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A. PROBLEM FORMULATION

Numerical model for high speed impact of a steel projectile (NATO 5.56 x 45 mm) on

Ceramic plate which is backed by an Kevlar/Epoxy plate is shown in figure 1.

V=900 m/s

(100 x100 x 10 mm)

Kevlar/Epoxy backplate

(100 x 100 x 2 mm)

Fig. 1 Numerical model for ballistic impact on Ceramic plate

During the impact event ceramic plate undergo severe deformation. We will therefore

model this region of the problem using SPH processor (Smooth Particle

Hydrodynamics). The Kevlar/Epoxy backplate, and the steel projectile will model

using as a Lagrange subgrid. The problem geometry is given in the above figure, the

material properties of the Ceramic and Kevlar/Epoxy plates and steel projectile are

shown bellow (Table1, 2, 3). The fragment simulating projectile, defined by NATO

5.56 x 45 mm, was used in the numerical simulation, to determine the V50 and the

ballistic performance.

The target is a square (100x 100) Ceramic plate backed by a Kevlar-Epoxy plate,

firmly clamped on the edges. The analysis starts with the impactor and the plate in

contact, as illustrated in the figure 1. The resulting model, see figure 1, with two plane

of symmetry, was obtained using the general purpose mesh generation program

TrueGrid (see anexa 1). for model the steel impactor (see Figure 2) and the

Kevlar/Epoxy plate.

NATO 5.65 BULLET

B. Material properties

Figure 2. NATO 5.56 bullet materials

B.1. Material data for steel impactor

For bullet jacket, steel core and lead core the following material constants:

Elastic constants

• Ref erence density ρ(g/cm3)

• Young modulus of Elasticity-E (kPa) or Poison’s ratio ν.

• Shear Modulus G (kPa)

Nonlinear properties

• Yield stress

• Strain rate constant

• Hardening exponent

• Melting temperature

1. Elastic Constants

• Ref erence density ρ(g/cm3)

• Young modulus of Elasticity-E (kPa) or Poison’s ratio ν.

Relation between Young modulus of elasticity (E), Poison’s ratio (ν) and

Bulk Modulus K(kPa) is:

E

K=

3 ⋅ (1 − 2 ⋅ν )

• Shear Modulus G (kPa)

The strength model that is properly to model the ceramic nonlinear behavior is Mohr-

Coulomb model. This is modeled in AUTODYN by a piecewise linear variation of

yield stress with pressure (see below figure) up to a value Ymax. With the introduction

of version 4, the Mohr-Coulomb strength model has been modified to allow any

number of pressure-yield points, up to a maximum of 10, to define the material

strength curve. In tension (negative values of p) such materials have little tensile

strength and this is modeled by dropping the curve for Y(p) rapidly to zero as p goes

negative to give a realistic value for the limiting tensile strength

Table 1. Material Data

Ceramic-Gceramic (Autodyn material libraries)

Equation of states : Linear Strength Model:Mohr-Coulomb

Reference density (g/cm3) 3.43 Pressure #1(kPa) –5.00E5

Bulk modulus (kPa) 1.54E8 Pressure #2(kPa) 0.00

Strength : Mohr-Coulomb Pressure #3(kPa) 1.01E20

Shear modulus (kPa) 8.30E7 Pressure #4(kPa) 1.01E20

Failure : Cumulative Damage Yield Stress #1 (kPa) 0.00

Reference Temperature (K) 300 Yield Stress #2 (kPa) 3.80E6

Yield Stress #3 (kPa) 3.80E6

Yield Stress #4 (kPa) 3.80E6

Failure: Cumulative Damage

Eff. Pl. Strain at Zero Damage: 0.01

Eff. Pl. Strain at Max. Damage: 0.03

Maximum Damage: 0.7

Equation of States : Linear Yield Stress (kPa) 7.92E+05

Reference density (g/cm3) 7.83 Hardening constant (kPa) 5.10E+05

Bulk modulus (kPa) 1.59E+07 Hardening exponent 0.34

Reference temperature (K) 300 Strain rate constant 0.014

Specific heat capacity (J/kgK) 477 Thermal sofetning exponent 1.03

Strength :Johnson-Cook Melting temperature (K) 1793

Shear modulus (kPa) 8.18E+07 Failure model : None

KEVLAR/EPOXY

Equation of states : Orthotropic Tensile failure Stress 11 (kPa) 5.00E+04

Sub-Equation of States : Polynomial Maximum Shear Stress 12 (kpa) 1.00E+05

Reference density (g/cm3) 1.40 Tensile Failure Strain 11 0.01

Young modulus 11 (kPa) 2.392E+05 Tensile Failure Strain 22 0.08

Young modulus 22 (kPa) 6.311E+06 Tensile Failure Strain 33 0.08

Young modulus 33 (kPa) 6.311E+06 Post Failure Response Orthotropic

Poisons ratio 12 0.115 Fail 11 & 11 Only

Poisons ratio 23 0.216 Fail 22 &22 Only

Poisons ratio 31 3.034 Fail 33 & 33 Only

Strength : Elastic Fail 12 & 12 and 11 Only

Shear modulus (kPa) 1.54E+06 Fail 23 & 23 and 11 Only

Failure : Material Stress/Strain Fail 31 & 31 and 11 Only

Residual shear Stiff. Frac. 0.20

C. NUMERICAL SIMULATION

Simulations of high velocity impact on the ceramic plate backed with Kevlar/Epoxy

have been conducted using Autodyn-3D at 900 m/s. The Mohr-Coulomb strength

model combined with cumulative damage model to represent the progressive crushing

of the ceramic are used in the current study. Since compressive strength usually

increases with increased hydrostatic pressure, yield stress is modelled by a picewise

linear variation with pressure (see table1).

In the simulations, the cumulative damage model with smoothed particle

hydrodinamics (SPH) was used for the ceramic plate. A particle size of 0.5 mm was

used and resulted in 20 SPH particles being placed inside the plate in the normal

direction. The projectile and Kevlar/Epoxy backplate is modelled using Lagrange

finite elements.

Figure 3 shows the simulated penetration process of the system by a steel projectile

(4340 steel-bullet jacket, 1006 steel core and 2024T351 steel for lead core). The

initial impact velocity is 900 m/s. Material location and material status during the

impact is shown in the figure 3 and 4 respectively.

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