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Discuss the anatomic borders of the heart with surgical precision. 3. Regarding the heart a) The base is at the level of the 2nd rib b) The apex (PMI) is in the 5th intercostal space, slightly medial to the mid clavicular line c) Both d) Neither 4. Regarding the heart a) It is the size of a fist b) It has a mass of 200-390 grams c) It pumps @ 35 Liters of blood per minute d) All e) None 5. The heart is covered by a double layered membrane called the ______________. 6. The space between the visceral and parietal pericardium called the _________ ___________ normally contains _______ml of fluid. 7. Common causes of pericarditis include a) Infections b) Lupus and other “systemic” diseases c) Both d) Neither Discuss Pericardial friction rub: 8. Complications of pericarditis include a) Effusion b) Tamponade c) Fibrous adhesions d) All
9. Which of the following is characterized by elevated intrapericardial pressure (>15 mmHg), which restricts venous return and ventricular filling with a consequence of decreased stroke volume and pulse pressure, and elevated heart rate and venous pressure. a) Effusion b) Tamponade c) Fibrous adhesions d) All 10. (Complications of cardiac tamponade include: (according to Harrisson,s Principles of internal medicine) a) Shock b) Death c) Both d) Neither 11. Removal of fluid from the pericardial space is called ____________________
12. The heart wall consists of a) Endocardium b) Myocardium
13. Which layer of the heart wall contains Perkinje fibers a) Endocardium b) Myocardium c) Epicardium d) All e) None 14. The myocardium is most developed in the a) Right atrium b) Right ventricle c) Left atrium d) Left ventricle
15. The heart is divided into lateral compartments by Artial and ventricular _______ 16. Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary and systemic circuits enter the a) Artia b) Ventricles c) Both d) Neither 17. Regarding the surface anatomy of the heart, the coronary sulcus is a groove that marks the division between a) Left and right atria b) Left and right ventricles c) The atria and the ventricles d) None of the above 18. On each side of the heart, the atrium and ventricle communicate through atrioventricular orifice which is protected by a ______________ 19. Which valve guards the right atrio-ventricular orifice. a) Mitral b) Tricuspid c) Aortic d) Pulmonic
20. Blood flow into the right atrium includes a) Blood returning from the systemic circuit via the superior and inferior vena cavae b) Blood returning from the heart via the coronary sinus c) Both d) Neither 21. Blood flow through heart valves is unidirectional due to the action of a) Chordae tendinae b) Papillary muscles c) Both d) Neither 22. When the RA contracts, blood flows through the ______________valve into the RV 23. Most blood flow entering the RV is due to a) Contraction of the RA b) Passive flow through the tricuspid valve c) Back flow from the pulmonary circuit d) None of the above
25.The only example in the adult in which venous blood is oxygenated is ___________________ 26. Which heart valve is most commonly involved in prolapse. with or without calcification. According to the formula BP=CO x TPR. Blood from the pulmonary circuit returns to the heart by entering the a) Left ventricle b) Left atrium c) Right ventricle d) Right atrium 27. Dysfunction of heart valves include a) Prolapse b) Stenosis c) Regurgitation d) All 30. Aortic stenosis is associated with a) Left ventricular hypertrophy b) Angina c) Syncope on exertion d) Heart failure e) All of the above 34.24. When the left ventricle contracts. Blood flows into the LV through the a) Aortic valve b) Mitral valve c) Tricuspid valve d) Pulmonic valve 28. Regarding mitral propapse a) Affects 3% of the population b) May progress to regurgitation c) Females 14-30 affected most d) Common in connective tissue disease e) All 32. Narrowing of the lumen of a valve. scarring or degeneration is called: a) Prolapse b) Stenosis c) Regurgitation d) None of the above 33. a) Tricuspid b) Pulmonic c) Mitral d) Aortic 31. blood is pushed through the Aortic valve into the a) Aorta and systemic circuit b) Pulmonary trunk and pulmonary circuit c) Both d) Neither 29. Discuss the sequence of activity which is intitated by contraction of the right ventricle. it is understandable that persons with aortic stenosis would experience syncope on exertion due to low blood pressure because a) Exercise decreases TPR b) A decrease in TPR is normally compensated for by raising CO to maintain BP c) The stenosis prevents an increase in CO d) All e) None 3 .
