurtf 4sxaSkt kg ukjg rgc kr [n _¬k' d k.kv k<1? ]k X .

x kg uhgeku s s s q s s T s e kr jGf 4k.D ukt s s\ q T .x je jo’Zb k. s q s s ei 4g krLi kuIky liko Fkg hyk[ lm ]g krkt jdkg 9Nd8 ji jk} d ezsi zs . ko¬ jkv g ryef sy[ jk} k'eg lm ]g krkt jdkg 9Nd u8 kt ji jk} d . hH xkv ji uhet 4g kvg g. s uLkN udfsy 2Cgu hH Nd `g Ski ukt k.D ]g rukt kgt `g k.x ukK kje jxv ]k. henkv kt ji jk} d hei dfk.D ]kxdl kg Cgu . . s s .D 4kxn jd rjfrof kd rhxl jkl ]jo¬ hg.D ]g kpkl hHd `g rki k. s q s 4kxLi kukg 9Nd u 8güm df [j <je¬ o ]g kutk[ kd ke®keji gütf 4kr s \ s q X X s .‘ue jkv ke®keji 9Te8 .H Xe X s s s s .kx 4g k. 4hF u ykohn Bkd kr kF Cgu 9e8 4F rLi eyke nc s s T s s \ w a <jkd d 9e8 yod 4F Sg hg y[ kr jk} df kyp kri Nhi jkv 4Sx y[ j s T s s q s q s s . s s\ s .D ]kxsLi Bk[nf kj T s q wa T s s s X \ ln kr sxjtqx l lki d yi hlm ]F jtqx yd l lki d yi ltf 4hxxy uL w s X s s q s s s s q s s i Bk[nf hd gjr jkv ydycf hxntV 4hxn eyke jrhH rfk∂ rqHnv dS hg \ . w s s . . s s qd ]g kukt k. q 4g krdl kg rIf? hH jrhH dikv . q s w a s s s rn Ikp 4kuukt lm ]kuj[cf lm 4kusn Ikp kd jkdgv d ukK3g _l kygi s s s s s a s . 4kxgj krkg g. w wa T s s s `kg ukd df kNi u hldf llm jGf jkv 4Bx hul dr¬n jGf ji tkoj s . df krdl kg Cgu k.i huiv hei df g k. w 4kxkg hg kujd jki kd . wa \ zs q T s r e `kg Cgu k. s .¬tekl Fkl d ol kgo ]g kgt okH g. `Skt ky s s s . s . s e r¬kj d ke®keji go ]krjd Cgu jki kt kd . T s q s s .t g krkt yduf lß uoht `Cgu kr hH N .D . q k} df g rgd jkv 4g hg r skr cv ]g Cgu e kr cv3kgd u hldf l jgkc T s . s s g. dl r o w o h s o. X ugc dlm 4kukt gc ]kukt y?if kucf ukt lm 4kuukt kd ukK g [l kygi s s s s s . s T s 4g krpC[ jhdy Bkd ji huki l. \ . s s zs wa T .x kg kI X s . s s s e j? d ei `g rdl y[ ld Syf dlm jk} d hei 9g e8 df g krgd X s zs T s q s . s ldf l jrhH ]Bx kg rkj h/kv 4g kgj ky¥pf jkv g kL[ ji jk} hei kjkgé s s wa . s s H kd suukt kt go 4g Lt hjgx lcl hd 9e8 Cgo ]hxkg Cgd kgt Ikp e”wl s T s \ s T s a s jkv hjgx jkv hygi ji 9e8 4g IokdQ e phc d . T . X s q . .D ]kxdl y[ u jk} g.D hrykc3kgd jkv SkLHLH jk} jkc rgc ulm 4k.x kg 9Nd u8 e jGf kr k. 4kvkt Iky3kgd u h s s zs X s q s . q .D BkuOfd e uLkr 4Cgu g Nd rukt . . zs 2kt Iky ]g Cgu gxt Bkd Syf d kn .[ kd uukt kt go ]ok .m o c. \ \ q s s kkËl rjr 2hei kjr g e ]kgd su hei `kg ukd ]kNi u hldf 4k. kr Bkpl jkv 4kxkg kuLkr lm ]g yk.H lm 4g krdl kg Cgu h_k. s p 9e8 g.x jk} ji jk} d hl. s nkp ]Sx jkv Skv unf ]Bkv i/ ]Bkv ñnl ]Bkv rkljc 4k. s s X s k. X s s\ T q s eg df g g.x hg ukK kje jxv df g jL e s q X s s .x kg 9hLcku8 jGf ]9Nd u8 kr jGf 4k. s . ]g krdl kg g. s 4g kryef rx . q s n lm rkj dS ]unf dS jGf jkv rhc "o urdf eyke u jkv jxf jkv xm . T s a . w s ]k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 73 egaP tf e 4kd yi lb g krukt e df F rpkl ikv yd dfk.H lm 4g krdl kg . 9g wa q T X s s a s Z a . T s s s a s g Nd e dfk. a wa \Sg k. s s .x Iky hei go a . s Z s w . w .x rhx ddS u heW s zs zs .kI[I[ jk} aq zs s wa T zs s .

¬gj jkl g Sg dkj ukK kr g. \ . . q q s s q s q \Sg k.kv Xe s s wa s s T T s X s s zs {i d ukK 4Cgu cklgf Bkd kdltf g Sx yki e /kjof d ei l k"o kjkt s s T s X s s zs s ˜ X g7kjktg lß Nd kr eg udfsy 4g kry ukt kyko ujd ei jkv g krki ukt X s q s . 4g krkt yduf rfk . 4g krn jd k/v kd henkv g. s Bkd Cgd ]Cgu df g hrgd go ]g hrkt hrPc hurtf lbkl 4g Cgu Cgd jo s . h>elku kujd rkc hd ke®keji llm ]krukt Cgu kd ei kt `jd k. q . dl r o w o h s o. s s zs s . X s\ s 2kuLkt l ezsi jkv kd uiv kuLkr l ukK3g _l kjlwn s\ s . .D rkc X s s zs s X X hd ke®keji df krgd go 4rjd Cgu rkc hd ke®keji er ]F rgd llm x s X q s s s ky duv 4kF krjd rkc hd ei jkv kF krkx rhx d ei go 4kF jhdG dS s s zs . s a s .† l e®keji kr kxSkt kg rgfkoi Rp .† l ke®keji kr hxsxy sujd ekd 0fc e k'nf hd ukK .k' kr [sn s \ a T s s X l rfk' gjr hji jxv hH kd yG lm kr 4Li eyke kvg krky 'nl kd j s a w s w s s \ w q sa wn hurdf ewyke u g. . . Kr<fx kd k"kH hd ei udfy 4d ke®keji kucf krki Cgu hH yef kr ei s zs s s s zs 4g krki kd ke®keji ji end7end kr ei udfy ]g rf<jfi ejp erfv hd . ]g Hn kd ukK kt g.nkl hldf d ke®keji n. X s s s zs . a H hd /v l gxt cl go dfk. s zs 4g C . s s s\ s . s X s ki d yi lm tkv udfy ]g 9Nd u8 yi go F rukt 9Nd8 ikv kd yi l s q s . w 4g srkt T y[ jk} d ei dlm ]g krkg htkj kd suLkN kd ukK kt 4g kd ei df kt q s zs s . a .D ]g s s . 4g Cgu [kv hyko u[nf dfk. a s X . s fdkFr hldf tk[ hd ukKof dfk. \ a T æB df g krgd go ]g krkt krPc kurtf ukKof Syflb 4g tk[ hd ukK rF . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 83 egaP 4g rjd rkc hd ei kr eg df kF krgd go 4g T s X zs s . krLi Cgu kr Bk[nf go udfsy 4g hgo ecl g Nd skt jkv g Nd cl jkv \ s . a T s s 4g hH kgo ke®keji ]g cwn kt phu d ji jkv 4g krn Cgu u[n kd kthp g . . a ukK rFfdkFr lm ukKof 4k. s w s s q X jxv jkv 4g Cgu hH Bkd Iduf knk. s s zs .x joæB ]g Cgu joæB Bkd 4kryef Cgu joæB .D ]kxSki ukt Cgu kd ke®keji hHd ukKof s X s 4g Cgu Bkd jn knk. s .D ]kxLi Bk[nf Cgu go kd rDf.¬gj go n. s s s\ s s .k' 4kxsn ewyke Z<i.k' kr kd yi lb g rukt Cgu df Sg rukt ]rkK jkv xyduf l l s s q T s q s .ø yko uukt s a s X s \ s s s udfy 4Skt Li Bk[nf kgo dy> hd Z. s s s s z f e k'nf hd ei ct 4[j <jp e ei 4jd rfx ]e uoht d ei l ei Xe / X zs X X zs X X s zs s zs kjof d ukK df g krjd unouf likv e 4g Sx yki e /kjof d ei j. 4g ynkc jkv g 'kdkv ]g Skog 4g hH kgo ke®keji ]g xky kt lki7lkv T . q . s s s . T a . s s s s X . . q s s s . a s . . zs s kxLi Bk[nf kvg kry[ trf{f ouHfv kjln dS kr Ski jd Ikp ji ukK s \ q q w s a s jxv jkv 4hxLi hujd ji ukK Ikp hygi kr gjr hd kykohn ]gjr hd snji . Cgu kyko suukt 4y ukt kd okH d ujd ei jkv n LkN okH kd uukt g.x je jo’Zb k. n.m o c.D . X .k' 4X[n kd ywG lm w s s 4Skt jgO unf a dS n. gu hH ydycf e >el hdlm k"kH hd ei `kxs>el ld hukK `kx>el sld q X zs s . . s \ s s X jk} d .

s zs X q k[ k. w s T s s s z s g rkg . s s . X 3kgd sulm cr 4g kgj uke go kr g krjd Cgu nkoof jhdG df k[n ulm . s zs z s .yk|of d ei hldf Syf d u[hl jkd s T s X s zs s s i 4Bx skg hryx kr g.kv k.D hd tjl kdum ]k[sn s s w X X w s Cgu hg k. Z w s \ s 4Cgu hg g Cgd g .ku .®l d jkdi urdf `g krkg ei kd jkdi urdf ]g krNi g.x je jo’Zb k. 4kyp Cgu kri Bkd z . s q s q s . s s a rfk' jhdG jkv Snf ckct 4SkOm dr e”l Lc 4hd k.m o c. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 93 egaP 4xy ujd jkdi d ei er ct ]kxy hH >e hg klo ]kF kxy kd hy s s z s zs q s q .kv hyk . X q .yf [n k.D 4Cgu kri kd dr jkdi jkv kg gj jd lkodc hd ei7ei er jkv z . o g gj jd k.“k.ø dhjkc hL\c ulm a .D jkdi g. s s a s a `jkdi jkv e ei `g krkg k.“k.yf [n hH tjl ulm s . kjd nkoof kr k. qa a zs 4 rjd Cgu rkc hd ke®keji eg df kF krgd go 4g k. w s o 4kjd rkc hd ei jGf ]k[hl rk0lf d ei ]skPi Ûk' e /acl d ei ]sk[h s X zs s a s zs \ X a s zs l jkdi ygi 4hd ei g lkyD hygi kr g. g dS kr go dfk.D .kv e >el `rkc hjwi huql q s .xfc hd yG dS kGn d s s s s s s . . k'seg T s s s z s . wa kri hHv e 4g spπl yG ukd7ukd ]k[n3kykc l hyke j. . 4g krukt rkc h s s a s s . s s X w S lt ]kg kul uer Cgd n. s . X s s duf ckrdf sulm l hyk> huiv 2g hje hjkc hd ulg3kgd ulm 4klg rLfai s s .D Syf d ke®keji lum ]krukt Cgu kd ei kt s X X s s s zs s \Sg k.hn ultf jkv 4rjd Cgu rkc hd tjl ]g rjd rkc hg hd . s s s zs i er df kgd ulm jkv kpgi rLfi dS unf dS 4kF krjd rkc hd ei go zs q s .ki kg Cgu e 4kF kukg ñrH e .nf jd ukjg ]kykc X s z T s s zs s q .k' ]kGn dS lt ]kxy klß >e3kgd jkv kpku s . y u[n jd l?f7l?f kd kyG ji jF®i d suld d ukl uiv jkv g krkxy s s s X w s s s s s .kv l? jdy T T w . w jkv gér kd ei g krkv Cgu hH l ]c ]v hHv `kxkg kri kd ei gér d .hn ukgütf `gd k.D ]g rofkHi jhdG 4g dhO ]kpkl u rLfi 4kgj kruql sl s X . s jhdG go `g ewyke ]g krkg ei kd jkdi urdf ]kNi l jhdG lm hH u r .D go `gd jc[ k. z . 4xy ujd hg ei kr eg 2BkH g yH3kykc jhdG g z s s s zs s . 4k. dl r o w o h s o.3kgd j. w rLfi `g krkg kd jkdi urdf ei df g kri hH g. X q zs . s q . s q l _¬k' sulm 4g krkul _¬k' kuiv gér e 2kul3kgd ulm 4Bx kg hryx g wa q X q T s q s s . 4g Cgu eyke hH kd jkdzi hHv z s zs .ø T s s s T s s hjkH so 4g hgj rnkv l k'eg hd krLfi df klt 4hd k.“k. s X w T s X s hn d hÈef go `kd tjl >el k. s w s ]g k.kx rhx ulm dS jkv 4kxy klß >e3kgd u jhdG lm s s \ s .“k. s zs z s w s s Lfi lm 4g krNi rkc hg. s z s zs . .t kr 4Sg rcfkl Ow> yG hHl 4Sg rcfkl pπd yG hHl jkv kx s q s w q s w . gxt jg kr go `g rkg joæB d jkdi urdf ` a . s z a zs . s s s s q s kd jF®i d uld kd ukl ]hjgkt kd ukl dS e k. s s X a . g krkg kd jkdi pki ei df g k[yf elb 4k[n ckrdf g. s . s ke lm kl. s q s `jdul rkc hje kxy kld gér `kxy kld `h. s s 4kjd re nkoof 4kvkt gj rk' jGf k. jhdG 4jdkg L[ k.ø o hdltf df sukt kd rkc lb kucf ]g gj rjd uk. X zs .ø hjkH o 4k. s z s dr tkv eg kr kd jkdi 4g rukt eg kr ei 2uer k. s s zs zs q . 4kg rkt Ij ei hg e a .

s s s .[ kl7kLkF kd hjnki . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 04 egaP kv df g ∂Gf k. s\ .df k.df k. s\ .m o c.D3kg a w\ s q s q d ulm 4kvg ukjg kLkF hjnki 2Bkjd jki dLl kd hÛ hPc dS hH ue df s q .df .df Cgu u hldf j.r {ke kuiv eg rfkH lb df g srp . s X zs s d uer df kNwi l kpπc sulm unf jln 4re hg kvkl Sdf ekd kd kol dS s q s X s w s s s kucf 4kjd kol kjd ei er df k.d s s s s q q \ f ueg df kgd jkv SkOm Fkg u kpπc uhr `k. dl r o w o h s o. s\ X .D `kxkg rlfdof jkv zs s .ufn duf/kv l. kxyG ei g. s \Sg k. s s .D suer df kNi kd pπc jlhr 4k. 4g rkt yp Sdf kol hr¬njct . kygi Syflb 4Cgu l suLkr ]kd ke®keji kxyef jk} l uLkt 4g krLkt dfk s s\ s s s s\ . s T s s a T kl . qa q 2ke®keji g kry . s X q s s s 4hF hrgkp Cgu hg kukg jki 4hF hrx s kH kr go 4k.kjd jki kd hlm su kuhr eg 4hF hg dS kr hPc 4 q w s s X s w\ CF Cgu uhr 4>el ryx ikv ]Cgu3kgd sukgüm `Bkjd jki dLl kdutf ]Bx s X \ s yef k. s zs . s X s q s\ s 4hF Bkjd jki dLl kd hÛ hPc \ s w\ dS hH ue kgd ulm `k.df jki gjr hldf hr¬njct ueg 4hF hrgkp Cgu kukg jki go s s s 3kgd su kpπc um 4e sukjd jki dlm hLi rjWt hd kr.®Î kd ei k.kv kurm ]g k. s . s 4g krLkr ukK 4g k"kH hd nH k"kH hd ukK ]g k"kH hd nHv k"kH hd ezsi .kgl hd kut uhr X X s \ X er k. s\ . ld udfy 4Xn ukg rlfdof jkv n uyG kd ei3g _l kjlwn s . ]g rL\i ewyke Sg rjd lo√l jkv kol e k. ef e j[fkv 4g krkt kyp krLkt ]g krkt kyp krLkt e/7ei 4kLdI hj[fk X . 4k.ü/3kgd u hjnki lm 4hF Bkjd jki dLl skd hÛ hPc dS ue3kgd u s \ w\ s T s s pπc `k.x je jo’Zb k. s . s T s q s .D ]g krpgi ji ke®keji ei 4g krLkr df kt ]g krpgi ji <keji ukKof .D . s g rn kojd jki dLl kd kxky Pc um .D df kNi ulm 4k. s\ kuLkr jkv kuLkt 4g krLkt ei 4g krjd kjlfyuS ]g krjd <"yæof ukK s\ .jfhI¬fef knk.k' df e k'kv T s s X lb ]g rjd ei hH hr¬njct kt ]g hH xky lß `kxStfhn jd W' kujd T s zs s T s s q ei jdkt kd hldf hr¬njct k.ufn hjkl dol kt .df kNπv rqgc s T s s q w s s \ s w 4nko. s X s X 4g Cgu hujd jki kdutf ] .† lub 4g xky dkujr[ d gj s X q q s T s s r hlm .df .df ekd hg dS u kukn ub df kvg yk.df o–im kurtf u kdol e k. s\ s . s\ zs . X s .D uer3kNi l dLy jln 4k. T s s \ s X s s w\ s T s s s s 4Cgu Bkd e k. s\ \ s w\ s T kgd sulm `k. qa zs .df .®Î kd ei ]kd kosl Bk s .df kNπv hH uer df q w s s s s q kgd sulm 4g k. X .D `g hr¬njct Bkd k. s\ .®Î kd kosl hg dS u Xkuhr er k. s\ Z zs \ q v ]<v ]eIS g kryef e j[fkv 4g krkt kyp hg krLkr 4g krLkr ukKof 4 q ._¬f hPc uhr kder `k. w 4kuLkN ukK3g _wl s\ .df kL[ kd pπc d zs s q w .D kdikv 4g gj jd .ufqn s s s . zs s .D uer df kNi sulm jkv k. \ s s S 4huke rkc kr u uhr ed l ed 4F spπc lhr 4hjnki kvg '[ kLc 4k.k>el kd kpπc u hjnki dS e yd¬ dS s s s zs q s X s X w 4g rjd kol 4Skt yef ke®keji n.

