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In telecommunications, a diversity scheme refers to a method for improving the reliability of a message signal by utilizing two or more communication channels with different characteristics. Diversity plays an important role in combatting fading and cochannel interference and avoiding error bursts. It is based on the fact that individual channels experience different levels of fading and interference. Multiple versions of the same signal may be transmitted and/or received and combined in the receiver. Alternatively, a redundant forward error correction code may be added and different parts of the message transmitted over different channels. Diversity techniques may exploit the multipath propagation, resulting in a diversity gain, often measured in decibel. The following classes of diversity schemes can be identified:
Time diversity: Multiple versions of the same signal are transmitted at different time instants. Alternatively, a redundant forward error correction code is added and the message is spread in time by means of bit-interleaving before it is transmitted. Thus, error bursts are avoided, which simplifies the error correction.
Or Time Diversity is used in digital communication systems to combat that the transmissions channel may suffer from error bursts due to time-varying channel conditions. The error bursts may be caused by fading in combination with a moving receiver, transmitter or obstacle, or by intermittent electromagnetic interference, for example from crosstalk in a cable, or co-channel interference from radio transmitters. Time diversity implies that the same data is transmitted multiple times, or a redundant error code is added. By means of bit-interleaving, the error bursts may be spread in time.
Frequency diversity: The signal is transferred using several frequency channels or spread over a wide spectrum that is affected by frequency-selective fading. Examples are: o OFDM modulation in combination with subcarrier interleaving and forward error correction o Spread spectrum, for example frequency hopping or DS-CDMA. Space diversity: The signal is transferred over several different propagation paths. In the case of wired transmission, this can be achieved by transmitting via multiple wires. In the case of wireless transmission, it can be achieved by antenna diversity using multiple transmitter antennas (transmit diversity) and/or multiple receiving antennas (diversity reception). In the latter case, a diversity combining
For microwave bands. If the antennas are at far distance. The base station will switch reception to one of two antennas depending on which is currently receiving a stronger signal. Fading results from the superposition of transmitted signals that have . this is called microdiversity. or other interference. A wireless microphone or sound system using diversity reception will switch to the other antenna within microseconds if one antenna experiences noise. and in similar electronic devices such as wireless guitar systems.technique is applied before further signal processing takes place. For lower frequencies and longer wavelengths. A well-known practical application of diversity reception is in wireless microphones. the antennas are usually placed one wavelength apart. A diversity combining technique is applied on the receiver side Antenna diversity is a transmission technique in which the information-carrying signal is transmitted along different propagation paths. Another common usage is in Wi-Fi networking gear and cordless telephones to compensate for multipath interference. For best results. This can be achieved by using multiple receiver antennas (diversity reception) and/or by using multiple transmitting antennas (transmit diversity). Ideally. providing an improved quality signal with fewer drop-outs and noise. where the wavelengths are under 100 cm. especially if the transmitter (the wireless microphone) is in motion. much of the achievable antenna gain is realized.each face of a tower will often have three antennas. Mobile phone towers also often take advantage of diversity -. this is called macrodiversity). A wireless microphone with a non-diversity receiver (a receiver having only one antenna) is prone to random dropouts. no drop-outs or noise will occur in the received signal. is due to multipath propagation. A special case is phased antenna arrays. one is transmitting. MIMO channels and Space–time coding (STC). noise. • Polarisation diversity: Multiple versions of a signal are wirelessly transmitted and received via antennas with different polarisation. also known as multipath induced fading. If the antennas are at a distance in the order of one wavelength. for example at different cellular base station sites or WLAN access points. this can often be done with two antennas attached to the same hardware. fades. Short-term fading. the antennas must be multiple meters apart. A diversity combining circuit combines or selects the signals from the receiver antennas to constitute an improved quality signal. Even if the antennas are not more than a quarter of the wavelength apart. making it much less reasonable. while the other two are performing Fading Fading (or fading channels) refers to mathematical models for the distortion that a carrier-modulated telecommunication signal experiences over certain propagation media. which also can be utilized for beamforming.
