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Power Dependency Formal power Coercive power Reward power Legitimate power Personal power Expert power Referent power Charismatic power
Summary Power is the capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B, so that B acts in accordance with A's wishes. Power may exist but not be used - it is a capacity or potential. Power is a function of dependency, in that B is dependent on A to the extent that A controls alternatives that B finds desirable. Power, as opposed to leadership, has focused on tactics for gaining compliance. Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals. Power does not require goal compatibility, but relies on dependency. While leadership focuses on the downward influence of one's followers, power also deals with lateral and upward influence. Power emanates from both formal and personal bases. Bases of formal power include coercive, reward, and legitimate power. Coercive power is dependent upon fear and rests on the application of sanctions, such as a threat to dismiss, suspend, or demote. Another formal base of power, reward power, is derived from the ability to distribute or withhold rewards, such as pay rates, raises, promotions, work shifts, or sales territories. Finally, legitimate power stems from one's position within the organization. Personal power comes from an individual's unique characteristics - it includes both expert and referent power. Expert power is the influence derived from expertise, special skill, or knowledge. Referent power is based on desirable personal traits and may be associated with celebrity status or personal charisma. Of the five bases of power, the two informal or personal sources (expert and referent power) are most effective. Both are positively related to employees' satisfaction with supervision, their organizational commitment, and their performance. The general dependency postulate states that the greater B's dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B. Dependency is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply. Dependency is increased when the resource controlled is important, scarce, and nonsubstitutable.
Coercive power b.2 Review
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Power tactics Legitimacy Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Exchange Personal appeals Ingratiation Pressure Coalitions Political skill Sexual harassment
Summary Power tactics are strategies that people may use to influence their bosses. Reward power c. One problem with sexual harassment is that it is a matter of perception. personal appeals. Importance b. Sexual harassment is related to the concept of power. and consultation tend to be the most effective. Dependency B. and coalitions. Contrasting leadership and power C. inspirational appeals. pressure. while pressure tends to be the least effective of the nine. consultation. exchange. While some behaviors indisputably constitute harassment. Factors creating dependency a. Definition of power 1. Scarcity c. Personal power a. Non substitutability
Section 14. Referent power D. Situational and cultural factors also affect the effectiveness of power tactics.Section Outline I. as sexual harassment is most likely to occur
. Expert power b. Sexual harassment is any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual's employment. Potential 2. coworkers. Formal power a. Research has identified nine distinct influence tactics: legitimacy. Evidence indicates that rational persuasion. rational persuasion. Legitimate power 2. Dependency 1. men and women continue to differ to some degree on what constitutes harassment. ingratiation. Power A. and employees. inspirational appeals. General dependency postulate 2. A recent review concluded that 58% of women report having experienced potentially harassing behaviors and 24% report having experienced harassment at work. Bases of power 1.
Legitimacy B. developing contacts outside the organization) and illegitimate political activities (sabotage. politics are more likely to occur when organizational resources are scarce. performance evaluation systems are unclear. Both individual and organizational factors contribute to political behavior. Pressure I. where formal power gives the supervisor the capacity to reward and coerce. trust is low.3 Review
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Political behavior Legitimate political behavior Illegitimate political behavior Politicking Defensive behaviors Impression management Self-promotion Ingratiation
Summary Political behavior consists of activities that are not required as part of one's formal role in the organization. The supervisor-employee dyad best characterizes an unequal power relationship. Rational persuasion C. roles are ambiguous. whistle blowing. Consultation E. Coalitions Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace
II. Perceptions of organizational politics are negatively related to job satisfaction. and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavior. Power Tactics A. Inspirational appeals D. possess an internal locus of control. and zero-sum performance evaluation systems are the norm. Section Outline I. Political behavior includes legitimate activities (complaining to one's supervisor. Employees who are high self-monitors. excessively adhering to rules. the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.
Section 14. Ingratiation H. Sexual harassment may also occur among coworkers and power tactics may include the withholding of information. Personal appeals G. or attempt to influence. obstructing organizational politics. increasing job anxiety and stress.when there is a large power differential. but that influence. perceived alternatives. and symbolic protests). Exchange F. bypassing the chain of command. An individual's investment in the organization. In terms of organizational factors. high pressures for performance exist. forming coalitions. Employees may be inclined to leave a job when politicking becomes too much to handle
. and expectations of success will influence the degree to which he or she will pursue illegitimate means of political action. self-serving senior managers are in charge.
molding their image to fit the situation. Finally. Impression management techniques include conformity. Impression management E. self-promotion appears to be particularly effective. when both politics and understanding are high. apologies.
. there are ethical concerns relating to political behavior. How do people respond to organizational politics? D. Individual factors 2. Organizational factors C. Legitimate political power 2. their performance may suffer. favors. excuses. performance is likely to increase. The perception of organizational politics varies somewhat from one country to another. flattery. Political behavior 1. Political processes in the workplace appear to be more accepted in countries with more unsettled political environments. Politics: Power in Action A. even they remain with the job. These relationships are moderated by the level of political awareness of the individual. when politics is consistently seen as a threat. In job interviews. Illegitimate political power B. Impression management is the process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them. Section Outline I. particularly for those in positions of power. Ethical considerations Global Issues Summary and Implications for Managers
II. However.and. High self-monitors are more likely to engage in impression management. Political behavior has the potential to cross generally accepted standards of equity and justice. a number of defensive behaviors may arise. and association. In fact. while ingratiation is more effective than self-promotion in the performance evaluation process. self-promotion. Factors contributing to political behavior 1. III.