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HI. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX.
THE NATURE OF CROWDS
CROWD-UNITS CROWD-CONTINUITY CROWD-INSTINCTS CROWD-COMPELLERS CROWD-EXPONENTS CROWD-REPRESENTATIVES CROWD-ORGANISATION GOVERNMENT LIBERTY MORALS RELIGION OVERCROWDS WAR: THE THE THE THE . ITS CAUSE AND CURE CONTEST OF IDEALS CROWD AT WAR VALUE OF THE CROWD JUST MEAN EDUCATION AND THE CROWD AND FREEDOM:
39 57 70 88 101 114 127 137 166 182 193 213 242 265 285 298 307 318
like Thoreau at Walden. "to
do his bit. esprit de corps determines his ideals and dictates his emotions. He swings like a pendulum from the one to the other. The crowd then is
nothing to him. and perhaps save his own soul. and passion it is to contribute his portion of vitality and power to the larger life of the whole group. He no longer resembles a sheep in a flock or a wolf in a pack. Individualism and socialism at-
At other times man adopts the attitude of complete detachment from his fellows.The
in Peace and War
CHAPTER I CROWDS
tract him alternately. go his own ways. He follows its routine. joy. or a
Theban hermit in his desert cave."
MAN neverwhether has decided a to grega be
animal or not. or a cell in living tissue: a mere unit whoselife. or as our brave soldiers say. He is like a soldier in a regiment. At times he mergeshimself completely in some group or crowd and loses his identity there like a sheep in a flock. but re3
. His aim is to be self-sufficing . Then he lives and moves and has his being in the crowd.to think his own thoughts. provide for his own needs.
all physically present together at one time and within one area.The
mains aloof. like some lonely condor circling in the blue. likewise isolated miles away in the depths of the air. it is to a large extent a chance assemblyof people who have never come together in their entirety before and will never assembleagain. but that their
behaviouris more or lessdisorderly. the link
betweenthem being thereforefelt to be of a transitory
kind. Yet there are many other crowds to which an individual may belong beside thesetwo. each individual conscious of the presence
of the next. A mob is the least admired form of such a
crowd. for the most part from quite reyet
stricted points of view. the term usually implying not merely the simultaneous presenceof a number of people. and his nearest fellow. with even the high Andes far beneath him. the Mob and the Public: the Mob
as any disorganised or weakly organised assemblageof people. the general body of inhabitants of a given area organised mostly by newspapers. Much has in recent years beenwritten about the Crowd
and its psychology. but differs from a public meeting in that it
assembles another andknows for end what it expats to
. A public meeting
is usually a well-behaved crowd. visible only to vision keen as his. A theatre audience is of like character in con-
To begin with there are what we ordinarily designateas crowds: that is to say assemblagesof human beings. but may at any time degenerateinto a mob. the Public as what we all know and need not define. as if the only Crowds to be considered were but two. and it may serve to clear the ground if we consider a few of them briefly.
Nations. each possessingconsciousness a separate existof ence and an internal unity. though it may include elements of varioiil races. vaguely definable though it be. The next geographically limited crowd-unit is the Nation. which. Them also.Kinds
experience.the Empire. Differentagainis a congregation on a and higherplaneboth of organisation purpose. is yet more vital and more self-conscious. for brevity and convenience' sake. Its life is
no doubt a very low form. in fact. it would defend its existence with vigour. because more highly organised. Some Empires are more self-consciousbecause more highly organised than others. but even one whose organisation is as rudimentary as that of Great Britain is capable of manifesting amazing crowdlife when attacked . yet forming collective bodies
which have a separate and conscious existence. its self-consciousness weak. than they can be. are the largest organised crowds that exist. It is an exception to find an individual citizen of any nation whose citizenship is not a strong element in his
. but if it realised that an attempt were being made by any other race to supplant it.a statement which to-day needs no emphasis.
More important for the purposes our presentscruof tiny arethe groupsof humanbeingsnot physicallyassembled together within sight and hearing of one another at any time and place. Sucharethe Race. and whilst a regimenton paradeis likewiseand obviouslyanother
and more elaborately organised assemblage.one may likewise
designate crowds. Even the English-speaking race. the as
Nation. really exists as a true crowd and knows that it has a certain separate life
apart from the other racesthat fill the world.
A geographical limitation is only one of the possible circumscriptions of a crowd. some more self-con-
scious than others.or rather contained within. for instance. It has
been wittily saidof the insularBriton that "every Englishman is an island. The inhabitants of a village or parish often feel themselves to be a separate crowd with a crowd-life
and consciousness of their own.The
individual characterand a determining factor in many of
the most important actions of his life. not for definition but for illustration. Further divisions and
sub-divisions might be catalogued. "Labour" nowadays has become keenly conscious of its separate crowd-life. The various professions have a crowd-life more or less selfconscious. form a group with a strong independent life and a high internal organisation. Classes are likewise crowds." The national character finds queer ways of expressing itself in some individuals.
Patriotism is the emotion of his
of the individual citizen. The body of lawyers is only a little less
. Justice Darling retorted that "every American is a continent. Medical practitioners. and their life is full of vigour. but all to some extent possessedof the elements of a separate being.
in the heart
Besides. though they are not geographically defined. The most notable organised crowds within a nation are political parties.but lesskeenly. more consciously are those of a city or town." Mr. The people of a county are a crowd. Every citizen of a nation carries the national type about with him. "Society" is likewise thus conscious. but in almost all it is at any rate present in the
form called Patriotism. a nation are many smaller crowds geographically defined. but let the foregoing
are no less alive. which is constructed. in thought. and so forth. the Evangelicals. and parishes have a vitality of their own which is not the same as that of a given congregation at any moment assembledfor worship.with the body of which he for the time being forms a part. colleges. and other professions congregate apart in a descending
order of vitality. It is possible or even probable that two rat-catchers. often highly organised and keenly conscious of their separate existence. or independence. and above all things in emotion. Clubs and Societies are crowds. drilled. may lose all individual will. The sub-divisions of a Church. might feel themselves linked by a bond which would stand some slight strain if the occasion arose-to put it to the test. Ecclesiastical and religious bodies of all kinds are crowds. sometimes highly organised and keenly self-conscious. More vigorous than most in their crowdconsciousness are the educational organisations: schools. These and the like aggregations of men possess the
.in what we call esprit de corps. fear.and become one in act. sometimes loosely organised and scarcely conscious at all.Kinds
vigorousin its group-lifethan the body of medicalmen. as far as can possibly be attained. and in every detail of life ordained to the end that the unit may be completely merged in the whole and.universities. feeling. otherwise strangers. the High Churchmen. the actual members of which in the heyday of their career are perhaps more sensible of their membership of the collective body to which they belong than of any other circumstance of their existence. Most highly organised of all is a disciplined regiment of soldiers (not merely when on parade).
So the word "Mob" implies contempt and hatred of the thing. sympathy for the sheep. and rapidly degenerate into mobs. It will be found that the measure of those grades depends not so much on the degree of organisation of the crowd as on the ideal by which it
is animated.a flock of sheep. We
speak of a "hive of industry.The
crowd quality. collected by any
. someare regarded superior as to
others. a couple of vehicles collide and a more interested crowd collects. are altogether disorganised. and contempt for the wolves. These chance assemblages. That fact is so well realised that the police have been trained in every country as rudimentary crowd-organisers. on the spur of the mo-
ment. Such crowds. It is with humancrowdsas with groupsof animals. each about his own business." thereby indicating admiration of
the bees. for instance. but they are not a crowd until something occurs to arrest their common attention and inspire in them a common emotion. and for other groups we have different grades of esteem. what we think of a hive of
A multitude of peoplewalking in the street."
of a "pack of fools. till the police take them in hand. pack of wolves. and do the work almost as well as it can be done.is shownby the a way we usethe sameterms when applied to men. Any sudden danger or startling event suffices to bring them into the first rudimentary crowd-relation with one another. a house catches fire and the neighbourhood is filled with an excited throng. A horse falls and people gather round." of a Parson and his "flock. but we regardthem with differentdegrees of admirationor sympathy.may form a densemass of humanity.
A wise and sym*'pathetic bandmaster . for in-
accident.. and this is what one of them said
to a "Daily Mail"
reporter. says Mr. not merely for bringing a crowd together but for kindling the emotion that provides it at once with a rudimentary structure and a common emotion. Years ago Moody
and Sankeymade musican important part of their spectacular assemblies. however. something is sure to occur that will kindle their
passions. They are sureto be warmly sympathetic. . There is no present need to elaborate what every one knows.
"There has never been a
. can lift a battalion out of "depression."
Religious revivalists long ago realised the value of music as an aid to their propaganda. Kipling. Later came Torrey and Alexander. Hence the efficiency of a band as a military recruiting agency and a stimulus to the regiment when formed. Soon they
become vocal. They feel as one and move as one so long as the music holds them. they
will cheer the smallest act of courage. . "revives memories and quickens " associations.. they will also be
profoundlysentimental. The mere event excites them. it opens and unites the hearts of men more "surely than any other appeal . is shownfor example women as if
or children are imperilled. A band. By shouting they further excite one
In the case of a fire.
stance. and steady and recall
"it to itself in times of almost unendurable strain. long remain passive if events
of interest confront them. do not. Men marching behind a band in rhythmic step are already beginning to crystallize into an integral group.
likewise from America. A band of music is the easiest of all agencies. cheer its sickness.