The best way to combat fading is to ensure that multiple versions of the same signal are transmitted. where the bandwidth of the signal is less than the coherence bandwidth of the channel or the delay spread is less than the symbol period. known as "slow fading" and "fast fading". Beforehand. consider the common experience of stopping at traffic lights and hearing a lot of static on your FM broadcast radio. To understand how a signal can destructively interfere with itself. it might be necessary to remind ourselves of a definition of fading: Fading refers to the time variation of the received signal power caused by changes in the transmission medium or path. and is sometimes acquired through multiple antennas. This is usually termed diversity. and in broadcast communications. The most common types of fading. • For example. • Slow Fading: Shadowing or Large-Scale fading is a kind of fading caused by larger movements of a mobile or obstructions within the propagation environment. Small-scale fading is usually divided into fading based on multipath time delay spread and that based on Doppler spread. received. However. are explained below. There are two types of fading based on multipath time delay spread: • Flat fading. the simplest model for the fading phenomenon is multiplication of the signal waveform with a time-dependent coefficient which is often modeled as a random variable. delay and phase shift while travelling from the source to the receiver. making the received signal-tonoise ratio a random quantity. . and coherently combined. Cellular phones also exhibit similar momentary fades. This is often modelled as log-normal distribution with a standard deviation according to the Log Distance Path Loss Model. consider the sum of two sinusoidal waveforms (which are similar to modulated carrier signals) with different phases.experienced differences in attenuation. which is immediately corrected if you move less than a metre. Mathematically. It may also be caused by attenuation of a single signal. as they apply to a mobile radio environment. Fading channel models are often used to model electromagnetic transmission of information over wireless media such as with cellular phones. Fast Fading: Multipath fading or Small-Scale fading is a kind of fading occurring with small movements of a mobile or obstacle. even for underwater acoustic communications the notion of fading is useful in understanding the distortion caused by the medium. The reason for these losses of signal is the destructive interference that multiple reflected copies of the signal makes with itself.
If a crest of a wave meets a trough of another wave then they interfere destructively. More generally. we . which has a low doppler spread. this form of interference can occur whenever a wave can propagate from a source to a destination by two or more paths of different length. Interference is the superposition of two or more waves resulting in a new wave pattern. Interference is involved in Thomas Young's double-slit experiment where two beams of light which are coherent with each other interfere to produce an interference pattern (the beams of light both have the same wavelength range and at the center of the interference pattern they have the same phases at each wavelength. where the bandwidth of the signal is greater than the coherence bandwidth of the channel or the delay spread is greater than the symbol period. Two non-monochromatic waves are only fully coherent with each other if they both have exactly the same range of wavelengths and the same phase differences at each of the constituent wavelengths. Two or more sources can only be used to produce interference when there is a fixed phase relation between them. for which the change in the signal strength occurs. The principle of superposition of waves states that the resultant displacement at a point is equal to the sum of the displacements of different waves at that point. and the overall amplitude is decreased. As most commonly used. the signal can also undergo shadow fading. and the channel variations are faster than baseband signal variations. and the scale of distance required to experience shadowing is about an order of magnitude larger than that of multipath fading. Hence. In addition to the small scale fading that is described above. as they both come from the same source). which has a high doppler spread. for mobile phone frequencies. either because they come from the same source or because they have the same or nearly the same frequency. see Huygens' principle.• Frequency selective fading. Total phase difference is derived from the sum of both the path difference and the initial phase difference (if the waves are generated from 2 or more different sources). the term usually refers to the interference of waves which are correlated or coherent with each other. Slow fading. The coherence time is greater than the symbol period and the channel variations are slower than the baseband signal variations. This is due to the presence of obstacles between the transmitter and the receiver. There are two types of fading based on doppler spread: • • Fast fading. but in this case the interference generated is the same as with a single source. or shadowing. and the coherence time is less than the symbol period. on the order of a fraction of a meter. If a crest of a wave meets a crest of another wave at the same point then the crests interfere constructively and the resultant wave amplitude is greater.
Sodium light is close to monochromatic and is thus more suitable for producing interference patterns.can then conclude whether the waves reaching a point are in phase(constructive interference) or out of phase (destructive interference). out of phase. The resultant amplitude is A = | A1 − A2 | . that each have different spacing of the interference fringes. This is known as destructive interference. or 180°. then one wave's crests will coincide with another wave's troughs and so will tend to cancel out. combined waveform wave 1 wave 2 Two waves in phase Two waves 180° out of phase Consider two waves that are in phase. If the two waves have the same amplitude A and wavelength the resultant waveform will have an amplitude between 0 and 2A depending on whether the two waves are in phase or out of phase. Their troughs and peaks line up and the resultant wave will have amplitude A = A1 + A2. in general white light is less suited for producing clear interference patterns. for example. When two sinusoidal waves superimpose. Light from any source can be used to obtain interference patterns. the resulting waveform depends on the frequency (or wavelength) amplitude and relative phase of the two waves. Newton's rings can be produced with sunlight.with amplitudes A1 and A2. . as it is a mix of a full spectrum of colours. the resultant amplitude will be zero. This is known as constructive interference. However. Bright bands are the result of constructive interference while the dark bands are the result of destructive interference. The most suitable is laser light because it is almost perfectly monochromatic Constructive and destructive interference Interference pattern produced with a Michelson interferometer. If A1 = A2. If the two waves are pi radians.