zs . \ un kjt kyko un kr kg hyk[ jxv hyk> 4g rukt rkc hl rgc hH hjk[Hf s s s s s s s T s X q 4F Syf [ s j ulm sukn Nd d yokp ]sukn Nd d up e hyk> 4hF Cgu hyk[ ydycf g s q s q s s X s q o udfsy 4hF hyk> hyk[ 4uxke k{Hf jdy hysk> huiv ]kF hg kyduf jgkc s s a s sl j? gcl7gcl <‰kc hjk[Hf dS 4k. jkv 4g ryduf jgkc jd[ X s . `kxuc ld <ki kdikv ei 4g kNπv g.D .t 4Sg rkLm y/ ]k. g hujd jki dL\l kdi T s a s s . s Z . s a . s s s jln l ei dikv df Cgu g. df g krxy klß kd syko sun kr kg hjH hLkF hyk> 4g krjd kni upLv Xe . g kujd jki kdikv 4 T s s s . dl r o w o h s o. . ukv hg kdikv ei 4g Cgu <k. s zs s . X . s w . ]uc <ki kdikv ei 4g Cgu k/kc s s . s fk.≈kH je s s s s\ s a s s s s ss g . X Z hd uLkN kd n[ 4g krLi kuLkN ]g krLi kuk[ kd n[ e ei udfy 4xXkg s s\ s q . jdy sukn d [hH LkF l hjrl ]ji jk} d ktkj go kr tkj7tkj 2. Bkd e usn sukg rgfkoi kd ei kr Skt kv e yk. s q s yf d u'n d ktkj `kg ld kd hjk[Hf u'n kd ktkj 4kF krkv Iky liko s Z s s s .kv ji dLl gcl7gcl Fj kd ktkj dS X q s \ w \ q q 4g gj gkp kukpc kd T s s uiv kr eg 4g Cgu htkj kd uk[ kd uiv eg 4g Cgu htkj kd uLkN hH kj s s T s s s s s . T s s r kg ryduf jd ykL u jkv kg ntke Bkd kg. sld s s z s zs s a . z zs .D ]sxkg nwtke l7rgc kg. . s s s s s . s s . s .≈kHkl tkv 4hjk[Hf kF go 4Sgfkp kukg ktkj n[ kr S Z .x kv hH Fj kd ktkj 4kF kryduf tjl hg uekl T s w s 4g hjk[Hf go ]g kg . . ]g g.ü/ ]kgd u hjk[Hf 4k. s \Sg k. s s s\ t kd uiv eg 4g rdl jH l ei <ki dlm jrhH d hlm ]g eltf . s q a . . s z zs .[ jxv rkc hl7hIkN dS s X s s z s zs s X s `Om kg rgfkoi likv ei df kxkg oHl g. wa .x je jo’Zb k. \ s\ . T s j ukn l7LkF e hyk> huiv hjk[Hf hHl kr 4n n hH eg kr g k.¥d kd hldf ei 4g krn kO‘rfi kd nukv ezsi a zs . jkv 4Sgfkp kuyduf jd ykL 4g rjd hryx k X X .üw' jkv rDjf l ei kt ]g kukt naukv klß Bkd uikv hHd 4g n s . hH Bkd e sun ei 4g hrkg Cgu Ui®m kol jkv ei hr¬njct Bkd gjr lb s X s zs .ƒekl s s T s s zs z s s . j xke Nd hH Bkd kt 4kg u hjk[Hf kt ]g Cgu uOfd kutk[ henkv klß d a q s s s s . . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 14 egaP 4kxMkt kg FkrÎ ]kxMkt skg yGl kd eüt7eüt a s Z a s jkv kxn kyG hyk> jd dkj kd Fj kr tkv df kgd ulm jkv k.m o c. i xke ktkj df kF . s s s s s\ s . zs s 4g rn Skjd jki kdikv eg 4g kujd Cgu k.nf su kjkv s s s s\ X s s X s s . rkc hl7hIkN go jkv 4g Cgu k/kc hH s w s zs s . s s .kv kvg krkLm y/ hH Fj kd ktkj g q q z q \ w o 4g hrkt kg h/v llm [kv hd kxky urdf eyke u 4g srkLm yw/ Fj d T s a s X a X s s w T \ s kvktkj hHl kl. \ s s q X zs s s gj e nukv hg e k'n hd ei hldf jWt cr ]xkg gj Xe nukv ikv hH ct s X a X zs s X s a `kg kgj .x yef j . rkc hl7hIkN go d¥fc ]kxkg Hky kd s zs . s z s a 4sxdl kg Cgu rO‘frfi e nukv h X s z X a H hHd ikv rDjfrfv d ei df g g. s g gj jd ektrb kd {ke uiv eg 4g hujd Cgu k.

df kxy ukj jd Ihi7Ihi hrkN go cv jkv kF k.nf hHd sulm dfk.≈kHkl ].k' ]hF Bg hL? H' n. s zs s a .nÔ kyko uxke 4g s X a .D .D cv `Wd k. s s kn dS 4hd kr reégf 2k. s .ki s .nÔ kyko un 4g krkt kg kd uskl go g krkt k.D hyk> hjkl ue 4Bx skg s s s X s X s s T yH hLc kr g. .x hH dQ Fj 4k. s s q s s T s 4g Cgu krukt .v j? 4kF krkrNi ]kF h[qn s go udfy ]kF kyef rgc lm <jkd d usn kukn dS ]F Sx kg rr√ojfi e s q s s s s s X .D 4kF h[n tkv udfsy ]hF Cgu gxt e hyk> kr Bkv >kl s X q X s s a 4 Bx j H hji hyk> hdlm e jH unf 4F syef Cgu hHd df urtf 4F yef ukn rqgc w s X s s s s s 7rgc e jH unf lm dfkykg 4kgj h[n jH unf hjk[Hf unf lm 4k. s . .kv hH jrm phu ktkj 4k.m o c. s s s s .x gj kL[ krkrNi hjk[Hf go jkv Bx gj hrL\m yw/ s s \ . p dS l ydæfe rgc ]l ydæfe sulm kr 4kF uOfd hH kujd jkdb 4kn sn s q q s q s a s ]kdl n hH kt 4g kukt s>e 4kjd hn¥t3kgd u ktkj udfy 4g uOfd kun u s s s . s s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 24 egaP kt jdkt e jnfe Syflb 4g Cgu . . . .k' 4kvg rwge H .x kg kI q X s a q s ym kr go 4kxSkt yef l ktkj df kF kpkl sue kt ]Sx yH hg uil jkl g s s s T s w s s o jkv 4g kryef l ydæfe hurdf kukn dS 4k.nf kt zs s s . kg kIym kr g. X T s q T s jd oHuv kLhi hd hjk[Hf lm 4k. . s `g Zxke k. s s s q \ q q Z q q ' n.D cv ]g jk} k. go kun 4g kxke k'eg sulm 4hd Cgu hH kui¥d hd un hHd ulm 4g k. s s s ukl kukn kd yokp dS e hyk> hjH lm 4kxy ukj jdkIym hyk> 4kF lknm X s s s s dr hHv ]BkIym hyk> ulm 4kIky j? jdy ed kukn dS 4g kLi kun Nd s s . . s 4hn kyG suekl dlm hysk> huiv n[ u ktkj .kv ktkj 4g krjd ukd reégf hd un hH ku . q s s s .x Li e ydæfe hLc kr hjk[Hf 4g krsn q \ \ X q \ s .ükekl dS hH go 4kF kukt Cgu hH ulm 4g rgkp hHl kuki 4kr s T s gkp Cgu Bkd kun 4g krukt Bkd hHd hg l ydæfe kun `kun g rukt ikv s s .nÔ kyko ujd ei . \ s q hg gcl tkv3kgd ulm `g k.x kyp jkv kukn dS 4k. df k.x kyp Fj jkv kOc ]k.x kg ed kukn dS 4kF kLi kusn s s \ lm kukn dS dfk.k' 4hF hjH Cgu hHd hyk> hurm 4k. .D lknm urb ]h[n urb3kNi u hu®i hdlm q s T X s q s w s 4kF lknm kr k. s s .x je jo’Zb k.x hH kv Fj s s s \Sg k.x . k'eg ulm 4g Cgu k.≈kH dlm <jkd d sun n. s s X s s s c kF ut . a s s s s . s q .nÔ kyko sujd ei .x hg yH go {el d ktkj df k. 4k. dl r o w o h s o.D ]g rdl jd oHuv cl ]g rdl s s . kyG hyk> huiv ktkj suekl d hjk[Hf df g krkt kg hHd7hHd dkte klß .D e cv udfy 4krkg k.nf ykL e hyk> hd ktkj jkv kykduf kukn kd yok s X s . a s q s reégf hdlm 4F rkv Iky liko hyk[ jkv F rkt e hyk> Fkg dlm 2kjkp s s . a T s s kg kukl cl tkv kr `hn Iym e lki d ktkj u k.x kg kd w \ s s s . s s kn jH hØe 4n ykL e hyk> jkv MkOm ukn jH hØe df hF hrki kg u hHd q wa X s .x kLc? kurb go 4kF hg hjk[Hf j[fkv w s \ kr hjk[Hf udfy ]k.x . s q s ]SkyG hyk> go df Skv <je¬ lm df ygi dlb jkv 4g kukyG hyk> df k . .

a s \Sg k. s s X s . zs q X q jcdv df kgd u kxky d okx dlm 4e . s . s s X a s . ]g . q jkv kul g. . T s j7ekj 4g rn k[ kd n[ jkv g rhi ckj' 4g rk[ xky cl df klt ]Xn k[ T s s s s q .x kg kL[ jdkt Nhi nhjG 4kF kgj Pi tke s w s s \ s \ u jcdv ]k. s s X zs X zs .kv 4g gj xke I s 1 s T s a s T s a s a ? lhckp cl eg 4g . . X s zs . s s . w s 4jd u hH jkdb jcdv . T a . w s s .x nhjG 4kn koy[ yd¬ dS e okx q q s q w X a jkv kvkojd kr. wa T s kg hji tkeu df kpkl sulm 4k.k' 4g kNπv hH kdke ]gd e kr Skt s a .x je jo’Zb k. kr dS 4g sr s T s s s s . s s Gjr cl 4g tXyp I? lhckp ]g k.rfkup I? lhckp ]g dke I? lhckp 4o . s s s a .pækv hl7ukd elb `kl.d . s zs . s \ jkv kd u/ je jd kLc jkv kd .D . q a . .kgl hd okx Nd l jcdv ]kvkt 4g krjd ei rgc gér . s ss s s . s kd uiv jkv jd k'u kr k. sa . . Ô de√k/ . s s T ¬kj l rgc d uskg 9lsuyGIsxjkG8 Syf d usy kyH kd uiv 4g krkt k[ ]g s q s s q s s q s s .nÔ kyko uxke kt g.kv Iky liko Sdf tkokv kucf ikpip s s . s a s 4g rkt liko eg 4kxy xke Te sl T s wa a hlm ]F gj xke er lltf kr kxkg hg kuxke jxv jGf jkv 4kxdl kg u > s s a q s s s a . g krkt kg <je¬ kd ke®kv lm ]g krk[ kt e ei 4e ei g kuk[ jkv dS .kv jdpkl kr e 4kg hjk[Hf hH q s q s s T s er df k. s s T s s . q sa . sa . . . a s r go ]g krjd Cgu kuFki go ]kn go ]kn g. a hjG df k[n sulm kr kOm jcdv 4k.nÔ ]okH kyko uIkc ]. s f Sk[ kd n[ 4kd n[ kxLi kun ]kd n[ kxsLi kuk[ ]Syf d ei lb udfy s s q s q s \ s s q \ s s zs s 4yG jkv sxt e ynf dikv ei df g kdke l Gjr cl 4l Gjr cl ]sl s . w . T s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 34 egaP e ei 4g krkt yH hH jkv <je¬ kd ke®kv kr lm ]g krk[ kt e 'u jkv X zs .®g hd joæB jxv jkv `k.pækv kr Skt jH l klgV s s .P\fhl n q . ]g . X Z ækv kr Skt kg k. s . 4g hg rukt xky jkl eg kuk[ g. s s . T s T s s s . .†kj je 2ke®keji g3kgd ulm 4g kL[ B .nÔ 4g Cgu ykol g. s a q s s .n . s w . 4g kukl g. 4n Ikc u a s s a .ki ]kF kr>el gk'nkc gér kr e 4Bx kg yH hLc3kgd u nhjG q X q s T s w \ s `gd s Nd kucf jkv Sx syp jkv Skv3kNi ulm 4kxkH kr g kgj jrm k.3g r¬kj kn d uk[ jkv 4g Cgu kr¬kj Bkd kuc s s .ki a s a s s s a q s q s T ue udfsy ]way xake Nd tkv ler df kF k. . s s ]Skt jH l k<? jxv hxntV kr g gj xke xky hHl ct j. kH kyko suIkc kd .el lm n. .m o c. Z . su nhjG 4jd kiÎ ji >e ]jd kuxn kd rykn hje ]jd kLc .el d jcdv kF jhdG dS nhjG s X s s a s X s 4kd suiv g krn n jdkt e jnfe kt ]go g . .x hn¥t7hn¥t gcl7gcl 4k. s . 4g kuk[ g. .p s a . s s s q s q s e kun [n lm jdxke l syko suxke kr kg gj xke hg n[ kr er df k. >e df g krxke l ke®keji . Cgu kuk[ g. dl r o w o h s o. T s s . Z z s s s q . \ kd Nhi df kF Cgu hH kri lm SkOm jiM Fkg jkv hd hji tkeu u jcdv s s s .ü/ 4g kgj xke k s .nÔ kyko uxke ]Cgu 4g rkc hd . q q q q s . hrkt kv nCu jkv g krkt cM xkenf df g rit jn kurb jkv g rit ek . a \ .D Z. s ss \ . 4g kukg rNπ√e g. . X s T s s s s s .nÔ kyko ujd u ei hg. s a / jkv sn Ikc kLid kuiv df g Cgu hjWt kyko un ]kyko uIkc 4g Cgu . krkt kg rNπ√e jkv g krul rhxl ]g kr[n dIku Bkd 4g rkt k[ jkv g s w .

eg rgd jkv 4g h T s wa s T T s . .D ]g krxy uxke 9g e8 g. X s s s\ s a wa s 2Cgu hg g kt 9e8 hgo ]go 4g l gto hd 9e8 cl g wa s T .D jkv k .® ]ukK ]u/ ]g krxy sujd kØdb 4g krdl Cgu ht xke kucf go w . s . s s s X a s .kjdI sl T s s w a hdL[f hd pkd hd yge jdkt 4jiM kOm 4g kgj kt jiM e df kvg yk.D . . T X .D `jd k. eg df g rgd xky . . 4kF kgj kt jiM kt ]e kjF®i kF k. s s .D ]xaSki LkN Cgu hHd kr hd ''fkd uikv nf.† wa T X . s a wa T . s s s tf ]kOm jiM jF®i 4kdG Gjr hd ygetkj jkv k. v kvg kre? l Cgd kpπc dS 4g kvg kxy jP kd kjF®i Iduf d ygetkj q w s . sld g kri 4g hgj yp lkoæ hdikv `ld g kri ]g rofht ikv `k. .®e 4kxSkt kyp kry lkoæ go s 1 s dfk. . T s s X s s s phu ulm df g dofkHko¬ 4kOm jiM go ]g hd ukt phu k'eg rnkv hdl .ufn jGf kr g gj y lkoæ i s s s s X q s T s s kv jxv 4g kgj sy lkoæ e df gd ikv df g hrdl kg rkc Bkd hO> knk. wa T . rkc go jkv xdl k[ ikv jkv 4kxgc likv ei kr Skt y a . . dl r o w o h s o. s .Í ]g k. likv Te .D ]hxdl kv u hHd q.®e kr jGf `kxkg k. s a . s a s . T s s kui¥d e ue eg rLkt7rLkt kdlb 4Cgu hH g df kt jkv g Cgu kpπl hH X s s\ s s\ s . s . kui¥d Syf d kjF®i 4kF kgj kt jiM kt ]kF krkg eyke "Qi hjkrov rH s X s s w q q nv Bkd g.D ]Sk[ sld a . w df g rgd eg jH hxntV 4g kgj y lkoæ e df g g. s s X X s . . .D ]eüt kje 4rkc g O> 4eüt kjse s X wa a T . 4g yH kuy >el gjr hd Bkdb dS kd .x kg euof ydycf cv kr e 4g Cgu hjkdgv ydycf q wa s z q s T wa a q cv e df n jd k<"k? g. .m o c. \Sg k. s a dfk.x kg jpkudp pkd 4k. kv hIyfef. s i jkv xk. . X q s a q . q s X s 4Cgu hg g e >e kr jkdgv 4Xe>e g Bx . Cgd df kt ]g rkt yp rLt hg F. s s w s llb df g kpkl uikv hHd 4g kgj y lkoæ e 4g kg. w s s . .k X . s T q . s . q s 4jn kr rkc hd suLm 4F rdl Cgu hH ygf ]F cn l kuno huiv 4F Li p w s \ s s s s s s s s \ s hu jF®i Li sphu 4hF dofkHko¬ ]hF rpfm ydycf ]hF dhO ydycf rkc g.D jGf ]Skt yp sry lkoæ X s 1 s s a s s ikv ]jke go 4kxdl Cgu jke kdikv Bkd e k. . s X s . s .kOm jF®i ulm jkv k.o¬ df g g.D q. s s zs s q[ [kv jxv3rkc dS `g krdl kg Syf d ujd k. .x kg kni "Qikge Bkd g. T ukd ''fkd hd uLkN dfk. s s s\ X s s\ s s s jkv 4jd ''fkd hd uLkN kd jkdgv ikv df g kgj gd Cgu g. s \ q q 4g kgj kt kd jl hd 'kdkv kjt e 2k_ef3kgd l kjF®i L\i wa s .[ \ a wa T q klß hH kd jF®i lm jkv kF kgj kt go jkv 4kukt Gjr hd jiM kF rhr s .x je jo’Zb k. jkv 49g e8 df g krxy klß 4g ry jd X . . gj yp lkoæ ]g Cgu ry eg lkoæ 4g gj y lkoæ eg df g rgd eg udfy T s s T s s T s s `hxjd k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 44 egaP ]kgd kGn hurdf sue3kgd u jF®i lm 4k. s s wa s T T a T s s `g hgj yp k. s T .ø eg elb 4uoht kje ]lkoæ hje ]g s T s s s q\ Z X s s T rgd e eüt lm `g kgd e ]g kgj kg k. s T o `Mki ld kd ke®keji `Mkt ld xo¬ 4Mkt ld {ke e df g krxy uN a s .D `g kgj kyp ukd `g hgj yp . X . go unf dS df g krdl kg jkv 4e hgo `kxsjd T s s . a gd g kri 4sxaSkt je ikv `l kgd jkv ld ]g kri kdikv 4g Sg kni ikv . Z a s .

