Urbanism 1

Asa Darmatriaji/4053184

A . Understanding of Urbanism relative to my country of origin

A.1 History of Bandung (18th - 19th century)
With the brief prerequisite through the historical aspect, that before 17th century Bandung was run in the kingdom system and the city name ‘Bandung’, West Java, Indonesia, it was started well publicized around Indonesia. On 1786, a road, connecting Jakarta, Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang as the major attractors to all citizens. VOC the colonial trade alliance from Netherlands was reigned the governmental processes in Bandung during 1677-1799. The fall of VOC on 1799 was mainly caused of their bankruptcy, under the local leadership of RA Wiranatakusumah II, and the alliance leadership as the first Governor General Herman Willem Daendels (1808-1811) the starting point of a city has begun with the first bridge built in Asia Afrika road . After this event General H.W. Daendels declared on 25 September 1810 that the city center, square, and other attributes at this area has to be built by the local leadership, therefore this date was set as the city anniversary and it has been established under R.A. Wiranatakusumah leadership . He is the founding father of Bandung city. The city was developed rigorously during end of 18th century until early 19th century with provision of train, road that links from East and West side of West Java, and many other features for the town that increased rapidly in relation to the population of the European Inhabitants in Bandung. After Indonesian Independence on 1945 onwards, the city developed in a rapid transformation. Natural resources have been exploited excessively. Nowadays the city population growth and the impact is moving toward unwanted condition for the city.
1.1 Location of Bandung City 1.2 Border of Bandung City

A.2 Bandung Images (Late 18th - Early 19th century)

ROAD BETWEEN KOPO & CIWIDEY

GREAT MOSQUE & CITY SQUARE

SOUTH PART OF OLD BRAGA ROAD

RIAU ROAD

ASIAN-AFRICAN ROAD

1.3 5 Images from 1880, 1890, 1911, 1917, 1920

We could see the from the images above, Bandung in about 1880-1920 was a city that based on agricultural development.
*1.1; 1.2: http://maps.google.com/ Bandung, West Java Indonesia *1.3: http://rinaldimunir.wordpress.com/2009/12/10/foto-foto-bandung-tempo-doeloe/

CITY HALL PARK

INSTITUTE TECHNOLOGY BANDUNG

INTERSECTION OF RIAU ROAD AND AHMAD YANI ROAD

JAARBEURS COMPLEX

JAARBEURS COMPLEX AERIAL VIEW

BANDUNG CITY SQUARE

1.4 6 Images from 1920, 1923, 1930, 1938

1.5 CURRENT AERIAL VIEW OF BANDUNG

Bandung has the quality of well planned city thus act as main attractor for people to live and work in Bandung, besides the soft weather, fertile land, and the hospitable people, and also the city has Technische Hogeschool now known as Institute Technology Bandung. All described before were main reason a lot of people wanted to live in Bandung on that period.

Herman Thomas Karsten has designed Bandung, town planning in 1941, ideally for 750.000 population2, and apparently in year 2010, the city has grown until now 2,5 million3 population . Which certainly will create the inequality, lack of balance between the numbers of facilities provided with the total numbers of inhabitants. Recently Bandung is prepared for 2,9 million population until year of 2013.

*1.4: http://rinaldimunir.wordpress.com/2009/12/10/foto-foto-bandung-tempo-doeloe/ *1.5: http://www.oyunlab.com/photo/Bandung47582.jpg

*1, 3: http://arsitekturku.wordpress.com/2010/04/17/menuju-kota-gagal/ *2 : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandung

A.3 CITY COMPARISON FROM 1920-1930 WITH 2010

A.4 CITY POPULATION GROWTH WITHIN 1930 -2010
3,000,000 Year 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1980 1,774,000
2,096,463

Population (people) 511,000 902,000 1,263,000

1930 1960 1970

BANDUNG 1920

BANDUNG 2010

1,000,000

1990

500,000 0

2000 2005

2,142,194 2,270,970 2,393,663

1930

1960

1970 1980

1990

2000

2005 2010

2010

1.7 GROWTH FLUCTUATION IN BANDUNG

BANDUNG 1925

BANDUNG 2010

Between 1950 and year 2000, the population of Bandung, Indonesia has changed 567.1%. From 2000-2010 the population increased by 11, 74 % which need the large improvement on the city attributes and many other consideration for the public welfare. Despite that it may pushed the city toward a lot of inequality condition majoring on all aspects.