It is commonly designated by the Greek letter lambda (λ). and I would be some varying quantity at a given point in time as a function of x. For sound waves in air. this speed is the speed of light c. and f = frequency of the wave in 1/s = Hz. for instance sound pressure (air pressure for a sound wave) or strength of the electric or magnetic field for light. The relationship is given by: where λ = wavelength of a sound wave or electromagnetic wave vw is the speed of propagation of the wave. When dealing with electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum. The wavelength is equal to the speed of a wave type divided by the frequency of the wave. the number of peaks to pass a point in a given time. the wavelength is the distance between the midpoints of the wave: The x axis represents distance. In a sine wave.Wavelength The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. • Relationship with frequency Wavelength λ has an inverse relationship to frequency f. this is the speed of sound in air. .
this relationship is approximated with the formula: wavelength λ (in metres) = 343 m/s divided by frequency (in hertz). . For sound waves in air. their wavelength depends on their speed. Note that the speed of light or in a vacuum. In general. although this is not always explicitly stated. called the de Broglie wavelength: where h is Planck's constant. For particles and objects. large particles have much smaller wavelengths than photons. no matter what medium they are traveling through. Quantum wavelength of particles Louis de Broglie discovered that all particles with momentum have a wavelength associated with their quantum mechanical wavefunction. and p is the momentum of the object. and thus in a vacuum In non-vacuum mediums When light waves (and other electromagnetic waves) enter a medium. are usually quoted in terms of the vacuum wavelength. their wavelength is reduced by a factor equal to the refractive index n of the medium but the frequency of the wave is unchanged.For radio waves this relationship is approximated with the formula: wavelength λ (in metres) equals 3×108 m/s divided by frequency ν (in hertz). . The wavelength of the wave in the medium. λ' is given by: where: λ0 is the vacuum wavelength of the wave Wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. as well as their mass.
S. It may also be referred to as received signal level or field strength. Large buildings such as warehouses. measured. Weak signal strength can also be caused by destructive interference of the signals from local towers in urban areas.Received signal level In telecommunications. the more common use of dBm. Typically. this is measured as signal electric field strength of voltage per length or signal power received by a reference antenna. This is particularly true for the networks which operate at higher frequency since these are attenuated more rapidly by intervening obstacles. or predicted. hospitals and factories often have no useable signal further than a few metres from the outside walls. or 60 dBµ (often written dBu) and has no reference to the dB milliwatt. although they are able to use reflection and diffraction to circumvent obstacles. The more advanced models now typically include an external directional antenna and an amplifier (usually operating at 55db gain) which is generally enough to turn a very weak signal into a clear one over the local area (from around a thousand square feet to over twenty thousand). Higher powered transmissions such as broadcasting use units of dB-millivolts per metre (dBmV/m). or by the construction materials used in some buildings causing rapid attenuation of signal strength. . at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. and particularly in radio. signal strength is the measure of how strongly a transmitted signal is being received. Cell phones in the U. operate at around 800MHz and PCS phones at 1900MHz: classified as UHF and low energy microwaves respectively. Even in high reception areas it is often found that basements and the interiors of large buildings have poor reception. This has lead to the rapid growth in the home cellular repeater market. Very low-power uses such as mobile phones are most often expressed in dBmicrovolts per metre (dBµV/m) or in decibels above a reference level of one milliwatt (eg -80 dBm). there are still many areas within those nations that do not have good reception. Some rural areas are unlikely ever to be effectively covered since the cost of erecting a cell tower is too high for only a few customers. Some examples • • • 100 dBµ or 100 mV/m: blanketing interference occurs 60 dBµ or 1 mV/m: the edge of a radio station's protected area 40 dBµ or 100 µV/m: the minimum strength a station can be received Cell Phone Signals Although there are cell phone base station tower networks across many nations globally. In broadcasting terminology 1 mV/m is 0 dBm (a shortened dB(mV/m)).
.) (dB) RxG = receiver antenna gain (dBi) RxL = receiver losses (coax. body loss. Random attenuations such as fading are not taken into account in link budget calculations with the assumption that fading will be handled with diversity techniques. due to the antenna..FSL .) (dB) Line of sight deployments for example will have path losses that are related to the inverse square of the distance. A simple link budget equation looks like this: Received Power (dB) = Transmitted Power (dBm) + Gains (dB) .. The amount by which a received signal level may be reduced without causing system performance to fall below a specified threshold value. fiber. It takes into account the attenuation of the transmitted signal due to propagation. for the purpose of ensuring that the required quality of service is maintained. Here are three examples: .TxL . cable. or gain.ML + RxG . as well as the loss.Fade margin In telecommunication. a link budget equation might look like this: RxP = TxP + TxG . • Link budget A link budget is the accounting of all of the gains and losses from the transmitter.. through the medium (free space. connectors. other losses.) (dB) FSL = free space loss or path loss (dB) ML = miscellaneous losses (fading.RxL where: RxP = received power (dBm) TxP = transmitter output power (dBm) TxG = transmitter antenna gain (dBi) TxL = transmitter losses (coax.Losses (dB) Link budget for radio systems For a line of sight radio system..) to the receiver in a telecommunication system.. waveguide. connectors. The Free Space Loss equation can be written in several ways depending on the units of measure. etc. polarization mismatch. the term fade margin (fading margin) has the following meanings: • A design allowance that provides for sufficient system gain or sensitivity to accommodate expected fading.