Left heart failure includes a) Orthopnea b) Dyspnea on exeretion c) Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea d) All e) None 41.35. Aortic regurgitation may be associated with a) Hill’s sign b) Hypertension c) Rheumatic heart disease d) Infective endocarditis e) All 42. Mitral stenosis may be associated with all except a) Left ventricular hypertropathy b) Hemoptysis c) Systemic embolism d) Heart failure e) All 39. Regarding Mitral stenosis a) Most cases in adults are due to rheumatic heart disease b) 60% of patients are female c) It is often precipitated by pregnancy d) Left ventricular filling is impaired e) All of the above 38. Right heart failure includes all of the following except a) Orthopnea b) Edema c) Anorexia d) Ascites 40. Which of the following may be associated with spontaneous rupture of cordae tendinae a) Mitral prolapse b) Mitral regurgitation c) Mitral stenosis e) Fatigue d) None 4 . Aortic stenosis may be treated with a) Diuretics b) Nitrates and Beta blockers c) Antioagulants d) Valve repair or replacement e) All of the above 37. Regarding aortic stenosis a) 50% of cases who experience angina will die within 5 years if untreated b) 50% of cases who experience heart failure will die within 1 year if untreated c) Both d) Neither 36.
Tricuspid regurgitation is characterized by all except a) Murmur b) Hepatic congestion with RUQ pain c) Symptoms of left heart failure d) Pulsatile liver 46. In tricuspid regurgitation there is back flow of blood into the a) Right atrium b) Right ventricle c) Left atrium d) Left ventricle 45. An insult to any branch of the coronary arteries may result in a) Valve disease b) Ischemic heart disease c) Both 50. Defective heart valves may be Rx with a) Commissurotomy b) Percutaneous Balloon valvuplasty c) Valve replacement d) All 47. The marginal artery is a branch of the a) Left coronary artery b) Right coronary artery c) Both d) Neither d) Neither 49. Branches of the left coronary artery include a) Circumflex artery b) Posterior interventricular artery c) Both d) Neither 48. List the major risk factors for ASCAD a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 52. Mitral regurgitation is characterized by heart murmur and symptoms of a) Left heart failure B) Right heart failure c) Both d) Neither 44.The mortality rate associated with ASCAD is ___ per 1000 persons 5 .43. Common syndromes associated with ischemic heart disease include: a) Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease (ASCAD) b) Myocardial infarction c) Both d) Neither 51.
A person comes to the clinic with chest pain. discuss the various types: a) Angina pectoris b) Unstable angina c) Variant angina True or False or fill in the blank 55. Persons taking nitroglycerine should enhance their quality of life by using viagra 58. A focal area of increased uptake on a radionucleotide heart scan can identify the location of a myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction occurs when the heart’s demand for oxygen is less than its supply. 61. Electrocardiography (EKG) is 85% accurate in determining myocardial infarction 59. 56. The worst complication of a MI is _________________ 60. 62. The MB isoenzyme of Creatine Kinase (CK) is elevated 6 hours before a heart attack. 57. If you suspect that someone is having a heart attack you should a) Start CPR if there is no pulse b) Use an AED if available c) Both d) Neither 6 . Serum Glutamine Oxaloacetate (SGOT) now known as Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) is elevated 12 hours following a myocardial infarction.53. Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase (LDH) is decreased 24 hours post infarction 64. ASCAD may be associated with a) Gouty arthritis b) Arcus senilis c) Diagonal ear lobe crease d) All e) None of the above 54: Define Angina.Myocardial infarction may range in severity from asymptomatic to fatal. 65. he should be sent home without further evaluation if his EKG is normal. 63.
A split S2 may reflect a) Normal condition b) Heart block c) Atrial septal defect d) Pulmonic stenosis e) All of the above 74. The term diasystole refers to a) Contraction b) Relaxation c) Both d) Neither 69. atrial systole. A split S2 is usually best heard a) On inspiration c) On expiration 75. atrial systole. What is the sequence of activity during the cardiac cycle a) Ventricular systole. atrial diastole. ventricular diastole. Discuss a generic protocol for Rx of myocardial infarction a) Oxygen status b) Pain and anxiety c) Arrhythmias d) Conduction disturbance e) Pump failure 67. The first heart sound may be described as a a) “Lub” b) “Dub” c) Click d) Snap 71.66. ventricular systole. atrial diastole e) None of the above 68. Normal heart sounds (S1 and S2) are related to a) Atrial activity b) Ventricular activity 72. ventricular diastole d) Ventricular systole. atrial diastole. ventricular systole. ventricular diastole. atrial systole b) Atrial diastole. ventricular systole c) Atrial systole. An accentuated S2A may indicate a) Arterial hypertension c) Both b) While holding the breath d) None of the above b) Aortic valve syphilis d) Neither c) Both d) Neither b) Ventricular diastole c) Atrial diastole 7 . The first heart sound (S1) relates to opening of a) Mitral and tricuspid valves b) Aortic and Pulmonic valves c) Both d) Neither 70. S1 is heard during a) Ventricular systole c) Atrial systole 73.