®e 4g r w s T T s .kGl kd _' d a . q X X .D .† llb 49e8 g rgd eg jkv g rkKv k_k. s s s X\ .x jxf ji lm ]kNcf e yge kF uhykd wa s\ s X 4kjxf phu go 4kgd hg dhO su jF®i3kxIef ]kxSkv hH kt 4jd u Bkd rZjt s s s s s q hd sukv e phc jkeg 4g krLi kuII jGf jkv g rkt kv e phc je df kr X s . T s s w s s k. a kv Mkt Oc3kgd sulm udfy 4kF kjxf ji uhykd 4k. s s s \ X a wa djd k_k. s X s s X s hn¥t 4hxsiN hg hn¥t g rul 4g kgj [yf kFde®kv huiv go df e jkdagv T s q . rgc hd k_ef ]yp 4 g hrkv nk.g k. s wa T .D O> knk.x kv hH yk.x . . \ . q .ü/3kgd ulm j.m o c. q S 4g k. dl r o w o h s o.D q . s nk. ouHfv jkv ukg wa s\ s T . s aw s\ . s 4y jd ekJof kLkF 4hd ue k_k. rHnv dS 2k_ef3kgd ulm kr kjxf e jP d jF®i uiv jdkv s q s s s X s s s phu go 4g hrkv nk. dyG jF®i jkv kF kvg kni Bkd phc dum df xPi jkv xkg Uli ]xPi p w . s X z s X\ s πc 4hxSkv ekd sxkv 4hxSkv ekd d kpπc 4k[yf hGkxBkckIkv 4k[yf kFde s X s z s s ®kv huiv er 4k. w . q X s ulm jkv kLi kuIky kd jF®i 4kdG liko kd jF®i lm u jdku lm jkv s . s s q zs s df ]g xky yH ld3kgd u jF®i lm jkv k. s 4g kgj [yf hH go 4g h[yf hH sygi u kjF®i Bd 4hxyef kd kxky hg .kv 4y jd ekJof kLkF j s . s q s T . s .[ g.kv kLkn jdku kd ygetkj hHr jkv 4g rkg eyke xky Nπv 4. ]g rkKv .kv hd k_k. s w s . T s X ss kv Cgu e >el kd k>elku eyke u udfy `kgd kGn urdf3kgd su jF®i X s X w s s 4kF kgj kgc w a lkv ]kF kgj kj ]kF kLi phu pkd jdkg jpkudp 4hF Cgu hH O> Bkd 4r s \ s a s w w s kc hF dhO hg ydycf 4kxSkt kg jpkudp kr Cgu ]Skv u Bkd e r¬kj jse q s w s s X s s \Sg k.ü/3kgd ukgüm jkv Sx gj r[n LkG [kv rdfp jF®i .x dF kLkF3kgd ulm 4k. q 1 . s .† hg urm ]g jF®i knk.kd ukge kurb jkv k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 54 egaP ®i e .\ . s X s s .df rxko¬ kje jdkOm >e df hei d/fv ur .kOm kd jF®i ulm 2jduql tk T s s s .df . hd j? rgc ]g kr s .x kg Lkgi jdyG jF®i go 4g rkt kg Lkgi jdywG jF®i kr gjr hlb s \ w T s s \ s 4k.x je jo’Zb k.nÔ uiv ]g <k"ki kurtf kt 4g 9e8 df g krkv yk. . s s 4kF hg jF®i kr jF®i jkv s . e dS hlß ]hd Cgu kuekd hdltf hHd u ktoi je 4hHd hd u kui¥d u s X Z w ss s X a ss kt'o je df hF k_k. 4g O> jkv Syf dikv 4kF O> Syf d jF®i 4g rhc7Sx hH l jF®i kr g . g . hcy 4g k. kdum k X s . kKv eüt 4Cgu hg ydycf 4Cgu ]Cgu `g UHf l jF®i lb uoht kjkeg k. s s okv k.† urtf . . rgc hd j? cv df kgd e ue uiv s s q .nÔ dutf ]phc d rfkt7. s T s s ky Nπv urdf 4jkojfitkj g.yf eüt phc jkgér kt 4eg g q Z .df k. hlß go j. X ]k.‘ue udfy 4 s T s s s q s g Cgu jF®i kr ikv 4g dhO kr k.[ g. s . s w s T s s s T rjd dG klß jxv ]g pl Syf dikv 4kF O> Syf d jF®i `g krdl kg k s Z .x Oc ujd ekJof go . q .nf kNcf uhykd 4Bx hn jd hg sygi jc[ hd ukv je g krkg rkK `g x s ss .üv 4g kgj kv s X . kg ewyke lsudlfekg rgc g hrkv nk. \ w . . . kd uiyxki lm jxv T s .x kg kLc jkv j s \ . `g kgj kt k.

s s s . s gu hH Nd kr xgj rPi kd k_¬k' /v 4Sgfkp [kv hd ei hyko u[sn slm q s s X s \ s X s a X a zs s 4g kyG Gjr cl go jkv 4g Cgu 0ckv e r√e hldf ke®ke . zs ku kdltf ]kxxy ugc go unf hlm jkv 4g ke®keji hg eku kdlm 4g kt ] s s .[ kdlm ]jF s s s T wa . zs . . .D ]k. s go kxLi Bk[nf unf hlm 4g Cgu 9e8 df Skt Li Bk[nf unf ltf jkv 4Cgu s \ .t uki hH kt e uoht 4xkg jF®i zs X X .i a . s s\ kt g kuy Lkt Fkg llm ]Cgu hg g kt g kujd knof kdum ]Cgu hH yqdy s . . krkt kg naukv cl kr y [n jd yk[ [kv hyko [kv hd ei jkv 4kxkg C s s X s s a a zs . s s X s X kgo ]g Cgu ke®keji kgt jkv sxkg jF®i kgo g Cgu ei kgt df kt ]jF®i a . q s a . s q s s X s\ a . . X . .‘ue jGf kr dl T s s . s . . . unf ltf jkv s s \ s\ s T s \ .† l hukgd hd jF®i lb 4[n kd 9k s s X s s s xB8 lb ]kd 9bkv8 lb 4k>el kd 9e8 lb 4g 9Te8 g krkv yk. s s s q s s s n Cgu eüt kd ke®keji d ei eg jxv jkv 2g k. X 4g ke®keji eku kd hlm ]g krgkp kukt kt e dkykv lm ]ei lm ] .÷e dS phc d kukn ub ct g hrdl k X a s T s q s X s T s g hHr rkc kukn . udfy 4Skt y lm Skog hd ei 4n yk[ yki 4n yk[ Xe X X s s s a s s a zs X s X s k_k. a 4kgd e rv likv sue go 4kg ncV . s zs . X a . . s \Sg k. zs s s X 4g hg. Z a . s s s w s a ke®keji ei dfk.D .nÔ jkl unf hlm jkv 4g ei e X zs s s . 4hxkg u 0lf hH hukgd hdikv knk. zs a s `kxkg k. a . l ke®keji go jkv g Cgu hH kd hldf 4g kry ki kd rkÛ ye d /xql hd .‘ue d ke®keji kucf df s q s g rdl pkl jkv 4kxkg kugj d ke®keji kucf kd rfkt7. ]g hHv 4kxgj knl jkv g l knl ]g kt ]dl kt k. T \ . . . s . s s ugc Gjr kjkp ]kxax hd ei dS ]jk} d . z . s X s zs rhxl jkv ]dyi lm 4g e/ hg eku kd rhxl jkv dyi lm 4kxSkt kg kn. q .D kd rfkt7. hH dcl 4g e nukv rgc e ]g kul l rfk' jkv ei urb kd krkc ub hjse s wa X a q T . . . s cf jkdgv jkv 4g rdl y[ jk} d ke®keji jkv d ei hg kr Skt jkdagv a . T s q s .ki go ]kxSkt s T . s . s . s zs s jkv g krdl kg kjkdIN l ukK hg kr LkN jkdgv 4g jkdgv kdikv go .x je ke®keji kd kjF®i s s zs . . l kg rofht†Qui joæB 4g ji ikv hjkneétf 4g k. q s X s e uiv rhxl dS jkv djFf dS jkv naukv dS jkv 'kdi dS jkv hxxy a . s 4g .x je jo’Zb k. . dl r o w o h s o.D 4g ei go ]g kl. . X w ji go jkv 4g Cgu nd e nt¬fe jkv jnfe hldf ke®keji go jkv 4g kdc .x je joæB df kgd uTe s q . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 64 egaP 4jd jkdho¬ ek<i je 4g krjd ek<i kd ke®keji Sg Oc jr X z s s wa z s q s. . a .ki lm dfkr ]Cgu hg g . a kg uhyof go ]kxLi Cgu kuLkN kd 9e8 kr Skt Li Bk[nf g.m o c. s\ X a s s s s T w s s 4l ukt s s kg uhyof d jkdgv dikv ]l suOm kg rnfukv dikv ]l ei dikv 4g krd s s a s s s a s s zs s . hd 'kdkv d ei jkv Xy Lkr jhtt l Ir d ukK ]gd ue _l kn . . . hg kF kr 9e8 df kxsxy jkv hxSkv hlg dS ]kxSkt Cgu k. .

df aSkt syp ruke Syflb ]g k.kv rpkl Nd e /cal d s X s X q T s s s q X a s joæB o 4g ei Bkd u 4g okxy Bkd u Bkd l joæB güm ]g kpgi [n Xgütf s . joæB df kg kpgi [qn l rkc lb kd hldf jxv ]g krjd rxko¬ e Syflb s qa s s wa T `kxkg k. a .D ]Skt yp Sdf kti eg hg hd jnfe d joæB Skje7je df skg X X a s w a s s u klß Cgd 4aSkt yp rti Syf d ukyH [n kuiv ]kd joæB Skje7je e s s w s s q q s s g df kg u klß Cgd e [n lb udfy 4g rkc hd h'[ rgc g.x je joæB kt kr g k. X .x je joæB jxv s s s s q X s s . kjr[ llb 4g hjkt kti hdlm e kjnfe d .x je joæB s a a . 4g k. .‘ue Cgd df g q X s ∆q X q . s hd sukg rofht†Qui d joæB jGf kr hy jd <gx k{im u kxky jxv udfy s q s s z s s X s s 4dl skg rofht†Qui go n. eg dfk. s T s wa hH kd kxky lß e dfk. q q q q s q q s `g kvg [n rgc eg ]g .D .† hH l uje ]ku[j e j? kd ∆n s s s X s q T s s e 4g rn kuGn udfsy ]g rkj `g rjd k. ]kn ukt je ]kgd sukgüm kr g k. dl r o w o h s o.x je joæB df jdul rkc g. . s q q g.x je joæB df kgd sue lutf ]g krukt hH kd kxky slß Te s X s T s wa s X s `k.ufn jxv 4g rjd jkpof j.®g hd joæB hH hHd dr¬fku 2Cgu kuokHal Bkd s . s rkc lb kd kxky e k. s>e ct `gj kntV go df kF uldf kgd llm3k X . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 74 egaP dkujr[ rgc ku[j e j? kd ne dfk.x je joæB df g kgj kg [qn s q s .‘que udfy ] k.D ]g Bg h'[ rgc s>e ]l rkc lb kvg [n kdikv s X s s T X .m o c.®g hd joæB o ]g ljGLfub ]g k{im e ue dutf T s s . w s X s q s s 4kxn jRm kdikv e ]g uæi /fufrfi d kuæi hHl df kt ]kd kuæi l7LkF wa s T T z z s X z s X z s s s\ s X l eum 4g Skv kg.x je joæB df kgd ue lutf ]g krukt s s X s . q q .D s Z Fv kd ukg kntV dlm kr gj hH kntV joæB kr Skt jH l k{im k.k' kr g k. . u k_ef l7rgc kr ygi slcl q .D s . k"kH hd ezsi \Sg k. s s s X . qa q s X s q e ikv df g kyp kri g. s X ]g dkujr[ rgc kuy [j e j? kd 'ky udfy ]Cgu dkujr[ kurm kukt . k.x je kr joæB s .D Zktg s s wa s X s s . q q q X .D eg kr g hrkt je ke ]g krkt T s s T s s . w X X a s s s 4hxSkt kg kni kuokHl hd uje hH dum g kntV kt dfk. s X s udfy ]g krdl jd Cgu k. 4g kntV hHv s . q s X s s je kd hldf 4hxSkt kg rkc dkujr[ knk. je krif 4n kuGn jdkt kd joæB lm ]jd kiÎ udfy ]Skgc lkv gkp ]S X s X s a w a s a kj gkp so ]kg kgj kg [n gütf ]k.x je s X q s . zs s . 4hxkg rkc dkujr[ g.ufn hjk s s s s s s s s q l jxv 4g rdl jd k. a s s .x je joæB df g krkg [n rgc jdukt s .x je ld ]kjkpc kF henkv kNπv `jkndO ykyjoæB3kgd ukgüm kr g s .D ]Skt je u hH .x je joæB df kgd uTe lutf g krukt hH kd kxky lß Te `g k. uæi l rgc e jkc lm 4hgd likv ue rkc hl7hLkF Xe T a z s q X s s s T s\ X kunf uhr yNif Xe /cl lb ]g krdl kg rofht†Qui ld 4g k. s q s . s s s s X s . qa q l rkc hd uje d joæB 4Bg h'[ s>e kr g kpgi [n kd k_ef l7rgc sl s s s q q q s .3g kNi g. q s s s gd ukgüm kr k.x je jo’Zb k. k.

s . q 4g krje hHd u jkv g kreüt hHd u df . q kuFki Bkd 4g rgj rjd hH aSkuFki uekl dlb eg 4g jkted kLc joæB Z z s T s s Z z s s .x je joæB df kgd ue kr g. \ z .®g hd kxky Lkjd ln e k0q. Z q . g kjgc joæB kr k. . Z q \ 4kjd k{j hdlb e s r df g rn jd kL[ jdsy dwnc kd hgkilf dS hg jgkc d jnfe d joæB u q T s s \ a s s a s kerDf'Zol lm udfy 4ukerDf'ol g joæB df g eg kr rgd 4g dlqaiu ku s Z . jL cv ]g k.‘ue s q T . T gj jd aSkuFki eg uekl d joæB ltf jGf k. jGf 4g kjr[ kd ukt LkG kjk} d kueæqn ltf ]g . s \ g. 4g kje kt ]g joæB re√uf7.kuc 4kxkg Cgu roæk' go ]kxS X . s ss T s s s s s 4 g rgj suc hg spπc pπc ]g hrkt Pc em 4g krIef Cgu uipc kd hldf sl T s s . dl r o w o h s o.‘ue s. T s s T s a jkv g rlg eg 4g rkpj gkoof kd hÒqx7sÒx pπc IkN7IkN e kj? 4g uiyx .kge kn jkv Sx kg 0. ukerDf'ol rHnv kLc s . s fk. \ jgkc Syf d k{j hdltf hgkilf dS ]g joæB g.kuc kjkeg go 4g kL[ .m o c. s X s s .ki Cgu kd joæB lm dr cr ]kxSkt u k. kt ]g krdl kt k. df g r>el kr g rkopj gkoof kd ht –pekj eg . T s .kuc kdikv joæB kdikv jxv 4kxje go ]k[j jdktal sl q s s s hrkN hg kurdf lm gkp kr g jxv `g kvg k. T s a T s q s ss ss X X .‘ue hjkl l ykl lhykp7lhr yNif q . Ts s s . q s g udfsy 4kxSki je Cgu hH kr Skt je go df jd ''fkd jdyef cl ikv s X s s .Òfqx7sÒx spπc 4pπc Lc dS jkv pπc IkN dS3g rkg pπc d gjr kn s X q s s \ . . e k .D . s T s \ \ s s f ]g rky¥pf eg kurdf 4g kry ul hH joæB kjgc 4g Cgu hg kntV go ]g T s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 84 egaP s rkxy xkH kd r√e hd ukoxH tkj eg kr g rky[f BkOef ]g rkugi Lid s s w s s T s T s s \ kd k. cv df ]g hgj jd kuFki rfkt7.D ]g krdl kg Cgu roæk' hH Nd kvg k. X q X ˜ "o pki7ln jg udfsy 4u joæB hul Cgu rkc hd uje henkv /kv7dS 4Bx a s q s kg k. T \ s T a w q g. s s s u jkv ]g gj jd kuFki .x je jo’Zb k.kuc kt d . rb ]g IIkiéb kurb ]jkted kurb kr Syfhlb 4g kvg k.nÔ kLkjd ]Skt je xky kLkjd jkv kg 0.D s s s . kr g Cgu kvg k. kr uql s Z z s s . q .kuc kdikv joæB kdikv k.‘ue g. .kuc kr joæB kjke .‘ue 4g hrkt j[cf jkv g hrkt hPx kt ]g k. T s Z z X s\ a s X s\ . T s s .x k.H kd ukt kg hjkp . q 4g krkg Syf e uiv thc kd uIef go g k. . s T s . . T s s s T za q T s kv g ruc skt ]g e/ re√uf7. X s q s s s s u hH henkv Cgd df g g. Z z q s s 4g hrkt hul Cgu hH hHd . s \ z uPc em 4g de√k/ g.‘ue g. s s s\ s X s . 4g .kge kn udfy 4kg s X s s\ X X s . 4g rkt Ief j T s w .r√e re√uf7. \Sg k.kuGn lb dr s s ct jkv n kuGn kd joæB Sg je lb ]je henkv df ygi dlb 4Skt je . s . 4g rkt yH jkv g rkt [yf kt ]g Fx re√uf7. df g rkt yH eg kr Skt klki dr kunf rgc ego Bkd jxv udfy T s w s s X q s s 4g gj ky¥pf jdkg L[ uekl d kerfi ri T s s s \ s s z ¥fd hldf hg huiv eg 4Cgu hg g joæB cv udfy ]g rkLxfLxf ]rkj kurd . ki g. s s s sdltf 4g rjWt hd hgkilf kdltf ]g joæB kvg k. s . s q q s kuc hH kt . s q . s q s s s u 0.