They becomethe centre of a continually widening assembly. a few folk stop out of idle curiosity rather to look at him than to listen.The
"great revival without music. Others are
thereby attracted to join them. Presently they become interested. before long they are taken captive. Half an hour "of bright revival hymns kneads the congregation into "one body. A man with an oratorical gift can swiftly convert a chance assemblageinto a crowd. It is possible to end the musical part of the "service too early. . and they
lose the listless attitude of the mere loafer. The orator mesmer10
. At first he is like a fallen cab-horse. . The oldest and still the most powerful crowd-former is the orator. The speaker begins to take hold of them. At first the speaker's ideas are nothing to them. he draws forth their applause. We see this accomplished not infrequently in the public streets. A speaker stands at some corner and begins his harangue. . that in fact is the purpose for which oratory exists. He makes them laugh. A swinging hymn "makes them forget all their troubles. and it is always my aim to get every "member of the congregation to sing before the hymns "are finished. He says something that catches their attention. Unanimous congregational singing is
"of the utmost value in a revival. Hymns prepare the "ground for the exhortation of the preacher. and in no state of mind to derive the fullest bene-
"fit from spoken lessonsand advice. It was formed in the presence of crowds and developed by the reaction of crowd and speaker on one another." The arts of crowd-
management could scarcely be better illustrated. Business "men come to the meetings full of their worries and
describing the feats of "Billy" Sunday. 24." The audiences at such meetings are brought together as a crowd that watches a fire is formed. Evangelistic revival meetings present these phenomena in a well-recognised form. "Never in nearly twenty years of evangelism has he "accomplished such results as these in a single day. for instance. 1915. the old Republican boss of Camden. and causes them to provide the very sight they came to
see. and in the heat of that emotion they may
be led to act in a remarkable manner. The spell-binder gets hold of them. They become a group with an idea.Kinds
ises rather than convinces them. walked up
"the sawdust-covered aisles of the Tabernacle. as the individuals
composing the group could never have been brought to act had they been reasoned with. took Billy Sunday by the hand "and told him that they accepted Christ as their Saviour. at Nine-
"teenth and Vine Streets. is a cutting from a recent American newspaper. Jan. by the mere desire to be present at an event. Five "hundred and twenty-three were converted at the night "service after the most spectacular platform performance "to which the evangelist has treated Philadelphia since "his arrival in the city. "All records for a day's quota of trail-hitters were broken "to-day when 1. "Philadelphia. by ever so many separate archangels.445 men. just as a mesmerist attracts examples from his audience. one by one. They shout applause and their enthusiasm is kindled.
It is sometimes easy to note the moment when a chance
. They come to see something happen. Here. among them ex-Sheriff David "Baird.
A great dealof art may be employed the managers by of a public assembly induce. as we shall hereaftersee. however
created.in the peoplepresent.The
assembly becomes integralcrowd. Prices are as often determined by mere crowd-enthusiasm as by the cold value of the things disposedof. An atmosphere of excitement and speculation was created. they suddenly became a crowd. but for some obscure reason the room woke up. and the number was knocked down for £5£. when its despisedpredecessorhad fetched but thirty shillings. Several numbers had been thus sold and the next in order was offered. It was the first day out. I myself was present a good
many yearsagoin the smoking-room an Atlantic liner. and the smoking-room assemblage had scarcely begun to
be conscious of itself. of
when the usual daily auction-salewas taking place of the
numbersdrawnfor the pool on the count of miles run in
the current twenty-four hours. There was nothing specialin the nature of the chances make it more desirto able than its predecessors. A wave of emotion swept through the men present. Frequenters of other kinds of auctions could recall similar experiences.possessed a coman by mon emotionwhichswamps obliteratesthe individual and
mind. Somethingwas said by the auctioneer that raised a laugh. beingafterwards valuableasset a movement. bids of from £1 to ££ were
obtained with difficulty.leaving permanent
.the to kind of suddenoverwhelming enthusiasm which large of
bodies of men are capable. Bids followed one another in rapid succession. such enthusiasm. The auctioneer was not very
eloquentand sales wereslow. Thus. some repartee came from the room. a to and often.
and. Senator "Tillman has a voice like a wagon running over a corduroy road. 1900." said the reporter of1the New York "Sun.
of course. and nominated Mr. which assembledin Kansas City in the early days of July. The Platform to be thus presented was that
uponwhich the party wereto appealto the country. Let country par excellence crowds.Kinds
me cite an illustration
the United States the
tracesupon the individualswho wereaffectedby it. Perhaps the most of
remarkable American crowds present at one time in the flesh. Senator James K." "a very sturdy voice himself.
"Senator Jones has. Bryan.it was the purpose of such a document to arouse
enthusiasm. He made every "possible point tell. whose doings are carefully put on record. Jones of Arkansas was
Chairman of the Committee and should in the ordinary course have read the report to the Convention. Such a convention was that of the Democratic Party. but he announced that Senator "Ben Tillman would read the committee's report. When Senator Tillman cameto the words "that 'Imperialism is the paramount issue of this campaign/ "there were only a few cheers. I select it becauseI was interested at the time in its behaviour and preserved the records which now lie before me. Senator Tillman looked up sur13
. The moment came when the report of the Committee on Platform was to be read. "He seemed to have committed that report to memory. are the
great Conventions the two chiefpolitical parties.which of
assembleonce every four years to nominate a candidate for the Presidency and perform various other functions. I select merely
one incident therefrom to illustrate how a crowd's en-
thusiasm may be organised by wily leaders. He "certainly delivered it in splendid fashion.
One of them read:
" 'Lincoln abolished slaveryunderthe flag. of an empire never.' Even then there was
"no demonstration.' The band.
" Martin swunghis head and his arms back towards Senator "Tillman upon the platform. *I say again that Im" 'perialism is the paramount issueof this campaign. one and inseparable.
"were loaded with American flags.' "Then came one of the greatest scenesthat this convention "has had. They quietly distributed
"these flagsamongthe delegates the audience. Martin waved his arms up at the band and it quickly came "out with the 'Star Spangled Banner. The ushersand messengers were quickly
in Peace and War
Something amiss. A great flag which was hung from the steeltrusses "of the convention hall just over the platform was dropped. Senator Tillman turned full face to the
"audience and roared with all his might. There was a hurried confabulation and Mr.Hejumped down fromhisperch theplatform on
"on to the gangway running beforethe platform and danced "about in anger. He weighs
"300pounds. Then he looked at Sergeant-at-Arms John S. Thenhe turnedto Chairman Richardson thento and
"Senator Jones. Martin waved his arms in his excitement. Half a
"dozen banners were waved in the air.The Crowd
"Martin. McKinley restored
. came out again with the 'Star "' SpangledBanner. The delegates grasped
"their standards and swung them over their heads. the flag of the "' republic forever. "This was the legend upon it: 'The Constitution and the "' flag. now and forever.
"The audience roaredwith enthusiasm. In a jiffy and
"Mr. Something was had gonewrong.' The delegatesand the audience unfolded "their flags. "which had halted a moment. Upon all the little flags which the hundreds of mes"sengers and ushers had distributed were printed the exact "words on the big flag which had beenlet down from the trusses. The messengers and ushers
"darted here and there among the delegatesand a hundred of
"other messengers ushers and rushedup into the galleries.
"' tis of Thee. ki. can be formed in a hundred other ways than by mere physical presence together at one time and place. The demonstration lasted twelve minutes. hi. and the various modern inventions and developments we are all familiar with. as they have also made the gathering together of an actual assembly far more easy to accomplish than it was
when the best form What of advertisement but was the town-crier. from time immemorial has "been set to the music of 'God Save the Queen/ It was a wild
"scene. hi. The flags.* Ainid the
"tumultuous cheers the band was heard playing 'There'll Be a "' Hot Time in the Old Town to-night/ The delegatesbeganto
"carry their standardsaround the hall. Many "who sawit will never forget it. The cheers were riotous. ki. as all know. werewaving. It had been worked up by the managers of this "convention. the telegraph. have made crowd-formation possible without personal contact. 'Hi. and the band "played America's greatest national anthem. but in the main it is not by meetings but by the printed word that the movement is spread and
. It was a pathetic scene to some who had observed "closely the fact that this was a cut-and-dried affair. which had "come almost near failure. in the sense in which I am employing the word."
A crowd.thousands "upon thousands them. hi. Lincoln. Id!' The Boer
"flag wasbrought out and toted aroundthe hall.Kinds
" 'it/ Another read: 'What would Christ do in the Philippines?' "And still another read: 'No man is good enough to govern
"' another man without his consent. High above them could "be heard the rebel yell. A. *My Country. Printing.' which. of a crowd? is a "movement" the formation
Public meetings and the like agencies may be employed to initiate it.and it wasa vast scene of
"of colour. It was not a spontaneous outburst "for the flag.
would capture his life into that of their larger composite. associations. in fact. every magazine. A newspaperreader is consciousof his crowd as he reads. crowd-formation and crowd-direction." The purpose of journalism is. just as individual ears hear the voice of an orator. and though journals incidentally serve the needsof individuals in many minor ways.The
the crowd of its adherents enlisted.
nor does a reader read them in the same attitude of mind
as when he reads a private letter. they do not
exist for the individual
their aim to direct. Clubs. The story is told how an old journalist said to a young one. come unto us and accomplish together some "heart's desire. and the habitual readers of a newspaper but a crowd? Newspapers indeed are read by individuals. would make of his voice a trumpet for their own creed or aspiration.organisations for every purpose cease-
lessly call upon each to join.
but for some crowd which it is
Religionhasbeena potent crowd-forming agency. What indeed are newspapersbut crowd-formers. innumerable agencies intrude upon the individual and would swallow him up. "Come unto us and we "with you will be potent. Nowadays we are all of us crowd-assailed at any hour and in all places." Every newspaper. A newspaperis as much conceived and produced for a crowd as is any orator's harangue. The
. and it is as such that he is addressed
and as such that he reads. "Remember when you are writing for your "paper that you are like a man shouting from a fourth"floor window to a crowd passing in the street. comeunto us and share our
"emotion. he is a Tory or a
Liberal or whatnot. but they are not addressedto individuals.
it is certain that they are a powerful body. and within a hundred years after the Plight
it had welded its adherents into a victorious host. and though they have not gone forth conquering and to conquer. had it not been for the power of organising resistance quickly and over a large area. Mrs. North Africa. Egypt. After the election of 1905.
