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1110-9-10

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000

ETL 1110-9-10

5 January 1991

Engineering and Design CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM USING CERAMIC ANODES

**Distribution Restriction Statement
**

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) CEMP-ET DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, D.C. 20314-1000 5 January 1991

Engineer Technical Letter 1110-9-10(FR)

Engineering and Design CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM USING CERAMIC ANODES 1. Purpose: This letter provides criteria for the design of impressed current cathodic protection systems using ceramic anodes. The enclosure to this letter is the revised appendix E of TM 5-8117: Electrical Design, Cathodic Protection. 2. Applicability: This letter applies to all HQUSACE/OCE elements and all Major Subordinate Commands (MSC) and District Commands (DC) having Army military design and construction responsibility. 3. Discussion: Development in ceramic anodes technology and the recent years of experience with ceramic anodes indicate that ceramic anodes can be used for general application. A wide variety of ceramic anodes are manufactured to satisfy various needs in the field of cathodic protection. The CEGS 16641 "Cathodic Protection Systems for Steel Water Tanks" and CEGS 16642 "Cathodic Protection Systems (Impressed Current)" permit the use of precious mixed metal oxide anodes but no design guidance is provided in TM 5-811-7 for the use of conductive ceramic coated titanium or mixed metal anodes. The enclosed design procedures will assist in design using these anodes. 4. Action to be taken: Where the application of an impressed cathodic protection system is required, the use of ceramic anodes should be considered. Where ceramic anode application has been the chosen type of cathodic protection, the enclosed design manual shall be used in the preparation of final design documents. 5. Implementation: This letter will have special application as defined in paragraph 6c, ER 1110-345-100. FOR THE DIRECTOR OF MILITARY PROGRAMS:

Encl

RICHARD C. ARMSTRONG Chief, Engineering Division Directorate of Military Programs

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 IMPRESSED CURRENT CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEMS USING CERAMIC ANODES TABLE OF CONTENTS Page SECTION 1 1-1 1-2 1-3 SECTION 2 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 BASIS OF IMPRESSED CURRENT CATHODIC PROTECTION DESIGN Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cathodic Protection Design Using Ceramic Anodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 15

EXAMPLES OF IMPRESSED CURRENT CATHODIC PROTECTION DESIGN Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 18 31 39 58 70 78 104 113 116 117 128

Steel Fuel Oil Lines

Underground Storage Tanks (UST's) On-Grade Tank Bottoms

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Gas Distribution System

Elevated Water Tank (Ice Is Expected)

Elevated Water Tank (No Icing Will Occur) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On-Grade Water Storage Reservoir (Ice Is Expected) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Anodes (Underground Applications) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backfilling Packaged Anodes With Coke Breeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SECTION 3: Tables

SECTION 4: Identification of Variables 1

Deep Anode Groundbed Resistance 50 to 100 ft.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 List of Figures Page 2-1A Cathodic Protection System for Fuel Oil Line With Anode Bed Extended Perpendicular From Pipeline Cathodic Protection System for Fuel Oil Line With Anode Bed Installed Parallel to Pipeline Vertical Groundbed Layout Using Prepackaged Ceramic Rod Anode Prepackaged Ceramic Rod Anode for Underground Use Ceramic Anode Canister Prepackaged Rod Cathodic Protection for Underground Storage Tanks and Piping On-Grade Tank Bottoms Typical Deep Anode Groundbed Using Rod Angles Ceramic Rod Anode for Deep Groundbed Use Ceramic Anode Tubular Power Rod Used In Deep Anode Bed Ductile Ceramic Anode Tubular Power Rod Deep Anode Groundbed Resistance 25 to 50 ft. Deep Anode Groundbed Resistance 100 to 150 ft. Pole-Mounted Rectifier Deep Anode Cathodic Protection for Gas Distribution System Typical Deep Anode Groundbed Using Tubular Anodes Ceramic Anode Tubular Power Rod Used in Deep Anode Bed 2 19 20 21 22 23 33 41 42 43 44 45 48 49 50 57 60 68 69 2-1B 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-7A 2-8 2-8A 2-9A 2-9B 2-9C 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 2-14 2-14A Elevated Pedestal Tank (Icing Conditions) With Hoop Ceramic Anode A Pressure Entrance Fitting for Underwater Power and Reference Cell Wire Penetrations in Water Storage Tanks Elevated Water Tank Showing Rectifier and Anode Arrangement Segmented Elevated Tank for Area Calculations Equivalent Diameter Factor for Anodes in a Circle in a Water Tank Fringe Factor for Stub Anodes Anode Spacing for Elevated Steel Water Tanks Anode Suspension Arrangement for Elevated Steel Water Tank Water Tank Hand Role Assembly for Roof-Supported Anodes and Support Bracket for Submerged Hoop Anodes Submerged Cathodic Protection System for GroundLevel Water Storage Reservoir Details of Wire-type Anode System Designed To Withstand Icing conditions Within Tank Horizontal Prepackaged Ceramic Anode Groundbed 76 77 80 81 86 87 89 90 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-21 103 105 112 114 2-22 2-23 2-24 3 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 CATHODIC PROTECTION DESIGN 1-1. They have design life expectancies of up to 20 years at a rated current output. Cathodic Protection Design Using Ceramic Anodes. The current capacity is a function of constituent variables and is rated by the manufacturers. The ceramic coating is already oxidized (corroded). which has eliminated the concern about mechanical damage during shipment and installation. these metal oxides are conductive. Ceramic anodes are made in a variety of shapes for various applications. tubes. If they are installed in salt or brackish water. Ceramic or metal-oxide anodes have been used for cathodic protection since 1971 in Europe and since 1984 in the United States. 1-2. Among these are wire. Ceramic anodes have excellent ductility. The overall function of the anode is not significantly impaired. Recently. strips. Scratches or other minor physical damages to the coating result in the formation of an inert and nonconductive oxide of the substrate (titanium) when operated at less than 60 V in fresh water and underground applications. Their life is limited by time and current density. and mesh. Ceramic anodes are also a fraction of the size and weight of traditional anode materials. One of the main advantage of ceramic anodes are that they are not consumed. Ceramic anodes consist of various shapes of high purity titanium substrates with coatings of precious metal oxides tailored to the environment in which they will be used. discs. The life can be extended by a reduction in output current density. Ceramic anodes are dimensionally stable. Introduction. rods. the DC design voltage should be limited to 12 V. The following steps are involved in designing a cathodic protection system using ceramic anodes: 4 . Unlike most other metal oxides (or ceramics). ceramic coated anodes have been incorporated in cathodic protection systems. The end of the ceramic anode life is marked by a chemical change in the oxide form and a resultant loss in conductivity.

The structure will begin to deteriorate from corrosion at the end of the cathodic protection system's design life unless the system is rejuvenated. Information on coatings should be obtained. Soil resistivities contribute to both design calculations and location of the anode groundbed. of insulating devices. Collect data. Design requirements should be established. 1) History Information from occupants in the area can indicate the severity of corrosion problems. Electrolyte (soil or water) resistivity tests and evaluation of conditions that could support sulfate-reducing bacteria are needed for all cathodic protection designs. 4) Life The user must determine the required number of years that the structure needs to be protected. and of power sources.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 a. and locations of other structures in the area that may cause interference. 3) Tests Current requirement test and potential survey test results are needed for existing structures that will be protected. 5 . Data on failures and failure rates of nearby structures can be invaluable and must be considered. and certain assumptions will be made. 2) Drawings Drawings of the structure to be protected and the area where it is or will be installed are needed to provide the physical dimensions of the structure for determining surface area to be protected. This information will indicate the size of the cathodic protection system that will be required as well as the probability of stray current problems. or the designer must assume a nominal life span.

c. For new structures not yet installed. Determine current requirement. 6) Short circuits All short circuits must be eliminated from both new and existing structures for which a cathodic protection system is being designed. a current requirement test will provide the actual current requirement at the time of the test. A is the total surface area to be protected.0 . even when a 6 .CE) where I is the total current requirement. I' is the estimated current density. Table 3-1 gives guidelines for current requirements in various soil and water conditions. Allowance should be made in the design for future degradation of coatings or structure additions that will increase the current requirement. Total current following equation: system. the amount of current needed to provide protection as defined in National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) RP-0l-69 (reference 22) will be dependent on a number of variables. A good coating system substantially reduces the amount of cathodic protection current required. is range of current that will be of the system. This includes underground or submerged pipes. and wetted surfaces (up to high water(level) of watertanks (including risers). For existing structures. This procedure should always be followed. both when new and a determining factor in the required over the lifetime required is given by the (eq 1-1) I = (A)(I')(l. The overall current requirement of a cathodic protection system is directly proportional to the surface area to be protected. The efficiency of the coating at the end of design life.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 5) Coatings Cathodic protection complements the protective coating system. The coating efficiency has to be assumed. buried tanks. and CE is the efficiency of the coating system. Calculate surface area to be protected. b.

wires..or 3-in. its resistance is approximately 33 times that of copper. While titanium is a relatively good metallic conductor. The maximum length for solid titanium wire and rod anode applications to assure that uniform discharge of current is achieved in several different environments is provided below: Maximum Anode Length From Connection Point Solid Titanium Anodes Anode Diameter 0. 3/8 in. the rod anode is often encased in a perforated PVC package that provides mechanical protection and prevents the possibility of the anode contacting the protected structure. Wire anodes are well suited for applications in water tanks. and 170 mA in brackish water.125 in. 0. Ceramic rod anodes are produced in diameters of 1/8 in. 6. For underground applications. Their small size and high current capacity make rods particularly well suited for both underground shallow and deep anode systems. tubes. d. and mesh. and 8 ft. rods. They are generally not used underground. Ceramic rod anodes are manufactured bare for aqueous environments and prepackaged for installation in soil. strips. 285 mA in salt water. although almost any length can be custom fabricated with self-healing screw connections for field assembly to the desired length.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 current requirement test has been performed. 7 . as a check on assumptions made. low resistivity coke breeze. cable-to-anode connections. 1/4 in. such as. Select anode type. rods are frequently packaged in 2. Current density may be estimated from information given in table 3-1. For marine applications. the voltage drop in the titanium substrate must be considered. or with permanent. The 0. and ½ in.. For long ceramic anode wires and rods.062-in. diameter steel tubes filled with a high carbon. and in standard lengths of 4. factory-molded. They are used in a similar manner as high silicon cast iron and graphite anodes.062 in. 0. disks. diameter anode wire has a 20-year life at a maximum current rating of 115 mA per linear ft in fresh water. Ceramic anodes are made in a variety of shapes.250 in.

mesh is generally restricted to use in new facilities. and where future access is not practicable.g. 0. and electrical insulation. minimum) The maximum allowable length for copper-core titanium wire and rod anodes is provided in the table below: Maximum Anode Length From Connection Point Copper Cored Titanium Anodes Anode Diameter ENVIRONMENT Sea Water Coke Breeze Fresh Water 0. the titanium wire or rod can be provided with a copper core to reduce the effective resistance.125 in. diameter wire.. Its use under a structure's base such as an on-grade tank bottom with secondary membrane containment or select reinforced concrete bridges.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 ENVIRONMENT Sea Water Coke Breeze Fresh Water LENGTH (ft) 3 6 30 5 10 50 9 20 100 Where a specific design requires longer length anodes than provided for in the above table. etc. 8 .. A mesh anode is produced using highly expanded titanium sheet metal and is used where a large area is to be protected. wide that provides impact resistance.062 in.. LENGTH (ft) 7 12 70 12 24 135 24 54 300 A strip anode is presently manufactured as a 3. where area for anode placement is confined.062-in. for 0. 0.250 in. This type of construction has been in use for over 15 years and has proved to be very durable. Because of its size and the nature of its application. the titanium wall thickness should be 0.or 7-ft bar of ceramic-coated substrate. would be appropriate. wharfs. molded into a multilayer composite of fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) and polyurethane 4 or 8 ft long and 4 in. The titanium wall thickness should be a minimum of 20 percent of the wire or rod diameter (e. mechanical support.0124 in.

Calculate the total circuit resistance (RT). RT = RN + Rw + RC (eq 1-3) A criterion of 2-ohm maximum groundbed resistance is often used to limit the rectifier output voltage and the associated hazards of overprotection.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 e. 1) For required design life Since ceramic anodes are not consumed during their life. Calculate number of anodes (N) or length of bare anode wire (LB). strip. tube and disk anodes: Number of anodes required = Total current required Manufacturers rated current for specific size. For rod. (eq l-2b) (eq l-2a) The number calculated will determine the minimum number of anodes or anode wire length required. When the total required current is low. The number of anodes or length of anode wire required is determined from the total current required and the manufacturer's published current rating for a given life. f. 2) For wire anodes: Total footage of anode = Total current requirement Manufacturers rated current capacity per foot of wire for a given environment and life. environment and life. The total circuit resistance (RT) consists of the anode-toelectrolyte resistance (RN) plus the interconnecting wire resistance (RW) plus the structure-to-electrolyte resistance (RC). a higher total resistance is often 9 . the quantity of ceramic material beyond that required to form a coating is not relevant.

a different empirical relation may be used: RA = p K L (eq 1-6) where RA is the anode-to-electrolyte resistance. If vertical anode dimensions are assumed to be 6 in. The total anode-to-electrolyte resistance (RN) is calculated in different ways according to the type of anode installation. See table 3-10. the following empirical relations may be used: RA = p 398 (eq 1-5) If the anode dimensions are different. if the backfill is coke breeze and is not significantly more than 2 ft longer than the anode or not significantly more than 20 ft longer than the anode column in a deep vertical groundbed configuration. the total resistance should be reduced. in diameter and 8 ft in length. p is the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm. and d is the diameter of the backfill column in feet. It should be noted that the anode dimensions are the overall length and diameter including backfill. Bare ceramic anodes shall not be installed in ground without coke breeze backfill. For a single vertical anode: RA = (0. As the required current increases.0052) p (L) [ln (8L/d)-1] (eq 1-4) Where RA is the anode-to-electrolyte resistance for a single anode. The anode-to-electrolyte resistance for a single anode is given by RA. For earth backfill.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 acceptable. Coke breeze allows venting of gases and effectively reduces RA. and K is a shape function that is selected from table 3-4. L is the length of the backfill column in feet. L is the length of the backfill column in feet. p is the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm. the backfill column dimensions should be the dimensions of the manufacturer's standard packaged anode can. 10 .