D ]ji uhet k. zs s\ s e/ e ue dutf jkv 4Sgfkp kukt je kr kg kje u 4g k. a s X s s s w s X s de√k/ ub k.† k.D7k.df Cgu k.r√e n[ `g uiyxki k.kuc kjkeg g.df Cgu Gke kd kPc ]g krdl kt k. Z X s .df Cgu k s s . s z s a s X s um df g Sx Sdf iki lß ji eku d ˜ke/ j. T s s g ry kuc SkuFki hg n[ 4g rkt kg L[ jdLkt Fkg uekl dum ]g srn kO a Z z q T s s s \ s\ s s T s ‘rfi kdum jkv g ry Px k.‘ue3S[fj <je¬ s s q s q 4kxSkt kg knof g. ]g L[ Lkt Fkg z s .† hHd I‘fl hdlm l kI‘Û 4kxkg jkted knk. udfy 4xkg u≈yl e tk[ hd ukoxH eg jkv hxk Œ w s s s X a X s . T s s X a X w s df Cgu iki kLc Bkd ydv7ydv u henkv dS7dS 4g Sdf iki d gjr cl \ s s s s s s T s `dl kt kgd u iki kdltf ]g k. T s s \ a w q .ufn nf. s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 94 egaP .m o c.kv g T T s s . s s X s xkg jkted likv go ]sxaSkuc kt ikv 4kxkg jkted l>e go ]kxMkuc kt s s s s s s s q a s T . s g kni lk.x je jo’Zb k. T s \ s s\ eg uekl d hlb jkv g hrLi rjWt hjkeg hH Syf d k{jl hdlb 4krdl s s . Z s s q s s s / urb e k.ufn n.®g ]g ry ykduf jkoyr yd k T s s X s X T s s T s s s t Skt kv kdke ]g rsy kuc r√e hl7k.D eyke u j.IhIçl kt g. 4hrdl s s . T s[ y[ jn hLkF Fkl d hÒqx7Òqx kr pπc jkv `g k. s s .[ jxv kd s X q .kgl e sukt je d ukoxH lb güm ]g ei kLkF rfzi d s s .df Cgu k. q s kg Cgu jordkr ]hrdl kg Cgu hLc go ]g Bkuc thp kt u kyko ukuc 4k s s \ . s a s H Ow> jxv udfsy 4krdl kg Cgu rDe l ukoxH ue kd . . T s w X s s s \ s 4g rxy uj T s s d ekd kjln kuiv ]g rn dIi e sukd dS ]g rkt hH yH jGf jkv g sry w T s s X s T s w . kdpc ydycf d‘r¬fe kdutf ]xsky lß 4g de√k/ eg df g rgd eg udfy q s T T s s 4Cgu cklgf Bkd kdl s tf ]g k.®g ]g rjd u[ 4Bx hn n hykx kd ukoxH d T s T s T s w s s s ub ]k.D . dl r o w o h s o.nf jd rv kd ukoxH dub ]Bx pgi Ikp kd ukoxH dub dfk. a s qa s s s X D ]g rykL jke kd kxky k[ky ]g rn jd k. 4g kvg k.D 4g rjd k.† leg g. q kg ]g kvg Cgu rcfkl kd ekd hH hldf ukoxH kvg k.D7k.î l uihyk[ lm jkv kxkg kni uihyk[ dS kr Skt kg knof ukox .D Pc udfy ]g pπc j[ s s s\ s s s s .kv e/v kurb lub 4hrkg de√k/ knk. 4g ku q . T s w T \Sg k. X s X .x k. udfy .D eyke T s w u ]g rkxy xkv ]g rjd aSk.g Lkx I. df g krkg rhri klß kr Skv y hH e yk. . s X 4g <ikrLt ]g <ikr[e ]g dIfk.D su kxky yko ukuc nt¬fe jkv jnfe ]u kxky yko ujd kti ub ]u kxky X s s s .Lf T Z w \ T Z w Z w T b ]g de√k/ eg df g rpkl jkv g rjd uiyxki k. s s .df Gke kd kpπc s s X w\ .gl jkv kr. 4g rxy ujd kdum jkv T s s s .x je ukoxH g.Òfqx7Òqx hd ukoxH kt `Lc s. 1 s s s † hH llm go kxSkuc ukoxH kt henkv 4g hjkted hd henkv 4krdl Cgu s s .kv kuOxl ]kgel udfy 4. \ s q kg Cgu jordkr knk.D g. s e 4g hrkg Cgu hd rdkr knk.g k.kuc kjkeg kr ukoxH g. T s w\ s T s fkv pπc 4krdl kt k. s .k' kr rkg Cgu Ze . 4Sgfkp s kun xk. ].

D kjr[ 4kg k w s q 1 w q s\ s . kr k.iQ kd henkv hldf nf. lm X s s T s s s Z q s q 4g krxy . s \ j3kNi jGf u /kl 0o lm jdyp jn rgc hLkF udfy 4g k.kv d X s s s s wa G Xe ∏x Nhi e kd . s s q `g Cgu kr kjr[ `Skt dQ eg df g . X ∏x hn dG Ib ulm 4kF kvg kxy e ekd suiv /kl 4h[n Ib go ulm `kx s X s q X q s s kg k.m o c.‘'f uiv 4g rkj hj/av ]g yxt3kxy ugd /kl s a s w s s .kxy kri e okx ]kd X a s hldf kF kNi `Nd g Cgu kr dkujr[ kr¬kj ]g lokev ]g hj/av hLc rk w q .nf kd s s s s qa q a s . .g slm a q s w s q s a q `kF k. s kr n sn e Fkg dDlf hydu eg jkv kg 'kyr hd s.x yef eg ukoxH djijfi dS e Fkg jkeg kt g. rki ukg Cgu kni lk. s a . s . s X X s . s \Sg k. s s r kg yxat 4kg kr kg d/fv rkj `kjr[ jkv kd hlk. s s s s q s q /kl 4g Cgu kjr[ Bkd df kF kgd Cgu g. s s 4g krn jd r√i g.H e ]Syfp l te jkv Sbkt kg . lm udfy ]kF kNi jkc . dl r o w o h s o. s . s . s w .x je jo’Zb k.IhI¬cl 4k. s s w Bd u /kl lm 4Syfp yp ydycf ]g Cgu kjr[ Bkd df kgd u do.kv q s a s s T s s q wa dG sNhi kd . a a s s kuiv sulm 4k. s .D .î 4kxn ukg Cgu kni kd lk.3kxy uNi l . s Z s q [j Ib hd jF®i elm df k[n 4hyk[ hyk> huiv jdkjc? ulm 4g k. Cgu chjd okx Bkd k.ül3kgd u . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 05 egaP ]kF kgj yp Sg ykHl kd Ib lb kr e 2Bx kg ng3kykc /kl go 4g k. s .kv jdk/ ge7Fkg /kl go 4hn [j Ib dji dS 4hn [j Ib s qa q w I. jkv g h .H dikv ]Sbkt kg . su doq. s .x uk/ ge7Fkg /kl 4ku[j jdykHl lb df kgd jkv k. s a s s `Cgu kr kjr s [ Bkd kg.D kjr[ kr Cgu 4Sgfkp kukg Nd e yk> jWt kr g kjr[ kd /kl d s s s q X s s s .î g. .Huf3kgd ulm 4hF Bg h X s T s s .D ]Bx kg hjgx rkj kr cv3kNi ulm nkc jn hLkF a s s s w s s s\ jGf 4kxy uyp l ste jkv g uto df k[n jkv kxkI ji s/d l hn¥t kyk> s s . a s q go jkc7jkc 4e Fkl dlm kF .Huf ydycf df kgd u do.H rgc >e df kgd e jn hLkF ulm . X s . uiv kyk> 4way k/ ge7Fkg kLkF e3kgd u /kl lm 4jgO lki s s s qa s\ T s q s sd Sd dS o jGf 4kNi Cgu hHd u /kl lb kr rfkH lb df Bg hukj. X w X s s 4kxSkt kg nc hH eJ kdlm cv ]kxSkt kg s a s nc hH <"soüv kdlm cv 4sxn jd nc hH tk[ hd kdDlf cv 4Bx kg e®[ a X a s X s rkc ]Sx kv lki je dDlf df kxsxy ue? ue Uli jkv kxn kxy kykr e h ss s s w z .‘'f dlm s s s s .‘'f doq.nf [j e hyk> hdlm jd kOm jF®i dS gxt hdlm jkv e w .‘'f ko. ]g ukoxH djwi kt g s s . . s s s . q s q X s s\ s jGf 4g gxt huiv Ib df k[n 4h[n Ib huiv jdykII ulm 4kvg d' kd .x kg kr d' lm 4hF hLi Ib hd ukl dS df k[n jnv d yk> lm s s s \ s s s a s s s u doq. kdlm Nhi 4kF Sg SkdIy hyk> g X s q s q s o ji /d uiv 4kF 0o /kl dS 4yduf l ukF¬ hLkgi dS /kl kn rkj dS s a s 1 q s s \ q s 4Bx kg nc tk[ hd ukoxH s a s hylv hjkeg llm ]g k. lm s q s q . s q f kF k. s X jktrf go 4hxSkt kg nc tk[ hdlm 4kxSkt kl jkv kxSkt kg rüpæfuf go s s a s s .

®Î dS Syf sdlm ko .† jkv e /acl lm Syflb 4g hgd Xrkc hl7r s . T s s s a T s 4krkpc kd Ib lb udfy ]kr s s sn n ukt huiv e jkv krkt kg kckj[7u[ n. l 4g krjd kol Syf d ujd kol go 4jd Cgu kol go kr yp u kri 4g s s s s s s s s wa kgj jd kol e df g kryp kri rDo ji kd dol 4g Cgu ei df kuy >el s T .koufv kol kgo ]g krkg ei akgt s s . wa s T . s s s X s q 4ñte hdikv 4Sgfj rkP kd ukoxH Sg je lb 4ukoxH g k. 4g kuki jkv Nd k. q .o ]g hryduf /axl l yG lt 4g hryduf ]g hrkg k . s s zs wa `g Cgu ei kosl .x je jo’Zb k. zs k.D .k' kr krjd ''fkd hd uuhN s T . udfsy `jd k. T s 7u[ jkv g gj kt yp ykHl ikv skdltf ]g Ib hd gjr hlb ukoxH jkeg w . s s . df g krgd kdikv e 4g kgj yef ekjkv rgc eg k . s s T . . . sw s s . s Z s s s 4kxLi Cgu kuLkN lb `k.L dS ]g . s w s s s kd Ib ji >e krn jd kyeg Bkd jxv 4kF kgj kt yp Sg Skxy l k<kzi s q s s s q s X \Sg k. s q s q s s s s uhyof . jxv jkv 4g kgj jd kol e df g kr s T s .D Bkd kr g krxy kNπv kukP >kc kd kxky Nd a q s s s . . s . kuki {ke kjk} . kri kdikv jxv udfsy 4g kgj kg [n kLc eg l uk[ d Ib df xNi jd s . wa s T . yp Cgu kri kdlm udfy ]g hrkt kv Ar. w X . s s s zs s . . Z s a . zs s s wa kr g kgj jd kol e df kg kri g.m o c. q s sdltf ]g u/kl dS Syf dlm kol 4g hI. s s i ]Mkjgkn l jGf 4g Cgu ei kol udfy ]g kol kr ei df kxgkp kugd Te zs a s s . zs s s .Huf ikv hg r[n jdyk[ slb . s . q s w s . df sxaSkt kg . s zs .kv kxSkt kg . w s q 4kxkg Cgu dhO kugd knk. s s q ukl df r[sn Cgu jdyk[ hyk> jkv g gj kt je jkv g gj kt Sdf kckj[ s s s s s .x je s s s q s . T s s . ]g hrkg kol l ei l. s ol l ei ]g Cgu krjd kol ei 4g krjd kol dol 4g Cgu krjd kosl hezsi s s zs . zs s s X .D ]g kNi sukgüm 4g dkujr[ kol df kgd ue yd df g kNi l Xk_ef Nd . . 4g gj kt SkP ikv Ib hd jF®i jkv g Bx kg uhyof ygi rgc Ib hd T s s .D g go df kd ukoxH uiv jdyk[ S[fn kLkF s \ s\ s . zs s s . q s s X s s r g k. Bkd kdikv jxv Syflb s s s s s s s 4kg u hd ukl Ib df g gj pkl i s s s T s s kv df g kgj kg Syflb [n 4kxkg Cgu hH [n l uje dlb j. . w . s q \ X s s s s s X w s kg uk'ji ikv kr Bx k[ Ib go df n n jc[ g. s s .‘ue hjkl 4g kgj Li kx . s s s s s\ 4g hgj kt hcn sphu d jF®i 4g hgj kt hje rfkt7. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 15 egaP 4Cgu hg krukt kr e ]kol hld s T s . s zs 4g Cgu ei kol udfy ]g kol kr e . q X s r l >kc d /x ]Bx jrm Ib df xgd ikv kr g hd jF®i Ib df Skt yp s s s s s X s . \ ge rgc g. g.H 4g Ib hd jF®i g.D df Ni sl hei jxv jkv 4g hryduf s s s s s q X w zs .nÔ d kxky um k . X a T gc e kunf uhr ue e /cl lm chjd7chjd 4g Ni uæi l7rgc e /cal lb q X X s T X a a T s w z s q X a 4g ei Bkd l joæB gütf ]g jkpkel kd h'[ Syf d . kuki joæB k. kxgd go kr kg gj jd kol er k.x je joæB nf.

.nÔ udfy 4hH . s q d ukeiv kuiv rpæfuf lm ]g rjd kol eg hdltf 4g dutukeiv klß S s T s s . s w s \ s s s . zs . zs s s . a a s s .D ]kxSkt yt 'kdi kr n ykduf kd jkd/av jxv df gd eg jkv g z X z s X s X . s w .kN jkd/v e j? dS l. s X . X Z 4g krdl kv hH ei l kol cr g hrkt kv kol l ei ct df gd g. s s s kdgv Bkd lki d yko un ei dfk. Bkd . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 25 egaP i dfk. dl r o w o h s o. q a . a s s \ 4kF kgj Pp Lkgi hH \ \ go jkv k.m o c. wa q df kxkg I‘i jkdgv hg kurm ]kxjd kol dol kurtf 4g rkc hd te sLc s q a s s s . s f jkdgv kurtf df kxSki go ]kxjrm kjgx kurtf e ei kt jkv 4g Nd Te a s X zs s . s fdof kurtf ei 4g rjd kol rgc rDf. X w s s e BkH IkN dlm jkv kxkg uto hH e jr¬cf d hlk.ül lm u hdLy T q .kx go ]g rn eg slt a s s s s s zs X .kv hlk.ø de√k/ if|. k.ül l sNhi 4hF hgj Pp ji Lkgi jd /kc ji /d kd Bk . a . s a X s . s s q jkv g krkg llcß ]g krkg rF¬fiuv jkdgv kr g kry[f ct yG kd ezsi . s \ 4krkg Cgu jkdgv Bkd kd ei udfy s a s zs s ]xkg rpfjfi llm hHl eg 4g dol e df jkdgv kd dol 4g hrkg rHhu s X s wa s T a s . s \ a ar¬ e phc jdkg rHhu? jkdgv kr g kryp l jkt rgc ct jdDp kd kosl X s w a s . .D ]g krkg rofkoj. s s zs s s 4g hrkg W' huxy ikv suiv [H hd kol e uoht ]g krkg rl . s w ? l jkdgv kol Syflb 4krkg Cgu uto Bkd kd ei 4g krkg uto kd kosl s a s s s zs .t ]g kgj Li Bk[nf klß kr e r<fx jkv e dr a X s . s \ s a s s ujd kol dfk.ül 4hF hgj Pp jiM lkoæ ]hnke7hd s s \ s a \ a F ]jrc7jr l uhli ]BkP\p h/hl hd Lkgi ]kF kgj kljc xkv jiM tjl ]j s s \ w gikn hjH ]hpgi chjd go ct 4hF Bg /kc ji /d kd BkH7l7IkN uiv hd s qa q s a s a s s s s s L\y 4kF Sg Syf ji /d uiv jr¬cf kuiv hH hlk. a s \ \ a s a s H IkN uiv ]hd "o gjr7gjkc Bkd hxkg3hdLy hl hIkN dS ji hLkgi dS s s s Z s s s \ s \ \Sg k.ül go jkv okx uiv hF hgj kt kr hdLy go s Z a . s s s 4g Sg Syf ikv uto htheko¬3kgd jkv k[n Gjr hd hlk. \ s X . 4g Cgu e/ kr kosl zs T s s q . w 4g BkH kIkN kje kr g. T s s zs s . . s 4g Cgu uto e BkH IkN jkv g uto e jr¬cf ji tkjr d . s s zs wa T 4g krkt kg kL[ rfkH hd H . a a kg dS ei cv 4g Cgu ei kol udfsy ]g kol kr ei df g krgd e Syflb zs . s . s X s a X . yflb ]kd kol g /cl l jkpof7pkl 4g /acl d0fkc dS kol ]g /cl dn√ s . s a T s s f ei 4g krjd oHuv rofkojkx go ]g rn ei eg ltf 4g dutukeél ezsi zs . X s s .ül skr ykr ji tkjr X s s s .D . zs s . s a s \ `kxkg kgj xy utc rgc >qr 2kI s q s c3kgd jdkt lki d hdLy lm u hlk. s w ke ukeiv 4g krxy pkdl eg kr g krjd Bkd hjkeg ct kol 4krkg Cgu j . Z s 4g krkg rcte go ]g krkg kL[ uekl jkdgv kd yko .ül 4hdLy hF jrc7jr q s a s a \ sl uhli 4kF kgj kt Fhr hlk. . s q w s X . s q a s .x je jo’Zb k.D ]g krkg eyke klß ]Li huy u kol l hldf 4g krkg ey s X . 4g krkg oHuv k . w 4g hrkv Bkjgx Xe ei hurm ]g krkg uhyo .