sweeping forth from the sparsely-peopled deserts of Arabia. Persia. for Islam and Teutonism have much in common. and Spain. which. Kingsley. we might have witnessed at the present moment a German repetition of the successesof conquering Islam. The philosophy of the notorious Treitschke within the lifetime of a generation has remade the German people on a new model and threatened the whole basis of European civilisation. Who could have supposed when Carlyle. A new political theory is scarcelylessefficient as a crowdformer. when numerous Labour Members obtained entry
. had conquered and held Syria.Kinds
most remarkable example in the world's history is the
religion of Islam. It was born in the heart and brain of
Mahommed. are already counted by millions. Ruskin. Eddy. In our own day the followers of that quaint prophetess. provided by modern means of intercourse and communication. The German-Turkish alliance is not so surprising as seemsto have been generally thought. and a few others began their onslaught upon the "Condition of England" that within little more than half a century the axis of politics would have been shifted so completely as it has been in consequenceof the new ideas to which they gave expression? The Labour Party in England to-day perhaps owes more to the writings of Ruskin than to any other impulse. Mesopotamia.
vivisection. but we can at least imagine a strong probability
. Orators provide the nucleus. His awk-
ward flint weapons wereusefulonly at arm's length. Asser-
tions on unrecorded happenings so remote a past are in vain. and so forth. The temperance movement has produced vigorous crowds. typhoidinnoculation. Probably each family supplied its own needs and
lived apart.but the crowds they form and by which they exist are mainly collected by means of the newspaper press. Palaeolithic man was a hunter or a root digger. Manyreplied their effect that reading mainlyconfined newspapers. These and other
like movements avail themselves of public meetings for their propaganda. but a family is not a crowd and possesses
none of the qualities and peculiarities of a crowd. He
must have lain in wait for his prey.
Philanthropic movements form large and efficient can
crowds." when palaeolithic man alone foreshadowed the human race
which was to come. as was seen for example in the anti-slavery agitation.The Crowd
in Peace and War
into the House of Commons. but it is the press that builds up the crowd and cements its organisation. silently in secret places. a large was to but proportion stated theyhadreadRuskin's also that "Time
and Tide" and dated much of their activity from that
reading. a newspaperhad the good
ideato inquireof them what booksreadby them had had
any considerable onthem. it is safe to assert that there were no
crowds or only very small and rudimentary ones.
In that "dark backward and abysm of time. and so on a smaller scalehave such agitations as those which protest against vaccination.
had invented agriculture. When Pickwick was being carried to the magistrate's house. and finding that they were cheering "away." being of course entirely ignorant of his master's predicament or the cause of the cheering. very much to their own satisfaction.Kinds
that individualism was never more pronounced than in the earliest stages of human development. which has lasted
down to the present day and will continue until civilisation atrophies. Neolithic man lived of
in communities. between man the
individual and man the crowd-unit. Sam Weller "stepped aside to see "the crowd pass. The ordinary man is as inevitably drawn toward a crowd as a needle toward a magnet. forthwith "began to cheer too. The palaeolithic family was replaced by the neolithic tribe. we come to neolithic man we are evi-
dently in the presence crowds. however. the Tree of Knowledge which caused them to till the ground turned them into social units. and the larger
. accompanied by a shouting crowd.others will run to join them.
If Adam and Eve before the Fall were palaeolithic individuals. Thenceforward the internal struggle went on. so that a profound truth underlies the legend of the birth of sin accompanying the introduction of agriculture in consequenceof eating the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. with all his might and main. When. The moment a number of peopleare seen to be assembling in a street for any or no visible reason. An important element in the forces that promote crowdformation is the attractiveness of a crowd for the indi-
vidual. and had sub-
jugated a certain number of domestic animals. It is in this rivalry between individual instincts and social claims that sin finds its origin.
the crowd the more powerful the attraction it exercises. but the larger invests its memberswith a greater corporate pride. by I cut from an American newspaper (the "Tribune. Why is its do newspapers announce extent of their circulation? the
It is because their audience is a crowd and attracts others
to itself the more powerfully the larger it is said to be."' a point that would not have had
. of such spreading. an element of vitality possessed all crowds. if he had not "chosen some particularly childish stories with which to "illustrate his text. until the "climax came. A large school. in fact. and he had a lisp in his voice "that the audience tried politely to forget. The smaller body may even provide a better education. The preacher. Although "he did not have a particularly strong sermon. it would "have 'passed by.' in campus language. Attractiveness is. It illustrates the ease with which a crowd of lads accustomed
to a common life can be moved to act as a unit by even a slight common impulse. Enthusiasm has a tendency to spread and a crowd is the agency. a large university. The knowledgethat a movement growingtendsto increase growth. a larger. "was not of the sturdy sort that college men "take to at the first glance. is more attractive to most students than a small one.
The mere expectationthat any announced meetingwill be large tends to make it so.crowd the result. He finished his sermon with the point "that 'weak human beings have to be assisted to climb "'the "ladder of life. During the rendition of these the "undergraduates grew more and more restless." I believe) an excellent story about the behaviour on a certain occasionof the boys in a school chapel. on the occasion in question.
got . for instance. 'And Willie . half audibly at first. 'had to climb the stairs to get
a paperof pinsfor mamma. seeing that individuals and crowds act on quite different motives.'" "The undergraduates squirmed in their seats at this."' 'Four . "'"Now.Kinds
"the effect on the audience that it did had it not been
"accompanied the illustration. Is a Jury.
"' Willie/ said the preacher. " count the steps. mammawasat the botand
"'tom of the stairs to encourage him." and Willie counted "One -two -
'" "three. "and looked at each other out of the corners of their eyes. "Now.the "pins!"'
What is the minimum number of individuals that can
form a crowd? It is not an unimportant question. individuals being directed in the main by reason. crowds by emotion. "you go up the stairs and mamma will "'count for you. as the spirit "of the thing took them. for they lie at the root of
. although decidedly aghast at the com"motion he had caused.nine "'-ten!' at the end of which the preacher in unison with "the entire chapel said. and then. This illustration was by
"of a boy whom the preacher named "Willie/ which was
"enoughto focusall the eyesin the chapelon him at once. "Eight . had to continue. louder and louder-"Four "'five six!' In less time than it takes to tell it the
"twelve hundred undergraduates were counting with the "preacher. Willie/' "'said mamma. Willie/' said mamma. and beganto count with "the preacher. One
<""-two -three. who. a crowd or a mere group of individuals? Is a Cabinet a crowd? These are questions of importance.five' The students had caught "Willie's enthusiasm by this time.
modern systems of law and government. Three or less are not a party at all." said QueenVictoria. Gladstone. An essential quality of an embodied crowd I take to be that its numbers are too large for general conversation to be possible. or should
be. as we shall hereafter note. the power and right of an individual to break in upon another's monologue. It is possible for each of a party of nine to retain a definite consciousness the separatepersonaliof
ties and characters of the other eight. Its life is gone the moment one individual takes the floor and silencesthe rest. "as though I were a public meeting. Where
more than nine people are assembledabout a table the danger of crowd-formation arises. Such was the late Mr. The essence of con-
versation is interruption. Conversation is essentially a process of give and take. and to address his
remarks to each with a personal quality in what he says. the moment the speaker loses that consciousness of each person's individuality he will find himself either talking to his neighbour privately or addressingthe table as if it were a meeting. For him a single individual might seemto be a crowd. As soon as such a group comes under the
control of an orator it is a crowd. but Queen Victoria was the
last person to realise this. "He talks to me. Some torrential talkers treat their audience always as if it were an assemblage. Experience proves that a Jury of twelve does in fact
. I believe it was the poet Rogers who wittily said that the number at a dinner party should
be less than the Muses and more than the Graces. but few will be able to retain such consciousness a larger of number." As a matter of fact a sovereignis a kind of crowd.
the inner Cabinet. No one could at the same time get at the plans and show to the rest what he objected to. imposed himself upon the confused welter of
. and that meeting was the ineptest I have ever attended. can never in fact
be crowds. though the small governing committees of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries out of which it has beendeveloped were not. whose busi-
ness it was to decide a question of taste in relation to a proposed public building. of whose
structure and doings the public is fortunately so little informed. Hence in our day has arisen that new and quite
unconstitutional feature. if they are. Now and again a sturdy individualist may turn up
amongstthe dozenand the result be disagreement. but having a strong view
as to what should be done in the interest
of his own de-
partment. I was once a member of a Committee of some two or three score members. A modern English Cabinet is likewise certainly a crowd. As a rule the general feeling among a dozen men suffices to carry them all along together to a common conclusion. Executive Committees. they ceaseto be executive. and it is probable that that number has
beenin process time arrived at because is the miniof it
mum number that can be normally relied upon so to act. A large committee is of necessity inefficient unless it in practice delegates its functions to a single individual and makes him despotic.Kinds
act as a crowd. whether for the government of a nation or of a cricket club. or. After
two or three hours of wild discussion one man. but
such occasions are exceptional. with no
pretensions whatever to taste. To take counsel with sixty is not possible. We met once and once only. Half a dozen talked at once.
It can only listen to competing leaders and accept one of them. If you want Parthenons. that is not the way to get them. Where the purpose to be attained cannot so be arrived at. and eventually the majority yielded. his resolution cut and dried. One of the ugliest of modern public buildings was the result. His statements were clear.
He had the loudest voice and could
hold out against the attractions of lunch longer than any of the others. a crowd is impotent and should not to that end have been called into being.
. A crowd cannot take counsel.The
discordant minds. or Cathedrals like Rheiins.
either the sum or the
average of the individuals composing it. and to considerhow their internal organisation is accomplished and with what
results.CHAPTER THE NATURE OF
defining. with the assistanceof the speechesand writings of more experi25
. but is wholly
different in kind from those individuals as different as
is an animal from the cells of which the tissue of its body is built up. each guided by a consideration of individual interests.
It is urged by some that a crowd is to be regarded as a separateliving entity. The
normal voter was imagined to be a person who. a life. as most old writers used to assume it to be. It is
now time to examine the nature of such crowds and of
ILLUSTRATING rather by examples concrete than
the individuals composing them.
and a death of its own. we have thus far endeavoured to show the kind of human aggregations to which the word "crowd" may be applied. and the kind of process by which such crowds are called into existence. Radical politicians in the days of the Reform BUI assertedthat the proposed extension of the suffrage would bring to the counselsof the nation a multitude of
judgments arrived at by as many individual minds. thought out for himself. A crowd is not. whether foolishly or wisely. a being with a beginning.