(See figure 2-9a through 2-9c located in section 2-4. and Cc is the center-to-center spacing of the anodes in feet. This equation assumes a linear configuration of the groundbed anodes. If the horizontal anode dimensions are assumed to be 6 in.) For a single horizontal anode: RA ' (0. N is the number of anodes. For multiple vertical anodes: RN = (0. RA = p 441 (eq 1-8) where RA is the anode-to-electrolyte resistance in ohms and p is the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm. p is the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm. and buried 6 ft below the surface. L is the length of the backfill cylinder in feet. p is the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm. the following empirical expression may be used.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Deep anode groundbed resistance graphs are available for deep vertical ground beds. d is the diameter of the backfill column in feet.0052) p N L + 2 L Cc [(ln (8L/d) -1) (eq 1-9) ln (. If the number of anodes used does not produce a low enough anode-to-electrolyte resistance.0052) p 4L 2 % 4L (2h)2 % L 2 [1n L 2 d h % 2 h & L (2 h)2 % L 2 & 1] L (eq 1-7) where RA is the anode-to-electrolyte resistance in ohms. 11 . d is the diameter of the backfill cylinder in feet. L is the length of the backfill column in feet. the number of anodes will have to be increased accordingly. in diameter.656 N)) where RN is the anode-to-electrolyte resistance. 8 ft long. and h is the depth of the backfill cylinder in feet.

p is the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm. N is the number of anodes used. which compensates both for the number and spacing of the anodes. For multiple horizontal anodes: p FADJ 441 RN ' (eq 1-12) where p is the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm and FADJ is an adj3sting factor for groups of anodes selected from table 3-9. another empirical expression may be used: RA N p PF Cc RN ' % (eq 1-11) where RN is the anode-to-electrolyte resistance. p is the soil resistivity in ohm-cm. If the anode dimensions are different.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 For optimum results. and Cc is the center-to-center spacing of anodes in feet. the following empirical expression may be used: p FADJ 398 RN ' (eq 1-10) where RN is the anode-to-electrolyte resistance in ohms. RA is the anode-to-electrolyte resistance for a single anode. LB is the length of each 12 . which will be connected together as one groundbed. This equation assumes a linear configuration of the groundbed anodes. If multiple anodes are assumed to be 6 in. the length of the backfill column (L) should be less than the anode spacing (Cc). p is the electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm and FADJ is selected from table 3-9. For a circle of rod anodes (as in a water storage tank): where RN is the anode-to-electrolyte resistance. PF is a paralleling factor selected from table 3-5. in diameter and 8 ft long.

p is the electrolyte resistivity. DA is the diameter of the anode wire in feet.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 0. and DE is an equivalent diameter factor from figure 2-17. The structure-to-electrolyte resistance (RC) is dependent primarily on the condition of the coating.0052 x p x 1n [D/2 AR x DE)] LB RN ' (eq 1-13) rod anode in feet. For wire anode circle or hoop (in a water storage tanks): 8DR 2 DR 0. L W RMFT 100 ft RW ' (eq 1-15) where LW is the length of wire in thousands of feet and RMFT is the resistance of the wire in ohms per 1000 ft. Experience has shown that the diameter of the anode wire circle (D) should be typically between 40 and 70 percent of the tank diameter. and H is the depth below the high water level in feet.0016 p (1n % 1n ) DR DA H RN ' (eq 1-14) where RA is the anode-to-electrolyte resistance. D is the tank diameter in feet. Rc ' RS A (eq 1-16) 13 . Wire resistance (RW) is the sum of both the rectifier-toanode lead and the rectifier-to-protected-structure lead. AR is the radius of the anode circle in feet. DR is the diameter of the anode circle in feet.

anode type(s). VREC = (I) (RT) (1. Calculate required rectifier voltage and current. building or structure penetrations. and source of 14 . rectifier. The life cycle cost analysis should be prepared according to the guidelines given in TM 5-802-1 (reference 9). Prepare a one-line diagram to show the entire system including wire sizes. Prepare life cycle cost analysis. g. The choice of a particular anode type and configuration for design calculation is somewhat arbitrary. Select a rectifier with DC voltage and current capacity of a slightly larger size (as calculated above) from the cathodic protection rectifier manufacturer's published literature. Prepare plans and specifications.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 where RS is the coating resistance in ohm-square feet and A is the total surface area.2) (eq 1-18) where I is the total current required and IREC is the minimum current rating for a rectifier for this particular application. and other pertinent information. and details of wire-to-structure connections. test stations. wire routing. Another source of information on performing life cycle cost analyses is NACE RP-02-72 (reference 21). power circuit protection. potential survey test points in paved areas. h. Prepare plans that show the protected structure. The economics may dictate switching to a different design configuration and repeating the applicable design steps. locations of anodes. The required rectifier voltage (VREC and maximum current rating should include at least an extra 20 percent to allow for variations in calculations from actual conditions and for changes in the system over the system's life. wire color coding. negligible resistance is assumed (RC = 0). i. and power source. power circuit.2) (eq 1-17) where I is the total current required and RT is the total circuit resistance as calculated above. If the structure surface is bare. IREC = (I) (1.

U. Lake Zurich. . U. 4. Burke. Department of Defense agencies: 1. 1988). Air Force. Bushman. 7. Prepare specifications to describe required features of the system components. 1988). Department of the Air Force. References. Humphrey. 31 December 1988). James B. Economic Studies of Military Construction Design . Davy. ed. IL. Department of the Army. Washington D.. Bushman." Journal of the American Water Works Association (Denver.C.. Paper delivered to the National Association of Corrosion Engineers North Central Regional Conference (Chicago. Washington D. Department of the Army. Dennis." The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London. "The Beginnings of Cathodic Protection.S. James B.. Dayton. "Cathodic Protection of Water Storage Tanks. and particular requirements of U. Air Force Manual 88-45 (Headquarters.Cathodic Protection Design.. 8. Department of the Air Force. 9. Liberty Bell Short Course (Philadelphia Section of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers.S.S. 3. Designing Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Systems With Durco Anodes (The Duriron Company.C. 6. Corrosion and Corrosion Control.. 1824). 1984). James B. Civil Engineering Corrosion Control . Maintenance and Operation of Cathodic Protection Systems. Cathodic Protection of Underground Storage Tanks and Piping. March 1988).. Air Force. 15 2.. Bryan. The following documents describe corrosion fundamentals. and David H. traditional corrosion control techniques. TM 5-802-1 (Headquarters. Philadelphia). 1985). William T. Air Force Manual 85-5 (Headquarters. and David H.Application. 1-3. 5. N. Corrosion Control and Cathodic Protection Training Manual (Steel Tank Institute. Kroon. Kroon.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 power. OH. Bushman. 1970).

Chemistry and Properties of Mixed Metal Oxide. and M. 1987). October 1974)." Paper No. vol. Proceedings of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (1988). 10 (Oct 1988). 55 (1939). Kumar.. 13. "Cathodic Protection Designs Using Ceramic Anodes. 3d ed. No. "Structure.. New York. V... Armstrong. Military Handbook 1004/10 (31 January 1990). Givens. 1969) 16 . 22 April 1985). 27.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 10. NACE RP-0l-69. Electrical Engineering Cathodic Protection. J. (McGraw Hill. 16. National Association of Corrosion Engineers (Houston. Armstrong. Morgan. J. pp.Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems" (National Association of Corrosion Engineers. 1986). No. Cathodic Protection. Department of the Army. 12. Myers. pp. A. "Recommended Practice . vol.Direct Calculation of Economic Appraisals of Corrosion Control Measures" (National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Houston. Corrosion Control for Underground Steel Pipelines: A Treatise on Cathodic Protection (July 1980).." Materials Performance. vol. Hock. 27." Paper No.. James R." AIEE Transactions. 1972). Cathodic Protection. 17. Rigsbee. NACE RP-02-72.. and J. Aimone. H. Houston. 2d ed.B. Hock. J. 14. Fundamentals and Forms of Corrosion (Air Force Institute of Technology.. 230. Kumar. "Recommended Practice . Myers.. Fontana. 284. and V. Inc. Proceedings of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (1989). 19-23. A. A. Department of the Army. 15. Electrical Design.A. and M. 11. 10 (Oct 1988). Mars G. 19-23. 20. TM 5-811-7 (Headquarters. 19. Dwight. Corrosion Engineering. "Survey of Cathodic Protection Systems Using Ceramic Coated Anodes. Kumar. 18. "New Cathodic Protection Designs Using Ceramic Anodes. Suarez. and M." Materials Performance.R. John. "Calculation of Resistance to Ground. 22. 21.

Civil Engineering Corrosion Control. 30. Houston. 26. Lewicki. 25. Vol.. and R... Jane M. Vol. 1985). VanNostrand Co. J. Earling D. Houston.S. New York. 3d ed. New York. Peabody. 1985). "Recommended Practice . 1967). 31. 1: Corrosion Control .T. 1984). Sunde. 17 . Robert L. NACE RP-02-85. Washington D. "Controlling Galvanic Corrosion in Soil With Cathodic Protection. Department of Transportation. Uhling. Reding. New York. Performance of Mixed Metal Oxide Activated Titanium Anodes (National Association of Corrosion Engineers. NACE Corrosion Engineer's Reference Book (National Association of Corrosion Engineers. 29. Pipeline Corrosion Protection: A Department of Transportation Perspective (Materials Transportation Bureau of the U. Tyndal Air Force Base. III: Cathodic Protection Design (Air Force Civil Engineering Center. Herbert H. 32. 28. Herbert H. Treseder.. and Thomas F..C. Houston." Gas Industries Magazine (Park Ridge. Partially Buried .Control of External Corrosion on Metallic Buried.... Houston.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 23. II: Cathodic Protection Testing Methods and Instruments. West.S. Uhling. A... 1980). Corrosion and Corrosion Control: An Introduction to Corrosion Science and Engineering. 1987). Lewis H. R. Paullin. IL.. 1948). 27.or Submerged Liquid Storage Systems" (National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Winston Revie.W. 24. Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems (D. Turner. (John Wiley & Sons. 1949). The Corrosion Handbook (John Wiley & Sons. Control of Pipeline Corrosion (National Association of Corrosion Engineers. FL).General. 1988). Vol.

These prepackaged ceramic rod anodes are further detailed in figures 2-3 and 2-4. Design current density is 2-mA per sq ft of bare pipe.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 EXAMPLES OF IMPRESSED CURRENT CATHODIC PROTECTION DESIGN 2-1. a. Purpose. Design life for cathodic protection anodes is 15 years since the structure will no longer be needed after that time. Design data. 18 on previous (outside diameter = 6.625 5) 6) 7) . There are no other underground structures in the area. Figure 2-2 illustrates a surface point groundbed anode system using prepackaged ceramic rod anodes.) Pipe length is 6800 ft. current requirement tests have already been made. Steel fuel oil lines Underground storage tanks On-grade tank bottoms Gas distribution systems Elevated water tanks (ice is expected) Elevated water tanks (no icing will occur) On-grade water storage reservoir (ice is expected) Steel Fuel Oil Lines. The following examples show the use of design procedures explained in the previous section: 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-2. Since this pipeline is in existence. so a surface point groundbed is chosen. 90 percent coating efficiency based experience with this type coating. 1) 2) 3) 4) Soil resistivity in area where groundbed is desired is 2000 ohm-cm. diameter in. Impressed current cathodic protection is desired for the 6-in. The pipe is coated with hot-applied coal-tar enamel. welded fuel oil line shown in figures 2-1A and 2-lB. Pipe has 6-in.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 19 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 20 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 21 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 22 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 23 .

11) Electric power is available at 120/240 V single phase AC from a nearby overhead distribution system.791 sq ft .Required current density from item 5 of paragraph 2-2a.External pipe surface area from previous calculation.734 sq ft/lin ft = 11.5 ohms.90) 24 I = . we have decided that the cathodic protection system circuit resistance should not exceed 2. 2 mA/sq ft .0 0. b.8 amp are needed for adequate cathodic protection. 6800 ft 1. 12) Current requirement testing indicates that 2.Coating efficiency expressed in decimal form from item 7 of paragraph 2-2a.791 sq ft = Check the current requirement (I) using equation 1-1: I = (A)(I')(l. 11.791 sq ft x 2 mA/sq ft x (1. 0. Computations.0-CE) Where: A I' CE = = = 11. The pipeline is isolated from the pumphouse and tank with insulating joints.734 sq ft/lin ft (from table 3-2) 6800 lin ft x 1.90. 1) Calculate the external surface area of the pipe.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 8) 9) Effective coating resistance at 15 years is estimated at 2500 ohm-sq ft. Pipe diameter Pipe length Pipe surface area per lin ft External pipe surface area 2) = = = 6 in. 10) For this example.