BANDUNG 1930

BANDUNG 2010

1.6 OLD AND NEW BANDUNG CITY COMPARISON

The comparison Bandung in early 19th century until 2010, the only major difference is the agglomeration of functions that sporadically spread all over Bandung currently.

*1.6: http://bandungsae.com/oldnew.htm *1.7:http://books.mongabay.com /population_estimates/1950-2000/Bandung-Indonesia.html http://www.bandung.go.id/c/9/images/download/BAB3_BDA2005.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandung

A.5 FEW MAIN FACTORS FOR BANDUNG AS A CITY TO LIVE IN

1.8 UNIVERSITIES MAP IN BANDUNG

1.9 MALLS IN BANDUNG

1.10 APARTMENTS IN BANDUNG

Currently Bandung comprises of 3 state universities, 11 private university and 64 academy. In total 78 numbers of higher formal education after high school. Which by nature was an incredible numbers that offer a lot of scholar to flock in the city. In the other hand, it is a new opportunity for local and foreign investor to run the educational business within the city which majorly grow promptly within a year. The increment of numbers in universities it means a horizontal growth of total number of citizens that will come or the one stayed to study in Bandung. The impact as the student are more each year, it has really close relation in total numbers of vehicle that are being brought into the city without control which in the end caused traffic jam every day, and a lot of other unresolved issues regarding this condition.

As the city growth rapidly every year the appearance of malls are started from the center of Bandung, and it starts to spread toward North, South, West, East part and there are some new establishment of malls around Bandung that are not completed yet. In total apparently Bandung has 32 malls which conclude that there are demands economically either from the local citizens or the weekend travelers which keep them alive in the business industry. I assumed Bandung people are majorly supporting the consumerism lifestyle that has been an example since the Dutch era as I know, otherwise all the malls will be closed down within a year. It was in a way another way for the people to relieve the stress as they live in hectic urban condition nowadays. Malls are fully filled during night, and especially weekends.

Vacant land has been scarce in 21st century as land value has amazingly increased, the trend of building a new highrise apartment has influenced the nature of the investor, government, which nowadays has changed the typology of a landed houses starting to transform to a new built apartment. Predominantly start from the city center area and start spread over all around the city. It became another trend in Bandung to own at least one unit of these highrise apartments. Despite that a lot of local citizens are insisting on appearance of these new mega structure among the city itself which mainly used for middle class economy and above, in vice versa condition was disobeyed purely by the investor and also by the local government. By having these 8 numbers of apartments a few conservation areas was disrupted and may effect toward unwanted condition in the future, yet development still run without disturbance.

A.6 PARKS, HOTEL, BOUTIQUE-FACTORY OUTLET-SOUVENIR SHOP AS CITY LIFESTYLE FACTOR

1.11 URBAN PARKS IN BANDUNG

1.12 HOTELS IN BANDUNG

1.13 BOUTIQUE, FACTORY OUTLET, SOUVENIR IN BANDUNG

Bandung has 6 major urban parks that was not enough in comparison with the area of Bandung that was about 167.7 km2. The emphasis of reforestation for all areas in Bandung has to be sounded as the global warming that due to the effect of imbalance environment that from a soft weather starting to become polluted, hotter, and less greenery which accounted several climate problems for the city inhabitants.