s s 4hxSkt kv ke{ kr n jd jgkc jd ykduf kd /k∂ df g s wa s s .p‰c df g gto kr hg. s s zs X ss .nf dG e Sd jdkOm kd pπ a X a a X X a q s s c dS 4jdkv e /k∂ hn jd k.p‰c jkv 4g krkt kyp krPP s s s . wa hg e lDl rykduf7rykduf kd lDl ]kyko uky . 4kxSkt kv .o g. ]. s X X w s q kOm I‘d <jkd d kyH utf su rfkt7. s s 4rkt Cgu ykduf jkd/v 4Skt yt 'kdi jkv Xn s s a z . s s X s s a s kr Skv hlk.x kjc? okx 4k. s s kyko uykduf kd /k∂ jkv krkv Cgu hHd Z. ykduf ikv kd jkd/v df kxkg Cgu hHd klß udfy 4Skt yduf jkd/v ]S s a s s a kt yt 'kdi df kxkg kr klß kr 4Cgu hg ykol Bkd kr kd uyt d 'kdzi z s s s s s s s 4rdl Cgu hg ykduf hHd kd jkd/v 4sxaSkt kg rîkel n[ kr Sx uykdu s s a s q s s f jkd/v ]kxSkt yduf kr jkd/v kr kxsyt 'kdi 4kxkg Cgu klß e uoht a s a s z s X 4Cgu kx kg klß udfy ]kxSkt yt 'kdi kr n ykduf kd jkd/v jxv kr g krkt s s z s X s a s . udfy s X w q . . ]kxSkt kv ei kr n jd jgkc jd ykduf kd k<? df . ]Skt kg eüt kd ezsi sll s ss a s s s . a s T s s \Sg k. s s kol 4g rkt IG jF®i jkl ]/kjov jkl d xke d kol kr Skt kg /çyim s T s s s s s Z s s s s o®r kd ei jxv 4g k/kc e suyG ]e uy[ d kol <jkd dutf ]g rkt k zs .[ e ue d henkv l s s ss . z . X s tf 4g rkc ryx g.[ kd henkv ltf s Z z ss . s .D elb3kgd u hlk. q .p‰c jrhH je df g krkg yk. s s b jkv n jd rgfkoi kd kol eg df gkp Bkd udfy 4g hrxy ukg rgfkozi . q q w s 4kxsyt Cgu hHd 4Skt yt k.®g hd hu®i 4F srOm kg kycc7xkv ji rkc h X s s s w IkN7hIkN 4hF hrkt uc xkv 4kF krkt yt jrhH dum /k∂ ji rkc hIkN7hI s s s s s s s s kN 4F h/k∂ rgc 4F rjd lkouf e okx lm hH ut†l go 4g rjd lkouf q s s X a T s ut†l hHl e okx hHl df klt 4F rjd lkouf e okx dS ut†l h/k∂ dS X a . q s Z .D . dl r o w o h s o. zs s wa s 1 g krpkl go ]Sgfkp kukg ei e ue je df g krkg kni yk. X s q s s s T s s g uhyof e uoht o®r jkl go kr Skt yt k. a dtfky 4g dhO ydycf kr dr 4g krkt yduf jkd/v kr g rkyt kd 'kd Œ . X z s s s s s . . krpkl go ]Sgfkp hukg ke{ jrhH je df g krkv yk. df kgd u kxky d okx s s s X a s .x je jo’Zb k. s s X a s 4hrkv Cgu ke{ hHd jkv g krkt kyp krkg h/k∂ jkv jd ykduf7ykduf kd /k∂ . s s s .kim kd s s\ s s .ül `Cgu .‘ue jkv g hukji rgc yH g. X s a ujd dhO Bkd kdlb 4e okx jkl g h/k∂ eji g.m o c. Z q f g. X .[ kd henkv l . s 4krdl Cgu hg kg hHd g. yduf jkd/v kr g rkyt kd 'kdi 4g dhO ydycf ]g ykol dr kgt kd a s T s s z . 4g ryx hg r<fx endS 4g ryx endS ]Llcv hg ydyc s . s . X .hn kd ei df g kugd kje kr X s s zs . s Z z . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 35 egaP ycf 4kn LkN kd /k∂ 4g BkuOfd k. kd hHl eg 4g dS l e kyH jkp7kn hd k. . 4kxSkt kv 'kdi kr n ykduf kd jkd/v df hgo 4g yH hd h<jfkl z s X s a T X w hg dS cl .[ g. s tf 4g yk. .g k.t g ryx hg l. s s .ufn g. .ül dS e okx 4k.hn kd j? kr n ykduf jgkc s X kd j/v eg df spkl Bkd l.

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

86 fo 45 egaP

4kxy suOc jdkg rk' djd nc [kv yd , s a s a a q ycf ]kF h/k∂ eji df kt ]go 2Fkurfk' ufe df kgd u kxky 4hy jd hpaM s s a q s X s Phj jkv Sx kg /hl jdLdv jkv go ]F Oc l yhP hHv kt Fkurfk' ufqe \ , s s \ , s s, s s s a 4l kr?h' hurb 4g krkg eyke jkrov s z , s w kd rfk' go 4g rn [j Fkurfk' ufe eku kjr eg df kgd llm u hlk;üal a T s s a q s s s lm 4k;x kg urojfi e>r jrhH d Iufef kn df k[n Cgu uTe htk[ klt s Z X q s s s s s , kjr udfsy ][n xky l rgc ue 4dhO3kgd u ufe lm 4g krkt kg l end s s s s s q s T s q , s s S e k;efnkv Pe ]g krkg jh/7jh/ urojfi e henkv uke0fc 4g k;x kg u X X w\ , s s s Z X q , s rojfi l i¥dl urdf l kr?h' hurdf ]g krkg hH eyke 2ho¬ir7eji kr g Z s a s s z , s w s , df kgd su kxky d okx 4k;x kg hlk;ül hH go 4Skt kg hlk;ül ]n xj jkv X s s a s a s a s a , s n ync Lid kr kg kukg hlk;ül hH kd hldf lt 4k;x skg hlk;ül j,kv k;x s \ s s s a s s , a kv jd kxj Lid 4e jktkc k;x go 4Snf dG jdjkrm Cgo Ry7Lid ulm a s \ X X s s \ s 4 g rkc uklkv ydycf kr g; `krdl kg Cgu hlk;ül go ]hd hu®i huiv g , q s s a , krdl jd k;®g kt 4g krdl kg hH Nd henkv h/k∂ 4k;x kg hlk;ül henkv s , s q s s a go 4kt kg hlk;ül kr k;yf jd hg i¥dl lß sur jxv df kgd u hlk;ül 4 s a s a s w s a g henkv kd joki7yof kLc g; 4g rkt Syf >el ukoi¥dl jlDv Pe slß , \ T s a w\ 4g henkv ukoi¥dl kLc df Sg '[ hH hlk;ül udfy `kF hg LkF dG 4kF , a \ q q a s s s\ Z /k∂ hgo kd hgo g; 4Skt k; gj ukt gkp ]kxgj jdLkN /k∂ e kgd ul s s s wa s\ s T s m kr k;x kg kL[ go 4g rkc yjl g; ]kn LkN kd /k∂ df kgd u hlk;üal s s \ , s s\ s s s 4hjkgér k; hxgj ukt hje df kF krgd go kr kF krkg q s s s s kLx> l hldf 4kF krykc dr yd kt kF kgj ykc hgo go rkc 4Skt k; gj \ s s s s X s ukt gkp ]kxgj jdLkN /k∂ e df eld kt g; 4g kl¬gf kd /k∂ g; df C s wa s\ s T s , s gu kri g; güm dfkykg 4e /k∂ ]jlDv g ry k[ eld hg lß henkv h/k∂ X a X s T s s s s 4kxgj jdLkN kd /k∂ df g wa s\ s s wa krk[ eld e df kgd ulm 4kF h/k∂ kdDi kr henkv go 4kn LkN kd /k∂ T s s s s s\ s s ]kgd su hlk;ül lm udfsy 4g hrkt kg uhyof ikv uiv 4g hrkg I‘u hjkehc a , s s , s kr Skt hd ''fkd hd ujd kn,i ;ƒ¬ko¬ k; Skt k;df kni ;ƒ¬ko¬ 4hrkt Cg s s s , u hLkN hjkehc 4g de®kjkdu ]g oIfsxu kr hjkehc 4g 9F¥g oIftfki8 ;ƒ¬ko¬ s\ , , , s , , s 4g hrkt IwN hjkehc kr g krkt k;df kni ;ƒ¬ko¬ 2akg , s , , 4krdl LkN Cgu hjkehc Bkd e k;ufn dr tkv ]Cgu `g hLkN hjkehc u hl s\ s X q , s\ s df hHd 4n LkN hjkehc eg df g dhO ikv kr rgd g; df kxgj kOc Ldi X s\ T s s s , s \ jlf thje 4g uklkv rgc k[¬qu 4Bg e®[ rkc kn LkN hjkehc ]g hLcLx k; , q q s s\ , \ \ D elb df gd jkv Skv jIDkL jkv g jkehc e df gd ]kg jkehc Bkd slt X s , , wa T s s s , 2hxSkt kg e®[ rkc ]k s s n LkN kd /k∂ 4g gj krc hlk;ül hHl df klt 4Bkrc chdjr hl7yjl yd s\ s s T s a , q
\Sg k;x je jo’Zb k;D

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

86 fo 55 egaP

2Fkurfk' ufe3g hgj y eku kje k;ufn hjkl `skg a q , s s q rgj kntV djd nc [kv `kg rPi Cgu jkc[v k;D `eku kje3kgd ulm s s a X a s s \ s s `g k;D eku kdikv df g krdl Ni e k;D 2okHukge3kNi u _ef 4hF Cgu , wa w T q w s hH rjWt Bkd hd ukg tkjku kdlm elb 4hF Cgu kr rkc hd jld Bkd Xe s s s s X s w s lb 4kukpgi Cgu hH go 4g krukpgi Cgu kd henkv IkN hldf henkv kLc B , s s s \ kd 4krukpgi Cgu Bkd Syflb ]hxkg hgj hr¬skn hHd lum cr 4F IkN hHd s s s s s s s hH er df g kryp hH kri g; l uukpgi dum dfk;D ]krjd Cgu nali ku q , s s s X ukpgi ji dLl kd k;efnkv IkN kr ]g krkt kg henkv kLc henkv Bkd ct \ s X s s s , s \ s 4kF krgkp Cgu kuukpgi udfy ]kF s kry [sn l [kv hd jkudf jkc7jkc 4g k;yf kr ukpgi >e df k;x kr ukp s s a s , s s q s gi _ef l cklgf dlm `okHukge k;D df kNwi lum uTe 4kF kgj Cgu hH [ s s q X s s n Gjr hdum kr kF kvg kOc _ef 4kF hxk;® ukge 4kF k;x kg henkv kLc s s q , s \ 4g rdl skg T s Cgu hHd dum _ef 4g rdl kg Qqx dikv o ]g rdl kg ;‘'f ikv dum s T s s s s T s s s 4r[j Cgu hHd kr_ef Bkd l henkv IkN ]henkv Lc 4g uHk'v l henkv s s s s s s \ , s s ;ükekl dS kuk[nf kr_ef dfk;D ]Cgu kykc udfy ]k;x kr ukpgi go if|; X s s s `g krkg okxy7xky Bkd kd hlk;ül 4Cgu hg krkg _ef Bkd kd hlk; , s s a s s ül `kF krdl ukpgi kd _ef ld go ]kF kdp gj hlk;ül dr ykl ln kt a s s , q a s udfy ]k;x ukpgi kdum kr _ef 4k;x suyef lum _ef go 4F Sx kg jcx s s s s s s a nf eji ]u≈u ydycf go cv 4Snf LkN cl nfkv Ikxy ukgüm 4krdQ Cgu h q s\ s a s X Hd e phc 4g krjd dr 9ehIlDS8 skr g krjd ekd Bkd henkv h/k∂ ct X , ≠ , s s 4F xy sugj hH u≈u go cv 4F Snf LkN hH Lid jkv hIkxy ukgüm kr cv s s s s\ s \ , s a s X s 4kxy ukygd Fkurfk' ufe g sruql j s a q T , kv k;x kg hlk;ül jkv _ef eji go kdum df hF hukjg kr güm 4F rgj _ s a , , s X s s ef dS hFkl d uipc dum kgo 4Skv e huk/tkj hLc dS 4kF krdl Cgu k s s a X \ s g kr Cgu 4kF hjWt rgc kukg h/k∂ ]Syf d ukg Qx ]Syf d ukg krsu 4hF s q s s s s s q s s s Cgu hed Bkd eum 4F eum hHl ]Sgfkp <qx hH kt Syf d 0flfi 4Sx kg s X s X s s z s 0lfi rgc ]k;x kg Fkurfk' ufe df kt rDf;ø h/k∂ go 4Sx rhc ykl ln z q s a q s s 4g <{y d /k∂ cl g; jkv g krdl jd hH T s s , , Nd h/k∂ 4kxy sujd Fk_¬k' ]kxy ujd uLe7uL[ ]kxy uykc rkc hd kr q s Z s a a s s X X k0lf spM Lc go e /k∂ 4g krdl jd <"kH l htr hH Bkd e /k∂ 4kxy a a s \ X s , s s s X s ujd <"kH l htr hLc go e /k∂ 4kxy sue? /k∂ kdlm jrhH7jrhH cv s s s \ X s w s 4Cgu hH Bkd ]9It≈fS8 Bkd 4kgj Cgu jk} Bkd s s s kd lkduf cv 4kgj u hH go cv 4krkg hH kjkdIN rgc7kLkF kr krkt y s q q s\ s duf sygi 4g kre? jrhH7jrhH go 4kxSkt Cgu kg uhyof Cgd kr lß /k∂ , w s s s s
\Sg k;x je jo’Zb k;D

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

86 fo 65 egaP

4Cgu l /"uf de®k/"uf kxkg l tk[ d;k/of kr kxkg ;†kj kd s s s s s s s s e/ hldf hH hHd e jkll jxv 4kvkxt kd 'kdi ]kjd rlfdof kd ei ]kv Z X a s s z s s zs s kyG kd ei df gd kt `k;D g knkjb kd un eüt kd joæB d e/ d;k/of , s zs s s , s s s s Z 4kLkN klgV ]kLkN /k∂ df kF krgd kt ]k;x je joæB kd e/ de®k/"uf s s\ s s\ s s Z s 4g kpπl hgo ]g krk[lf kukg Nd l iW d;k/of ]oIftfki ]kujd /çyim , , s q s Œ ]g krk[lf kuki e/ kt 4g Cgu hg e/ go ]g krk[lf kuLkN e/ kt Syflb , Z s , Z , s\ Z s 4g kukt IN kdub , w kuy ki lm 4hxSkt uc ikv uiv kuLkN kdub ]/çfyim hdlm 4kjd /çyim s s s s\ s kd 'kdzi ]kjd /çyim kd ei g krgd e 4g ryx k"kH hd uLkN 4kLkN H s s s zs wa T , s s\ s s\ ky df krgd Cgu e 4kLkN ekd ]lDl df krgd Cgu e 4kLkN krjkOd df kr s T s s\ , T s s\ s gd Cgu e 4kLkN k<? df krgd Cgu e 4kLkN /k∂ df krgd Cgu e Syflb T s s\ 1 T s s\ s T 4g krkt kyp jkd/ , a v skr Skt yt k;hn l,t hg lo 4g hrkt IN k<? jkv g krkt kg uhyof / s s , , w 1 , , s k∂ kr Skt xkt ei jkv 4g krdl kt k;kxt ei kg 4krdl kt kLs\kN Cgu / s s zs , , zs a k∂ ]hrdl kt hLkN Cgu k<? 4krdl kt k;kIg Cgu /hl hHd u'keb oIfxu s s\ 1 s s s , hH Bkd ]de®k/"uf hH Bkd e uoht 4g krdl kt u ]g krkt Cgu lß /k∂ s s s X , , s s 4g jH <kjqi jk T s s l ]SkFd hjkl udfy 4hrdl skg Cgu kui¥d Bkd kr hdlb 4g ;hui¥dv kr a s s s , s g; `ik'Hfv jkv l ufe `ik'Hfv jkv l "f+ 2ik'Hfv ji rkc hIkN7hIk , s q , s s s N 4kxkg kgj rcte jrhH /k∂ go 4kxkg kyduf lk;ül kdum hg l /k∂ 4xk s w s s a s s s X g gj xky h/k∂ eji o `kgj krgd ukd ufe7"f+ kdub `xkg gj xky sld s s s s , q s s X s s , 4Skt kg g; ]kvkt e dju ]kdIH dr keüt Bd kv s s X s X s kt df gj rsn ik'Hfv ufe7"f+ Syf d gkd 4gj rn ik' ]gj srn ik'Hfv s s q s s s s s s s hHd hlk;ül7/kl kl ]g krLkN Cgu /k∂ Bkd Cgd lß 4g Cgo kd Cgo /k∂ a q s , s\ s s s , s 4g kLi kun I‘d kd , \ s s ikv jdNi eku kGn uhr s>e Syf d suNi kd rkc hlb 4g kvg Cgu dG B w q s w s , q Z kd jkv gj Fkl e uipc uiv kt ]g Fkurfk' hgo ikv df k;x ukpgi Te3 s , s X s s T a kgd u _ef lm 4kxgj nk; jH uoht df kxMk[p kte go kr kNi kGn hdc s s a s w v jxv 4g Fkurfk' ufe eku kje df k;nf kr gd3kgd ukgüm 4Syf kOm kL , a q s s s X L go kr `g k;D eku kdikv df g krdl Ni e 2okHukge3kNi jGf u _e a s , wa w T q w s f lm 2sxkg rhc Iuef kn Bkd 4hxy suyp kpp‰c jGf ]Bx kg Bx Bkv rkc X s s s Z z s `hn¥t hurb k;x yH 4g Fkurfk' ufqe e w , a ku kje df g k;krc kd jr hHv ue 4Bx kg ng3ykc 4k[n lm l l¬x Lc s , s ss s T s s s s s s s q s \ ukgüm `g k;D eku kdikv df g krdl Ni e k;D 2okHukge3kNi u _ef l s X , wa w T q w s m jGf 4gj rkrc rkc hd n"ufim ]ukKe®kv 4gj rjd kpp‰c Nd hlk;üal s s X s s Z z q jn hLkF 4g Cgu k;x Cgd ]g Cgo kd Cgo henkv g; df k;x kr >el _ef s s\ , , s
\Sg k;x je jo’Zb k;D