Mitral or tricuspid stenosis 78. Physiologic in new born but pathologic in older persons (Infarction. Mitral regurgitation 83. An A-V malformation could cause a murmur due to a) Shunting b) Increased blood flow c) Both 86. Dilation of the aorta. cardiomyopathy or may occur without heart disease 80. aortic valve dysfunction. First degree heart block 82. Heart murmurs may result from a) Heart valve disease b) Dilated heart chamber c) Intravascular irregularity d) Increased blood flow or shunting e) All 85. HTN. The most common cause of cardiomyopathy is ______________ 8 . aortic stenosis. Murmurs may be classified as a) Systolic b) Diastolic c) Continuous c) Radiation d) All d) All d) Neither a) Diminished S1 b) Varying S1 c) Split S1 d) S3 e) S4 f) Diastolic opening snap g) Systolic ejection click 87.Complete heart block 81. An accentuated S1 may be due to a) Strenuous exericise b) Anemia c) Hyperthyroidism d) Mitral stenosis e) All of the above Matching 77. CAD. Mitral/tricuspid incompetence) 79. Murmurs may be classified by their a) Pitch b) Quality 88. May relate to hypertension. pulmonary HTN.76. Pulmonic stenosis 84.
e) All 96. aortic regurgitation and cardiomegaly 95. CHF. Regarding Patent Ductus Arteriosus a) Represents 12% of congenital heart disease b) Risk factors include maternal rubella and birth at high altitude c) Females affected more d) Prognosis is variable depending on size of shunt. Right to Left shunts include a) Pulmonary stenosis c) Coartation of the aorta b) Tetrology of Fallot d) All 9 . Regarding atrial septal defect (ASD) a) Blood is shunted Left to Right through the foramen ovale b) Patients may be sympton free for years.89.orthopnea and PND e) Increased vigor and vitality 93. Radiologic changes associated with cardiomyopathy include a) Enlarged heart b) Pulmonary vascular congestion c) Both d) Neither 91. Which of the following is caused by an autosomal dominant gene a) Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS) b) Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy c) Both d) Neither 92 IHSS involves all except a) Hypertrophy of the interventricular septum b) Decreased function of the mitral valve c) Angina with syncope on exertion d) CHF with dyspnea. but usually die between 30 and 50 years of age. c) S/S include dyspnea on exertion and respiratory tract problems d) Rx is surgery e) All 94.Congestive cardiomyopathy is usually due to a) Endocrine disorder b) Metabolic disorder c) Heavy metal toxicity d) None of the above 90. All of the following are true regarding VSD except a) Involves L to R shunting b) Surgery should be done during the first year c) Most common congenital heart defect d) S/S include severe pulmonary hypertension.
a heartbeat will be initiated by another group of cells called an ectopic pacemker. 104. 106. The electrical impulse from the SA node travels through the atria to trigger the a) Bundle of His b) Left and right bundle branches c) Atrio-ventricular node d) None of the above 103. If the ___________________fails to fire. When different groups of cells around the heart compete for initiation of the heart beat the patient is diagnosed with __________________ __________________ 100. The electrical conduction system of the heart begins in the ______________ at the __________________node which is also called the ____________________ 98. As an electrical impulse passes through the perkinje fibers a) Left ventricle contracts b) Right ventricle contracts c) A QRS complex is recorded d) All 108. When the electrical impulse passes through the AV node a) The atria continue to empty b) The ventricles fill c) The EKG begins to record a pause d) All 105. When the SA node initiates a wave of depolarization the EKG will record a a) P wave b) QRS complex c) T wave d) PR interval 101. The AV node contains small diameter fibers which _________ the rate of conduction. Which of the following represents depolarization of the ventricles a) T wave b) QRS complex c) ST segment d) T wave 10 . Regarding the EKG tracing a) The P wave represents atrial contraction (depolarization) b) The QRS represents atrial diastole c) Both d) Neither 102. Leaving the AV node. the electrical impulse travels along the atrio-ventricular septum through large fibers (high speed) called the _________________ or the ____________________________ which also runs through the interventricular septum. 107. The fibers described in #102 sepearate to form left and right __________________ ______________ which terminate in Perkinje fibers. 99.97.