60-in. For a 3-in. Several different size anodes could be chosen. long anode packages are desirable. by 48-in. N = 2.4 amp which agrees well with the current requirement test data provided in item 12 of paragraph 2-2a. 3) Select an anode and calculate the number of anodes required (N) to meet the design life requirements. IA = 2. For a 3-in. by 60-in. varies depending on anode size from table 3-3. by 48-in. Experience has shown that for this type of groundbed. use 3 anodes.2 amp/anode (from table 3-3 for 15-year design life).4 = 1.8 1. ceramic anode rod.33. by 60-in. use 2 anodes. ceramic anode rod.17. IA = 1. N = 4) 2. packaged canister with a 1/4-in. Two sizes are selected for trial calculations using equation 1-2: N = Where: I IA I IA = = 2.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 I = 2358 mA or approximately 2.2 = 2.8 amp (Current requirement from item 12 of paragraph 2-2a) Current rating per anode. Calculate the resistance of a single anode-to-earth (RA) from equation 1-6: RA = Where: p = p K L 2000 ohm-cm (Soil resistivity in area where groundbed is desired from item 1 of paragraph 2-2a) 25 .8 2. packaged canisters with a 1/8-in.4 amp/anode (from table 3-3 for a 15-year design life).

i.0 ohms maximum. This paralleling factor compensates for mutual interference between anodes and is dependent on spacing./3 in.53 ohms/anode 5 anodes 26 = 1. 8. it appears that five anodes might give the desired circuit resistance of 2.e.53 ohms (Resistance of a single anode-to-earth from the previous calculation) Assume 5 anodes (discussed below) 2000 ohm-cm (Soil resistivity) 0. From the law of parallel circuits.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 K L d = = = 0. = 20]) 5 ft (Effective anode length [canister length)) 3 in. a figure for N must be assumed.706 ohms .0213 5 = 8.00268 (Paralleling factor from table 3-5 [discussed below]) 20 ft (Center-to-center spacing of anodes [discussed below]) N p PF CC = = = = To determine PF. (Anode backfill diameter [canister diameter]) 2000 x 0.: 8.0213 (Shape function. from table 3-4 [where: L/d = 60 in.53 ohms RA = RA 5) Calculate the number of anodes required to meet maximum anode groundbed-to-earth resistance requirements from equation 1-11: RN ' RA N % p PF Cc Where: RN = RA = Groundbed-to-earth resistance.

Here. For this example. Try six anodes to allow for variations in soil resistivity and to allow for wire and pipe-to-earth resistance. paralleling factor from table 3-5 8.706 + 0.) To calculate the true anode resistance for five anodes. the selected area is 100 ft from the pipeline for improved current distribution.53 1. but very close to exceeding maximum specified circuit resistance. Where: N PF RN RN 6) = = 6 = 6 anodes 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 This is the approximate resistance based on the law for parallel circuits. CC = 20 ft (The spacing must be chosen based on previous experience to solve the equation.974 ohms This is within specification.53 5 + 2000 x 0. The anode bed location for this type design must be far enough away from the structure 27 7) .00252 Based on the previous selection of six anodes for the number of anodes to be used. the total circuit resistance must be determined. Select an area for anode bed placement.67 ohms + 20 2000 x 0.) The spacing can typically be from 10 to 50 ft. (When equal resistance values are joined together in a parallel circuit. the total resistance value of the circuit is approximately equal to a single resistance value divided by the number of resistance values.00252. we must perform the calculation from equation 1-11. we will try 20 ft: 8. Repeat calculation from equation 1-li.00268 20 RN RN RN = = = 1.268 1.

(This is virtually always true for anode bed designs where the individual lead wire lengths required do not exceed an average of 400 ft.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 to be protected to assure uniform distribution of the protective current to all structure components. For this example. 8) Determine the equation 1-3: total circuit resistance (RT) from RT = RN + RW + RC Where: RN = RW = RC = a) Groundbed resistance-to-earth (ohms) Header cable and resistance (ohms) Pipe-to-earth resistance (ohms) Groundbed-to-earth resistance (RN) from step 5. the groundbed may be installed either perpendicular or parallel to the pipe (figures 2-IA and 2-lB). Since there are no other underground utilities in the area. The higher the soil or water resistivity.) b) c RW ' LW RMFT 1000 ft Anode lead wire resistance from equation 1-15: Where: LAVG = = = LW = = = 28 Total of each actual lead wire lengths/number of anodes (140 ft + 120 ft + 100 ft + 80 ft + 60 ft + 40 ft)/6 anodes 90 ft per anode LAVG/N 90/6 15 ft .67 ohms Specify anodes with individual lead wires of sufficient length so that each anode wire can be run directly to the rectifier without splices. the further away the ground must be located. RN = 1. previous experience has shown that the nearest anode should be located a minimum of 100 ft from the structure to assure good current distribution.

212 ohm circuit resistance (RT) from RS A A = RC RC d) Calculate the equation 1-3: RT RT RT e) = = total = = = RN + RW + RC 1. the design using six (3-in x 5-ft) ceramic anode canisters will work. 14 AWG cable which has been selected from table A-6. 29 . 15 ft x 2. This is based on the circuit resistance for 6 anode lead wires in parallel.67 + 0. 2500 ohm-sq ft 11.791 sq ft External pipe surface area calculated in step 1 of paragraph 2-2b. 11.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 = Average anode lead wire length/ number of anodes.212 1.039 ohms RMFT = RW RW c) = = Pipe-to-earth resistance (RC) from equation 1-16: Rc ' Where: RS = 2500 ohm-sq ft .039 + 0.Resistance for No.0 ohms and RT = 1.921 ohms Since the design requirements call for a maximum allowable groundbed resistance of 2. 2.Effective coating resistance from item 8 of paragraph 2-2a.921 ohms.58 ohms .58 ohms 1000 ft 0.791 sq ft 0.

2 6.92 ohms resistance calculation.8 amp x 1.45 volts. which is the nearest standard capacity available from commercial cathodic protection rectifier manufacturers. 5-amp rectifier. specify a 10-V. Select rectifier.8 amps (Current requirement from item 12 of paragraph 2-2a.45 V Based on the design requirement of 2. (Total from circuit previous capacity 120% VREC VREC c. = = = Rectifier voltage design safety factor.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 9) Calculate the rectifier voltage (VREC) from equation 1-17: VREC = (I) (RT) (120%) Where: I RT = = 2. 1.8 amperes and 6.92 ohms x 1. 2. 30 .

Coating quality is unknown. Computations. long. Wiring can be installed several inches below the paving by cutting and hand excavating narrow slots/trenchs through the paving. Electrical continuity of tanks and piping has been assured. diameter by 21 ft 3 in.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 2-3. system is therefore not isolated electrically from other structures. buried piping is 750 ft. 1) Find the external surface area (A) of the storage tanks and piping. assume bare. The service station shown in figure 2-5 has three existing underground tanks and associated pipe. nominal size. an impressed current protection system is chosen. To distribute the current evenly around the tanks and piping. Because of the anticipated large current requirement. Current requirement test indicates that 8. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Soil resistivity is 4500 ohm-cm. It is not feasible to install dielectric insulation. Vertical anodes can be installed with relative ease in holes cored through the paving around the UST system. Pipe is 2 in. The cathodic protection system should not exceed 2. Design data. 31 .2 amperes are needed for cathodic protection. Total length of all Tanks are 8000 gal. b. and to minimize interference effects on other structures. 96 in. The quality of the coating is unknown and it is not feasible to install dielectric insulation to isolate the UST system. a distributed anode surface bed using vertical anodes is selected. a. Design cathodic protection anodes for 20-year life. circuit resistance 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Electric power is available at 120 V single phase in the station building.5 ohms.. Underground Storage Tanks (USTs).

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Area of each tank = 2 B (tank radius)2 + B (tank diameter) (tank length) 32 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 33 .

pipe = 0. the number of anodes required to meet the cathodic protection system design life can be calculated: N = I IA 34 .14 x 8 x 21.0 .0) 4742 mA or 4. Calculations can be run on several size anodes.621 sq ft/ft (from table A-2) Total pipe area = 750 ft x 0. but in this case 2-in.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Area of 3 tanks = 3 [2 x 3. The actual current requirement of 8. packaged rod anodes (rod size = 0.2 amp occurs because of current loss to other underground structures and is also reasonable in relation to that calculated for an isolated facility.621 sq ft/ft = 466 sq ft Total area = 1905 sq ft + 466 sq ft = 2371 sq ft 2) Check the current requirement (I) using equation 1-1: I = (A)(I')(1. I' = CE = I I = = The 4.7 amp would be reasonable for the facility if it were insulated.125 in x 4 ft long) are chosen for ease of construction. by 60-in. 3) Select an anode and calculate the number of anodes required (N) to meet the design life requirements.25] = 1905 sq ft Area per lin ft of 2-in.7 amp.0.0-CE) Where: A = 2371 sq ft (External tank and piping surface area from previous calculation) 2 mA/sq ft (Required current density [assumed]) 0. Using equation 1-2.00 (Coating efficiency expressed in decimal form from item 2 of paragraph 2-3a) 2371 sq ft (2 mA/sq ft) x (1.14 x 42 +3.

by 60-in.0234 (Shape function from table A-4 [where: L/d = 60 in./2 in.2 anodes. A distributed anode array does not lend itself to an exact calculation of equation 1-11 because the anodes are positioned at various locations and are not located in a straight line.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Where: I = IA = N = 8.2 1. in.0 amps/anode (Current anode from table 3-3) 8. 2-in. packaged rod anodes 4) Calculate the resistance of a single anode-to-earth (RA) from equation 1-6: RA = Where: P = K L d = = = p K L 4500 ohm-cm (Soil resistivity item 1 of paragraph 2-3a) from 0.0 = rating per 8. use nine.0234 5 RA = RA 5) = 21. However.) (Effective anode 2 in. = 30]) 5 ft (60 length). to approximate the total anode-to-earth resistance.2 amp (Current requirement from item 10 of paragraph 2-3a) 1. Equation 1-11 assumes a straight line configuration. (Anode/backfill diameter) 4500 x 0. 35 .06 ohms Calculate the number of anodes required to meet maximum anode groundbed resistance requirement. equation 1-li may be used.

is selected. paragraph 2-2b) 21. + 4500 x 0. fourteen.29 ohms.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 RA N p PF Cc Groundbed-to-earth resistance 21. 6) Select the number of anodes to be used..00212 10 RN ' Where: RN = RA p CC PF = = = = % N = RN RN = = Resistance is too high. 12. Additional calculations using an increasing number of anodes (i. 7) Determine the equation 1-3: total circuit resistance (RT) from 36 .e. the larger number of anodes.26 ohms.00212 (Paralleling factor from table 3-5. reasoning is the same as in step 5. these calculations show that fourteen anodes will yield a groundbed-to-earth resistance of 2. determined are: The numbers For life = nine anodes maximum required For resistance = fourteen anodes maximum required Therefore. assume 9 anodes. 13. 11.06 ohms (Resistance of a single anode-to-earth from the previous calculation) 4500 ohm-cm (Soil resistivity from item 1 of paragraph 2-3a) 10 ft (Estimated approximate spacing of anodes) 0. 14.06 9 3. paragraph 2-2b) 9 anodes (Estimated number of anodes required.) have to be made. from step 3. etc.

37 . Since the tanks and piping are essentially bare and are not electrically isolated.254 ohm (This is the resistance per 1000 lin ft of No. use 0.254 ohm 1000 ft 0. which has been selected for ease of handling. 4 AWG cable. Since current is discharged from anodes spaced all along the cable. RN = 2. a) Groundbed resistance (RN) from step 5. The loop circuit makes calculating effective wire resistance complex. structure-to-earth resistance may be considered negligible. Effective cable length = ½ (300 ft) = 150 ft.038 ohm.) 150 ft x 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 RT = RN + RW + RC Where: RN = Groundbed resistance (ohms) RW = Header cable/wire resistance (ohms) RC = Structure-to-earth resistance (ohms). Therefore RC = 0.26 ohms b) Header cable/wire resistance (RW) from equation 115: RW ' LW RMFT 1000 ft Where: LW = 150 ft (Effective cable length. Total cable length = 300 ft.) = 0. one-half the total cable length may be used to approximate the cable resistance.04 ohm RMFT RW = RW = c) Structure-to-earth resistance.

30 ohms Since the design requirements call for a maximum groundbed resistance of 2. packaged ceramic anodes will work. 24-V unit is selected because this is the nearest standard commercial size available. the design using fourteen 2-in. a rectifier can be chosen.6 V c.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 d) Calculate total equation 1-3: circuit resistance (RT) from RT = RN + RW + RC RT = 2.26 + 0.30 ohms.6 V and 8.2 amp (Current requirement from step 2. VREC VREC = 8.2 = 22.5 ohms and RT = 2. Based on the design requirement of 22.2 amp x 2. 8) Calculate the rectifier voltage (VREC) from equation 1-17: VREC = (I) (RT) (120%) Where: I = 8. by 60-in.2 amp. paragraph 2-3b) RT = 2.30 ohms (Total circuit resistance from previous calculation) 120% = Rectifier voltage capacity design safety factor.30 ohms x 1. 38 . Select rectifier. A 12-amp.04 + 0 = 2.