The typical coward is an unmesmerisable person. and fear only comes upon him when the structure of his crowd is broken up and panic sets in. Once a crowd is really
formed. in much the same attitude of mind as that of the supporters of one side or the other in a great football-match. The ordinary voter merely catches the momentary passion of one of the parties in the political campaign and off he goes shouting.
. and frequently is originated and propagated from a single brain.what his interests at the moment were in relation to legislation proposed. the soldier is wont
to lose the sense of his individuality
sometimes to be unconscious
so completely as
of a severe wound.The
enced persons. but is a mere infectious passion which sweepsthrough the whole body like an electric current. and voted accordingly. but retains always the senseof self and with it the desire of self-preservation. Hence his loss of the fear that is so commonly felt by soldiers on the eve of battle. and finally voting. But we know by experiencethat the ordinary voter does nothing of the kind. in the excitement of a battle. The opinion of a crowd has no relation to the reasoned opinion of the majority of its members. once the members of it have fallen under one another's mesmerism." the individual is in fact
absorbed for the time being into the crowd and merely contributes his life to the vitality of the collective body.
entirely absorbed into the crowd. Losing himself he losesthe desire of self-preservation. "the individual withers and the" crowd "is more and more.
Thus. and the managers of all political parties alike take care that he shall not. one who cannot merge his individuality into the crowd. betting on the result.
of man who cannot be thus absorbed is the constitutional
coward. Terror scatters. Few individuals can
face a hostile crowd without fear. because it makes for the crowd's
who may be good enough human material nevertheless. But cunning in a man is not a crowd virtue. and in modern life it is the main virtue of
. has no unifying force. Courage is the highest crowd-virtue. It is by them that women have oftenest preserved their offspring. He is an undesirable unit whose tendency is to disintegrate the crowd in which he is placed. A woman feels herself
to be in this position as against the mass of men. indeed they may be more efficient. feels himself to be one against a thousand and is afraid. because it makes
for crowd-disintegration. in face of an enemy.The
Such a person. But should individuals necessarily share these judgments? Cunning and foresight or prudence may be as efficient in preserving the life of an individual as pluck. The really brave man is he who can fearlessly face a multitude alone. but why should he be shot? It is a weaknessof universal compulsory military service that it must
sweep together into the ranks many such undesirables. hence her constitutional and proper timidity. pluck unites. Hence the purpose of regimental organisation to integrate the units and strengthen the regiment's power of absorption. It was the virtue of the weakly organised people of the hunting stage. He should be gotten rid of. Terror. but such men are rare. Fear is the worst of crowd vices. but not for fighting purposes. Hence the crowd-sung prestige of bravery and the crowd-contemmed disgrace of fear. Commonplace bravery is mere loss of individuality in a fighting crowd.
on the 2d of October. In
the course his speech madethe followingvery simple of he remarkshi reference the modernGermandogmathat to
"force is the test and measureof right*': "It is one of those products of German genius which. has. not found a market "abroad. who are survivals of prehistoric men. It has no co-ordinating
effect. addressed to an individual. Here is a concrete instance. The truly brave man.
Cunningand lack of cohesion characterise criminalthe
a thorough individualist. His virtue is the most precious of all to a crowd.
would seemthe feeblest platitude will be received by an audience with rounds of applause. and his reputation
(that is to saythe crowd'sopinionof him) stands highest
of all. and certainly not within the boundaries of the
. 1914. Note.I am happy to say.The
the criminal classes.the different way in which a very small joke will appeal to an individual and to a crowd. The difference in character between a crowd and
the individuals composingit leaps to the eye the moment the crowd is regarded dispassionately by a cool and detached observer. who
never loses his head but remains under all circumstances
fully self-commanded. What would scarcely raise a smile when spoken to an individual will raise roars of laughter from a
crowd. Mr. addresseda most important meeting at the Guildhall of
the City of London on the causes of the Great War. for example.
"whether or not it was intended exclusivelyfor home
"consumption. A sentiment which. But cunning is not infectious. Pluck is infectious. never fails to inspire a like power in his comradesto a greater or lessextent.
It doesnot inspire a crowd. Asquith.
and that the "strong have duties.) We still believe here.(Cheers) and certainly not "within the boundaries of the British Empire." and so forth. is the effect of these same words upon an unusually superior audience. (Re"newedcheers. however.The
"British Empire. . . from the "Times" report. It is all sound common sense. "and that freedom for its own sake is as well worth fight"ing for to-day as it ever was in the past-(Cheers) "and we look forward at the end of this war to a Europe "in which these great and simple and venerable truths "will be recognised and safeguarded for ever against the "recrudescenceof the era of blood and iron. not "found a market abroad.clearly expressed.)99 It is with reluctance that I dwell upon the phenomena of the nature of the crowd. I am happy to say.(Cheers) that the weak have rights. "whether or not it was intended exclusively for home "consumption. old-fashionedpeople "as we are. old-fashioned "people as we are. We still believe here. and small nationalities have every "bit as good a title as large ones to life and independence.(Laughter) -has. intellectually far above the level of an ordinary public meeting: "It is one of those products of German genius which. Here. as they have been frequently
. but the reader who has this moment perused these words has certainly not been moved to laughter by
them in his comfortable arm-chair.(Laughter)-in the sanctity of treaties. ". nor has his enthusiasm
been so kindled as to make him stamp about the room or otherwise provide any muscular discharge for his feelings. in the sanctity of treaties. that the "weak have rights. . and that the strong have duties. (Cheers.
differing in mind and will "from the individuals who compose it. That. It takes
"on something of the characteristics of a hypnotized "'subject. as we know. An offensive play. lacking "in self-control." he said in his evidence before the Censorship Committee. Walkley.' It tends to be irrational. "A theatrical audience has the peculiar psychology of "the crowd. Some inexplicable change had taken place in them. performed before it. "they could not account for their actions. and that "inexplicable something was the influence of the crowd..especially French and Italian of by writers. Amongst
Englishwriters Mr. I submit.The
in Peace and War
discussed late years.
"gentle and humane as individuals. So do other forms of
Here is what a correspondent of the "Times"
says about the Russians: -
. has perhaps described the crowd-nature
most plainly as manifestedby theatre audiences." On another occasion (14th Dec."
Mobs. excitable. Questioned afterwards. "is a new entity. made up crowds
"guilty of horrible atrocities. Its intellectual
"pitch is lowered. but all my readersmay not be alike familiar
with what to some will be commonplace. A. Many Frenchmen under the Terror. thus descend. B. has "an entirely different effect from that which the play "would have if read separately and privately by each "individual. is the real justification for "retaining a Theatrical Censorship. The crowd is the controlling factor in the "matter. "A
"crowd.in his capacityof
theatrical critic. the same writer affirmed that all persons "belonging to a crowd "descended several rungs of the ladder of civilisation. 1903).its emotionalpitch raised.
"I supposeit may seemstrange that a kindly man, such as I have pictured the Russiansoldier, can be as ferocious " in attack as he certainly is. Indeed, it is hard to reconcile "the characteristics of gentleness and mildness and good
" humour with the hideous fury into which men work them-
" selves battle. The psychology of war is such, however, in "that not only with the Russians, but, I think, with all
men in the tumult and chaos of action, the characteristics
"of the individuals are mergedinto the quite foreign per"sonality of the mass itself. Individuals who by them" selves are the mildest " lost. of men, become transformed in
"action into creatures whose own individuality is utterly
Once the action is over, these same individuals will
"minister to the needs and agoniesof their prisoners with " as much gentlenessand sympathy as to men of their own
"race." Mr. Moreton Prewen's observations on the German
crowd indicate that it descends,as common opinion now
realises, to a lower level than that of any other civilised
European nation. "The more we read German history," he says, "the more we discover that the German nature "aggregates dangerously; that the tendency of any
"German crowd is to be worse than its units. It cannot
"fairly be said that we English are only now finding this "out at a time when instead of being the ally of Germany "we are her enemy. Look at what the Duke of Welling"ton wrote to his mother in 1807 (Maxwell's 'Life of
"'Wellington'): *I can assure you that from the General "'of the Germans down to the smallest drummer boy in "'their legion the earth never groaned under such a set "'of murdering, infamous villains. They murdered,
in Peace and War
"'robbed and ill treated the peasantrywherever they "The late General Grierson, who commanded troops our "at the relief of the foreignembassies, Pekin, told me at "that the infamiesperpetratedby the Germans these on "helplessChinese were such that he could never again
soldiers of the
"American expeditionaryforce must be equally aware
The fundamental reason why a collective body of human beings differs toto ccelo from so many individuals is
because no two individuals can ever think alike, whilst
any number can feel alike. Quot homines tot sententice is proverbial truth. Witness the hopeless struggles of generations of churchmen to state simple dogmas in plain words so as to be universally acceptable, and the ultimate necessity to which they were driven to compel acceptance formulaeby force and to wink at individual of freedom of personal interpretation of the actual words and phrases. But no such difficulty arises in connexion with feelings and passions. The Germans were able to unite very completely in hating England, without need
to quarrel about definitions of terms. Who wants a
definition of love, of pride, of grief or joy? We can all unite without the smallest difficulty in such emotions, and moreoverour union of feeling is a different kind of union
from that which we describeas intellectual agreement.
Union of feeling promotes, and flourishes in, a state of
enthusiasm. is like a mesmeric It condition. It heightens our senseof life; it carries us beyond the limitations
of our intelligence; it takes us into another world,-
higheror lowerasthe case may be,-but at any rate other
than the world in which we normally exist.