The city has become one of the first choice to be visited within weekends time for people from Jakarta and all the satellite city around Bandung, It brought significance numbers of star hotels which comprises of 72 hotels from 1 star rating up to 5 star . rating. It was not considered with the hostel type which in total approximately about 150 hostels spread all over Bandung. It was one of the successful business to run in town, since the demand are really high.

Boutique, factory outlet, souvenir are really famous in Bandung, it has been one of few reasons why people should visit Bandung and it was developed naturally from the demands from the consumer that equally high every year and it was one of the attraction to shop and buy a souvenir, local distro, and many others. In fact, this is the main reason of the traffic jam that happened especially on weekend, this kind of shopping lifestyle which was not supported with sufficient parking lots, reorganizations of major roads, and many other problems that occurred until now.

A.7 DAGO AS THE NEW CITY CENTER

Dago street

Shopping

Café or Street cafe

Factory Outlet

1.11 URBAN PARKS IN BANDUNG Medical center/Hospital School/University Hotel Apartment Mall
Factory Outlet

Dago street or known as Ir. Haji Juanda Street was used to be a public thoroughfare that connect North part of Bandung with the city center , and it was prominent for a high class residential area that a lot of important people in Bandung had lived there for sometimes around 1950 until 1980. Afterwards, it starts to change one by one having it mixed with another function in the house and it was more and more variation of functions that were erected ranging from school, hospital, bank, and nowadays it is famous for its long stretch of café and factory outlet where every people gather in Dago street until now. Main function programs that were filling up at Dago street were shopping, Café, Factory Outlet, and it was a public meeting point to promote the healthy life by riding bicycle around this area. Thus creates traffic problems, small industry waste accumulation, insufficient parking lots, and it is a crowded area for Saturday night in Bandung, and many other impacts that was much more remain unresolved until now. Despite that now Dago is the new corridor that act as the city center for the city. It is also the place that gives the color to the young generation culture, and so forth.

Café & Restaurant Park Monument Dago street keyplan

A.8 CONCLUSION

The urbanism understanding from my country of origin are listed below : 1. Bandung used to be a city that based on agricultural development has changed to a city that focused on business education, malls and apartment as the main attractor for people to live in the city; 2. The city planning quality from the colonial era is still there, it needs reorganization, nurture the citizens with good consciousness, and team work between the citizen with the government to refine the physical condition nowadays, Bandung needs to be resolved within all the city aspects that remain
unresolved which are waste management system, water management system, relocation of residential

areas, and many others aspects; 3. Bandung development concentration was densely on the center part, which creating lack of balance on the South and East part of Bandung, it was clearly showing the agglomeration of functions are forced within the center of Bandung; 4. The city growth rapidly and it needs the government to take control over the consensus condition that has been immensely increased such as birth rate, economic development, and in the other hands it needs rigorous law reinforcement to protect a lot of aspects for the better future in the city; 5. The attraction of the city like the soft weather, fresh air, green boulevard, are the important aspects that
need to be reintroduced within the city that has changed to a really dense condition, besides that all
1.14 MAPPING OF PREDOMINANT FUNCTIONS IN BANDUNG

the city attributes are majorly there; 6. The city lifestyle was prominently focused in weekend shopping as one a way to relieve the stress from the city condition, besides that café & restaurant take parts on the shopping area as the accumulation of people were gathered; 7. The garden development has to be maintained to keep the city as it was the flower city of Indonesia and also Paris Pan Java, as people on 1930;s loved to live in Bandung because its charm of the nature and the culture.