Design current density is 2 A per sq ft of tank bottom. In such cases. Tanks are 75 ft in diameter. The membrane would not allow the cathodic protection current to flow from the remotely located deep anode through the nonconductive membrane to the tank bottoms. The system designer should check with the applicable agencies before committing to a deep anode design. The cathodic protection system should not exceed 0. All piping will be above grade. This design may be prohibited if secondary containment uses a nonconductive membrane beneath the tanks. circuit resistance Electric power is available at a switch rack in an unclassified (nonexplosion proof) area 125 ft from the desired groundbed location. On-Grade Tank Bottoms. single phase. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Soil resistivity at anode depth is 1500 ohm-cm. 230 V AC. All piping will be above ground. (Note: Some county. To minimize the extent of underground cable. 2-7A.75 ohm. and 2-8A illustrate a typical deep anode groundbed using ceramic rod anodes. Design cathodic protection anodes for a 15-year life. located just outside the spill containment dikes. regulations have sometimes required cementing of the annulus between the deep anode bed casing and the augered hole to prevent this water migration. Four on-grade fuel oil storage tanks are to be constructed with the configuration shown on figure 2-6. 39 .ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 2-4. Figures 2-7. state. it was decided to use a deep anode groundbed. 2-8. a. Design data. or federal agencies such as the EPA may have regulations that affect the use of deep anode beds because they can provide a conduit for the mixing of water between aquifer levels. a distributed anode design with the anodes located between the membrane and the tank bottoms would have to be used. The tank bottoms will be bare. The tanks will be dielectrically insulated from the structures. If this situation exists. Since the tanks are electrically isolated from each other. Field tests were made at the site and the subsurface geology was determined to be suitable for a deep anode groundbed (reference 25). intertank bonds will be required.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 8) Since the exterior bottom of these type tanks are always bare. 40 . the coating efficiency will equal 0.00.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 41 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 42 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 43 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 44 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 45 .

long rods have been chosen. Computations. or 1/4-in.0 0.672 sq ft 2) Determine the current requirement (I) from equation 1-1: I = (A) (I')(l.6 amp/anode (Current rating per heavy duty coated anode from table 3-3) N = 35 6.0-CE) Where: A I' CE I I 3) = = = = = 17.52 = 4418 sq ft Area of the four bottoms: A = 4 x 4418 = 17.6 = 5.672 sq ft x 2 mA/sq ft x (1. To ensure good transmission of current in to the backfill column. 1) Find the surface area to be protected. use 6 anodes 46 .0) 35 amp Select an anode and calculate the number of anodes (N) required to meet the design life.3. diameter by 72-in. long anodes.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 b. Area of each tank bottom = B r2: A = B x 37. Using equation 1-2: N = I IA requirement from Where: I = 35 amp (Current previous calculation) IA = 6. typically 6 ft or 8 ft are used.672 sq ft (Total surface area from previous calculation) 2 mA/sq ft (Current density from item 4 of paragraph 2-4a) 0. For physical strength.0 (bare) (Coating efficiency from item 8 of paragraph 2-4a) 17. the 1/8-in. diameter rods are usually chosen. The deep anode groundbed will consist of a series of rods connected to a continuous header cable. For this example. 1/4-in.

31 ohm. 5) Calculate (RA).ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 4) Calculate the required length of the backfill column. Because several attempts may have to be made to obtain the required groundbed resistance. the backfill column-to-earth resistance This can be done from equation 1-4.47 ohm (groundbed resistance in 1000 ohm-cm soil. Spacing between anodes depends primarily on the resistivity of both the backfill column (coke breeze). times actual soil resistivity in ohmcm per 1000). the resistance to earth per 1000 ohmcm is 0. diameter) should not be greater than twice the individual rod length. Typical hole diameters are 6 or 8 in. diameter hole has been selected for this groundbed.. and 1/4-in. a 6-in. than the spacing between rod anode (1/8-in. for a 111-ft long coke breeze backfill column. Figure 2-9C shows that. This is well below the design requirement of 0. In 1500 ohm-cm soil. the coke breeze column extends from 10 ft below the bottom anode to 10 ft above the top anode as shown in figures 2-7 and 2-8.75 ohm. If low resistivity calcined fluid petroleum coke is used. Figure 2-9C will be used for this design. Based on previous design experience. the process is facilitated by using the curves in figures 2-9A through 2-9C.31 x 1500/1000 = 0. 6) Determine total circuit resistance (RT) from equation 1-3 : RT = RA + RW + RC (Because the cathodic protection system utilizes a single deep anode groundbed RA = RN) 47 . The minimum length of the backfill column is then calculated as follows: 6 anodes at 6 ft per anode = Spacing between anodes: 5 at 11 ft = Space above and below anode string* = Total length 36 ft 55 ft 20 ft 111 ft * Generally. the resistance is 0. a spacing between anode rods of 11 ft is selected.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 48 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 49 .

50 .

65 ft was selected as the depth to the top of the coke breeze column. No. from step Backfill column-to-earth resistance (RA) 5: RA = 0. The anodes can be supplied through a single or dual feed. Dual feed is preferred to reduce both the resistance of the circuit and the chance of a failure due to a cable break. illustrated in the deep groundbed example shown in figure 2-7. depending on subsurface geology and the distance over which the current is expected to spread.47 ohm b) Wire resistance A deep anode groundbed is defined as one where the top of the backfill column is at least 50 ft below the surface of the earth. Cable lengths have been calculated based on the following distances. 4 AWG cable has been chosen.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Where: RA = RW RC a) = = Backfill column-to-earth resistance (ohms). Actual depth will vary. In this example. 51 . calculated in step 5 above Header cable/wire resistance (ohms) Structure-to-earth resistance (ohms).

These resistance values can be found in table 3-6).254 ohm 1000 ft cable = 0. 4 AWG cable which has been selected for installation.254 ohm (Resistance per 1000 lin ft of No.10 ft = Calculate top equation 1-15: cable resistance (RWT) 10 ft 176 ft 10 ft 250 ft 91 ft 200 ft 291 ft from RWT ' LWT RMFT 1000 ft Where: LWT RMFT = = 200 ft (Cable calculation) length from previous 0. 200 ft x 0.051 ohm (RWB) from RWT = Calculate bottom equation 1-15: resistance 52 .ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 From grade to top of backfill column 65 ft From top of backfill column to top anode From grade to bottom of backfill column From bottom anode to bottom of backfill column From anode hole to rectifier 2 cables at 125 ft From top of anode assembly to bottom of anode assembly Total cable length from top anode feed to rectifier 125 ft + 65 ft + 10 ft= Total cable length from bottom anode feed to rectifier 125 ft + 176 ft .

From the law of parallel circuits. the resistance of this cable (RPOS) is taken as one half its total resistance as was done in example 2-2.012 ohm Negative circuit calculated: wire resistance must also be Negative cable from rectifier to closest tank = 125 ft of No. 4 AWG** **The two intertank bond circuits are in parallel and of about the same length.254 ohm/ft 1 ' x 2 1000 ft 2 *91 ft is the overall anode column length including the interconnecting wire from the top of the top anode to the bottom of the bottom anode (see item 4 from paragraph 2-4b. so that their wire resistance (RT/B) is calculated from the law of parallel circuits: 1 RT/B 1 RT/B 1 RT/B = = 1 RWT 1 0.5 = 33.1 RT/B = 0. total resistance of two parallel circuits of equal resistance is one half the resistance of each circuit.074 ohm These two cables are in parallel.051 + + 1 RWB 1 0.074 = 19.6 + 13.) RPOS = 0.254 ohm 1000 ft = 0. 53 .ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Where: LWB RMFT RWB = = = 291 ft (Cable calculation) length from previous 0. RPOS ' LW R MFT 1000 ft x 1 91 ft( x 0.030 ohm Since current is dissipating along the portion of the cable to which the anodes are connected. 4 AWG Intertank bonds = 170 ft of No.254 ohm (Cable resistance per 1000 lin ft [same as above]) 291 ft x 0.

commonly used for cathodic protection work.012 + 0. one of the two following types of insulation. one half the cable length is used in this calculation. 4 AWG cable [table A-6]) 295 x 0.254 ohm (Negative cable resistance per 1000 un ft of No.074 RNEG = RNEG = Total wire resistance therefore is: RW RW = = RT/B + RPOS + RNEG = 0. Consequently.074 0. but may occur in coke breeze backfilled holes also. This has been most prevalent in open holes containing brackish water.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Therefore. tends to blister. High molecular weight polyethylene insulation. which show good resistance to these oxidizing environments should be used: Polyvinylidene fluoride (Kynar)1 ____________________ 1 Registered trademark of Penwalt Corp. The calculation is also conservative since not all the current flows through the complete intertank bond circuit. Total ft of negative circuit wire = 295 ft of No. become brittle. 54 . to minimize the chances of cable failure.116 ohm Cable insulation is also important. and then crack in deep groundbed use where chlorine gas generation can occur. 4 AWG cable Negative resistance if calculated from equation 1-15: LW RMFT 1000 ft RNEG ' Where: LW = RMFT = 295 ft (Negative cable length) 0.030 + 0.254 1000 0.

____________________ 2 Registered trademark of Allied Chemical Corp.586 ohm (RT) from This is well below the design requirement and. this groundbed with 6 . 55 .586 ohm (Total circuit resistance from previous calculation) Rectifier capacity safety factor 35 amp x 0.0 = 0.470 + 0. 7) Calculate rectifier voltage (VREC) from equation 1-17: VREC = (I) (RT) (120%) Where: I = RT 120% = = 35 amp (Current requirement from step 2.116 + 0. by 6 ft ceramic anode rods with total backfill column length of 111 ft will be used. paragraph 2-4b) 0.6 V VREC = VREC = c. therefore.1/4 in. Select rectifier. RC is taken as zero. their resistance-to-earth is considered negligible. Since the tank bottoms are bare. cables for deep anode groundbeds also have an outer jacket of highmolecular weight polyethylene extruded over the Kynar or Halar insulation.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Copolymer of chlor-tri-fluorethylene and ethylene (Halar)2 To protect the insulation itself and to facilitate handling. d) Calculate total circuit resistance equation 1-3: RT RT RT = RN + RW + RC = 0. c) Structure-to-earth resistance (Rc).586 ohm x 120% 24. therefore.

This rectifier can be pole mounted as illustrated in figure 2-10. Installation. 42 ampere unit is commercially available and is selected.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Based on the design requirement of 24. 56 . Figures 2-7 and 2-8 show this deep anode design.6 V and 35 amp. a rectifier can be chosen. d. A 30 V.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 57 .

The cathodic protection circuit resistance should not exceed 1 ohm.000 ft of 1 1/4-in. considered to be bare for protection purposes and. regulations have required cementing of the annulus between the deep anode bed casing and the augered hole to prevent this water migration. Piping is welded steel. Figure 2-11 shows a portion of the piping. diameter pipe 3. state. poorly coated. Piping consists of: 28. Gas Distribution System. The system designer should check with the applicable agencies before committing to a deep anode design. Piping is isolated at each house and at the tie-in to the main supply line. the coating efficiency is 0. diameter pipe 1. (Note: Some county.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 2-5. diameter pipe 3) 4) Design cathodic protection anode for a 20-year life. therefore. On this basis.200 ft of 4-in. 120/240 V AC. 2) 5) 6) 7) 8) 58 .600 ft of 6-in. single phase power is available.0 (CE = 0. 1) Experience in the area shows the subsurface resistivity at a depth of 50 and 200 ft to be 2000 ohmcm.) a. Experience with similar pipe in the same general soil type has shown that a design current density of 2 A per sq ft of bare pipe is conservative.0). it has been decided that the gas piping can be protected with impressed current from a deep anode groundbed without causing interference to the water pipe. In such cases. Design data. It has been decided to install cathodic protection on the gas distribution piping in a post housing facility. and federal agencies such as the EPA may have regulations which prevent the use of deep anode beds because they can provide a conduit for mixing of waters between aquifer layers. The water distribution system has recently been replaced with nonmetallic pipe.

so design will be based on calculations. (Note: Current requirement tests should be conducted whenever practicable.) 59 .ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 9) Current requirement tests are not practiced in this case.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91

60

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 b. Computations. 1) Calculate the external surface area of the pipe (A) to be protected. Pipe diameter 1 1/4 in. 4 in. 6 in. Length 28,000 ft 1,200 ft 3,600 ft Unit Area* (sq ft/lin ft) 0.434 1.178 1.734 Total Area (sq ft) 12,152 1,414 6,242 19,808

*from table A-2 2)

Determine current requirement (I) from equation 1-1: I = (A)(I')(l.0-CE) Where: A = 19,808 sq ft (Surface area of pipe to be protected from previous calculation) 2 mA/sq ft (Current density, from item 4, paragraph 2-5a) 0.0 (Coating efficiency [bare pipe]) 19,808 sq ft x 2 mA/sq ft x (1.0 - 0.0) 39,616 mA or 39.6 amp; use 40 amp

I' = CE = I I 3) = =

Select an anode and calculate the number of anodes required (N) to meet the design life. For this design, tubular anodes have been chosen. The groundbed will consist of a series of anodes attached to a continuous header cable. A typical size tubular ceramic anode used in deep anode beds, 1-in. diameter by 39.4 in. long, is selected. The number of anodes are determined using equation 1-2: N = Where: I = IA = I IA 40 amp (Current requirement previous calculation) from

8.0 amp/anode (Current rating per anode from table 3-3 [in coke breeze]) 61

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 N = 40 8 = 5 anodes

To allow a factor of safety, use 6 anodes 4) Calculate the required length of the backfill column. The maximum allowable spacing between anodes depends primarily on the resistivity of the backfill column (coke breeze). For tubular anodes of ½-in. diameter or greater, maximum spacing between anodes should not exceed four times the anode tube length. For this example, we will try the maximum allowable spacing of 13 ft (39.4 in. x 4/12 = 13.1 ft). The minimum length calculated as: of the backfill column is

6 anodes at 39.4 in. (3.3 ft) = Spacing between anode: 5 at 13 ft = Space above and below anode string* Total length 104.8 ft (use 105 ft)

19.8 ft 65.0 ft 20.0 ft

* Generally, the coke breeze column extends from 10 ft below the bottom anode to 10 ft above the top anode.