Hence it is that a crowd has all the emotions and no intellect. It can feel, but it cannot think. It has in
common a subtle sensibility to feeling. Passion sweeps through it, but it can reason about nothing; for it has no reasoning apparatus in common. The nerves of all its members may certainly be in connection with one another, but not their thoughts. They can applaud or
"boo" in common, but they cannot criticise or differen-
tiate. Acceptance or rejection are their only alternative; feeling can accomplish those operations with hardly any help from reason. "You can talk a mob into anything," wrote Ruskin ('Sesame,'p. 39), "its feelings may be - usually are-on "the whole generous and right; but it has no foundation "for them, no hold of them; you may tease or tickle it "into any, at your pleasure; it thinks by infection for "the most part, catching an opinion like a cold, and there "is nothing so little that it will not roar itself wild about, "when the fit is on; - nothing so great but it will forget "in an hour, when the fit is past. But a gentleman's "... passions are just, measured, and continuous." Ancient writers long ago realised some of the qualities of the great public crowd, but for the most part only its evil qualities. Here are a few citations which might be multiplied almost indefinitely:;Herodotus (iii 81) : vOtci(68^/ios)efi7recru>v ra irpyyfjLara aveu vov,x^app^p?roTa/ji,4> LceAos. Livy (24. 25. 8). "Hsec est natura multitudinis; aut "humiliter servit aut superbe dominatur."
in Peace and War
Tacitus(Ann.i. 29):"Nihilin vulgomodicum; terrere "ni paveant;ubi pertimuerunt impunecontemni." Sir Walter Raleigh: "The Multitude, wantingthat
"virtue which we call honesty in all men, and that es-
pecial gift of God we call charity, condemn without
"hearing, woundwithout offence given." Sir ThomasRoe, on the Indian public in Mogul days: "The multitude, full of tumor and Noyce, without head
"or foote; onlyit rages, bendes selfe but it upon direct noe
Suchutterances but superficial. All crowds,even are thosemost suddenlyand accidentally formed,possess the potentiality of good emotionsas fully as of bad, and it is necessary bear this continuallyin mind. A modern to
writer, Monsieur Tarde, by no means covers the whole ground when he says: "Si diverses qu'elles soient par "leur origine, comme par tous leurs autres caracteres, "les foules se ressemblent toutes par certains traits: leur "intolerance prodigieuse, leur orgueil grotesque, leur "susceptibilite maladive, le sentiment affolant de leur "irresponsabilite ne de Fillusion de la toute-puissance, et "la perte totale du sentiment de la mesure qui tient a
"Foutrance de leurs emotions mutuellement exaltees.
Fexecration et Fadoration, entre Fhorreur et
"Fenthousiasme, entre les cris viveet a mort, il n'y a pas "de milieu pour une foule. Vive, cela signifievive a ja"mais. II y a la un souhait d'immortalite divine, un com-
"mencement d'apotheose. II suffit d'un rien pour changer
"la divinisation en damnation." All this is true, but also it is no less true that crowds
may be generous,sympathetic,full of admiration for
anythinggreat or noblethat they can feel, and of all
manner of other admirable emotional exhibits.
areneithergoodnor evil in the nature of things, but they may become either the one or the other.
What a crowd can descend to was shown over and over
againin the French Revolution. Their enthusiasm was
even at the service of a Marat. "L'apotheose de ce "monstre," continues the same writer, "le culte rendu "a son 'coeur sacre/ exposeau Pantheon, est un eclatant
"specimende la puissance mutuel aveuglement,de de
"mutuelle hallucination, dont les hommes rassembles
"sont capables. Dans cet entralnement irresistible, la "Mchete a eu sa part, mais bien faible, en somme,et comme "noyee dans la sinc^rite generale."
If the virtues of a crowd arise from its emotions, their
unmeasured character and the crowd's vices are the
result of a lack of intelligence. As we have said, a crowd
has no brain. It is foolish, therefore, to blame crowds for
what they cannot help. The late Professor S. H. Butcher wrote: "A democratic society is inclined to do its thinking "by deputy, if only it is permitted to do its voting indi"vidually. It is so easy to think in herds through Com"mittees and Sub-Committees and party organisations. "To exercisethe thinking power for its own sake is the
"central idea of Academic studies. Suppress thinking
"and you will be able to suppressfreedom itself." That is, of course, perfectly true, but it is in the nature of things. A democratic society can no more think than it can go and study at a University, and the whole business of the modern world is to find out how best to do its
thinking for it.
A crowd is, in fact, like an explosive. It can easily be
fired, and the result, if it is fired casually,is likely to be highly disastrous. It may even go off, as mobs do, by spontaneous ignition. On the other hand, its powers may be utilised to accomplish great ends,and have been
so utilised throughout the ages in which civilisation has
beenslowly growing. For crowdsare the nest and abiding place of ideals,and it has been by idealsthat man
has been raised from the level of the beast. A crowd
lacks reason, but possesses faith. The ideals of a St. Francis, for instance, first form a crowd and then by it regenerate the world. In the succession of ideals has
been the life of the human soul, and he who shall write
the history of that succession,as no one has yet attempted to write it, will produce the story of the growth of humanity. Once an ideal has become incorporated in a crowd, it must stand its trial in the great inquest of the world. If it be a right and noble ideal, the crowd prospersand spreads,engulfing more and more individuals and inspiring them, and through them the
generations that are to follow. If it be a vile ideal,
resistance will rise up against it and the crowd that is formed upon it will fail. The ideal of might is now upon its trial, and the world has risen up against it and said No! to it, and the crowd that is animated by it has not succeededyet.
Whenwe have said this muchwe havereally explained
nothing; we have but stated the existence of certain phenomena which those who look can behold. The relation of man to man is still a dark mystery which science has
scarcely attemptedto lighten. What is it that gives yet
says Walkley. treads with doubtful
. if indeed there be such a
thing as a subconscious self at all? This is a vague region into which Science is only beginning to search a way. experienced the strange emotion of being
raised out of his normal state into a condition of enthu-
siasm which the ancients likened to intoxication. that the secrets of crowd-life and of much else that we long to understand may some day be revealed. and is there some unrecognisedcoherer in the make-up of other individuals that can receive them? Every one of us has at some time.
fore they cultivated Dionysiac Mysteries. One who. "the mentalstateof a theatrical audi"enceresembling that of a man in a dream. is a kind of
hypnotic agency. What is it that happens in us at those times? Has it something to
do with our subconscious self. when this
unknown land shall have been penetrated by an explorer of genius. the most phlegmatic perhaps only in their early youth. vague as you please but real none the less."
What is the cause of this hypnotic condition? We talk
vaguely of animal magnetism. but in that region. How does a brain send a message
bidding the hand to close? Is the brain a battery and is the message the nature of a telegram? Does man in
send out wireless messages without knowing it. and it is there.The
to someby birthright the capacity of dominatingothers?
Men in their crowd-relations are "such stuff as dreams
"are made of. There the forces exist by which it is swayed. without knowing that
such a force exists. like the present writer."
The drama. there the dim
consciousness it has of life. the phenomena of the crowd are produced.half-way be"tween complete illusion and absolute non-illusion.
balanceon suchgiddy aretes. will be wise if he declines to act as guide to others.
. finds his own way difand
ficult enough to trace in the high regions where philosophers dwell. but with them waits for a leader with keener sight and steadier foot to show him also the way.
but he only becomes an integral part of it by "catching its enthusiasm. that is to say the infection enters him unperceived. the man who does so puts himself in the way of infection. The persistent reader of a given newspaper runs the chance of presently finding himself one of its crowd. Enthusiasm is infectious. The disease may run its course quickly or may revolutionise his life.
.he may even be born into membership of it. A man may join a crowd for all sorts of reasons." Every crowd has a crowd-spirit and every true member of a crowd catchesthat spirit. with that question we are not at the moment concerned." The fact that we normally employ the word "catch" for this process is significant. To go into a crowd is like going into a cholera-village. or it rises as an exhalation from the pit. The man who goes to a revival meeting may find himself at the stool of repentance before he realises that he has actually been caught. "So is every one that is born of the spirit. Reason has no part in its transfer
from one to another. No one knows whence it cometh or whither it goeth.CHAPTER CROWD-UNITS
man regarded as a crowd-unit. A man likewise catches a disease. It descends as it were like a flame
HAVINGdealt crowd briefly the as with awho
let us now consider the condition of an individual
" writes Kinglake in " Eothen. He almost feels himself one of them. the unanimous belief of an ignorant people. the collective spirit touches him. and catches the spirit from him.with them. Nine times
out of ten enlistment results from a sudden emotion.The
The point to be madeclearis that absorption into a
crowd is not an intellectual but an emotional process. falling into step.rather than conviction. The onlookeris tempted
to march. or reads an exhortation in his newspaper. and if he has been unaccustomed to the
"cunning of fence by which Reason prepares the means "of guarding herself against Fallacy. he will yield himself
"at last to the faith of those around him.
He follows on to barracks and enlists.
The man whose reason drives him to enlist against his will is a. but often it happens that after a little while "the social atmosphere in which he lives will begin to
"infect him. A man coming freshly from Europe "is at first proof against the nonsensewith which he is "assailed. It is the will itself
that generally suffers change underthe influenceof crowdemotion. The effect "of this.rare and high exception." "you might "as well dispute the efficacy of grass or grain as of magic. "I have been much interested in observing that the "mere 'practical man. upon "the mind of a stranger is extremely curious and well "worth noticing.
A band passes along a streetwith coloursflying and soldiersmarchingproudlybehind.
"In the East. and this he will
"do by sympathy. "There is no controversy about the matter. Or he meets a
friend who has enlisted. it would seem. has not the kind of power that will enable
.' however skilful and shrewd in "his own way.