B . Urban Changes Characteristic and Visualization of Bandung City

Bandung city, place where I lived in, situated in Indonesia. It’s a capital city of West Java, covering an area of 167.7 km2. It is the third largest city and second largest metropolitan city in Indonesia. It’s famous for its education at University level that brings a lot of young scholar around the city. For about ten years until current, 2010, the city was developed with great significance of urban changes that was mainly encouraged by a few major infrastructures like Cipularang highway that encompasses Jakarta and Bandung
within 1,5 hour driving time; Pasupati bridge that was erected on 2005, making an ease
BANDUNG
2.1 CIPULARANG TOLL HIGHWAY

JAKARTA

2.2 CIPULARANG TOLL IMAGE

connection between West and East Bandung, vice versa but it destroyed the beautiful Pasteur public thoroughfare that was so famous before for its frame by palm trees on both road sides; an agglomeration of a new mixed used building along Ir. Haji Juanda road that significantly shifting the city centre from Alun-Alun or Agung Mosque Square; and also the unsuccessful city centre around Agung Mosque, Pendopo or veranda for city mayor that couldn’t accommodate the public realm with inadequate green spaces, parking areas, activities generator, and so forth. Renewal of building functions around the city centre with numerous numbers of new hotels, malls, electronic centre, supermarket, are giving big implications to the city movement. Hence, the city has major problem ranging from unorganized waste disposal system, jumbled traffic, and flood at certain areas, many homeless people, and so on. However, Bandung still attracts people flocking into the city, either as weekend travellers or permanently stayed in.
2.5 CITY CENTER SHIFT 2.3 PASUPATI BRIDGE MAP

Pasupati bridge

2.4 PASUPATI BRIDGE IMAGE

new city center old city center

Factory outlet

2.6 AGGLOMERATION OF FACTORY OUTLET

PASUPATI BRIDGE

2.7 PASUPATI BRIDGE IMAGES

OLD CITY CENTER AND NEW CITY CENTER
Bandung has one square that has been the city centre since early 19th century and until late 19th century and now the existence has been diminished because the space itself was no longer able to accommodate the city necessities and now the city centre has moved toward north and it was totally opposite, in comparison where the old square was a symbolic configuration of a city center and the new city center was a main road that give the life to the city and it was the most prominent area for business in Bandung.
2.8 OLD AND CITY CENTER IMAGE

As we always see what happened after the structure of a new built structure erected, people always see the general picture. Despite that a lot of new phenomena's found under Pasupati bridge that currently used for many purposes e.g. abandoned land for waste collection, street art like graffiti or street music, and while raining it is a large umbrella, and it was a small coffe shop in certain part under the bridge. The bridge has brought a new typology of way of living nowaday.

FACTORY OUTLET
Factory Outlet is the most wanted commodity in Bandung, either for local people or for weekend travellers and it has been spread over around three main streets in Bandung, they are at jalan riau, jalan dago, jalan otten and it has been always full without any doubt to add even more factory outlet as long as it is located next to the existing function now. It is a lifestyle to shop as the first choice during the weekend to relieve the condition of being lived in urban city such like Bandung, Bogor, and the capital city of Indonesia/Jakarta.
2.9 FACTORY OUTLET IMAGES

As Bandung sited at the large numbers of volcanic terrain approximately 2400m with elevation above 768m above sea level with range of 400km2 flat land that runs over 2340.88km2 wide of Bandung basin, this land formation typifies a lot of residential that is sitting on a hill side or steep slope considering the potential of city view at night, yet the climate is colder in a high land. Having known the potential view toward the city a lot of investors are making real estate, villa, hotel, cafe, and amusement park were taken place
spread at highland that mostly in the North area as the highest part of Bandung. Variations
2.10 CAFÉ AND NEW RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENT AREA

CAFÉ AGGLOMERATION NEW RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENT AREA

of land type in Bandung were extensively broadening the range of possibilities for investors to deem their capital in Bandung which also developed Bandung in rapid occurrence. Economically, Bandung was famous with the creative industries, foremost its textile factories, leather products, jeans products, and nonetheless tourism, manufacturing companies, education institutions, factory outlets are the main supporting factors for the economic growth. By understanding the nature of the economic factors it was generated the building typologies which are mainly single or double storey buildings and a few varieties of three to four storey buildings. Recently, 2007-2010, appearance of high rise
2.12 IMAGES OF JEANS, LEATHER SHOES, CLOTHING OF LOCAL PRODUCT SHOPS 2.11 IMAGES OF CAFÉ AND NEW RESIDENTIAL

tower in Bandung was prominently fast spread over the city area; mostly used of apartment buildings that is bringing more people from other provinces to stay permanently in Bandung. As another major city problem that was evenly important remains unsolved is the ownership of each individual person of motor vehicle that brought the insufficient road sizes around city and ended up with traffic problems.
2.13 IMAGES OF NEW BUILT APARTMENT