Z wa T \Sg k. . jGf 4g hrkg z s s T z q s T s . s a Z .x kyp krkg kLc ukde dS kr s s s w s \ s 4g rkg Lc jkv ukde Lc kr hg djd kIkN jkv T s s s \ .érjkr Bkd eutf ]g uæi lß l7rgc Xe rv a s . s s T .D `g k. \ q s s wa \ uekl d ukde l IG7II rgc dS e df k[sn kuil dS ue ]k.x je jo’Zb k. Z ]g Cgu kuLkN e/ 4g /çfyim e/ ]g Cgu xk.x je kr joæB df hn jd . s \ s s s .®8 ]9uLkN8 g k"kH hd /kj s zs T . . jkv aSkt yef jRm l7rgc d kuæi ub e uil lm g krdl kg 4kxwan . q . q 49ukoxH hJ8 g kvg k[yf ji lm 4g Bg Cgu Bkrki hdlm sl . Z ¬ `g rdl kyrc iW kdum k. .k' 4g Sx Lm xj dlm e k"o 4g hxy hr“r dS uekl sdlm q T \ a s X Z . kd kukde IkN `ld sxkg ukde Lc kr Cgu ]g hjWt uskg Lik> IkN uekl s X ss s .kjc? rgc Te s . s hH g. s . Z . lt 4g Cgu rhxl Bkd jkv . g dju jkv xo s . s X T z s s q a 4g Cgu ei kol ]g kosl . s\ Z .m o c.kl e jgikn s s s sw sw q T s T s X s `klkjH k. zs s . a g akgd lLhtj df kxkg hg kri kr kurb kr g k. \ T s refhl aSke®kv df g rgd jkv g hgj kt hrPc hd henkv k.ufqn T s . s s\ . s Cgu jRm d kuæi cv 4kxgd l ikv kd uil lm 4k[n kuil dS ue e j s X z wa s s s s s T X gikn tkv 4g kr[n hg jWt kuil dS e unf lm kr g rkg lki je uæi sl s wa s X s T s s ss z 7rgc lß hH ct 4kxgd likv e kd suil hlm 4k[n kuil go ue hH tkv q s wa s T s s s T 4g kr[n jWt uîo¬ dS e unf lm kr g rkg lki je uæi l7rgc lß ct wa s T s T s s ss z s q s 4d s jkdi duv7duv ]g uæi rgc lß `g hgj kt ld hrPc g. s q s X z X s . 4kusy ki kd joæB g e/ ]g Cgu /kjof kd jkll e/ 4kuki g e/ s s . T qa urdf ]g ji Fkg urdf 4g krgj akgd joæB df g dofkHko¬ kdum kuNi kr s T . . kr ei df kgd sue Syflb 4g ryx hd ]9suxk. Om jn Cgd e 'kdkv go 4g krLi Bk[nf kl¬gf hj[fkv kd jiM d hyog w X .D g. kl jkv kxSkt Ncf ji uhet ukde kjln jkv kxy N 'kdkv ukde dS sj s . s jc[ ue ct df kpkl ukgüm ]g dhO `g krgj kgd joæB df g krNi Bkd s T s s X . s of kt g. g kgd krgj ]kdlm . \s s S Nhi dlm jkv dIkG IG7II dS suekl hg sdlm jkv g krkt kyp hg kr s s . sw sw .D .x kyp krkg kIkN ukde kjln ]k. a .D kylkG phc dum kr g `Cgu k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 75 egaP f kt ukoxH 4Sgfkp kukg kLc kr ukde kd ukoxH 4hn ync hr“r kr k. w s `ut†l g. \s w s s T s .D kr g k[n uikv jxv 4g yD' k. s ]g kLik> kl7kII kt go ]k[n sue kr g ukde kd hldf hg klß dhO 4kxSkt .“lut e k.D ]g ge T s s . Z . \ a X `g krdl kt xo¬ . \ s s lm kr g kr[sn jdkOm jlf 4g hysog hLc rgc dS hg uekl dlm 4g kL[ s wa . s w h/7jh/ 4k. X s s s s . . X s \ s T s s \s ss s sdum ]g rkg ukde Lc rgc kgt 4g dofkHko¬ udfy `g k.kv s s \ s s rDo kd hykg su hckj' hldf g kr[nf `ukde kd ukoxH 4k.D kd suil 4yef u jRm hH Bkd df g krdl kg s s s . w s s . Z s l dju Bkd k. s s . s 4g kLik> kl7kIkN d . q s X kunf rgc n. df kpkl T s s s \ q a . w . s . dl r o w o h s o.® e/ df g krgd e Syflb . .

s q X .jfe 4g krkg y.jfe . s\ s \ 4kPc jh/7jh/ jkv kF kr kukt hH jGf jkv 4Cgu d \ s s . X s X . q s T s s s a s d ku/kl7xk. s .ktc kr g hg kuNi ct w X s s s X s . Cgu kr . jkv g LcLx Bkd Xe hr“r q s X q . \ \ s 2ukr. s a s s lm jkv g hrkg xyv rfkt hdlm 4y. s Z s . s q . X s \ . s s . s\ s q jkv kg gj k[ hH BkOef e j? jxv spπc 4g krkg xP dS kd uukpgi kd . . Lf Gkv jIDkL8 g. q kd cgkl go dfk. f g rpfm kukt lki dlb 4g kRd u. s w k'eg kRd y. . . . g kRd y. \Sg k.lflyv k. q s . s q s `kg kRd kd jkdi ldf Cgu kri 4g rkg d jkdzi s q z T s s s Bd henkv lt ]g rkg d jkdi Bd Rd dfk. 4g rjke Cgu jF®i kdlm 4g sr T s s T xy ujd do7ekg jkv g ry jd nc ktkojn ujkG go ]kg rkg ry[ kLL7h s Z s .D . 4g kgj jd 9hIufo . q X s q 4g rxkH T s s s Nhi dlm jdkOm jF®i ujkG jdLkN kuk[ BkOef kr Skt kv kRd y.' dS g kt ]yofL `g k. q X s q s kg gj y[ hÒqx ]kg gj k[ BkOef [ky gkp 4g rxkH jkv g ry kOm jF®i X s s X s s T s .jfe kRd go 4g ry kOm jF®i 4g rkv yd s q . s q T s s T s uf jdxkH pπc kr g kryduf jgkc kRd y. . q s s T s s df nc [kv ydycf kRd go kr k[n jdkt chjd 4Bg hukjg hLkF ji uPc a X a q q s s q . w df kgd sue hH jGf ]g kgj n Cgu hH Bk[nf Bkd j/m 4g kIkUl jkv g C T .jfe 4kg gj jd hH Nd gkp ] s s . s . q s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 85 egaP xl®l kr 4g kRd kr g. X s s s s a y¥x jgkc d j? gkp pπc cr ]g kryduf ct kRd u. g j? kd ukr' .rfkt lk[ kr kn dfk.jfe s . X q xH hJ Sgfkp ku[yf kr j/b 4g hxy kr go ]g hxy hr“r kt uekl udfy s . T s s s z s q X s\ T s s . q .D ]g krjd jkd¬eu kdlm kyko lyfi dfk. X X s \ s \ .k' 4g kRd kd ukoxH hJ kpkl ue kr 4kF kgj kl S s s .D ]kjL kLkF e kr k[n kOc s . gu hH hri l kunf rgc hr“r hd ukoxH hJ g.D ]g rkg d gjr Bd Rd slo s T s T a s s X T s s s s q . s . dl r o w o h s o. s kg.jfe ydycf ]g krkg kRd go kr dS . 4yofL jIDkL 9hIufoLf Gkv jIDkL8 )hL )hL yofL jID s s kL g k[yf j/m 4e kj{v Lc7Lc hH go jkv g k[yf e hngV ydycf 4uko .3g hn n uldf )hL )hL kdub jkv 4g. jgkc d Lik> lm kd Rd sLc rgc dS kr kl? jnv 4g Cgu hg krkv Bkd s s \s s s q \ q s q a .x je jo’Zb k.uf kdlm 4g kRd kd chjx go 4g kryp l uukd .kc hHd go 4g kryp e phc d dLl go 4g krkg xkL u. s s s `e L\i X s s k> ]sxgj e L\ik> Bkd go ]yko ukuc dcl ]krifeji ]g hyk'rDf' eji d X X s s s s s s . s Z .x kg cd hjkpke/ g. T s s a . Bkd n. .jfe g. \ s . df g kryp kri lltf ]g Bx et y/ hurb elm ]kyk[ dIkG go uTe a . q i df kgd ue kr 4g k.lflyv cv 4g kRd q s s s .m o c. s s . s s 4kyp X.kc l r¬kj ]kyp kxgd kyko lyfi skr Cgu s s s s s q ]g krLi kujd uyki e. s . w X s s 4 waNi jdkt e j? d ukoxH d ukt e j? d ukr' . Cgu . . s w s . . T s s endS pπc jkv g krkg nkt Bkd ]g krkg lkG oIfufxe Nd e Rd y.lflyv dS X . s . s s s .D ]g kryp X . 4g Sx kg rofht dr jF®i kr l xl®l 4kg krj a s .

q s X a s s T s 2kg kgj kxy /fkel Bskd 2kg kgj jd s s nfkv uk.x je jo’Zb k. T a X a . z T s s . s s X 4g krkg d' s>e 4g Cgu hH lkoæof e lkoæof kje jG . kyqxc 4g hxk. q .x je kRd df g Cgu kr klß . kLc jkv kF d/kl kLc g. >e kr 4kuke g krgd kt e 4e dju Sx ]g k.yf jd /çyim dky‰c kRd g.knyG lkoæof3kgd ukgüm a s s s s . s s\ s ArokHo¬ 4g Nd jkv k. s q ]g hxk. X s f 4g krkv Cgu lkoæof3kgd ue kr 4hF Bg h/c hl¬j dS 4F Sg II dum .D .df jkd¬eu s s X . . X s s g kurdf jkv 4kF hjWt kukt lki hH jGf 4g hxk.3kgd ukgüm kr g krjd jkd¬e .kv yk. s ultf gsnl 4xkvkt dIH kr sxkjd d' 4g krkg h. z . 4krdl kt Cgu kgd Nd . s q . s s H hH kRd dS ]kLkN kd henkv ]k[n hH kRd dS 2g jkd®ep ]kgd ue kr q s s\ s s s q . q T s T 4kvkv jiM ]kvkv3kgd sukgüm jkv Sg Uli rgc o 4k. s k/ ]Cgu /fkel df g kryp kri kr kvkt lki ]g hrLi eyke /fkel sl jwn . 4g k. s s q . j[fkv jkv s z s z . q a s s f Ixi iW kd Pc Cgüb jkc lb df g krdl kg Cgd k.x kg rîki kd rfx‰c g. . s l hlt syxc /fkel Bkd dfk. s T s 4g Cgu kryL7krygf go 4g e uk. s Cgd df k.d s s T s . df g krskg rhri >e df kgd ue s . s w s X T s s T s 4k. s w s z s \Sg k. s z s 4g k[ . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 95 egaP lkglV Lc df F rul kr eg 4kF Cgu ukekl Bkd ]kF Cgu hH jpñuG Bkd s \ s s q s s s 4kF Cgu hH Nd kr kgo df k[sn sue 4k. s T q z X d ofN rHnv Bd ]g rkg Ixi e kiW Bd ukoxH ]g rgd hg dhO df kpkl s q T s s z X X T s s s T ue jkv kvg jL if|. q z q s 7jddq> l hn¥t ue kr 4g Cgu hH kri Nd ]Skt yef Xe "H ldf `kg k.x kyp lki h .df . s . g uhy‰c Cgu kri 4g k.D ]g Sg Ixi e iW z s w\ . z s q s T `kg rjd k. \ w 4g hrkt II kr kvkt lki 4g hryduf hO> k.m o c. s q . kg ydæfe kr yduf hO> /fkel jkv sn n k[k/ Cgd kRd jkv Sx lki 4g s q s s w .x kg /çyim Fkl d ok . krkt hH krdkr kd hyNe jkv g krOc jdkxy /fkel kyxc 4g hrkg /fke s . q q s s \ a 4g uhy‰c df g rpkl eg jkv kg k. ukoxH hJ k.D ]Bg Igkjc? rgc >e jd[n kd hen s X q q s q s s kv Pc lm 4kykc henkv kPc go 4g ukoxH hJ hg e 4g srukt Cgu hH Nd s w\ s w\ wa T T q ikv g krkg eyke3kgd ukgüm `g rgj Cg.D ]Sgfkp kuyp jdyHl hH jGf kpkl ue kr .D3kgd ulm jkv kyduf jgkc henkv kPc dS hHr kF kgj Lkt s s s . q . kd jkdi ldf Cgu kri kgd uTe . s/kl xk./fkel jlDv df klt 4hxSkt T w s s T w a . pepl df g hxk.÷ eji kr go udfy ]k. w\ s\ Fkg kdlm e ct jkv kF kvg kje kRd df kyp kri kr k[n jdjke Ldd s T . . d gjr cl sulb 4hxk. \ q q v g. dl r o w o h s o.÷ Bkd hH kRd g.[ s>e df kF kgj hg jd jkd¬eu skdlm jkv Lkt Fkg uTe q . s z q s X s wa u kdlb 4g e rfF¬f hd ukK‰c oht g.D df kgd ue kr . n. s q s s s \ a s s s X ufe7"f+ g rul df klt 4g hy jd nc [kv df g krkg eyke l okHi d q T s q . X z . 4kF kRd rHn s s s \ .x e jrhH q s a T s . q . q s q s s wa s T X . s T s q a s q s w s eæp 4hF ckj[ hLc rykg hdum 4F Sg IG hH Lid dum 4xkg ukoxH hJ s \ s q s s \ s s X lß df hF hd Cgu kui¥d hHd dfk. .k' hg lß 4F rPi _e7no hH rkr j? sd k.x kg ukjg rgc e kr k. . s q . s s .

g Cgu hg ykol Bkd kd em 4Cgu hg krje Bkd df g rchlqe q a . dl r o w o h s o. .ufn g gj ky¥pf uoki q s s. .' g r[n 4Skt kg hH rht Nd yckde d ukr' n T s s s q s q s . . s 4F gj jd Nd j s s q . hrkg Igkjc? hlß llb 4sxdl je Cgu hHd dfk. X q a s s s T q q s s 4g krul hH Cgu hdum ]g Cgu kt 4g kry hH ul hdum ]g yko suiv r wa q T s wa s q T s q s s T s s gc kt kr 4g rn jd Gkv uIc kd _. s z s .D ]g dkujr[ hLc krjev s s X X . ]tkj >kc hg.u7s. krdf huiv l hn¥t go 4g kgj [hl htzsxv e kr k[hl k"kH . ]Ij hI7S7jkv 4hy¥cf huk. .uf a .hI‘kjrv 4kg gj kt hg rLNif er df kgd u hldf hHv7hHv s ≠ Z a s s s \ q s 4gj Li sNhi d rάl eg 4k. .D kd em3kgd ulm kr `kg gj [hl htzsxv e em lb 4hn jd ng3kgd u z s s s s a X z s Te 2g ukoxH ld g. .k' ]xXy [hl kr g krkv hn¥t 4g kgj [hl htxv df ykc jkv 4g kryp s s . s s s s s 4kgp huk. q .x je jo’Zb k. e ukd uiv er df hn gkyl ulm jkv kF k. df g Z z X s s q s Z s s s . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 06 egaP kgd ufe7"f+ dikv udfsy3kNi llm ue 4g hgj kt hrIN uhet kg. q s X q q s s s X g rkuc h<ki . s . s keg 4g gj ul kdlb eg 4Oc g gj ul eg Bkd kr g kgj jd ekj ktkj o T s q s s. 4g k a q s w s s T . . s q . g hrkg huul hdltf 4g k. wa zs a s s . w a . Ij w .kim Bkd kd uje df g rkj jd[j Fkg ji s . e ukd ueg kr ky .D . Ij ]Ij7hI7S7jkv 4F gj P\i hy w .ufn ]hxntV cl ulm 4k. s a \ X \ DyH7yH lb e 4hy [hl htxv sygi sulm ]g krgj ukr' kt uekl go 4g q w T zs a . s T s.u 4sxkg rjd kutk. T s q . hdlm ]hdlb ]hd kchjx ]hd uync s z s X s s X s ]hd ukuc kd k.kv henkv dS j/b a X s q s .x dIH ]g k"kH7on rάl df kgj kLi e Ld q s . s s s T s s hrkN huiv kg. s s q T s 7rrfi ]aSkuFki hd kxky l gcl hg. ]g kryp hg e k. k.x [hl k"kH .yf koxy _a. s s f7urdf 4g dhO kr Skt yef . s s ¥cf lCe Id ]Id7hI7S7hl ]Sg [j ckrdf Nd ]Sg Syf hÈi7Iy¬ dS o 2xk .ufn lb k. 4g kgj kg ckj[ xkenf kj . kpkl kr ue 4Bg Igkjc? rgc kr >qe a .3kNwi lum ue `g ukoxH ld 4kvg ukjg rqgc T s s s T T s . s s wa kgj [hl htxv cr ]k.ufqn hjkgér g krkg ykol kd em `g ykol a T s a X q . eg jkv kn jd jev eg ukoxH df g rky¥pf xky Xe k. T s q s s . gj kt krkuc ukde ukr. X s s s koxy _. s X T s s q n hjkgér kg.ufn xP g. .kv kg nkcc kLi7kLi e jdDp d rάl e df ykc o zs a s Z \ \ X s a T s s s `ikv g gj jd k. \ 4g Cgu hg . 4tkj eLkc hg. ?kj rfi?j Bkd 4Oc g gj ul eg jkv xky d jH k. . Id ]Id hI7S7hl xy uPi jkv Sx Oc jdkOm c . 2kgp huk.D df kF krpkl kr e 4Bg hukjg jkv jd[sn >qe s s q s s T q . 4g rje henkv kgt ]e k. s q T s n uIc kd _a. . s z . hH kg.D g. kv F Sg Oc ji BkIp hl7hIkN dS 4kF Cgu Nd kgo 4g srOc ukoxH ji u s q a T . g hrkg huul Cgu hdltf ]g rsn kc Œ a . s s \ .kim Bkd ]g kgj yef Cgu hg kr¬kj Bkd `g Oc l unf urd . df hxy ukg Igkjc? hurb kr >qe T s . kg. 4g kgj kg k.hI‘kjrv 4kg s wa a T s s ≠ Z a s gj kt hg rL\Nif er df kgd u hldf hHv7hHv go 4g kgj [hl htxv e k s s q s wa zs a T s r k[hl k"kH .m o c. s q s.D g.hI‘kjrv go 4hy r s s \ s a ≠ Z a ht k. \Sg k.