Regarding electrocardiography a) Results are recorded on graph paper b) System is calibrated so that 0. 11 and 111 c) AVR. Matching 119. ectopic pacemakers may stimulate to contract as fast as _____ to ______ beats per minute. V2 and V3 d) Right arm.04 seconds e) All of the above 110. A “demand pacemaker” is located at the a) SA node b) AV node c) Both 117.AVF 113. Which lead are placed near the apex of the heart a) V1 b) V2 c) V3 d) V6 e) None of the above 115 Lead AVR records electrical activity of the heart at a) Left arm b) Left foot c) Right arm 116. In emergencies or pathology. Limb leads involve all except a) Leads 1. V4. V5 and V6 represent a) Limb leads b) Chest leads b) V1. AV node 121. Ventricular pacemaker a) 30-40 beats per minute b) 75 c) Rate on demand d) 60 123. left arm. The patient may be attached to ____ leads 112.2 seconds elapse between the heavy black lines c) There are 5 small squares between two heavy black lines d) Each small square (time between 2 light lines) is 0. AVL. Ectopic atrial pacemaker 122. SA node 120. The typical EKG reading is recorded on a ______second strip 111. Important factors to consider in reading an EKG include a) b) c) d) e) 11 . Ectopic pacemakers are located in the a) Atria b) Ventricles c) Both d) None of the above d) Neither d) Neither 118.109. left foot c) Both d) Neither 114.
187. Which set of numbers is most commonly used to determine heart rate a) 300. 150 c) 150. 94. Regarding Sinus arrhythmia a) P waves are identical b) Heart rhythm varies 134. 50 b) 300.124. Normal sinus rhythm is characterized by a) All waves are present b) Equal distance between similar waves c) Both d) Neither 129. the EKG (#5) shows a) P waves change shape b ) Varying rhythm 135. EKG tracing #1 represents a) Bradycardia b) Tachycardia c) NSR d) None 130. 250. EKG tracing #4 represents a) Bradycardia b) Tachycardia c) NSR d) None c) Both c) Both d) Neither d) Neither 133. 100 d) 100. 100. In wandering pacemaker. 65 62. EKG # 3 represents _______ with a rate of _______________ 132. 88. Regarding atrial flutter (#23) a) Heart rate 250-350 b) Identical P waves c) May be normal d) May reflect myocardial damage e) All 12 . In determining heart rate. 75 e) 75. 83. 150. EKG #2 represents__________ with a heart rate of _______ 131. 107. 60. 71. 75. Major disturbances of heart rate include a) Bradycardia b) Tachycardia c) Both d) Neither 128. pauses or irregularity b) Relationship between P waves and QRS complexes c) P-R interval d) QRS interval e) All 127. 60 126. 167. 79. you should check for a) Abnormal waves. 125. 115. 214. Heart rate is usually determined by the distance between a) P waves b) R waves c) T waves d) None 125. 136. 68.
List five arteries where a pulse may be felt: (Must know or drop the course now!) a)____________________ b)____________________ c)____________________ d)____________________ e)____________________ 13 . If the SA node fails to fire a) The heart stops b) An “escape beat” may restart the heart c) Both d) Neither B. PVC’s may combine with normal beats to create a) Bigeminy b) Trigeminy c) Both 140. EKG # 6 shows a varying rhythm with multiple ectopic spikes but no real P waves. Premature ventricular contractions (PVC’s) ( seen on EKG #7-10) a) A wide QRS is seen because electrical conduction does not follow the usual bundle branch distribution b) Originates from ectopic forces in the ventricle c) followed by a long pause d) All of the above 138. Regarding EKG # 10 a) This is a normal EKG b) The ventricle throws an uncomplicated PVC c) A PVC falls on a T wave indicating an unstable heart d) None of the above 143. The tracing in EKG # 8 represents a) Bigeminy b) Trigeminy c) Both d) Neither d) Neither 141. Vascular 144.136. This represents: a) Normal sinus rhythm b) Atrial fibrillation c) Wandering pacemaker d) Atrial flutter e) None of the above 137. The tracing in EKG #7 represents _____________________ 139. A dual rhythm caused by 2 different pacemakers acting independently as seen in EKG #11 is called ___________________________ 142.