Looking back through history, there was a period where the city was very ideal as a city to live in; the ideal situation of Bandung was occurred during early 19th century, where the city planning was according to a formal representation of relation between important notions of the city with the buildings or spaces, which was very organized within a grid planning. Therefore Bandung known as Paris Van Java and It was given due to its beauty and charms of the basin area which is the most residential and commercial taken place and
its enclosure of volcanic terrain where all fertile lands are abundant. It happened when

Bandung still reigned by Dutch, It was flourished time of colonial Dutch architecture era that famous for the tropical Art Deco style that was striven from culture of local traditional architecture and shaped as a new modern style. As the city growth fast after, 1945, Independence Day, it was growing organically and sporadically majorly because of the urbanizations of people from Cianjur city, Garut city, Tasikmalaya city, and few other cities that is surrounding within the West Java territory but it was never balanced with sufficient city attributes. It was forced because the opportunities of having an urban life instead of Jakarta which was even more crowded until present. Nowadays architecture of the city was varying from classical notions, modern, eclecticism, preserving the art deco, and mixture of post modern ideas with the local architecture. These variations create faces of the city and it is neither good nor bad, it depends in whose believe which is the ideal for the city.
2.15 ART DECO HISTORICAL ASSETS : VILLA ISOLA, VIADUCT, SUKAMISKIN PRISON, BANK, BRAGAWEG 2.14 MAPPING OF NEARBY CITY URBANISATION TOWARD BANDUNG

Lately there was a public manifesto that concerns about the pollution created by motor vehicles that brought a concept of health life by riding bicycle has given a large impact to the city planning e.g. there is new road division specifically for the bicycle rider around town, it was a good exercise for the citizens, yet it was only occurred during weekends where a lot of main roads are no longer accessible by motor vehicles. In spite of that numbers of motor vehicles during weekends was never less even though some major roads
are blocked, these events was because most of people from outside Bandung was
2.16 NEW BICYCLE PATH AROUND NEW CITY CENTER

incredibly rapid coming to Bandung to spend their weekends, either for shopping, looking for leisure place, or visiting their family, and a lot of other reasons as the attractor. Again here we could see that Bandung has very dynamic increase in total numbers of people that occupies approximately 16500/km2. Hence the natural resources will be excessively exploited, in respect to the total numbers of the city residents.

Above mentioned descriptively all aspects about Bandung, personally I still conclude that Bandung is an idyllic city for everyone because of the hospitable people, fertile land, and many others positive reasons for it, despite that the urban major problems are remain unsolved.