5)

Calculate (RA).

the

backfill column-to-earth resistance

This can be done from equation 1-4. Because several attempts may have to be made to obtain the required resistance-to-earth, the process is facilitated by using the curve in figure 2-9C. Typical hole diameters are 6 or 8 in.; a 6-in. diameter hole has been selected for this groundbed. From figure 2-9C for a 105 ft long coke breeze backfill column, the resistance to earth per 1000 ohm-cm is 0.325 ohm. In 2000 ohm-cm soil, the resistance is 0.325 x 2 = 0.65 ohm, which is below the design requirement defined in item 7 of paragraph 2-5a. 6) Determine total circuit resistance (RT) from equation 1-3:

62

diameter anodes and EPR/HY16 for 0. The anodes can be supplied through a single or dual feed. Actual depth will vary. column-to-earth resistance Wire resistance (ohms). b) Wire resistance (RW) from general equation 1-15: LW RMFT 1000 ft RW ' A deep anode groundbed is defined as one where the top of the backfill column is at least 50 ft below the surface of the earth. beginning at the rectifier. the depth to the top of the coke breeze backfill column was determined to be 100 ft. Structure-to-earth resistance (ohms). 63 .65 ohm resistance (RA) from Backfill step 5. The conductor provided with some tubular ceramic anodes is designated EPR/HY5O for one-in. These cables have an ethylenepropylene rubber inner insulation and a chlorosulphonated polyethylene outer jacket and are suitable for deep anode use if the insulation is protected with a chlorine-resistant sheath or shield. In this example.63-in. running down through the tubular anodes to the bottom anode and then back up adjacent to the anodes to the rectifier. diameter anodes. Resistance calculations are made as though there were three cables as noted below. column-to-earth RA = 0. depending on subsurface geology and the distance over which the current is expected to spread. The assembly is made on a single length of cable.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 RT = RA + RW + RC (Because the cathodic protection system uses a single deep anode groundbed RA = RN) Where: RA = RW RC a) = = Backfill (ohms). Dual feed is preferred to reduce both the resistance of the circuit and the chance of a failure due to a cable break.

014 ohm 1000 ft cable resistance (RWB) from Calculate bottom equation 1-15: Where: LWB = 205 ft (Cable length previous calculation) from 64 .1183 ohm = 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 EPR/HY50 cable has been chosen. The cable lengths have been calculated based on the following distances.10 ft = Calculate top equation 1-15: cable resistance (RWT) 100 ft 10 ft 205 ft 10 ft 20 ft 85 ft 120 ft 205 ft from RWT ' LWT RMFT 1000 ft Where: LWT RMFT RWT = = = 120 ft (Cable length previous calculation) from 0.1183 ohm (Resistance per 1000 lin ft of EPR/HY5O [table 3-6]) 120 ft x 0. which are illustrated in the deep groundbed examples shown in figures 2-12 and 2-13: From grade to top of backfill column From top of backfill column to top anode From grade to bottom of backfill column From bottom anode to bottom of backfill column From anode hole to rectifier 2 cables at 10 ft From top of anode assembly to bottom of anode assembly Total cable length from top anode feed to rectifier 10 ft + 100 ft + 10 ft = Total cable length from bottom feed to rectifier 10 ft + 205 ft .

1 = 0. RPOS ' L W RMFT 1000 ft x 1 85 x 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 RMFT RWB = = 0.66 = 113. as was done in example 2-2. so that total resistance (RT/B) is calculated from the law of parallel circuits: 1 RT/B 1 RT/B 1 RT/B RT/B = = 1 RWT 1 0.1183 ohm = 0.1183 ohm (Cable resistance per 1000 lin ft [same as above]) 205 ft x 0.43 + 41. 4 AWG HMWPE insulated cable.005 ohm Negative cable resistance: The rectifier is placed 25 ft from the connection to the piping.1183 ohm/ft 1 ' x 2 1000 ft 2 RPOS = 0.024 = 71. the resistance of this cable (RPOS) is taken as one half its total resistance.024 ohm 1000 ft These two cables are in parallel.009 ohm Since current dissipates along the portion of the cable to which the anodes are connected. Negative resistance is calculated from equation 1-15: LW RMFT 1000 ft RNEG ' Where: LW = 25 ft (Length of cable) 65 .014 + + 1 RWB 1 0. using No.

006 ohm RNEG = RNEG = Total wire resistance therefore is: RT/B + 0.670 ohm RT RT 7) Calculate rectifier voltage (VREC) from equation 1-17: VREC Where: I RT 120% = (I) (RT) (120%) = = = 40 amp (Current requirement from step 2. so structure-toearth resistance is negligible (RC = 0.670 ohm (Total circuit from previous calculation) Rectifier voltage safety factor resistance design capacity 66 .0).020 + 0.65 + 0. d) Calculate total circuit resistance equation 1-3: RT (RC) from = RA + RW + RC (Because the cathodic protection system uses a single deep anode groundbed RA = RN) = 0. 4 AWG HMWPE insulated cable [table A-6]) 25 x 0.254 1000 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 RMFT = 0. The piping is essentially bare.254 ohm (Resistance per 1000 lin ft of No. paragraph 2-5b) 0.020 ohm Structure-to-earth resistance (RC).009 + 0.006 RPOS RW + RW c) = RNEG = 0.0 = 0.005 + = 0.

Installation. 40 amp x 0.2 32.2 V 67 . A 36-V. Select rectifier. a rectifier can be chosen.670 ohm x 1.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 VREC = VREC = c. Based on the design requirement of 32. 50-amp unit is commercially available and is selected. d.2 V and 40 amp. Figures 2-12 and 2-13 show how the deep anode groundbed might look.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 68 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 69 .

Area above high water level is kept well coated.000 gal Diameter of bowl = 51 ft 6 in. Wire type ceramic anode will be used. Impressed current cathodic protection is designed for an elevated water tank (figure 2-14). Elevated Water Tank (Ice Is Expected). The tank is already built and current requirement tests have been done. riser pipe. Design cathodic protection anodes for a 15-year life. Wetted surfaces are uncoated. Tank is subject to freezing. High water depth = 35 ft Height of bowl above ground = 100 ft 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Water resistivity is 2000 ohm-cm. single phase.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 2-6. Design data. For riser pipes see section 2-7. Only the bowl will be protected because the riser pipe is less than 30 inches in diameter. 2) 10) The available electrical power is 120/240 V AC. The cathodic protection circuit resistance must not exceed 2 ohms. b. 11) Based on structure current requirement testing recently performed on this tank. a. so another type of support must be used. The anode cables could not tolerate this weight. This high current requirement indicates that the tank internal coating is severely deteriorated. 1) Tank is a pedestal supported spheroid with a 10-in. An internally supported hoop shaped wire anode system is selected. Anodes must not be suspended from the tank roof because heavy ice (up to 2 ft thick) covers the water surface during winter. Tank dimensions are: Capacity = 400. 70 . the current required for adequate cathodic protection is 25 amp. Computations.

it must first be checked to determine if the length is adequate for the desired anode life. Length of Anode Ring Wire Diameter (DR) For 0.75 ft 71 .5 ft x 40% = 20.5 x 50% = 25. For this example. found in table A-3. Therefore. This length is inadequate for the 0. we will increase the hoop diameter by 10 percent to 50 percent of the tank diameter: DR = 51.0625-in.4 ft. LB = 2) 25 0. use a hoop diameter equal to 40 percent of the tank bowl diameter: DR = 51.31 = 81 ft 25 ft 9 in. For an anode ring diameter of 20.5 ft 3) Select anode wire: Prior to calculating the circuit resistance of the anode wire ring. the circumference is 20. Calculate the desired diameter of the anode wire ring (DB). Experience shows that the diameter of the anode wire ring should be between 40 and 70 percent of the bowl diameter.5 ft. 81 ft of anode wire will be required to provide an anode life of 15 years.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 1) Calculate the length of wire in ft (LB) needed for the current required from a modification of equation 1-2: LB = where: I = I IA 25 amp (Current requirement from adequate cathodic protection from item 11 of paragraph 2-6a) Allowable amp per ft of anode wire (varies depending on desired anode life and diameter). diameter copper cored anode wire based on the current requirement of 25 amp. IA = Select 0.0625-in.0625 in.5 x B = 64. wire (which requires a minimum of 81 ft to meet the desired anode life).

32 ohms This is within the design limitation of 2.113 [ln 43.3 ft 4) Calculate the anode-to-water resistance (RA) for a 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 But this diameter provides an anode length that is still slightly less than that required for a 15-year mode life. Water depth = 35 ft.3 ft (Anode ring diameter from step 2 of paragraph 2-6b) 0.0625 in)(Diameter of anode determined in step 3 of paragraph 2-6b) 21 ft (Anode depth below water surface. cf.3 0.455 + ln 2. design data section 2-6a. Therefore.0016 (2000) 28.0016 p (1n % 1n ) DR DA H 2000 ohm-cm (Water resistivity from item 3 of paragraph 2-6a) 28.3 21 ] RA = 0.5 x 55% = 28.99) RA = 1. we will use a hoop diameter that is 55 percent of the bowl diameter: DE = 51. Where: p = DR = DA = H = The anode depth below the high water line is approximately 60 percent of the distance between the high water line and the bottom of the tank. Calculate RA: RA = 0.00521 + ln 2 x 28.68 + 0.3 [ln 8 x 28.00521 ft (0. 72 .0 ohms. diameter anode wire using equation 1-14: RA ' 8 DR 2 DR 0.) (Anode depth determined from the following calculations).0625-in.113 (10.70] RA = 0.

The negative wire is connected to the tank structure near the rectifier. the effective resistance is one half the single wire resistance [1. each wire will carry about one half of the current [12.51 ohm 1000 ft 0.51 ohm]) = = 115 ft x 0. (RN = RA since RA is equal to one continuous wire anode).5 amp]. Because the two wires are in parallel. The wires selected are No. so its resistance 73 .51 ohm (Effective wire resistance per 1000 lin ft. Header cable/wire resistance (RW) is solved using equation 1-15: LW RMFT RW ' 1000 ft Where: LW = 115 ft (Effective wire length. Anode-to-water resistance (RN) = 1.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 5) Determine the total circuit resistance (RT).02 ohms per 1000 lin ft/2 = 0. Since there are positive wires from the rectifier to each end of the anode circle. from equation 1-3: RT = RN + RW + RC Where: RN = RW = RC = a) Anode-to-water resistance Wire resistance Tank-to-water resistance. The positive wires from the rectifier to each end of the anode circle will be approximately 115 ft long) RMFT = 0. 10 AWG.06 ohm (RC) and negative b) RW RW c) Tank-to-water resistance circuit resistance.32 ohms from step 4 above.

06 + 0.4 V and 25 amp.or under-protection as the water level varies. = Rectifier voltage capacity design safety factor = 25 amp x 1. automatic potential control is specified. 74 .38 ohms resistance calculation) (Total from circuit previous 120% VREC VREC c. To prevent over.38 ohms This is well below the design requirement. 6) Calculate rectifier voltage (VREC) from equation 1-17: VREC = (I) (RT) (120%) Where: I RT = 25 amp (Current requirement from step 11.2 = 41.4 V Based on the design requirements of 41.00 = 1. paragraph 2-6a) = 1. Select rectifier.32 + 0. The tank-to-water potential measured by the controller should be free of IR drop error. a commercially available 48-V.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 is negligible. The reference electrodes should have a life of at least 5 years. The tank-to-water resistance is also negligible because the coating is very deteriorated. 28-amp unit is selected. d) Calculate RT: RT RT = 1. The tank-to-water potential is maintained by the controller through two permanent copper-copper sulfate reference electrodes suspended beneath the anode wire circle.38 ohms x 1.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 d. 75 . Installation. Figure 2-14 shows a typical installation while figure 2-14A provides a typical detail for a pressure entrance fitting for underwater power and reference cell wire penetrations.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 76 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 77 .

Elevated Water Tank (No Icing Will Occur). Calculated estimates are used. Design data. diameter) is also available in long lengths (typically 500 ft).ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 2-7.000 gal Diameter = 56 ft Tank height (from ground to bottom of bowl) = 115 ft Overall tank depth = 39 ft Vertical shell height = 11 ft High water level = 35 ft Riser pipe diameter = 5 ft 3) 4) 5) 6) Water resistivity is 4000 ohm-cm. above water will be coated. it is not possible to measure current requirements and other factors. the riser's current requirement is typically much higher than the bowl. diameter. Design for a current requirement of 2.0625-in.0 A per sq ft for the riser. This impressed current design is for a tank (figure 2-15) that has not been built. On the other hand. a.138in. These can be fabricated with factory-made wire connections but their overall length must be specified. Continuous wire will almost always be less expensive. 78 . 4-ft long by 0. Design for a 20-year life. Note: Segmented rods have an advantage in that they can be field assembled using factory-made connections. Segmented rod anodes will be used. single phase. Area 7) 8) 9) Electric power available will be 120/240 V AC. The tank water will not be subjected to freezing. Due to the velocity of the water in the riser. Tank dimensions will be: Capacity = 500. continuous wire (.5 A per sq ft for the bowl and 8. thus. 1) 2) Tank will be ellipsoidal on both top and bottom. All wetted inner surfaces will be uncoated.