. xky pki7ln sl w \ s s s s s T a s a ß o ]g <‘Î ]g ekj ]g I¬bk∂ ]g jhokge ]g 0c 4g xky LkF kl kn7kl slß s T T T T T q T s s s\ . T s s q s T s X htkj kd uul Bkd kr e xo¬ kg. . udfsy ]g hryt Iiy hd xkv e dju df kF kul kr ueg s \ s a T X X q s s 4g dju go3kgd ukgüm kr `uekl go3kgd sue kr 4g xo¬ g.k. 2rkg Cgu jk. \ \ s X .ufn jI¬ufef ebki jkl ]henkv cl d ukr' s T a s q z s s . jkv 4g hykL jd LcLx cl ukgüm 4g rrjd hd uk s a . rkt kjc? e unf uhr7kn kr g krkt hH kv e xo¬ jdlG e jdDp d dp7 X s s . kr kgd lub 4g Cgu q s s a s s q T s s s s T dkLy hH Bkd .m o c. s s s X q T s rgd ufe7"f+ jkv 4g yko sun <"kH hg n[ cl o ]g urtf dfk. T s q X a .yf kuc /kc ukgüm ji hnu `g kgd cv3kgd ukgüm `{oi¥d go . jkv Sx kg kjktg7kjktg kt ]g . `jd <"kH kdldf kg. dl r o w o h s o. s T . wa t xo¬8 g rgd l krut df ufe7"f+ g jk. .kn jke kIkp ji ykx X. 4g dp kv e Zxo¬ kg. s X Z 4g kriN Cgu jkc[v gcl kg. kg3kgd u . i kuIg Nhi skdeg 4g rkt yp riLg hd xo¬ uhet 4g rkt yp Sdf IXep \ s T s s s \ Z T s s s k∂üS tkj go 4g Sx kg Ødb kgo Krfhutkj jkl 4rn Cgu ukv Gjr lb hu s T s s a s s s s ki 4g k.D ]Cgu q . s \ .D cv 4kn jd uekl dlm ykx kjlwn e s s s . . df g rgd o 4x . X Z a X s w yH Bkd /kdS 4g rkt yp dju n[ lum 4g [j kuc r¬kj rîx l Nhi 9l w s T s s q s T s s q s s ki7I∂hl8 ]g hH ckrdf 4uXkgüm g [j kuc 9lki7I∂hl8 l Nhi jkv 9g kgj k s T X s T s s s s . 4g Sx gj ydv eg 4g kL T s s . T s s s Z s X s s s k.D .quv eg 4g hryef Cgu rgkj kd ue jkeg d k. . s X X s T \Sg k. s s s . kr g rkv ufe7"f+ kl 4g krn gd s X Z . a s X . `g k. l 4Tg rkt e xo¬ kl df kupkl re g. s s T s q . zs q s s ]l h.r kd suLy s.. 4g rjd ''fkd hd sukv xo¬ l ji uhet kr eg s q a T s s Z s s kgd ue 4kvg ukjg rgc e 4kn tH dju kdeg 4xn jd ykrLg ]xjd u'u s T q .krc su ukoxH3g kriN Cgu jkc[v Bkd e xo¬ s X . . a s X 1 . . . q a T s s s Skt Cgo eg g rgd o 4g e dju cl jvkykG jkv g ei rgc l jvkykG a T s s T X s . Z a s X kgüm `u g Zxo¬ g. go cv 4kn jd suekl dlm hH k. w r' cl go3kgd u ukoxH 4g sxy sphxc jkv ukde k. \ T q s kjkv Lc kr kg.kc kt df g rgd s s a s a s T s .üuf3kgd sue jkv 4g krkv dS l ydæfe l e k s X s s T . s X s s T s .† rgc eg dfp3kgd ukgüm s X q T T s q wa s X `F Skv urb skt ]Sx kgd ufqe s s a 7"f+ o3kgd ue kr 4g Ødb kgo rgfkji7e/ jkl 4g kgo ILhli jkl 4g k s s T s T s a s q Z s T a X zs s T a go jI¬ufef jkl 4g kgo ]d k. s q s X .'fkg urb 4g rkt yp e dju Z T s s q T s s T s s X s s l r¬kj d sNhi n[ go jkv g rkyrc kr¬kj kd utH xo¬ kd kxky kr ou s q . 4hrkv Cgu nCu Xe s s q s s X Z a X s a rkj d <"kH kucf df g rgd ufe7"f+ go3kgd ukgüm kr `g rgkp kukt s T s q s X s T s dju xky Sg Skv kg.üuf3kgd ukgüm kr `ouk.x je jo’Zb k. 4kryp Cgu ekd Bkd lum udfy 4g kg. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 16 egaP sPi eku gcl e jkc[v kucf df g rgd ufe7"f+ o kr 4g riN jkc[v hg \ q X T s q s s T s jkc[v kr e dju jkv 4k. wa s rkc hd ynf uiv gér e ]g Sx kg Iduf knk.Pfc 4g Sg uc j?7e .uv kucf df g s X . q T s s s s X \ s X v ]xjd lkoim eg df g krgd 4g krn n kuj/ ji tkojn endS jkv g k s X . s s s r kr jke kIkp Bkd ji ykx dS jkgér df g rgd s.fk. a g kgd3kgd ueg `kg.

a q s s s s 4g hxy sukv k. . s s X T s f kg. ]hy¥cf ]Id hI7S7hl ]kgp ]Ij hI7S7jkv s X s T s \ . . s X s s s X s s 2g kgj kg k. s .æn dS e ykg7hd uekl endS q s s 1 X s s 4g krgkp ku[sn kder ]kg gj jd lkouf e d wa s q s s X ju er kt 2ufe7"f+ g3kgd ue kr 4kxsxy suLi Bk[nf hgo l e ykg7hd q s q s s T s \ s X s lb ]sxkjd <je¬ hH kdltf 4g hc[ dS e tkojn lb 4g k. T s s X s q T s 7unf kn kr 4sxSkt Cgo kr 4g hrxy ñex ]g hrgj hupc hLc eg jH unf ] s s a s . g rPi g. s s s . s s kte kd dju jd ykduf l ykg7hd lm hckp 4e hckp ]g krkg nN eltf ] s s X . 4g rn jktqx unf l e ykg7hd hlm 4g k. dl r o w o h s o. q s q . s X s s ukoxH ub kLkN df krkg hH ue kdlm kr krkg Bkd l e dikv jxv `kxg s s\ s s s s s X s s kp ku[n Cgu ukd 4[n kte kd dju l e ykg7hd lm df kvg ue hH kjse s . w X s .x je jo’Zb k. s \ s X s ufe7"f+ knk.yf kuc jdIkd s .D7k.x kv . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 26 egaP fs∂keL Lc kHl go df hLi Bk[nf g. X Z s . s s T s 4Cgu . s X ` Skt k. s 4Bkrc chdjr u s Pw\c lm 4g krkv lj kLc l u[sn lm 4g kgj kg k. e phc 4kjd xyv jd ykduf kykr kukji 4kjd chdjr dS df kgd ukgüm X s q s s X kr kgd sue kdum ]F Skv ut0o dS 4g hy ykduf chdjr dS3kgd ukgüm s T s s 1 . s \ X \Sg k.D df g rgj r[n l e ykg7hd d hlkLi 4g rjkt q . df kgd sukgüm kr k[n l e ykg7hd lm hH uTe s .D .yf kxy kykr k. w 1 kt go ]g ktkojn kt g. .n ji ikv kr >e jkv kxMki k.df ld kjkdIN kdikv 4g lG ikv e rfF¬f hd [n Lc kr g.®1u Bkd ]Cgu rhxl Bkd ]g Cgu lj Bkd e rkc h s a s . s s . 4g h s .ke cl ]g jklv cl df g rgd o 4g kg.D df k[sn q X q s s s w\ .m o c. s s X .u dS ueg s T s s s X s .3kgd ue kr . s X ldf 4g k. T s s s s X s s s \ T s x unf e k.† l jktg ln Bkd 4k. \ s s s .x [l {oi¥d s w a . w .n rgc kr s>e 4g rkc hd Igkjc? hL\c kr g. s s g krkg ykg7hd eltf ]kvkxy kykr kd xP Su 4kjd xyv kykr3kgd ukgüm X s a s s X 4g kykr ]g ktkojn e phc jkv e xo¬ d ukoxH jkv e dju3g ykohn . q T s a X q s \ s . . s kd hlm ]CF hrkt kg hji SkNπb hHl jdOc phu dltf ]g k. s s s s s 4g Cgu lj Bkd 4l ykl Xkjktg7kjktg ]g dI . df g krgd go kr kjd rkc l hldf 4g eLkc endS 4g Cgu lj Bkd kg. rkc hd ctx hLc dS elm 4hF hrL\i s s s \ \ \ X Bk[nf rkc hd ctx hLc e kHl lm cl 4g hgj kg kHl hjkH hLc 4xkg gj X \ X . T s s n kyhy hd hlkLi 4Fkl d [l Lc g hrkt jtx rkj 4l [l Lc g rkt jt s \ s q s \ T q X s q s \ T s x unf 4g kgj yp k. X .ufn eg kr gjr hlb df kgd u Pc lm 4g kgj kg k. T s s T a . s i hu®i df g hgj kg BkLy df g kgj kg ezsi 4g kgj yp k. X . Z s . wa s s X s q 4g r[n kte kd T s s dju l e ykg7hd k.D df g hgj jke kd rf s . henkv kl kn7kl 4g rkt yp e dju jGf ]l ydæfe g rgj unf jkp a . kr k.n Nd likv df kF kpkl kr uTe s s q .D ][n kte kd dju 4kd .D df g rgj sr[ . s . . s . s a 4Mkt kyp hg dju df g krkg ue hH kje kr kGn Bd3kgd xkv u ukoxH a . hukK cl 4g jklv cl . s \ . xy sukv k.

. Z q s f 4g gj Cgu ul hd hldf Bkd g.3kgd uTe .k. s s T s s.üv Fkl dcl ikv jkv wa s s . kd . s q . s q q Sx yp kd dju xky o kr kyef Cgu e xo¬ 4kxyef eg e xo¬ kgo xLkN s s s s s X Z s X X Z a s X s\ kg.nf jd kji ukgüb rk0lf kd krukel T s q s w s X a hd .c 4g gj uql q T s s X T s o df g krkg ewyke lltf ]g rgj Oc l xP dS ]g gj ul ]g rky[nf e s .S ]Sgfkp ukde Nπ .oDb ue.k[l kd jhj' ]Sdf lkoim rg q X T s q s q c ]xkH I‘d rgc sueg 4g rgkp yG kdlm eg cv ]hd k. 4g rykc xky hHl kr g.nfu ]g gj pku "f+ 4Sx s s a q s s s X T s srync .df xk s s s s s s .3kgd u ukoxH T z s \ T .nf jd nkcc ukgüb hH kd xo¬ ]k. 4Sx kg r{f'f w s T s s s s s hg rgc kr g. Z s X s Z 1 X s q s s e kr dub 4g yh'rfxi Lc ]g olfxki Lc xky d dju g.® kt 4kxkg gxt cl kr g. s gc kr rykg3kgd ue l ukoxH hJ 4Bg eyke hupc rgc ]Igkjc? rgc 4 q s s T s q w . dl r o w o h s o. X . df g rgd go 4g rLkN Syf d uki eg kr g rLkN eg df kgd ukgüm a T s T s s\ s s s T s s\ s X 4kxjd xk. 4k. df kgd kd ukoxH hJ uTe q s s s s s s 4kF krkv Cgu e >el Nd kt ]kF kvg kpe ukG X q s q wr klß kgo 4F gj ykc henkv jktg ln jkv F Sg xy dbke jktg ln kgo a s s s . Z a s v 4]Sgfkp [l eg 4g rgkp yG eg cv 4k.® c[ s s q T s Z w ueg df g kugd kd k. w s X s X s 4hxy ukg Igkjc? rg s s q c jd [n 4pku d xP duf/kv L\c ]jkudf d k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 36 egaP 4hxLi Cgu cv y¥i dikv B s \ s s kd k"kH htzsxv 4S[fhl re kdlb e em lb ]SLfkN jkv 4g Bx kg ckj[ r s a s X z \s . udfsy ]g rgj rgd jrhH7jrhH rkc huiv jdO.pæir ]Sx yt kl7kLkF xky Nd ygi d hnk s s Z s s\ s q s s tkv 4g kvg hH e d¥e jkeg kr klß 4g dofkHko¬ ydycf kr g. hgo 4kvg hH ji uhet kr klß 4xXj s s s s a q s s d xkH eg cv 4k. s .D ]F gj ykc Ødb henkv jktg ln e kHl dIf∂kesL lm X s s s s X s s 4g kgj ykc kydv jkv g kgj jd .D hoƒi hjkeg e yckd 1 .D . s q s a kr 4jd jkpkuv jiM d hldf df g Cgu jkd/fv g. s 4Sx yduf sxkv rgc leg kr xky d dju g. kugd kdum dfk. 4Xykc xky hHl df krkg Cgu klß 4g rykc e ue hg ue ui q s s s s T s s X s v xky hdkc ]g krykc henkv dS 4rjd Cgu klß 4g rykc e ue hg ue u s . s a T s q T s g kr xP hH jGf udfsy ]krul Cgu hd hldf Bkd 4g krkg klß hH ji uhet s a q s .pæir7xk.Ô kr g.D ]Sgfkp hy¥nf kdeg ]Sgfkp hnnx s s X s s kdeg ]sxy sugd o Nhi 4hd k.m o c.æn jkv 4k.‘que hIyf. s s T s s X dfy 4g rykc hH xky hdkc ]g krykc henkv dS df g krkg klß ji uhet s T s s s .x je jo’Zb k.‘ue hldf df g s s s . sz s \ s s s `B g rkc k.® ueg dfk.® kr hg Syf d ujd xkH go ]kxjd k. T s s s ckj' jkv Sgfkp ckj' ]Sgfkp pku ]Sgfkp lu'hLdj. wa s . g gj ul cl ikv ]g kgj ykc dS kg. q X q s s ."f+ ub 4g Cgu jld Bkd elb3kgd ukgüm kr kNwi s . e df kF Cgu klß 4hF hd xP dI T s q wa s a T a \Sg k.D g. q s s 4g gj klc phxc jkv g gj kgc uj> d T s s . ]kxkg kg.df xk. s `g rlG kdld .

\ Bkd cv hd sun hH k{hji kr k. X s e kr g. X s ki e hikd kr Ski jd u doekg 4g Cgu kri kdikv3kgd ue 4g krjd jg a X s a Z s . 1 . .† leg jkv 2Fku d kFkuv g ]g hrgd kdeg X . gd k. 1 w s s T a k'kv kr cv 4sxSkt hg kg lki kr dIfe hH eg kr ukr' )hL )hL 4g Sx k s a s s ≠ .D Sk"kHrif `g hrkt h a s X a a 1 .df jkv doekg uer hg lß jkv 4gj ∂Gfc s s s . s 4Bkrc chdjr hNπv uikv ]ikv g . s s z X w s q s Pc go 4Sx kv hH jI. L[ ]g krgd e krkc hIkN7hIkN g krjd uk'ji rgc jkv g krkrc IiL7I X X s s . s s . s s \ .D .I rDo hlm 4jd k. s a s q s s z . . s yîflfLf kd gjr hlb ]ulk'uv kd gjr hlb hg knl jkv 4hxsLi Cgu rjWt q .df W' kuIkL hg rkv uXkg . . . a s s fk. dl r o w o h s o. T a s zq T s X s T s g ]g rgd l>e xky d k. s a s s hikd ukgüm 4Bg Igkjc? rgc 4k.3kNi lum uTe X 1 X q . Z s s q .x kg nk"of 4xy uikd jF7jF ukoxH hJ s X q q s s s a `Cgu df g k.D ]Cgu hg g kr jkeg 4xkg Sx je s s X T s s s X 4xkg gj ikc7ke dum ]g Fkuv ji uhet kt 4g Cgu ikc7ke Bkd jkeg d s X s a s T s .D xI7jne hdikv 4g cgf g krgd Bkd ]g hcjv g krgd Bk . kL rgc ]g krk[lf g krkv go 4g kLkN kxy jIw.u g. s s T . 4hn hikd jkv k[j Iku kd SiQ pki rjL7rjL 4hykduf .x kyp kr jphI s T s 4kx[ wa s Z s n doekg jGf ]g krkv jGf e jn hLs\kF e 4jd ekd kuiv xkv r 4Mkv y wa X s T s w a s htçl kjt e3kgd sulm kr 4g rpæfuf ukF¬ e Ijfe kjr uke kdDi kr kgj T s .D x T s X I7jne `rgd Cgu k. w s s 4g Cgu hg ke Bkd hjkeg dfk. Z s s q s . a s q s . s X s . zw . v l xP ukji kr eg 4Cgu hH kri kdeg 4kd rîfki7k{'f g dhudI k.ufn hjkl 4g rkc hd ydæfe hLc3kgd u ukoxH s q s s q . s .I dS 4Wd ld df ykc o a q . s q . s s w . . 1 s s s q kr eg ]Bg ydæfe hLc `g k"kHrke hl7ukd hdikv3kNi ue 4uGjkv ehzi s q q \ . 1 s X . T s g Nqd hgl u ]hg jWt eg kr cv 4F gj kt rIj Ij hI7S7jkv ]Ij hI7S7jk s s s s . s . s . . X . . . X . s ydycf r cv jkv k. w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 46 egaP kv e k{hji 4g Cgu hH k. s s krsn lhc l g–i ]g–ai l ln ]ln l pki kd ht rLfi gjr hlb jkv kuke u s a s s a s a . Z s q a s s üm jkv Skv go 4F gj dik.ü/3kgd su ukoxH 4k. .I q w . s k. q \ s `g k. s s s \Sg k.D k"kHrke aSk"kH e k. fkt kl¬x kLc ]g krdc hykx ]g krkrc rc 4g jIw.nf krc jdkiNf Iku kd SiQ p s w\ w . a .D k"kHrke hdikv3kNi lum ue 4h/c .ufn hjkl 4g rkc chtv hL\c g. a s X gu hg g k"kHrke3kgd ukgüm 4g k"kHrke lk[ Bkd hdikv df F rul hg. 4xy sugd 4Sx xy ukyt[ jlf 4Sx Li e rdDnf rgc jkpc go s s s s q \ X q s s `g rgd k.I kd xP ukji 4kOc ]kgj q \ .m o c.÷kuk/i e yd¬ Bkg hldf d ukr¬ngV 4F ut†l . s d ]g rάl g rgd xky Nd `g k.kP\i u d{'f jkv 4g Cgu hH k[yf Cgd e 'kd sj X . w s T q T l ]g Fkuv eji kr eg 4Cgu hg F dfk.D xI7jnkG `Crkt hgd Cgu Xk.D ]g Cgu Bkd Fkuv knk. a s . a T s s q .D ]C .df doekg df k.x je jo’Zb k.ufn jkv Cgu hg g ikc7ke jkeg ]uGjkv ehil g eg ji 2Fku d kFkuv q . s\ .df doekg uer tkv 2'kck'3kgd jkv k[n u jI.