"him to resist the gradual impression made upon his mind
"by the commonopinion of thosewhomhe sees hears and
"from day to day/' Let me. it does
"not convince but it impresses. I have received permission to quote at length from this very remarkable communication. in
"not an intelligent decision. in this connexion. None but distorted
. it denounced Sir Edward Grey as the moving spirit "in a conspiracy to assail Germany. and that he
was "proof against *atmosphere. also quote a sentence to similar effect from one of Newman's essays: "Public
"opinion especiallyacts upon the imagination. but a submission or belief. on the outbreak
"of war. Twenty-four hours after having "praised the vigorous efforts of Great Britain to prevent "war. This is perhaps the greatest achievement in that kind that has ever been accomplished in recorded history." "A Neutral Correspondent" writing in the London "Times" of May 27th 1915 describes how the German
peoplewere carefully and intentionally hypnotized by
their Government. "apart from the direct influence of the thorough military "organisation of the State.*" He presently found that he was mistaken. is the shrewd management of
"the Press. and that his mind was being influenced by the peculiar mood of the public into which he was plunged. It will be remembered that. "The chief agency in the creation of this state of mind. it has the force of au-
"thority rather than of reason. When the writer entered Germany he believed himself
able to take a detached view of the war. the whole German Press was turned against "England overnight. and concurrence it is.
But foreign reports have no influence whatever "upon the German mind. The Germansare so convinced "of the accuracy of their own official versions that no other
"reports count. as I have beforeremarked. All unfavourable information was "treated as "lies/ and a thoroughly-organised Press
"campaign was carried on in neutral countries in the
"same sense. In the Vic"toria Cafe at Berlin I was able to read. The process still goes on. the "French.Russian
"and British communiquesare now regularly printed in "the larger newspapers. No remarks were made when I asked for "them.
"though. "It is not the big papers of international repute that "exercise the greatest influence in Germany.
"It is the same with enemy newspapers. German. "By thesemeansthe war-mind of the Germanpeople
"was created and fashioned. No at42
. and are frequently criticised in "the communications from the German Headquarters "Staff. with Germanexplanations and
"German accusations against enemy countries. The 'neutral' opinions thus inspired were
"reproduced Germany evidence impartial foreign in as that "opinion supportedthe Germanview. They "were also to be bought in the newspaper kiosks of the "large towns. In the "smaller towns and agricultural districts it is the local
"Press that counts. The
"German peopleweretold only what it was desiredthey
"should believe. but I noticed a pitying smile on German faces "whenever they saw others read them. Italian. In that Press none but German
"reports are to be found. and neutral journals.the French.The
"views from abroad were allowed to be published. day by day.
I was assured
"that they were perfectly true. More"over. and supplied "from central agencies to thousands of local papers*
"Leading articlesare suppliedin the sameway.Dissensions be"tween the Powers of the Entente are reported. the financial. industrial. "Everybody had a ready explanation in answer to inquiry
"about the failure to reach Paris or Calais. and "is circulated in special editions of the local papers. the German Headquarters' report is posted up "every day at 4 p. outside every telegraph office. The British denials were "treated as 'the usual English lies/ And it was argued "as the strongest evidence of the unreliability of English "reports that naval losseswhich neutrals had witnessed "had been kept secret by the British Admiralty.Crowd-Units
"tack upon the enemyis too grossfor this Pressto reproduce. and nothing in Germany'sfavour is too absurd
"for its readers to swallow.
"Every scrapof newsthat can be turned to account
"in this direction is magnified. Not only is the victorious
"progress the German. This local Press exer"cises a kind of hypnotic influence upon the people at
"large. and but
"social conditions in Germany are declared to be far
"superior to those existing elsewhere.and Turkisharmies
"constantly celebrated. As I spent most of my time in Germanyin the
"smaller towns and rural districts. of Austrian. and dis"turbances among their peoples are invented and dwelt "upon. When I
"asked about the news of revolutions in India and Egypt. "The cumulative effect upon me of this constant sug43
"and of Turkish victories on the Suez Canal. which "contain nothing but this report. I came under its spell. m.
Once enthusiasm has been kindled all are carried away by it.of acquir"ing a true perspective? It was with a sense of relief. and found a freer atmosphere and neutral associations in Switzerland. with its well-calculated variations in the films "of the cinemas and in the periodical literature. but this phase can generally be relied on to pass. was such "that I seemedgradually to lose my individuality and to "become merged in the German mass. At the beginning of the meeting opponents may make objections and interruptions.The
"gestion. and that is why political managers regard public meetings as of importance. "as of the passing of a nightmare. that I crossedthe bor"der. but they likewise know that it is a powerful force in affecting individuals. and even convinced opponents may be seen in the excitement of the moment applauding speakersand sentiments which in the quiet of their own homes they hold in horror."
This infectiousnessof crowd-emotion is specially manifested in public. no matter how sceptically disposed. Usually the audience is of a mixed political complexion. They know well enough that the enthusiasm of a meeting meansvery little as an index of the opinions of a community. With the close of the meeting the mood may pass. and
. with one party in a majority in the room and in complete possessionof the platform. but often it happens that a permanent change in a man's sentiments is thus effected. what chance has a "German. and particularly in political meetings. If it was not "possible for me to react against it. The ordinary large political meeting seldom consists wholly or even mainly of convinced members of one party.
settled public opinion in the form of morals is imposed upon him as having divine sanction. Take "your hands out of your pockets.
Take." Day after day and hour after hour what people
would think of him is hammered into the child. impress the crowd-idea upon the shaping mind. but his manners and the whole of his nascent ideas of conduct. the life of an ordinary professional man. "In social "intercourse."
Few. Such "an action is bad manners. by continual commandand correction.havebeen"caught" rather than consciouslyand intentionally adoptedby reasoning process. mature men and women realise how many
of their opinions which they firmly hold and by which they shape their lives. which when once generated. if any.
. of which there is much more to be said. not merely
his conscience. What would "his mother think of you if she saw you do so and so? " No one will think you come of decentpeopleif you behave "thus. In infancy and early childhood his parents and nursesfrom the very beginning. " It is not proper to do this: it is vulgar to do that. I believe it safe to assert that the ordinary man's
opinionshavebeen"caught" at one time or anotherand
that his individual reason conducted him to few of them. Thus.
of right and wrong.Crowd-Units
experience has taught them that it is often far from
transient.everything is imposed upon him as a crowd-precept backed by more or less of a religious sanction. vii. a light may be suddenly kindled in the "mind. "See how nicely behaved little Tommy is. Don't bite your nails. such another is wrong. Thus says Plato (Ep. for example. may keep itself
"alive. of dress and behaviour .
what shall we say of schooltraining and especially.
"Punch. and later in life to put in operation.The
A remarkable example of the effect of such training came in my way recently. " sir. said to him: "You'll
"have a fine day to-morrow. for our present purpose. So he asked: "Why not "on Sundays?" The boy answered rather indignantly:
"We have been better brought up than that. where he gave great satisfaction alike to his master and the customersby his agreeablemanners and obliging disposition. of the training of an English public school? The normal English schoolboyoften reacts against what masters inculcate and is liable to adopt in his heart of hearts. It was contrary to the crowd-stand-
ards of the folk among whom his people lived." he replied.
"worse than wicked. What do you do on Sun"days? Do you ever get a game of cricket?" "Oh! no."
it was vulgar.
It was bad form. He was evidently a "well "brought up boy. exactly contrary principles to those inculcated by school authorities."
as the child said in
If home training be thus effective in imposing general crowd-notions on a child. "not on Sundays!" The master was surprised at the boy's tone becausehe knew that his father "and all his family were pronounced agnostics and prob"ably called themselvesinfidels.
when the weather seemed set fair." His master one summer Saturday. It's not
"respectable to play public gameson Sundays. A boy was employed in a picture dealer's shop. I should "be ashamedto do a thing like that." It was not that he thought it in any way wrong to play cricket on Sunday. It is from his fellow46
. There was no religious prejudice against it in his family.
Standards and prejudices are alike qualities caught from the University crowd and not imposed
.to close or
not to close all the buttons of his waistcoat. but they are mere signs and emblems of public opinion . or at all events the old English Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The shaping thus accomplishedleavesits impress on the boy for life.produce a like effect upon undergraduates. The Universities. After subjection to the impress of the University crowd for three or four years.Crowd-Units
boysthat he really learnsthe conductof life. a round peg in a square hole. to know what his fellows
consider good behaviour and what disgraceful. of which alone I can speak with any assurance. and is made
to feel the difference between what is "good form" and what is not. almost every man takes the print of it indelibly upon his personality. His discomfort as a new boy is due to the fact that he is a misfit.and consequently almost of necessity in spirit. He receives and thenceforward accepts and tries to act up to certain standards. and special colleges have a particular tone and spirit of their own. to wear or not
to wear a hat at a particular time of day. conformably with which in conduct. He has to learn the school standards. A number of trifling external details are insisted on. to walk or not down the middle or along some special side of a street these are mereoutward signs. his notions come to be fashioned. he also adopts a group of prejudices.Throughout the whole of a public schoolboy's life in any big school he is in the grip of the school-crowd's standard. in speech. an
individual who has not yet become a crowd-unit.conformity to which marks a
general conformityto the unwritten school code.
. the delicacy "of thought. Conformity becomeshabit and effects a correspondent shaping of the mind which after life does not avail to destroy. the opennessof hand . Society again is one of the strongest agenciesfor fashioning the manners and setting the standards of mature
life. the lofty principle. address. of course. the power of conversing. "gait. the sue* "cess in not offending. the ease. and no one dreamed of not conforming* What was true of such trifles was. the taste and "propriety. If these details had been imposed by University authorities they would have been evaded. The
clear-sightedJohn Henry Newman wrote upon this matter: "All that goes to constitute a gentleman . Thus in my time an undergraduate in cap and gown did not carry an umbrella no matter how heavily rain might be falling.The
by any superior authority.the carriage. whilst it should be remembered that the school and
collegetones have the standards of society aheadof them
with which it is always their aim to be in harmony. unimportant in themselves but indicative of crowd-conformity. ." Newman knew the
. voice.the courtesy. Here again there are numbers of trifling observances to be followed. They were imposed by the undergraduate crowd's collective opinion. gestures. the self-pos4 session. are they not necessarily acquired where they "are to be found. He cut the tassel of his cap short. equally true of important matters of conduct and manners. and there were many other trifling proprieties which I forget. in high society?' Here is no quack rubbish about "nature's gentleman. the candour " and consideration.these quali"ties . the happiness of expression. the generosity and forbearance.
and each one of them.as we all of us think. Asquith said the other day in reference to the late Mr. It does not differ
kind from any other assemblagethat might have a like continuity. Society is the creation of art." but that is not what
the phraseis usedto mean. Here is what Mr. compounded of traditions and of "modern influences. indefinable. and each of them leaves its impression upon him. every community. in proportion to his impressionability. but in truth a man may be a dishonest
blackguardand yet a "gentleman.Crowd-Units
world too well. carries away from it and adopts as part of the fabric of what he calls his
. Every body. Rarely indeedan
individual may be born in a low rank of life with a natu-
rally faultless taste. Only such an one might be described as a "nature's gentleman.which preserves."