Systolic blood pressure refers to the force of blood against the inner wall of blood vessels during a) Atrial systole b) Ventricular systole c) Both d) Neither 145. 143. The radial artery is the most common point for taking of a) Pusle b) Arterial Blood Gases(ABG) c) Both d) Neither 142. The adequacy of circulation in persons with diabetes or atherosclerotic disease best determined by bilateral evaluation of : a) Pedal pulse b) Foot temperature c) Both d) Neither 144.145. What is the pulse pressure of a person who has a systolic pressure of 110 and a diastolic pressure of 70____________ 146. Peripheral resistance through a blood vessel is influenced by the vessel’s a) Length b) Radius c) Both d) Neither 151. Regarding heart action. Discuss Starling’s Law of the heart in reference to blood pressure and cardiac 14 . The effectiveness of CPR is best measured at the ___________ or _________artery. Factors influencing peripheral resistance include a) Vasoconstriction b) Vasodilation c) Psychogenic factors d) All e) None 150. Cardiac output is affected by a) Stroke volume b) Heart rate c) Both d) Neither 148. Regarding viscosity of blood a) Increased by hemorrhage and anemia thereby increasing BP b) Decreased by polycythemia thereby decreasing BP c) Both d) Neither 152. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) refers to a) CO x TPR b) Diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure c) Both d) Neither 149. Blood pressure is determined by a) Heart action b) Blood volume c) Peripheral resistance d) Blood viscosity e) All of the above 147.
increased preload will increase a) End-diastolic pressure b) Stroke volume c) Cardiac output above 157. Blood returning to the right atrium constitutes a) Pre-load b) After-load c) Both d) Neither 156. Blood pressure may be influenced by abnormal function of a) Pituitary b) Thyroid c) Adrenal d) Parathyroid 159. Blood flow through the venous system is largely facilitated by a) Skeletal muscle contractions b) Respiratory movements c) Vasoconstriction of veins d) All of the above 154.output. When two heart beats occur so close together that the second beat may be heard 15 .please indicate: 161. Regarding CVP a) Engorged neck veins may indicate an elevated CVP b) Elevated CVP indicates a weak heart c) Normal or decreased CVP suggest a strong heartbeat d) All of the above 163. Central venous pressure measures blood pressure in the _____________________ 162. The most common cause of hypertention (persistently elevated arterial pressure) is a) Kidney disease b) Increased blood volume c) Endocrinopathy d) Idiopathic 155. 153. Blood pressure may be elevated by a) Nutritional factors b) Diabetes c) Oral contraceptives d) Blood vessel disorder e) All 158. Rx of Hypertension may include: (pick any and as many as you deem appropriate) a) Stress reduction b) Low sodium diet c) Diuretics d) Beta adrenergic blockers e) Vasodilators f) Calcium channel blockers g) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors h) Peripherally acting Alpha adrenergic blockers i) Other . According to Starling’s Law. Complications of HTN include a) Stroke b) Atherosclerosis c) Heart failure e) All d) All d) All of the 160.
List 5 branches of the thoracic aorta a) b) c) d) e) 170. Pressorceptors are found in a) Aorta b) Carotid arteries c) Both c) Both d) Neither d) Neither 166. Branches of the celiac artery include a) Left gastric b) Splenic c) Hepatic d) All 171. a branch of the:________________ 175. Blood supply to the appendix is via a branch of which artery? a) Celiac b) Superior mesenteric c) Inferior mesenteric d) Common iliac 16 . The right subclavian and right common carotid arteries are branches of the _______________________ artery 169.with a stethescope but no pulse is felt because it pumped little or no blood (ectopic arrthythmia or A-Fib). The gallbladder recieves its blood supply from a branch of the ______________artery. 173. Which of the following arteries represent the first branches of the aorta: a) Phrenic b) Coronary c) Celiac c) Carotid 167. Blood supply to the gallbladder is via the cystic artery. Variations in pulse include a) Pulsus alterans b) Pulsus parodoxus 165. The upper digestive tract is supplied by branches of the a) Left gastric b) Splenic c) Hepatic d) All 172. Branches of the aortic arch include a) Brachiocephalic b) Left common carotid c) Left subclavian d) All of the above 168. the patient is said to have a _____________ ___________ 164. Regarding the phrenic artery a) It is unpaired b) Supplies the diaphragm c) Both d) Neither 174.