Computations.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 b. 1) Find the area of wetted surface or tank bowl (A) shown in figure 2-16 from equation 2-1: 79 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 80 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 81 .

a) Find the appropriate wetted area of the top section (AT) using equation 2-2: AT = 2 B rh Where: r h = = 28 ft (Tank radius) 10 ft (Water height) 2 x 3.1416 × 28 × (14)2 % (28)2 AB = 3894 sq ft 2 × A × r × h2 % r2 (eq 2-3) 82 .1416 x 28 ft x 11 ft 1935 sq ft (eq 2-2) AC = A c) = Find the wetted area of the bottom section (AB) from equation 2-3: AB ' Where: r = 28 ft (Tank radius) h = 14 ft (Water height) AB ' 2 × 3.1416 x 28 ft x 10 ft 1759 sq ft (approximate). (eq 2-2) (eq 2-1) AT = A b) = Find the wetted area of the center section (AC) using equation 2-2: AC = 2 B rh r h = = 28 ft (Tank radius 11 ft (Water height) 2 x 3.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 A = AT + AC + AB Where: AT = Wetted area of the top section AC = Area of the center section AB = Area of the bottom section.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 d) Calculate (A): A A 2) = = 1759 sq ft + 1935 sq ft + 3894 sq ft 7588 sq ft

Find the riser pipe area (AR) using equation 2-2: AR = 2 B rR hR Where: rR = hR = AR = AR = 2.5 ft (Riser radius) 115 ft (Height of riser) 2 x 3.1416 x 2.5 ft x 115 ft 1806 sq ft (eq 2-2)

3)

Find the maximum design current for the tank bowl (IT) using equation 1-1: IT = (A) (I’) (1.0 - CE) Where: A = I’ = CE = IT = IT = 7588 sq ft (Total wetted area of tankbowl from step 1 of paragraph 2-7b) 2/5 mA/sq ft (Required current density from item 9 of paragraph 2-7a) 0.0 (Coating efficiency, wetted inner surfaces will be uncoated, from item 7 of paragraph 2-7a) 7588 sq ft x 2.5 mA/sq ft x (1.0 0.0). 18,970 mA; use 19.0 amp current for the riser

4)

Find the maximum design (IR),using equation 1-1:)

IR = (AR) (I’) (1.0 - CE) Where: AR = 1806 sq ft (Total surface area of riser pipe from step 2 of paragraph 2-7b)

83

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 I' = 8.0 mA/sq ft (Required current density for riser pipe from item 9 of paragraph 2-7a) 0.0 (Coating efficiency. Inner surfaces will be uncoated, from item 7 of paragraph 2-7a) 1806 sq ft x 8.0 mA/sq ft x (1.0 0.0). 14,448 mA; use 14.5 amp.

CE =

IR = IR = 5)

Select the number of anodes required for the bowl, to meet the anode system's 20-year design life using equation 1-2: N = Where: I = I IA 19 amp (Current determined in step 3) requirement

IA =

1 amp/anode (Current rating per anode from table 3-3 for 4-ft long by 0.138-in. diameter ceramic rods) 19 1 19 rod segments (4-ft long segment)

N N 6)

= =

Select the number of anodes required for the riser to meet the anode system's 20 year design life using equation 1-2: N = Where: I = IA = I IA 14.5 amp (Current determined in step 4) requirement

1 amp/anode (Current rating per anode from table 3-3 for 4 ft long by 0.138-in. diameter ceramic rods) 84

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 N N 7) = = 14.5 1 14.5; use 15 rod segments (4 ft. long)

Calculate the radius of the main anode circle (AR), using equation 2-4: AR ' D x N 2 (A % N) (eq 2-4)

Where: D = N =

56 ft (Tank diameter, from item 2 of paragraph 2-7a) 10 anode strings (assumed: it is necessary to assume a number of anode strings since there are two unknowns in this equation. 56 ft x 10 2 (3.1416 + 10) 560 ft 26.28 21.3 ft; use 22 ft for the main anode circle radius

AR = AR = AR =

85

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 86 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 87 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 8) Determine the center-to-center spacing (Cc) for the main anode strings. Number of anode strings utilized (from step 7) = 10. use 14 ft for center-tocenter spacing between anode strings. Due to the curvature of the tank bottom. the minimum rod length should be 22 ft (30 ft . 14 ft will be used (figure 2-19). Therefore. Using two rod segments per string will provide twenty anodes.8 ft. the main anode rods should extend from a distance of 4 ft above the tank bottom to within 4 ft of the HWL. CC = CC = b) The cord spacing is approximately the same as circumferential spacing. use equation 2-5: CC ' Where: AR = N = 2 A AR N (eq 2-5) 22 ft (Radius of main anode circle from previous calculation.4 ft = 22 ft). the total water depth at the location of the main anodes is approximately 30 ft. However. 9) Select main anode system Number of 4-ft long rod segments needed for the current requirement (from step 5) = 19. a) To find circumference spacing (CC). 10) Calculate the resistance of the main anodes to water (RN) using equation 1-13: 88 .4 ft .1416 x 22 ft 10 13. we will use six segments per anode with a total length of 24 ft. for rod type anode designs. 10 anode strings ([Assumed] Used in previous calculation) 2 x 3. Since these rods come in 4 ft lengths. which is sufficient for the current requirement.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 89 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 90 .

is (24/0.0052 × p × 1n [D/(2 AR x DE)] LB Where: p = D = 4000 ohm-cm (Water resistivity from item 3 of paragraph 2-7a) 56 ft (Tank diameter from item 2 of paragraph 2-7a) 22 ft (Radius of main anode circle from step 7 of paragraph 2-7b) 0. L = 24 ft and d = 0. The main anodes are spaced to provide approximately the same distance from the sides and the bottom of the tank. therefore. It can 91 b) .0115) = 2086. L/d.) In this case. the anode-to-water resistance needs to be adjusted by the fringe factor. No fringe factor correction is required.0115 ft. If the anode rod length-to-diameter ratio (L/d) is less than 100. The main anode will protect a length inward along the tank bottom equal to approximately the same spacing that the anode is spaced away from the tank wall.0052 x 4000 x ln(56/(44 x 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 RN ' 0.33 ohms. (See step 12 for a discussion of fringe factor. 11) Calculate the stub anode requirement (NS): a) The main anode radius has been calculated to be 22 ft.275 (Equivalent from figure 2-17) diameter factor AR = DE = LB = RN = RN = 24 ft (Length of each anode from step 9 of paragraph 2-7b) 0. The anode suspension arrangement for the tank being considered is shown in figure 2-20.275)) 24 1.

there will be about one half as many stub anodes (two ring design) as there are main anodes so we will plan for five 4ft long stub anodes on a 7-ft radius. the 4-ft long stub anodes are located on a radius one-fourth of the bowl radius.) This is based on the fact that the main anode string is 6 ft from the tank wall and that the anode will protect another 9 ft (1. therefore: 28 ft (tank radius) .5 ft)2] 3. use 512 sq ft as the area to be protected by the stub anodes.5 ft (riser radius). or 7 ft (28 ft x 0. Typically.1416 x 162.r12) Where: r1 = r2 = (eq 2-6) 2. The outside radius of the area to be protected by the stub anodes is approximately 13 ft and the inside radius is 2. Outside radius of the area to be protected by the stub anodes is. 92 .9 ft = 13 ft ASB = ASB = ASB = 3.) c) Find the current division between main and stub anodes.1416 [(13 ft)2 .5 x 6 ft in toward the center on the tank bottom due to arc shape of the tank bottom). The stub anodes are thus located on an 7-ft radius to place them in the center of the area to be protected. which is usually sufficient for tanks up to 1 million gal storage capacity.6 ft . stub anodes may not be required. (1) The area of tank bottom protected by stub anodes (As) is found by equation 2-6 (see figure 2-20): ASB = B (r22 .25 = 7 ft).3 sq ft.5 ft (Riser radius) 13 ft (Radius of protected segment. (Note: For smaller diameter tanks.75 511. For a two-ring anode design (main and one-stub anode ring).(2.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 be seen that stub anodes are required for this design.

the number required from equation 1-2: NS Where: I = IA = = I IA Check 1.3 1 1. Find the stub anode resistance from equation 1-13: RN ' 0. 1.3 amp = 17. use 2 .7 amp Select number of stub anodes (NS). diameter ceramic rods. 512 sq ft x 2.1. 12) Calculate the stub anodes-to-water resistance (RN).0 d) for the main anodes is. In step 11.0 amp (from step 3). therefore.3.4 ft anode rods N5 = NS = The five anodes selected to provide proper coverage over the bottom are more than sufficient for the desired anode life.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 (2) The current requirements for stub anodes is.138-in.3 amp (3) (4) The total current requirement for the bowl is 19.5 mA/sq ft = 1280 mA or 1. 19. The current therefore. amp .3 amp (Current requirement from previous calculation) 1 amp/anode current rating per anode from table 2-4 for 4-ft long by 0.0052 × p × 1n [D/(2 A R × DE)] LB 93 . five stub anodes were assumed.

obtain the fringe factor from figure 2-18. If L/d is less than 100. Multiply the calculated stub anode-to-water resistance by the fringe factor (F) to obtain the adjusted resistance (RADJ). their anode-to-water resistance may have to be adjusted by the fringe factor. Fringe factor from figure 2-18.0052 x 4000 x ln [56/(14 x 0.07 (Equivalent from figure 2-17) diameter factor AR = DE = LB = RN = RN = 4 ft (Length of each stub anode) 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Where: p = D = 4000 ohm-cm (Water resistivity from item 3 of paragraph 2-7a) 56 ft (Tank diameter from item 2 of paragraph 2-7a) 7 ft (Radius of stub anode circle from step lib of paragraph 2-7b) 0.03 ohms. L/d for the stub anodes is: L = 4 ft 94 . RADJ = RN x F Where: RN = F = (eq 2-7) Stub anode-to-water resistance from step 12. In this example.07)] 4 21. The fringe factor depends on the ratio of length-to-diameter (L/d). Because the stub anodes are short.

13 ohm RMFT = RW = 95 .33 ohms (from step 10) = 0.0115 = 348 In this case L/d is greater than 100. Tank-to-water resistances.640 ohm (Wire resistance per 1000 lin ft of No.640 ohm 1000 ft = 0.0115 ft L/d = 4 0. Header cable/wire resistance. 13) Determine total resistance of main and stub anodes (RT) from equation 1-3: RT = RN + RW + RC Where: RN = RW = RC = a) Anode-to-water resistance. 8 AWG HMWPE insulated wire) 200 ft x 0.13 ohm Header cable/wire resistance is calculated from equation 1-15: RW ' Where: LW LW RMFT 1000 ft = 200 ft (After reviewing figure 2-20. 50 no fringe factor correction is required.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 d = 0. it is estimated that 200 ft of wire will be required to connect the rectifier to the anode distribution wiring at the top of the tank) 0. Main anode rods: RN RW = 1.

75 = 14.13 + 0.0 ohm (negligible) RT = 21. The length of riser protected by one 4-ft long anode located 2. It is generally considered that each anode unit protects a length along the riser pipe equal to 1 ½ times the spacing of the anode from the riser pipe wall plus the length of the anode.5 amp (from step 4) Number of anode rods required from step 6 = 15 rod segments (4-ft long each) Select riser anode system. For proper current distribution in the riser pipe. 14) Design riser anode.5) + 4 = 7.75 ft Number of anode required for a 115-ft riser: N = 115 7.0 ohm (Resistance of the tank-towater and negative wire is negligible) b) Calculate the total resistance of the main anode rods circuit (RT): RT = 1.0 RT = 1.13 ohm (same as main anode header) RC = 0. a) b) c) Current requirement = 14. the anode units should not be placed too far apart.03 + 0.03 ohms (from step 12) RW = 0.5 x 1.5 ft from the riser wall is therefore: (2.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 RC = 0.0 RT = 21.16 ohms for stub anodes. c) Calculate the total resistance of the stub anode rods circuit (RT): Where: RN = 21.13 + 0.33 +0.46 ohms for main anodes.8 or 15 anodes 96 .

5 = 33. Such an assembly is possible since anode rod segments can be connected together with wire. Total anode length = 28 anodes x 4 ft/anode = 112 ft. d) Determine anode spacing.4 anodes Use 28 anode segments to keep the top segment within the riser. Weight of the anode string will be: 2. use twenty anodes.5 ft Space remaining = 115 . Such an anode has less flexibility than the disjointed cable connected string. the number of anodes required is: 115 ft .2 lb 97 .5 4 = 28. it is better to use one long anode.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 The number of anodes required for current distribution equals the number needed for the current requirement.76 ft or 1 ft 9 in. so there is less chance of its vibrating or being damaged by water turbulence.1.2 oz = 4.5 ft (distance from bottom) = 113. To allow for a factor of safety.5 = 81. there are nineteen spaces Spacing = 33.5 19 = 1. Since the anodes are spaced so close together.81.5 ft Space consumed by anodes = 20 anodes x 4 ft each = 80 ft Total space consumed = 80 + 1.5 ft 113.4 oz/anode x 28 anodes = 67. Total riser length = 115 ft Distance from bottom of riser to bottom of bottom anode = 1.5 ft For twenty anodes. For one long anode made of 4-ft segments screwed together.

15) Calculate the anode-to-water resistance of a single anode rod (RA). of a Anode-to-water resistance (RA) = 1. using equation 2-8: RA ' 0.0052 x 4000 x 1n (5.138 in) (Diameter of anode rod from item 6 of paragraph 2-7a) 112 ft (Length of anode rod from previous discussion) 0.0115 ft (0./0.0115) 112 1. Header cable/wire resistance (RN) from equation 1-15: 98 .0052 p 1n(D/DA) LB Where: p = D = DA = (eq 2-8) 4000 ohm-cm (Water resistivity from item 3 of paragraph 2-7a) 5 ft (Riser diameter from item 2 of paragraph 2-7a) 0. from equation 1-12: RT = RA + RW + RC Where: RA = RW = RC = a) b) Anode-to-water resistance single anode rod.13 ohms LB = RA = RA = 16) Determine the total circuit resistance (RT) of the riser anode.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Weight is not a factor in supporting the string. Wire resistance. Tank-to-water resistance.13 ohms from step 15 of paragraph 2-7b.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 RW ' Where: LW = LW RMFT 1000 ft 240 ft (After reviewing figure 2-20, it is estimated that 240 ft of wire will be required to connect the rectifier to the riser anode string) 0.640 ohm (Wire resistance per 1000 lin ft of No. 8 AWG HMWPE insulated wire) 240 ft x 0.640 ohm 1000 ft = 0.15 ohm

RMFT =

RW =

Since this anode string is very long, the metal of the anode can represent a significant resistance. Since the current discharges all along the anode, one half of its length is used in the resistance calculation. Manufacturer's data show the longitudinal resistance of a single 4-ft anode segment to be 0.053 ohm. Effective resistance of the string is: 0.053 ohm/anode x 28 anodes 2 = 0.74 ohm

This resistance is very high compared to the anode resistance (greater than 10 percent) as a result, too much current will discharge near the top of the anode and not enough current will be discharged near the bottom of the anode. Therefore, either a double-end feed method will have to be used or copper-cored rods must be used. (Note: This is usually only a problem in fresh water applications when the anode rod length is greater than 30 ft.) In this case, we will elect to use copper cored 1/8-in. diameter rods. Manufacturer's data show the longitudinal resistance of a single 4-ft long copper-cored rod of this diameter is 0.0034 ohm. Effective resistance of this string is therefore: 0.0034 ohm/anode x 28 anodes 2 99 = 0.048 ohm

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Thus, the copper cored anode longitudinal resistance is less than 10 percent of the anode-to-water resistance (0.048 ohm/1.13 ohm 0.043 = 4.3 percent) making this an acceptable riser anode design. c) d) Tank-to-water resistance (RC) circuit resistance = 0.0 ohm. and negative

Calculate total resistance of the riser circuit (RT): RT = 1.13 + 0.15 + 0.0 RT = 1.28 ohms for riser anode.