2.17 INAPPROPRIATE RESIDENTIAL AREA, UNMANAGE WASTE ISSUE, FLOOD AT CERTAIN AREA, TRAFFIC JAM

C . Visualization of Legibility, Permeability, Variety, Robustness

Piazza Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele II, Rome, Italy

Piazza della Repubblica, Rome, Italy

Arc De Triomphe, Paris, France

3 Images of Legibility

Kavalierstraβe, Dessau, Germany

Einkaufszentrum , Dessau, Germany

Basilica S.Pietro, Rome, Italy

3 Images of Permeability

Quai de l’Hotel de Ville, Paris, France

Rue du Commerce, Paris, France

Berlin, Germany

3 Images of Variety

Piazza Duomo, Milan, Italy

Johanniskirche, Dessau, Germany

Hotel de Ville, Paris, France

3 Images of Robustness

D . Visualization of Place, District, Zone, Break

Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

Parc de la Villete, Paris, France

Fontana di Trevi, Rome, Italy

3 Images of Place

Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Milan, Italy

Hausmanstrasse, Dessau, Germany

Via Malcontenta 40, Venice, Italy

3 Images of District

Grand Canal, Venice, Italy

Weimar, Germany

Vitra Museum, Wheil am Rhein, Germany

3 Images of Zone

Tiergartenbruecke bridge, Dessau, Germany

Dessau Center, Germany

Dessau, Germany

3 Images of Break

E . Visualization of my town of Origin (Color & Structure)

Sketch of Bandung city

F. Identification & Signification of Built Form, Street, Nature

Identification The area that has been selected to reflect the key term of built form, street, and nature . It was the old town square or city center that as it shown in the fact where the dominance of built form which approximately took about 90% of the whole area that are accumulation of varieties of function, where the agung mosque , Palaguna plaza , main post office and varying scale of shops, and so on. In fact, the nature that is going across within this area , Cikapundung river, it has been abandoned or in other words it is not taking any importance part to the role of the city center. The area are subdivided by major roads and it is interconnected by the secondary road. The artificial nature that has taken place right in front of the mosque that supposed to served as the main public plaza it doesn’t play its role as it supposed to be, presumably it has been affected to non-improvement in terms of function and also it doesn’t reflect the needs of people relative to the needs of the people who lived in Bandung. Signification
Major Road SecondaryRoad Artificial Nature Built-Form Cikapundung River

The clarity of this old town square could be described as follow: Built form 90 % Roads 5% Artificial Nature & Nature 5%

Built-Form, Street, Nature (Bandung Old Town Square)

G. 3 Examples of Preservation & 3 Examples of New Structure

Description At Braga street known as Braga Weg before Indonesia independence day, this area, it was the most prominent area around 1930-1990 and it has been intruded by new high rise structure it was because there are no law reinforcement to protect one of the oldest colonial architecture in the world. Therefore there has been on going discussion from the local apparatus that has been insisting of the new structure addition to this area, and again there are a lot discrepancies.

Description Bandung is now becoming more dense as the population growth increased rapidly, the area that supposed to serve as the water reservation area and it is a preservation area for North Bandung water supply and also water supply for the city center, without the government and the local law device being active participating to protect this zone from the new settlement of urban housing that will continue eating up the preservation land, it will grow toward a lot of inequality within the few years in the future. This area has to be preserved as a water reservation for the necessity for the city.

Description Gedung sate that now functioned as the Governor’s office, it has been built on 1920’s. It was famous known as neo classical style with mixed with the local architecture as an example of western architecture mixed with the eastern culture. It is preserved by the government as a landmark belong to the city, the building itself facing toward the mountatin on the North.

3 Examples of Preservation

Description Pasupati bridge is a new landmark in other hand it creates more problems than without its presence . It stretched from West Bandung toward the East Bandung and it branches at some major Center of Bandung. It is a stayed cable system that stretch about 2.8km and it has lead several issues that brought more problems than injecting a value to the city. But in a way the city has to be developed with its contradiction when its erected.

Description Galeri Ciumbuleuit Apartment & Hotel is located in the residential area where this zone is protected as the low residential area and as the demands from the buyer are high it happened the new apartment and hotel which comprises of 19 storey it has been erected in 2003 and now it has influenced everywhere in Bandung to develop vertical unit of living as a style but not because its needed to do so. This new structure brought good and bad impact as the city continue to develop.

Description Cihampelas Walk & Hotel is located in the city center area, on early year of 2000 it comprises of two main functions commercial and residential and it grown beyond the boundary, now it transformed as a hotel and it took a large built up area quite extensive and it creates the major congestion in cihampelas street almost everyday, and it developed the surrounding area rapidly and transformed to many variety of function.

3 Examples of New Structure

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