181. Blood is usually drawn from the forearm by inserting a hypodermic needle into the __________________vein. The artery most associated with stroke is the______________________________ 179.176. 182. The largest blood vessel in the body is the________________________________. Important branches of the superior mesenteric artery include a) Renal b) Supra Renal c) Gonadal d) All or the above e) None of the above 186. The Phrenic artery supplies blood to the a) Lungs b) Diaphragm c) Both d) Neither 185. The blood supply to the vermiform appendix is derived from a branch of the a) Superior mesenteric artery b) Inferior Mesenteric artery c) Both d) Neither 184.Cross section of the umbilicus would reveal the presence of: a) One umbilical vein and two arteries b) One umbilical vein and one artery c) Two umbilical veins and one artery d) Two umbilical veins and two arteries 177. 183. blood can be shunted to the Superior vena cava via the____________________________. Which branches of the abdominal aorta ate unpaired a) Celiac 17 . Events which occur soon after birth include: a) Closure of the foramen ovale b) Closure of the ductus arteriosus c) Closure of the ductus venosus d) All of the above e) None of the above Fill in the blanks 178. When the Inferior vena cava is blocked. The walls of large arteries are nourished by small blood vessels called ___________ 180.
intestines. blood is shunted away from the liver via the 18 . Which of the following contribute the Circle of Willis a) Internal carotid aterey b) Vertebral artery b) Both d) Neither 195. a) Opthalmic b) Anterior chorid c) Anterior Cerebral d) Middle cerebral 191. Which of the following branches of the internal carotid artery is called the artery of stroke. Which areas on the lateral surface of the brain ate supplied by the middle cerebral artery a) Primary motor area b) Sensory areas for face and arms b) Speech d) All of the above 192. spleen and pancreas drain into the a) Hepatic vein b) Portal Vein c) Azygous vein d) Inferior Vena cava 190. Terminal Branches of the internal carotid artery include a) Anterior cerebral b) Posterior cerebellar d) Both d) Neither 194. The brachiocephalic veins merge to form the a) Superior Vena cava b) Inferior Vena cava c) Coronary sinus d) None of the Above 189.b) Superior mesenteric c) Inferior Mesenteric d) All 187. Important branches of the internal carotid artery include a) Ophthalmic b) Posterior communicating artery c) Anterior chorid artery d) All of the above 193. In the fetus . The inferior mesenteric artery supplies blood to the a) Descending colon b) Sigmoid colon c) Rectum d) All or the above 188. All blood vessels from the stomach.
Which of the following arteries is not likely to be involved ? a) Uterine b) Internal Pudenal c) External Pudenal d) Lingual 19 . Which of the following is not comparable with life after birth a) Failure of foramen ovale to close b) Failure of Ductus Arteiosus to close c) Failure of Ductus Venosus to close d) All e) None 202. When does the Ductus Arteriosus normally close a) 1st week Post partum b) 1st Month c) 1st Year d) In the older child 201. Describe the first pass effect 203. Blood passing through the fetal foramen ovale constitutes a a) R to L Patologic shunt b) L to R Pathologic shunt c) L to R physiologic shunt d) R to L physiologic shunt 197.a) Ductus Arteriosus c) Both b) Ductus Venosus d) Neither 196.Fetal Blood in the Pulmonary trunk is shunted to the aorta via the a) Ductus Arteriosus b) Ductus Venosus c) Both d) Neither 198. At birth plumonary vascular pressure a) Increases b) Decreases c) No change d) Increases then decreases e) Decreases then increases 199. A woman experiences heavy bleeding following minor gynecologic surgery. Cardiovascular changes which occur at birth include a) Closure of Ductus Arteriosus b) Closure of Ductus Venosus c) Both d) Neither 200.
Factors which promote varicosity include a) Prolonged standing b) Obesity c) Pregnancy d) Genetics e) All of the above 20 . This situation is frequently associated with thrombosis of the __________________________ 205. the tunica adventicia is the a) Inner layer b) Middle layer c) Outer layer d) None of the above 206.204. Varicose veins involve a) Distended blood vessels c) Both b) Incompetnt valves d) Neither 207. A person gets “blood poisoning” after picking his face. Regarding the walls of blood vessels.