17) Calculate the rectifier voltage (VREC) and current: a) First, determine the voltage requirement (E) for each circuit using Ohm's Law: E = I RT Where: I = RT = Current requirement. Total circuit resistance.

Main Anodes: I = 17.7 amp (from step 11c). RT = 1.46 ohms (from step 13b). E = 17.7 Stub Anodes: I = RT = 1.3 amp (from step 11c). 21.16 ohms (from step 13c). x 1.46 = 25.8 V

E = 1.3 x 21.16 = 27.5 V Riser Anodes: I = RT = 14.5 amp (from step 4) 1.28 ohms (from step 16d)

E = 14.5 x 1.28 = 18.6 V

100

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 b) Summarize each circuit's resistance, requirement and voltage requirement: Circuit (amp) Main anodes Stub anodes Riser anodes Total current requirement c) 17.7 1.3 14.5 33.5 Current Resistance (ohm) 1.46 21.16 1.28 current

Voltage Required (V) 25.8 27.5 18.6

Determine the rectifier voltage (VREC) based on the largest circuit voltage requirement of 27.5 V, because voltage requirement varies for all three circuits. With a 120 percent safety factor as in equation 1-17, the rectifier voltage is calculated: 27.5 x (120%) = 33 V Total current required = 33.5 amp.

c.

Select rectifier 1) Rectifier capacity. A commercially available rectifier having a rated output of 40 V, 42 amp is selected. Because of the different circuit resistances, separate control of each circuit is required. This is best handled by a rectifier having three separate output circuits. 2) Automatic potential control To prevent over or under protection as the water level varies, automatic potential control is specified. The tank and riser-to-water potentials are maintained by the controller through permanent copper-copper sulfate reference electrodes suspended within the bowl and riser. The reference electrodes should have a life of at least 15 years. The automatic controller is located in the rectifier unit. The controller must be capable of sensing the potential accurately and free of IR (voltage) drop error. The control does this by turning off the 101

2-20. and 2-21 show typical details. Figures 2-19. d. e. 102 . Table 3-7 gives suggestions.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 rectifier for a fraction of a second. Installation details. The number of rings of anodes required varies with tank diameter. The measurement is then compared with a preset standard and the output adjusted accordingly. during which time the tank-to-water potential is measured. Guidelines for number of anode rings required.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 103 .

Design current density is 2. On-Grade Water Storage Reservoir (Ice Is Expected). 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Design cathodic protection anodes for a 15-year life since tank will be repainted at that time. Tank is subject to freezing and therefore a hoop type anode support system will be used. 1) Find the area of the tank to be protected (A). 10) Electrical power available is 120 V AC. single phase. Water resistivity is 2000 ohm-cm. Computations. Wire type ceramic anode will be used. Area above high water level will be kept well coated. As the tank is not heated.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 2-8.0 amp. a. Wetted surfaces are poorly coated. Coating is in poor condition and expected to deteriorate in the future. Tank dimensions are: Capacity = 250. 11) Current requirement at present for adequate cathodic protection is 9. A = 2 B r h + B r2 104 .5 A per sq ft of tank area to be protected.000 gal Diameter of bowl = 46 ft High water depth = 20 ft. b. Current requirement tests have been made. Impressed current cathodic protection is to be designed for the existing ground level water reservoir shown in figure 2-22. As coating is expected to deteriorate. 1) 2) 3) Tank is cylindrical with a flat bottom. Design data. design for bare tank. ice forms in the winter.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 105 .

assuming tank will eventually be essentially bare) Current required: I = I = 2. using a modification of equation 1-2: LB = Where: I = I IA from 12 amp (Current requirement previous calculation) 106 . use 12 amp Since the computed 12 amp is larger than the tested requirement of 9 amp.0 .380 IDA. 3) Calculate the length of anode wire in ft (LB) needed for the current required.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Where: r = h = A = A = A = 2) 23 ft (Tank radius paragraph 2-8a) from item 3 of 20 ft (High water depth from item 3 of paragraph 2-8a) 2 it x 23 x 20 + it x 232 2890 + 1662 4552 sq ft Compute the current requirement (I) using equation 1-11: I = (A)(I')(l.5 mA/sq ft (Required current from item 6 paragraph 2-8b) density 0. use the 12 amp as the required current.CE) Where: A = I' = CE = 4552 sq ft (Area of tank to be protected from previous calculation) 2.5 IDA/sq ft x 4552 sq ft 11.0 (Coating efficiency.

Experience shows that the diameter of the anode wire circle should be between 40 and 70 percent of the tank diameter for a cylindrical tank. LB = = 12 amp 0.0625 in) (Diameter of anode wire from step 3 of paragraph 2-8b) 107 .7 ft (Length of Wire for 15-Year Life) 12 ft 4 in (Minimum Diameter of Wire Circle) 4) Calculate the desired diameter of the anode wire circle (DR). we will try a hoop shape with a diameter equal to 60 percent of the bowl diameter: DR = 60% x 46 ft = 27.0052 ft (0. In this case. Based on selecting a wire anode of 0.0625-in. use 27 ft 6 in 5) Calculate the anode anode-to-water resistance (RA) from equation 1-14: RA ' 8 DR 2 DR 0.5 ft (Anode ring diameter from previous calculation) Assume 0. the minimum wire length and hoop diameter can be calculated: For 0.0625 in.6 ft. diameter.31 amp/ft 38.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 IA = Allowable amp per ft of anode wire (varies depending on desired anode life and diameter).0016 p (1n % 1n DR DA H Where: p = DR = DA = 2000 ohm-cm (Water resistivity from item 2 of paragraph 2-8a) 27. found in table A3.

307. from equation 1-3: RT = RN + RW + RC Where: RN = RA = Anode-to-water resistance.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 H = 12 ft (Anode depth below water surface) Anode depth has been determined from the following calculations: The distance from the bottom of the tank to the anode wire circle should be about 40 percent of the water depth.5 + in 2 x 27.5] 27. RC = Tank-to-water resistance. 108 .7 + ln 4. voltage required for this resistance.0016 x 2000 [in 8 x 27.6] = 0.42 = 17.42 ohms is acceptable. = 20 ft from item 3 of paragraph 20 ft x 40% = 8 ft Anode depth below water surface (H): H = 20 ft . from Ohm's Law is: E E = I x RA = 12 x 1. so the resistance of 1.42 ohm At a current requirement of 12 amp. Water depth 2-8a.65 + 1. RW = Header cable/wire resistance.531 = 1.2 V This is a reasonable voltage.5 0.1164 [ln 42.8 ft = 12 ft Calculate RA: RA RA RA RA = 0.1164 [10.0052 12 = 0. 6) Determine the total circuit resistance (RT).

02 ohms (From table 3-6.6 ft) x 1.02 ohms 1000 ft 0.2 ft but since only half the current is passing through this portion.037 + 0.00 RT = 1. 7) Calculate the rectifier voltage (VREC) from equation 117: 109 . Tank-to-water resistance is also negligible. based on selecting No. The length of this run is about 43. d) Calculate RT: RT = 1.457 ohms.2/2 = 21. its effective length is 43. The power feed then continues on around the hoop to the opposite side.6 ft. 10 AWG cables) (15 ft + 21. 1.42 ohms from step 5. use 1.42 + 0.037 ohm RMFT = RW = RW = c) Negative circuit and tank-to-water resistance (RC). Header cable/wire resistance (RW) from equation 1-15: RW ' Where: LW = LW RMFT 1000 ft The positive wire from the rectifier to the first splice is 15 ft long.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 a) b) Anode-to-water resistance = 1. so its resistance is negligible.5 ohms This is well below the design requirement. The negative wire is connected to the tank structure near the rectifier.

f. = = = = 12 amp (Current requirement from step 3) 1. The measurement is then compared with a present standard and the output adjusted accordingly. e. The controller does this by turning off the rectifier for a fraction of a second.6 V and 12 amp. a commercially available 24-V 16-amp unit is selected.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 VREC = (I) (RT) (120%) Where: I = RT 120% VREC VREC c. 110 .or under-protection as the water level varies. 12 amp x 1. The controller must be capable of sensing the potential accurately and must be free of IR (voltage) drop error. Loop anode attachment guidelines. Figures 2-22 and 2-23 show typical details. Installation details.5 ohms (Total circuit resistance from previous calculation) Rectifier voltage capacity design safety factor. d.2 21. Automatic potential control. automatic potential control is specified.5 ohms x 1. The reference electrodes should have a design life of at least 15 years. The tank and riser to water potential is maintained by the controller through permanent copper-copper sulfate reference electrodes suspended with the bowl and riser. The automatic controller is located in the rectifier unit.6 V Select rectifier. To prevent over. during which time the tank-to-water potential is measured. Based on the design requirements of 21.

111 . The number of supports varies with the tank diameter as recommended in table 3-8. or loop anode is supported from the sides of the tank by polyester rope as shown in figure 2-22.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 The wire circle.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 112 .

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 2-9. This often achieves better compaction than when tamping in vertical holes. This configuration is particularly helpful when using packaged ceramic anodes (figure 2-24) since earth backfill can be solidly tamped around them. Horizontal Anodes. Length of anode in ft. For further information. Depth of anode in ft. Diameter of anode in ft. The anodes can be laid on the bottom of a trench or excavation with compacted backfill. The design is undertaken in the same manner as described in Section 2-2 and 2-3.91 through 10. Electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm. see paragraphs 10. (Underground Applications) There are times when it is advantageous to install anode horizontally as shown in figure 2-24. equation 1-11 may be used to approximate total resistance: RA N p PF CC RN ' % 113 .93 of TM 5-811-7 (reference 10). For multiple anode installations. The single anode-to-earth resistance is calculated by using equation 2-11: (eq 2-11) Where: RA p L d h = = = = = Anode-to-electrolyte resistance in ohms. This equation is used to calculate the resistance of a single anode-to-earth.

ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 114 .

This is because the equation is based on vertical anodes. when equation 1-11 is applied to horizontal anodes. it yields approximate results. the results are sufficiently accurate for cathodic protection design.) As before. (The spacing between anodes is taken as the center-to-center distance between horizontal anode. However.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Where: RN = RA N p PF CC = = = = = Resistance-to-electrolyte of "N" number of anodes Resistance-to-electrolyte of a single horizontal anode Number of anodes Electrolyte resistivity in ohm-cm Paralleling factor (table 3-5) Spacing between anodes in ft. 115 .

The most important reason. These dimensions. anode in a 8-in. A typical example would be to backfill a 3-in.66 ft and L = 7. however. long coke breeze column. diameter by 84-in.0 ft.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 2-10. for backfilling these (as well as any other) prepackaged anode is that gas-blocking of the anodes will not occur. The coke breeze provides a porous media through which these gases can migrate and dissipate preventing the possibility of gas blocking. are then used in equation 2-8 or 2-10 to calculate resistance-to-earth. First. Gases (primarily oxygen) are released at the anode package surface. d = 0. by 60-in. The second advantage of using coke breeze backfill around packaged anodes is that coke breeze often results in better compaction then does soil. Although the calculations shown in Sections 2-2 and 2-3 assume that the packaged ceramic anodes will be buried directly in the earth. the accepted fail-safe design practice is to bury the packaged anode canister in a coke breeze backfill. 116 . Backfilling Packaged Anodes With Coke Breeze. it reduces anode-to-ground resistance. Backfilling the packaged anodes in coke breeze offers three advantages. This also reduces anode-to-ground resistance and improves anode performance. These can be entrapped by the soil at the anode package surface which can prevent further current discharge by the anode.

a 117 . temperature & oxygen content 6 to 42 3 to 25 1 to 6 ----. Air Force.5 5 to 1. August. Used with permission.5 1 3 to 1.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 SECTION 3 TABLES Table 3-1. 1962).S.5 to 3 to 6 to 15 0.5 to 3 to 3 to 15 Neutral soil Well—aerated neutral soil Wet soil Highly acidic soil Soil-supporting active sulfatereducing bacteria Heated soil Stationary freshwater Moving freshwater Moving freshwater containing dissolved oxygen Seawater (depending on velocity.4 2 2. 4.4 2 1 3 to 1. Range of current density requirements for cathodic protection of uncoated steel. (Newnes-Butterworths.-----5 3 to 15 to 10 Up to 42 5 to 25 Up to 5 -------5 to 15 5 to 25 ---------3 or more 1. b J. U. ch. Gerrard. London. 203.S.5 to 3 to 6 to 15 (mA/sq ft of bare steel) Gerrardb Othersc 0. 2. c Data based on the experience of other Professional Cathodic Protection engineers. vol.5 to 3 3 to 8 ---------- 5 to 50 Corrosion Control. p 11:65. “Practical Applications of Cathodic Protection. Air Force Manual (AFM) 88—9 (Headquarters. Environment Current density APM 88-9a 0. p.5 1.” Corrosion. 1976).