the path loss model is (1) Where .45 dB + 20*log[frequency(MHz)] + 20*log[distance(km)] also FSL (dB) = -27. have losses that are linear over distance. multipath. The path loss will be in terms of dB per meter or dB per 100 feet.. For free propagation waves in radio channel.. etc. The link budget for an over the horizon radio path may include other path losses such as refraction. fiber. Link budgets for other media Media such as cable.55 dB + 20*log[frequency(MHz)] + 20*log[distance(m)] and FSL (dB) = 36. reflection.6 dB + 20*log[frequency(MHz)] + 20*log[distance(miles)] Reception is reliable when RxP > receiver sensitivity Link budgets for non-line of sight radio Indoor deployments for example will have path losses that are related to the inverse cube of the distance. waveguide. FSL (dB) = 32. Derivation the dB version of the Path Loss Equation for Free Space. etc. so (2) .
fc in GHz and meters / second. and reflecting influences were sufficiently removed having no effect on its propagation. diffracting. As the name implies. connectors etc. cable. . A discussion of these losses is included in the article on Link budget. obstructing. (3) By taking of both sides of equation to obtain the dB version L0 = = = Free-space loss In telecommunication.For d in meters . Free space power loss is proportional to the square of the distance between the transmitter and receiver and also proportional to the square of the frequency of the radio signal. refracting. free space loss assumes the transmitter and receiver are both located in free space and does not consider other sources of loss such as reflections. free-space loss is the loss in signal strength (see discussion) that would result if all absorbing. Similarly it does not take account of gains from particular antennas. scattering.
propagation medium (dry or moist air).. the distance between the transmitter and the receiver.A particularly convenient way to express free space loss is in terms of dB. and c is the speed of light in the signal transmission medium. Path loss Path loss (or path attenuation) is the reduction in power density (attenuation) of an electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space. diffraction. and by the inverse square law of electromagnetic radiation. signal energy spreading over larger areas at increased distances from the source.5 As an example. Very useful for fast calculation is expression where d is measures in km and f in MHz (link uses isotropic antennas): FSL(dB) = 32. Note that the units used should be consistent. λ and R in meters. e. aperture-medium coupling loss. f in Hz. environment (urban or rural. .g. and c in meters per second. the expression becomes: FSL(dB) = 20log10(d) + 20log10(f) − 147.45 + 20log10(d) + 20log10(f) Note: Free-space loss is primarily caused by beam divergence. Path loss is a major component in the analysis and design of the link budget of a telecommunication system. f is the signal frequency.5 dB.. the FSL(dB) of a 1000 meter link operating at 1GHz using isotropic antennas is 92. vegetation and foliage). and absorption. Path loss is also influenced by terrain contours. and K is a constant that depends on the units used and details of the radio link. The equation for free-space loss is below where λ is the signal wavelength. such as free-space loss. refraction.e. and the link uses isotropic antennas. f is the frequency. Path loss may be due to many effects. R is the distance or radius of the signal from the transmitter. This term is commonly used in wireless communications and signal propagation. i. The loss can be expressed as: FSL(dB) = 20log10(d) + 20log10(f) + K where d is the distance. and the height and location of antennas. If d is measured in meters. reflection.
The total power of interfering waves in a Rayleigh fading scenario vary quickly as a function of space (which is known as small scale fading). 3.Causes Path loss normally includes propagation losses caused by the natural expansion of the radio wave front in free space (which usually takes the shape of an ever-increasing sphere). Note: The k-factor is approximately 4/3. depending on whether the individual multipath wavefronts interfere constructively or destructively. it describes the exceed spontaneous emission noise in gainguided lasers. In ionospheric radio propagation. resulting in fast fades which are very sensitive to receiver position K-factor In telecommunication. this effect is called multipath. The signal radiated by a transmitter may also travel along many and different paths to a receiver simultaneously. In laser diode technology. . a correction factor that (a) is applied in calculations related to curved layers. absorption losses (sometimes called penetration losses). the ratio of the effective Earth radius to the actual Earth radius. Multipath can either increase or decrease received signal strength. diffraction losses when part of the radiowave front is obstructed by an opaque obstacle. and (b) is a function of distance and the real height of ionospheric reflection. when the signal passes through media not transparent to electromagnetic waves. 2. In tropospheric radio propagation. the term k-factor has the following meanings: 1. and losses caused by other phenomena.
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