D7 a .Og hH er udfy 4x a T . s q s X 4g hrkt hyp hrykc ke jkv g krk[ kuk[ ]g krIky l jr©n krif 4g hrk .kv k∏c h/kx kr g.D e 4g kgj Li kun ukK kIym kg.ufn Syflb 4g k"kHrke g. . a s X q c hje hL?3kgd sukgüm `g tc surdf e hL? hjkgér `Mkt e3kgd sue jGf s \ X T s X \ q a T T 4Skt yef rDo kd uyef Iuef pki7 s a jkp jkv aSkv y jrhH kder jkv Skt kv k. s S kdlb g kr>el e dr kgt3kgd lum ue 4Syf d ujd Iku hy ykduf wa T a s s T s s s hikd huiv ukgüm 4y jd Iku e 4hxkg kiÎ hLc kr n krc ikv3kgd ukgüm s X wa s T s \ s X s X 4Stfhy N w s q i l>e jGf3kgd lum ue kr `g rNi uæi d kgd7kgd ikv 4Cgu hH kxS s s T s T s w z s a a \Sg k. 4xI7jne g rgd kdlb pπc Syfl X q . . X . . . \ s a kxyef ukK df F rpkl kr eg 4xy uNi l h>e ikv jkv g hgj kt Bg hI s s s s s s s w s q .k' kr yef kucf . s ke jkv g krPi jkc[v jke d jL kjkpc krif 4g hrn jd W' kuykc k. s q s a q 4g hrykc k'eg hg ke 4rki Cgu hg [n rykc suekl d ke kd krif hHd p .D . q ym rykg kr kg. .nf k[yf jcu ukG 4–d rfxkt uoh s s .D ]kuy y IeIübkiS sl yg T w s \ s s X X s s X s i udfsy 4ky [j lb kgd jkv !##@@ k.D eyke u jkv 4g hrn jd W' kuykc ke df krki Cgu hH Om gcl krif w .yf Cgu jxv IeIübkiS l ygi udfy ]g krn Skrc e kri3kgd uTe s X s s s wa s T s 4kxMkt kv uNi kr Skt kv kdke jkv Bkd 4hd uk a s w s . q s s s s `gd k.m o c. 4kd suki Nd likv kF k. dl r o w o h s o. q u ]g Nd u jkv g y.n kd hldf n. X s \ s a s . a X s s hn jd IH hL? kd>e u lm ]kF k. . . . s s a s s s s s a s s πc df g hrkygd Syflb k"kHrke ]k"kH hd kpπc 4g krdl kg <jkd hg d . . t hyp hrykc ke jkv g krjd kræku gjr hldf krif 4g hrkt hyp hrykc s a . s a . X s q s q s s s . s s s g lki k{hji hn krc chdjr hlß dS `kr Li rjWt ]Sbkt rn kr kukdOf7 s s \ s s s kri kuiv df kgd ukgüm jkv Skv jgkc Sg xkH o kr kxy uyduf jgkc Te s X . 4g nc l kunf rg X \ s q s q a s . 1 X . ] wa T .kL elb u ]g kIkd elb u 4k. s s \ s s s s q s s kr 4g ktc kurdf df [n df hrLi Cgu hg rjWt Bkd kg. s a . q . . q q f kr k. 1 a T s s s b 4g hrkt hyp hrykc ke jkv g krxy ukr¬l jdkl krif ]e rkj e∂ hg. \ s q s s X n Cgu uyef l>e jkv 4sxn ul? jrhH l ydæfe hL\c o ]xkdIi ji7jlf [ s s q . \ s s s . qa X .nf k[yf kri güm sue kr 4g ydæfe rgc kuye s s X T s . s s s Cgu kxMkt e df kugd jkv kukt hg Oc jd Ldi xk. . df kxy supkl rgc jdxkt 4Bx y[ nCu hje e Igkjc? hlb 4hxSkt kg s q q s X s rdDnf rgc kr hxSkt kg jn kdum 4sxkg Sg kØdb Syf d utjkue xky N q s s s s X q s a s s d kgo 4g kupgi e ukne lk∂ tc AN Pkl dhO >qe ]kn ukt >e3kgd uTe q a . s q s k. .yf jd Iku lb l hn¥t u ukoxH s T s \ q s \ s s s s s 4hrkt hgd Cgu k"kHrif h 1 H Cgd e k.x je jo’Zb k. udfy 4g Nd . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 56 egaP . s s q . s .kv kr e `Mkt e cv3kgd slu s a s q s s T a T m ue 4Li ewyke ñFk|of dl®m Lc o 4k. a s X 1 t ]Lkj hon kcykd ]%)% ]k. ky 4g rcte Lc xky d –d rf1xkt uoht dfk.yf kdIy lb uTe 4hF . .

x je jo’Zb k.D . s s s s s s \ q s ukr' 4g Bx kg hlß rykg udfy `g ukr.x kg Lktm ydycf xo¬ dfk.Ô ]k.D df kgd l nofe®kri dS s s s ss q s zs s u hu®i hdlm 4kje henkv dS 4Skt yef tkj Nd n. s q s s ≠ Z a zs a go 4hy >el k"kH .D3kgd u hu®i hdlm 4g e nukv eji rgc e 2hon g 4g e n s s wa X a q T s s wa X ukv eji e ]kgd su rfi dlm `kg e naukv ]kg Xe [l er k.pækv Bkd kr aSkt lc e dju df kg xy upkl hH ukoxH jxv kr s s X X s s s s 4g krxy kNπv >e hg d . s ss s X a † hH llm k.‘ue 4hxSkv jkv k" w .hI‘kjrv 4hy >el k"kH hd hjkted hd henkv u ukr ≠ Z a s s . il kld df rdl jd Cgu hg kL\x> Bkd l suiv udfy cv 4g kuil kld g . s .D 4Syf kuc L[7L[ ukgüm 4g BklB X s . s 4g Cgu hH Bkd jkv to≈Ty yu' .‘'f d ukr. s \ q Z X ]Cgu Z. T ' 4g hg dS ]ll. jkv kg e dju df kgd sulm 4Bkjc? rgc go 4g e dju .H kr cv3kgd sulm kr T wa w T s .kyc kd ke®kv hd rfi dlm ul q w s s q s s s m `kg rdl kytf kd ke®kv hd rfi je er k.hI‘kjrv go ]htxv . s s s s X a s a e nukv l kg. s s s `F Fkl je kurtf kg e nukv knk. s s s s .D s a . s s a ujIb ]hy >el hjkted hd henkv ]hy >el k"kH . 4g ku .' kld g. .jfkted 4udhÌv eltf ]g jkted e rkc s w a s X . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 66 egaP `g kNπb hd sun eüt kd ukoxH jln hldf k. ≠ Z a 4g kgd l . s s s w 4dp kt go ]Sdf re√uf dky d kui¥d ueg kt ]Px ji jk/kv d kvkFd s q s s s s s\ s X hd k<kji dr cv ueg kt ukoxH go 4dp je ukoxH df hn n kupwl owi X q s s s q s Z kdikv ue 4Skt je unf hldf k. s X zs a .y¥fc kr xS s s q a \ a s s a kv ukGr jkv jkp7kn 4kxSkt jxf ukde go kd rfkt7. o[j kdum kt ]kd ukoxH k. u hu®i hdlm 4g e nukv hH jdPc llm ]kF Fkl jkgér 4n gd rkc hpπ s wa X a \ s s q wa l e 4g jn hGkd e kr cv 4g Cgu <jkd Bkd kd .knil urdf T za s sd k.x je hH ukoxH ukt ukd 4kF kyk s s T s s .† hH l dju uhet df kgd u rfi dlm ` s . zs s i l ukoxH kt henkv jkv k. . s X hlm hH uet 4ngV eltf g jkted e rkc hlm hH txv 4g jkted henkv Z w X . s s .x je kr kRd 4hxSkt L[m hH k. . kg k. ]g ukoxH hJ ld g. s q a . \ Z `g . s a a s X T eg ]g ey¬fe eg ]g ngV eg df g hy ukt tso≈y ydky ukgüm ]g krjd e T q T w .hI‘kjrv dr hHv ukoxH s . . . s q ju kr cv 4g Bx kg jrnc knk.D .D `kg kgd e a T s s X s q q s a r df kNi kd ke®kv lm u hu®i hdlm 4k.hI‘kjrv hd kxsky u uk s ≠ Z a X s r' 4k. s d kgo 4g krkt Cgu hH Bkd cv kgo 4g k. \Sg k.x kyp krkg kIkN ukde kd ukoxH 4Sx yp rkg Lc rgc ukde d . s X q wa X T e 2hon Cgu3kgd u rfi dlm 4kg e xo¬ er df g I‘i¬ cyre kdlb3kgd s s s s X Z q .‘ue jkl u k"kH .m o c. T s .' df g kri kdikv k. T s s X .udho ue. s a . dl r o w o h s o. Z o jkp7kn 4e k"o jkp7kn sxSkt II tkojn jh/7jh/ 4g het hÈef ji tkojn s X Z s a w s s s .ki >el Cgu k"kH .k' kr xy ugj jdk q s X s t e dju df kpkl u ukoxH 4g kgj kt krlc dju 4g kgj kt krLtm xo¬ X s s .

r unf dS u ukoxH df XLkN rkc .ø dS 4g rfwHuv hd ke®keji kO‘kdkji hg hd ei 4rfHuv dS g ezsi . ®keji go kr g krOm rhx Bkd e . q . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 76 egaP e 4re kukP kd krkc hje 4g ueæn e kd suy uke 4kuy uke ikv kd krkc T s s X s wa q T s s s X hje df Cgu e k'kv lb 4g hgd likv sue e kunf jkp ub rkc hl7hLkF .† ]kd 'kdi ]kd rfk' ]kd s z a nukv ]kd ei kxkg jkr¬of dik.ufn jkv jiM g kvg kOc joæB df r .ufn hldf hlß u ukoxH 1 . q . q s . s X T s T X X X s\ s 4g ke®keji hg oHuv go ]g krn Lkt l r¬el kd k<ki d n[ jkv . s s 4kxLi kukt kg . X g. kr Skt k X . 4bx rkc g. a .x je jo’Zb k. kt ]g kiNf jrhH d r¬el kt g krkg kni rhxl go hgo ]g rkt kg W' u s s .ufn ]g kgj kuc k. s Cgu yD' Bkd hdlm 4kxkg Cgu ukoxH kd iW hldf ukoxH go hg rpæfuf s s \Sg k. kpπc . k. s .ü' s \ s w 4kxLi kuukt 9Nd u8 jrhH d nq[ Syf d uki lm ]Syf d uukt lm ud s \ q s s s s s s s fy 4g hgo ]g kt Gjr cl 4sxjd oHuv gjr cl e 'i¬ d ke®keji go 4 s . T X s kn I‘fl hdlm jkv ukoxH jkv g k. a z T X kjof kn ke®keji jkv jkll 4g jkll g. a kv g kld ke®keji df g rNi k. T s w X s . . . ]g kgj kyp k. kc hl. . s .kv g rgd ke®keji eg lm kr g hrkg Ixiv ct ktM de®ku s z T s s s . 4g lkdof eji kd ei 4g krkygd ke®keji g. s a q X w 1 4g I‘fl go kr g krkt kg Ixi l h<ko go ct jkv 4g ke . s X T s 1 s s kg Ixi ct j. df . <jdhIxi hgo 4g kgj kg Ixi go s s . s z s . a . q . q zs w q . s X q X Z s s s s xy u[n ekj hjk/u/ 4g gj xy ][nf Sg rktc h'o k. . . .t kpπc g. s q s 4LkN rkc hlt X s\ X . s kd nkuuf7jrv rgc hldf lI¬t≈fS kji g.güd7<‘Î hgo kr g Z q T s s q s a . .nÔ ct 4g rgd I‘fl eg lm kr . .kv g w s w . a T s s q s y[f yG d ei jkv g krIN Ir kd ukK kgt 4kn ukg rlfdof kd ei jkv w s zs . w a s s s s zs . zs .g hr s . `g krgj kgd j .kuc Cgu kd k. s . s z Z Z tl hIofIfS∂f 4g Cgu rkc xyv kn u'S∂f jkv jIS∂f 4g Cgu rkc xyv T X s . Syflb 4g Cgu l rDf. .ufn jkv k. q .m o c. . a z .ø hldf Fv kd ukoxH w . s s\ s kn LkN kd ukK 4g rdl kg . s . s Z 4kd rfk. ]kRl r¬el g. zs . s z 4g hrgkp kudG go naukv Bkd ]rhxl Bkd ]rhx Bkd 4g Syf jrhH uiv . df Skt Li u e yH l ofN 9kd ofN8 hd ke®keji lm Gjr cl go ]xXj a \ X w s s s d oHuv kd ei xky kt jkv g jkll jkdi hg kd ke®keji 4g Cgu rkc h/ q zs s s .ü' ld df g hgd likv rkc hdlb yd uTe T s s w s .ufn Bx uc kvkt df kgd jkv hn kuc k. s s\ s s X z s q .D . Z s . . 4LkN rkc hlt kpπc s s\ X s X X s\ X . 1 s .D yD' hdlm df XNi u g. krNi Cgu Bkd 4kd rfHquv dS g Fv l ukoxH `g krgj ld go j. s s g k'n7okH hgo hje rfi d r¬el jxv jkv g krkygd ei go ]Wd ei e s z s . 4kyp jkv k.D kr `g krgj kgd jkv g kld ei df g .ø dS kd ukoxH lm 4hxkg Cgu nt¬fe hd a zs s X X lm ]sxkg Cgu jnfe dlm ]xkg Cgu eku dlm ]xkg Cgu ji7Fkg dlm 4hxskg X a s s X s s X . wa s a s s . . ]I‘fl r¬el g. . zs a zs T sl rDf. . X s s . dl r o w o h s o. q .

s s ke kd krkc hje df g krjd g. . s s s sa 4Skt gj u "s' gnl hH kl7kjt e /cl d rkc lm df dr ct ]g kujd sa X a a s . 4g krjd rDe yod hg . jrhH dikv rkc hje Cgd 4g tkj kjr[ kdlb 4n jd unouf dS e rav kr s X s . 4kujd gnl ]kupkl l 9l'i8 rgc ]rfk' rgc ]. . dr kehl lm hH jkpof7pkl jkv g kujd jkpof7pkl ji lm g kgd kt uTe s . wa q s T wa s s \Sg k./ rgc 4kujd Cgu hn¥ sa s s T . w w w / / : p t t h 86 fo 86 egaP 4jd jkdho¬ ek<i je 4g krjd ek<i kd ke®keji X z s s wa z s d jrhH dcl Aui e rv 4g rhg1xuv rgc Syf dlm ]kul l ei urdf kd s s q X a wa q q s q s zs s s X krkc hOhe7hoLd hurdf eyke u l rfk' hurb unf urb jkv 4g krjd ku \ w s a s . s . q s q s s o ]Cgu kvg kgd kd jkv hldf ]kxkg u .g . s s `g k.®l 4kupkl jkv ]kupkl jkv kr gj "' gnl hH kl7kjt q X a a s s . a s s .D .®l kd n[ ]gj <je¬ j. s s s kc hje df g k'e g. wa Z z Fki hlß ]jd rDe kdikv .®l kd jkv hldf q .g kuql s X s wa Z z a \ unf jkp 4kujd kiÎ hurb ]re kuuke kd Xkrkc hje 4kxSkt kg kni kjr[ s s s . q . s ]Skt pc Nd unf hldf jxv jkv kuIkd ]kutk[ ]kujkpof7kupkl 4re kuu q .®l jd ke®keji 4g krjd rDqe .kv kxSkt kg . l kdikv hgo ]g ke®kv hdikv hgo ]g kdikv kt jkv 4kxkg kdikv jGf go . .D k'ae hje jGf 4uke Bkd Xr .® s q s s . s q s s ®l df hxLi Bk[nf thp Bkd <{ hldf rjkpof7rpkl ]rjd7rjd gsnl jkv s \ s s s s s s a . s wa s X s 4krjd Cgu rDe . q a q Z q t rgc e /cl d .x je jo’Zb k.. dl r o w o h s o. kuFki hd kiÎ erfv 4hd kiÎ hLc ].®l kvg kgd kje go jGf kr . kr Cgu ]y uke u kd krkc hje Bkd 4aSkt uc u lkoæof jdOc ]jdkt s s s X s s . s .®l hgo ]g . g. s .®l kdikv g . Bkd hje u jkv g Qx Bkd e u 4g Cgu d'nim Bkd s .m o c.

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