000 4. Typical Surface Area Per Linear Foot of Common Size Pipe.665 4.000 16.500 4.875 3.283 ___________ NOTE: Data on anodes shapes and sizes as well as recommended operating limits were obtained from the following manufacturers: APS—Materials Inc.621 0.625 10. 153 Walbrook Dayton.760 6.456 1.047 1. Oronzio De Nora S.050 1.752 0.814 3.275 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Table 3—2. P. OH 45405 (513) 278—6547 FAX: (513) 278—4352 Materials Protection Company P.497 0.000 18.000 20.220 0.734 2.434 0.000 22.178 1.916 1.000 0.) Sq Ft/Lin Ft ½ 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 ½ 2 2 ½ 3 3 ½ 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.375 2.563 6.189 4.000 24. Nominal Pipe Size Outside Diameter (in.O.712 5. TX 77253—3387 (713) 978—3925 FAX: (713) 978—3930 118 .750 12.315 1.258 2.338 3.500 5. Box 3387 Houston.660 1.344 0.750 14.625 8. it is recommended that the designer contact the companies prior to specifying a particular anode to determine what is currently available. Box 31354 Houston.840 1.A.O.900 2. TX 77231—1354 (713) 270—0952 FAX: (713) 988—0673 As their specifications change from time to time.236 5.

Underground Usage Wire and Rod Anodes (Packaged) Current Rating .4 amps 8.0 amps 4.6 amps 1.4 amps 4.4 3.7 2.0 amps 1.6 amps 7.0 amps amps 35 lbs.5 amps amps amps amps 3.8 amps x x x x 60" 60" 60" 96" 12 22 22 35 lbs.0 amps 3.0 amps amps amps amps 2.5 1.4 11.2 amps 1.5 10. 44 lbs.6 amps 4.7 5.0 amps Anode Element Dimension 1/8" x 2' 1/16" x 5' 1/16" x 5' 1/8" 1/8" 1/4" 1/8" x x x x 4' 4' 4' 6' 119 3/8" x 4' ½" x 4' 3/4" x 4' 1/8" x 6' 1/4" x 6' 1/8" x 8' 1/4" x 8' _________ *Heavy Duty Coating Tubular Anodes (in Coke Breeze) **Standard Coating Tubular Anodes (in Coke Breeze) ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 .6 amps 4.0 amps 2.7 amps 5.0 1.0 amps 4.0 amps 12.10 amps 1.8 amps 10.8 amps x 60" x 60" x 60" 22 lbs. 35 lbs.5 amps 3.4 1. 23 lbs 24 lbs 7.6 amps 0.8 3.1 amps 6.0 amps 6.2 4. lbs.5 4.2 2.3 amps amps amps amps 1.5 amps amps amps 1.8 amps 3. lbs.5 amps 0.0 amps amps amps 6.0 8. 2.0 amps 8.9 amps 1.5 2.0 1. 14 lbs.25 amps 1.7 amps 0.Amperes Package Size 2" 2" 3" 2" 3" 3" 3" 3" 3" 3" 3" x 96" 3" x 96" 3" x 120" 3" x 120" 44 lbs.7 amps 0. 1.25 amps 0. Dimensions and ratings of ceramic anodes.8 amps 7.0 2. 4.Table 3—3.2 2.6 amps 2.3 1.0 amps Weight 10-Year Design Life HDC* 15-Year Design Life HDC* SC** 20-Year Design Life HDC* SC** 0.2 amps amps 3.8 amps amps amps amps 1.3 amps 3.2 1.0 amps 1.0 15.7 x 30" x 72" x 72" 6 lbs. 5.0 amps 2. lbs.0 amps amps amps amps amps 5.3 amps 6.6 amps 0. 26 lbs.8 1.

Amp 20-Year Design Life 2.50 5.63" x 39.63" x 19.00 4.7" 0.7" 1" x 39.8" 0.4” Current Rating .00 1.4" 0.00 8.25 2. (Cont*d) Anode Element Dimension 1" x 9.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Table 3-3.63" x 9.8" 1" x 19.00 amp amp amp amp amp amp 120 .

60 5.85 0.67 Maximum Current/1-ft Length for 20—Year Design Life of .56 3.33 Maximum Current/1-ft Length for 20—Year Design Life of .04 2.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Table 3—3 (Cont*d). Rod 10 15 20 1.37 6.81 5.75 in. Dia.42 3.99 121 .85 1.5 in. Wire 10 15 20 0. Dia.39 0.27 4.26 0.0625 in.90 5.71 3.06 2.08 3.16 6.37 5.02 0.08 4.76 1. Rod 10 15 20 3.70 1. Rod 10 15 20 4. Dia.625 in.99 Maximum Current/1—ft Length for 20-Year Design Life of .62 0.74 3.04 1. Fresh and Seawater Usage Wire and Rod Anodes (Bare) Life (years) Fresh Water Brackish Water Seawater Maximum Current/1-ft Length for 20-Year Design Life of .12 5.12 6.125 in.63 2.11 4.79 0.37 1.95 8.66 Maximum Current Per 1-ft Length for 20—Year Design Life of . Dia. Rod 10 15 20 3. Rod 10 15 20 2.51 3.24 1.58 3. Rod or Wire 10 15 20 0.22 8.31 0.47 1.51 0.25 in.66 Maximum Current/1-ft Length for 20-Year Design Life of .16 2.74 0. Dia. Dia.95 3.58 1.52 7.85 7.88 0.325 in.39 3.47 2.09 2. Dia.52 1.41 2.74 10.44 0.39 0.79 1.10 4.33 Maximum Current/1-ft Length for 20—Year Design Life of .95 2.

0.50 5.7 in. x 19.4 in. x 19. 1 in. x 39. 1 in. x 19.7 in.4 in. 0. 4.63 in.00 2. x 39. x 19.7 in.63 in.4 in.4 in.63 in. 1 in.00 8.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Tubular Anodes (Bare) Seawater — Current in amp per anode (15—Year Design Life) 1 in. x 19.00 amp amp amp amp Current Density Limitations Wire and Rod Anode Anode Life Versus Maximum Current Density (ampere/sq ft) Life (years) 10 15 20 Coke 19 15 13 Fresh Water 24 19 16 Brackish Water 31 27 24 Seawater 52 45 41 _________________ * Anode packaged in coke breeze 122 . 0. 25 50 15 30 amp amp amp amp Sea Mud . x 39. x 39. 0.Current in amp per anode (20-Year Design Life) 1 in. x 39.4 in.7 in.63 in.7 in. 6 amp 12 amp Fresh Water — Current in amp per anode (20—Year Design Life) 1 in.

0 123 . 2. 0.3 Seawater 56 ** _________________ *Anode packaged in coke breeze **15-Year Design Life Disc Anodes (see figure 2-28) Size: Active Area: Weight: 5—in.00 Operating voltage .3 oz Fresh Water Salt Water 2.0 10. 2. diameter 22 sq in.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Tubular Anodes Anode Life Versus Maximum Current Density (ampere/sq ft) Life (years) 20 Coke 9.0 Current Capacity .84 20.20-year life (amp/anode)* 1.20-year life (V) Segmented Rod Anodes (see figure 2-2 9) Size: Active Area: Weight: 4—ft lenglth.0 5. diameter (Typical — Other sizes available) 19 sq in.5 10.0 lb Fresh Water Salt Water 0.3 Brackish Water 9.138 in.0 Current Capacity .20-year life (amp/anode) Operating voltage .20-year life (V) _______________ *Standard Coating 50.3 Fresh Water 9.

00237 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Table 3—4.0213 0.0201 0.00224 0.0207 L/d 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 K 0.0150 0.0261 0.00145 0. N 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 P 0.0158 0. Anode paralleling factors (P) for various numbers of anodes (N) installed in parallel.00114 0.0177 0.0224 0.00201 0.00283 0.0140 0.00168 0.00155 0.0194 0.00212 0.0266 0.00128 0.00135 0.0234 0.0186 0.00109 0.00182 N 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 P 0.0171 0.00121 0.00261 0.00289 0. L/d 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 K 0.00268 0.0242 0.0249 0.00252 0. Shape functions (K) for impressed current cathodic protection anodes where L is effective anode/backfill length and d is anode/backfill diameter.00104 124 .0165 0.0255 0.0270 Table 3-5.

97 81.0(2) 130 207 329 525 832 1320 1670 21. (2) With insulation: Overall diameter = 0.0423 0..1590 0.1160 0. Overall Diameter Not Incl.51 in.0(1) 87.4030 0. Resistance and other parameters for stranded copper conductors.50 204.1183 0.80 410.4190 0.0915 0.200 lb/1000 ft.05 128.90 75.10 2660 3350 4230 5320 6453 7930 1896 628 2.1260 0.90 518. * Data from Dow Chemical ** Data from Rome Cable Company 125 .1840 0.5750 0.1000 0.0200 0.06 50. weight — 610 lb/l000 ft.90 162..10 653.90 258.1460 0.2540 0.6400 0. weight .30 771.40 325.3658 15 20 30 45 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 255 150 50 Size ** AWG 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 MCM EPR/HY-50* EPR/HY-16* ___________ (1) With insulation: Overall diameter = 0.) 0.2320 0.1840(2) Approximate Maximum Weight Maximum Allowable Not Incl.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Table 3—6.88 in.5280 0.0726 0.68 20. Maximum DC Resistance DC Current Insulation Breaking at 20 EC Capacity (lb/M ft) Strength (lb)(ohms/M ft) (ampere) 12.2010 0.0500 0.2600 0. Insulation (in.3730(1) 0.6200 1.16 32.2920 0.3730 0.4700 0.3320 0.5800 1.0795 0.0631 0.

Tank Diameter (ft) 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 Number of rings of anodes Coated 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 Bare 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 Table 3—8. Tank Diameter (ft) 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 Number of Support Points 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 10 10 10 126 . suggested number of anode rings for various size tanks.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Table 3—7. Recommended number of support points for loop anode systems.

Adjusting factors for parallel anodes.061 0.397 0.166 0.142 0.114 0.265 0.538 0.152 0.218 0.101 0.127 0.075 0.074 0.091 0.107 0.056 Table 3—10.123 0.520 0.3 1.082 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 Table 3-9.652 0.182 0.116 0.292 0.131 0.103 0.098 0.143 0.340 0.095 0.085 0.202 0.091 0.090 0.384 0.107 0.6 0.059 0.222 0.295 0.079 0.276 0.231 0.122 0.109 0.160 0.079 0.332 0.5 1.086 0.094 0.218 0.226 0.138 0.387 0.361 0.0 0.418 0.180 0.152 0.094 0.184 0.192 0.224 0.75 5 3 2 1.106 0.530 0. No.132 0.0 0.070 Spacing in Feet 20 ft 25 ft 0.318 0.205 0.204 0.141 0.238 0.086 0.243 0.132 0.161 0.185 0.209 0.172 0.069 0.170 0.4 127 . Cathodic Protection System Recommended Allowable Circuit Resistance System Current (I) (amp) 5 10 20 30 40 60 80 Resistance (RT) in ohm Maximum Typical 10 6 3 2 1.144 0.204 0.586 0.289 0.155 0.124 0.192 0.089 — Anode 15 ft 0.576 0.153 0.304 0.267 0.194 0.114 0.099 0.423 0.079 0.253 0.100 0.145 0.252 0.117 0.169 0.122 0.551 0.249 0.063 0.460 0.139 0.131 0.385 0.073 0.311 0. of Anodes in Parallel 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 Adjusting Factors 5 ft 10 ft 0.333 0.466 0.065 0.112 0.171 0.102 0.158 0.262 0.067 0.

Adjusting factor for parallel anodes. Area protected by a single anode. Radius of anode circle (rod system). Tank diameter. Center-to-center spacing of anodes.99) Anode backfill diameter. Equivalent diameter factor for anodes in a circle (for submerged applications). Anode depth below water surface. Maximum current per anode for the anode's desired life. Total current requirement based on field test or assumed current density per square foot of bare steel. Diameter of anode wire or rod. Rectifier efficiency expressed in decimal form. Effective anode length. Area protected by stub anodes. ASB = CC CE d D DA DE DR E F = = = = = = = = = FADJ = H I = = I’ IA K L = = = = 128 . Diameter of anode ring (wire anode system). Shape function. Fringe factor (for submerged rod anodes). Required current density. Coating efficiency in decimal form (0 to 0.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 SECTION 4 IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES A AR AS = = = Total surface area to be protected.

Single anode wire hoop-to-electrolyte resistance. Number of anodes required to meet the desired life of a cathodic protection system. Anode depth below water surface in centimeters. Greek letter rho. Structure-to-electrolyte resistance. Expected anode life. Resistance per 1000 linear feet of cable/wire. Greek letter pi. 129 RADJ = RC RH RL = = = RMFT = RN = RNEG = Rs RT = = .14159. Bare anode length (used in submerged applications). Effective coating resistance. Header cable/wire length. Number of stub anodes required. or Electrolyte resistivity in ohm-centimeters. Single anode-to-electrolyte resistance. Multiple anodes to electrolyte resistance. Total circuit resistance. Single horizontal anode-to-electrolyte resistance. Average coating resistance in ohm-square feet. or 3. Resistance of the rectifier-to-structure negative (ground) cable. Paralleling factor.ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 LAVG = LB LF ln LW M N NS B PF p R RA = = = = = = = = = = = = Average lead wire length of anodes with individual lead wires run in parallel. Adjusted resistance. Natural or Napierian logarithm.

Rectifier voltage. VREC = 130 .ETL 1110-9-10(FR) 5 Jan 91 RN = Header cable/wire resistance.

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