There are countlessother crowds to which a man belongs more or less completely as he passes through life. every group and associationof men puts its impressmore or lessstrongly upon the individuals composing it. "the unique but indestructible personality of the most
"ancient of the deliberative assemblies of the world. any more than the Cabinet differs in kind from any other Committee or board that has businessto attend to. Percy Illingworth: "No man had imbibed and assimilated with more zest
"and sympathy that strange. In commonuseit meansan
honest fellow." in
The House of Commons is the most conspicuousgroup
of associated men in these islands.who is an artist in the handling of the raw material of life. almost impal"pable atmosphere. and a
gentleman (whether be a goodmanor no) is onewho he
hasacquiredthe Art of Living .
" saidBismarck. All sorts of opinions grow out of the air
"from hearsays talk behindpeople'sbacks. So London changesthe
countryman that settles within her.
We have it and shall always have it with us. though it is easy to contemn
it fromsuperior pointsof view.I suppress his name says that: "Public opinion is generated in the homes of "the British people.
"consider a duty andobligationto adhere their belief. People and
"talk themselves into believing the thing that is not. but which get spread
"abroadthroughnewspapers." To rail in this way against public opinion is a temptation to which all are liable to yield at times.
A commonplacepublic man . and talk. individualities naturallyfadeout andmelt into
"each other.The Crowd
by him from them. Public opinionis a powerful and
sometimesa valuable force. so Paris remakes the
. and it is as
useless rail against it as it is foolish to be carried away to
by it." Nothing could be more untrue. "whengreatnumbers common of peoplelive closetogether.
in Peace and War
opinions opinions the proper these to crowds derived and
Finally. It arises where people meet and is propagated by the newspapers. But it is futile. it to
"and excite themselvesabout prejudices and absurdities. It is generatedeverywhere except in the home.it is in this way that publicopinion constantly actsupontheindividual moreoftenthan not sweeps and him alongwith it. People catch it just as the schoolboy catches the opinion
of his school and the Members of Parliament the standards
of the House of Commons. "Thus. "get themselves established are ineradicable. opinions and
"with little or no foundation in fact. popularmeetings.
whoseonly views are those they have absorbed from the national and smaller crowds to which they belong or have belonged. I suppose. But in their normal lives they are divided by the fact that. The Englishman in every act pos51
. so the soldiertakeson the and espritde corpsof his regiment and the army. a
regimentof historic renown. but how few they are compared with the mass. when he says of a thing that "it isn't English. "You
English. But the commonplacebigoted crowdunit. they have each his own national crowd. so far as our own ideas and con-
duct are concerned. Some of us doubtless know better.is famousfor imparting its aggregate quality to the individual soldier. as background of all they do and experience. A wellknown writer used the following phrase: "The £0th. An Englishman and a Frenchman." All regiments do so. say on a high mountain side." he meansthat it is bad form everywhere and for everybody. find one another much of a sort and easily enough comprehensible. but not all inherit equally high standards. and New York. "when you've said a thing say
" 'isn't English/ fancy you've settled it.
Sothe lawyer and the physicianaremouldedaccording to
professional standards. naturally holds that the opinions and standards of his own society should be those of the whole world." ."foreigners to us. who thinks nothing of any other crowd. when they come together. the American.and as a
matter of fact we have.Crowd-Units
Frenchman. and that attitude foreign critics naturally resent. in circumstances unusual in the daily life of either. Thus also a nation acts upon its citizens with a pressure that begins in their childhood and never ceases.
Fashion in clothes is nothing but the outward and visible
expression the normal individual's generalconformity of
in all things to the crowd of which he or she forms an
How few people we meet who are even partially independent individuals! Almost all talk the same commonplaces. They are like actors upon
different stages. It is thus that misunderstandings so easily arise between personsof different nationalities.and the Englishman goesawaysayinghe dislikesthe French and the Frenchman the English. and the speech
of most. Language in
itself has taken form in the mouth of crowds. and resent disagreement with them. and the moment the misunderstanding does arise. It is an entertaining if somewhat saddening occupation to sit where people congregatefor talk and to listen for the
expression a really independent of original personalopinion. because crowdsare necessarily all intolerant. Convention governs the thoughts.and acting before different audiences. Intolerance is proof that they
tulates an English background and group of sanctions.utter a common group of opinions.surrounded by different scenery. it
. Few indeedare thosewho habitually test opinions in their own minds before acceptanceand reutterance. the crowd determines their m'eaning. or an idea expressed original terms. the national divergency leaps into prominence and
they beginto dislike one another. Whole phrases and sentences become fixed in form by having been shaped to express collective ideas. the Frenchman a French. Notwithstandingthis apparentuniformity. as for the
words themselves. the beliefs.
Here is what an American writer. goes hither and "thither on the crutch of the crowd. with a more colossal preju-
dice than he had before. with the effrontery that only a crowd "can give. dictates. can produce
"this kind. S. not that he does not think. a crowd-creed. and pries on it.gal"vanized from one convention to another.Crowd-Units
is certain that no two individuals are alike in structure of
mind and character. Mr. and all of them "watching every one else working at once. but that it takes ten "thousand men to make him think. who. Charged with convictions. if perchance it may be "stirred to something. But they do not think. He has a crowd-
"soul. and with a sense of multitude applause and "cheers he warms his thoughts. backs his opinions with forty States. he exhorts.returns from a massmeeting
"of himself. and. and placeshis crutch "on the world. To the bigotry of the man who "knows becausehe speaks for himself has been added a "new bigotry on the earth."
. This is a kind of fool that has never been possible "until these latter days. he contrives
"to live. and walks
"the streets of his native town in the uniform of all human-
"ity. If they would think for themselves they would have to express infinite divergency of view. When they have been "warmed enough. Lee. Only a very great many people. "all of them working on him at once.-the bigotry of the man who "speaks for the nation. has to say on this matter: "What this means with regard to the typical modern
"man is. They adopt opinions like readymade clothes or mere fashions acquired from the patternmaker. G.
and some Germanshave
felt the force of it. to some.but it will be stronger presently. We haveseenit ariseagainst Germanyin the current war. as a school or college. In time of war he must yield himself wholly to his country. Someday it will be a much stronger force and will produce results that we cannot foresee. it is not a necessity of the circumstances of human life that crowds should atrophy their units. the wise man differs from the fool. We have arrived at a time when we can even speak of the public
opinion of the world. He may belong to many. meetings. however. he will belong intermittently. of believing
It seemsat first sight a regrettable fact that things
should be so in our modern world. To some. and so forth. But they are so. It is still young and feeble. Will that be an evil development for humanity? Surely not. To some he will render up more of himself than to others. The fool gives himself wholly to each and every crowd that successively attracts him. Calderon says. he will yield himself to none. The faculty of
"believing contrary things at the sametime. he will entirely belong but only for a limited period of his life.as to a nation. But inconsistency.
If public opinioncan havean evil effectupon a narrowminded individual. The wise man refusesto part with his individuality to any crowd whatever. and
so they must remain as long as the presentconditionsof rapid intercommunication and promiscuouspublicity. continue and even further develop. he will belong all his days. "weighs for nothing with enthusiasts. G. to some. such as societies. Herein. In consequencehe becomes an aggregate of inconsistencies. as Mr. L. controlledby newspapers often manipulatedfor their and
To be sure. or that which they
"know to be false. they are the light kindling-stuffwhich sets
"the soldier world on fire. To maintain a business self which
"can look a moral self straight in the eye. Only. A man is said to have as
"many selvesas there are socialgroupsof which he feels
"himself a member. unity of a sort can be achieved
. to have a theo-
" logicalself on good terms with a scientificself. Our complexmodernlife reflects
"itself in a composite person. President of the University of Wisconsin: "Modern students of human nature have changed the
"old saying. as many groups of "thought and feeling are schooledinto co-operation by a
"well-considered steadfast aim. 'One man. many minds/ into the new dic"tuin. Yet their opinion is by
"no means to be neglected. to "preserve right relationsa churchselfand a club selfin
"such are the present problems of many a man or woman. The strong soul is he who can summon "all his selves into loyal team play. for they are the makers of
"reputations. is the most characteristic feature of
"that large and growing class.
I cannot better conclude this chapter than with a pas-
sagefrom a Commencement addressby Mr. many selves.and to ban"ish from the company the selvesthat are discordant and "disconcerting. to keep "the peacebetweena party self and a patriotic self. and purpose is "the organising principle.' There is much talk of
"multiple personality. "One way to escapeembarrassmentis to invite at a given "time only congenial and harmonious selves. GeorgeE. can a man be master of a
"that which they cannot understand.'Many men. Personality is the "name men give to this unity of the self.
The highest type of person"ality grows out of many far-reaching selves which have "been selected and organised into unity by a dominant "purpose. But suchsingle"ness of ideal and effort creates power. describea personality in
"which unity of purpose is won at the sacrifice of breadth. bigotry. memories and ideals
"into a harmonious hierarchy of aims. habits."
"by one who has a meagre company of selves. It is no easy task to unify often divergent "and conflicting impulses. The ideal per"sonality includes many selves organised by a masterful "purpose and unified by a spirit of harmony. and sympathy. Narrow-
always inaccurate. though it cannot be completely written down even by a poet. which no crowd can possess. Tradition is Crowd-Memory. This brings us to considerhow a crowd can be extendedthrough time as well as space. and the consequentresults of that
.whencehe will tell you . and then it is the spirit and emotion. I do not here refer to traditions concerning facts.and probably with truth that the stone was hewn for the Tower of London. such for instance as that which any villager in my neighbourhood will relate about a certain disused quarry by Medwayside. Such
IF amain of Crowd function beincorpor the to and
of fact are as often false as true. which thus survives.CHAPTER
give currency and effect to ideals.it possesses scarcely a lessvaluable quality in that it is the depository of what we call Tradition. record being a function not of emotion but of intelligence. produced by the event on the
folk. and cannot be believed without other confirmation. It is only when events have been clothed in poetic form and are becomelegendsthat a crowd carries them down through successivegenerations. Written record is as much
superior to tradition for preservation of facts as an educated individual is to a parish meeting as a reporter of them. But emotional tradition can linger long in the heart of a crowd.
on to a fourth.The
temporal extension in their effect upon the units at any moment composing it. the general impressionproduced by a man on his contemporary members in the fourteenth century. The last newly-elected member. Prom the present back to its beginning there may have been. in the case of the House of Commons. and all the rest still influence.
Dominant personalities have left a continuing impression on the assembly to which they belonged. Its tone and spirit would be a little different from what they are but for them. an unbroken series of overlapping memberships. Personal contact with the past through successive generations is thus similar to personal contact with remote places through moving
individuals. say. Fox.
Burke. so that the impression produced by one upon another may be transferred to a third. and so on down to the present day. may have been transmitted by the survivors among them to the new members of the next generation. still to a certain
extent survive. each of them many more. till by physical transference it reachesthe very end of the earth. We may take the House of Commons as type of one crowd which has a long life. to a thousandth. Thus also. and by them to those that followed them. in the House of Commons of to-day. Pitt. Each meets many. without any intervention of writing or printing. Members of the House to-day may indeed be in veritable
physical connexionwith the House of. the fourteenth century. there probably has been. The people of a given day are all in physical contact with one another. and is formed of successive generations of individuals. and so on. when
. to a hundredth.
Imagine a General Election taking place to-day in which not a single former
member were returned. though he may not. the actual still
operative physical range. no rules of procedure. Its great men too were often as much fashioned by it as it by them. and that no one knew what the form. It would represent the people of the United Kingdom at the moment. comes within the range. it was a body without traditions. Anyone who remembers that first Council and comparesit with the existing body will recognise a great difference between them. that a new building had to be devised
for the new House.
Gladstone still affects him. no recorded or remembered customs. That indeed was
. It had no building prepared for it. and all the other important details of the old one had been. imagine that brand-new House
meeting but inheriting no permanent officials. and all the great aristocrats of the past as well as all the great tribunes of the people live on in the last batch of those Labour Members who have not merely been elected to but have been captured by the spirit of that undying assembly. of those bygone influences. probably doesnot. Evidently sucha House of Commonswould fail to resemble in many important respects the body we know. but the actual House of Commons also represents in some degree the generations that have passed. When the London County Council was for the first time called into being. Disraeli in some degreehas influence over him. not elected even by old parties with characteristic policies. Suppose too that the existing Parliament buildings had been burnt to the ground.Crowd-Continuity
he takes his seat. realise it. Everything had to be created. no permanent officials.
It still possesses much of the enthusiasm and ambition of youth.The Crowd in Peace and War
born in enthusiasm. but howthey couldco-operate. they had to find out what they coulddo. There is no reason why it should work in a palace. it imposesupon the public by pretending that the public's glory lies in the splendour of its representatives' accommodation. It has built up a body of permanent
officials trained in its service.they had to discover what each one was goodfor and how his capacityand eagerness
could be harnessed and made available for the common
purpose. Such is the way of representative crowds which are not controlled by the veto
of wise individuals.
. Nowadays LondonCounty Councilhas the no such problems. and it votes itself a palace beside the Thames in open and shameless rivalry with the Housesof Parliament.Its rulesare formulatedand have
receivedmany preciseinterpretationsto meet particular
and unforseen situations. but it already graspsat the splendours which
every long-lived crowd likes to obtain at the expenseof the individuals who generate it. But it has the power to house itself as it pleasesat the public expense. Its a for members werereadyfor all mannerof hard work and self-
sacrifice. It has begun to accumulate traditions
and prejudices. There is no reason why a public body should be splendidly housed. oppose how what seemed to themwrongprinciples. Its Committees have the area exactly defined within which each works. A row of ordinary houseswould do for its offices and any shaped hall for its general assembly. Its parties are organised. new enthusiasm London. It possesses definite spirit a and is well launched on what will probably be a long career.
The generationsvanish swiftly. It preservesits ancient traditions. and with each generation it cameto enshrinean ever widening volume of tradition. the social levels from which its members were drawn might
become more various. It set its mark upon its members with ever increasing inevitability. Its political complexion might change. with any corresponding rapidity. That was a long and gradual proccess. Whig and Tory might be violently opposed. The House of Commons when first it met had no such forerunners. They came and went. One generation may alter it a little. It had to find itself and to shape its own structure and environment. All things that have life grow and change and ultimately become old and pass away. but the House remained. the House did not itself alter in
spirit. it yet always retained and indeed continually increased its senseof its own separate collective life. They became as one when the dignity of the House was assailed. But the life of the Houseof Commons has been long and it is not yet coming to an end. It altered of course. Always divided by parties.Crowd-Continuity
The London County Council at its first assemblinghad the Parliaments and municipal assemblies the world for of examples. may engraft on it some new ideal. and that mark grew more precise and individual with the passing of the generations. it likewise learnt to know itself. may widen its outlook in some direction. By contest with the Crown and with the House of Lords it slowly fashioned and slowlier still learnt its own powers. but the largest factor in its spirit at any moment is not the element contributed to it
. The collective body changesslowly. Thus in processof time the spirit of the House took form. Its spirit is largely traditional.
They placed the laurels of victory not around
their own brows. but on the tombs of the forefathers that
begat them and had generated and infused into the people those ideals and that spirit which had enabled them to attain their success. The fire that is within them is none of their kindling. but
the force that movesthem comes from far back among
the generationswhose bodies rest from labour. After their victorious campaign against Russia. Headed by their King they summoned the spirits of their ancestors to receive the thanks of the living for what the dead had enabled them to accomplish. it is written. a university. Such is a public school.The
by its existing members. but the vast inheritanceit has
received from all the generations which have preceded
them. membership which is of a definedand in
limited character. express this indebtedness of the present to the past in a very beautiful form. that for
. All alike are the guardians of tradition and inherit most of the spirit which they incorporate and transmit.
In theserespects House Commons like any other the of is collectivebody. They supply its executive limbs. a college.with their beautiful social instinct and their recognition of the priceless value of continuity. The ceremony expresseda profound truth. The vitality
presentat any moment in a group of this kind is far
stronger than its constituent members at any moment could contribute.
The Japanese. they performed a remarkable national ceremony. Without organised crowds the generations would not be held together as they are. they have
but to tend the flame. Of the Chinesealso.
For let me declare again that it is in crowds that ideals reside. not individuals. but crowds to thank. though it is only some that happen at any
momentto be upon the earth.
What any generation can accomplishin faith and growthis little compared with what hasbeen accomplished
for them by the generationsthat have gone before.that from them we
draw our enthusiasms. but others of more
. it yet remains true that upon crowds our spiritual life depends. and all the other shortcomings of which we are only too easily aware. An individual may invent an ideal. but unlesshe can get it incorporated in a crowd it is barren of effect and dies with him. Rail against the crowd as we may for its intolerance. They think of Humanity as a singleBeing. It is these that are the most
precious of all its belongings. It is they that incorporate them and they that transmit them. its lack of measure. and many a simple fact needing to be set down plainly in its place is liable to be forgotten in the heat of writing. All live
eternally. Alas! my subject runs away with me. spiritual and eternal. its pride. the organised bodies that have a definite membership. This
is evident enoughin the case material possessions of and
the great treasure of the world's art. and for the preservation of these it has. but it is still more
true for the world's ideals. and to them we owe those flames of
love and passion and glory which make the life of each individual the splendid opportunity that it is. its fickleness. however great. I have written only of the limited crowds.manifestingitself
in time in the series of generations.Crowd-Continuity
them the generations past and the generations to come
form with thosethat are alive one singlewhole.
They have to take root in descendinglayers of the people. mainly by a kind of induction from each layer to the one below it.
Society. They become civilized in any rank before their menfolk submit to the processunder their direction. however. That likewise develops with age and transmits its changing spirit from generation to generation.are producing an already visible effect in taming the savage manners of the lower orders." but
no one can overestimate their power as a civilizing agency.
Time is an essential element in creating them. Thus in India good manners are practically universal and are as much the prerogative of a sweeperas of a Maharaja.though in normal times it is continuous. and occasionally may be hastened by purposeful effort. It is possible to make a good guess at the age of the civilisation of any people by noticing the manners of the lowest classes. Egypt likewise. The sameis true of the Arabs
and all Bedouin folk. and for the same reason. Thus in our own day the labours of primary school teachers-" a most excellent class who have taken up much of the work of the mediaevalclergy . to which we have already referred in another connexion. good mannerscannot be propagated quickly. The
spread of good mannersdownwardthrough the various
strata of the inhabitants of a country is a very slow process. who have cultivated manners from
an extreme antiquity. as those still living can remember them. Even so. Women are the principal agents. When
We speaklightly of "the traditions of good society. and this inductive process is liable to be confused with snobbery. is inhabited by a highly civilised people.
All round the Mediterranean civilisation is of greater antiquity than further north. by Prussian ideals. unhelped by Rome.
Only in Spain are good manners almost universal. Celtic civilisation. from the strength and gifts of the Celtic race. whilst the Italians all came within the sphere of the
ancient Mediterranean civilisation. The ancient Celts fell early under the influence of good traditions and fine ideals. The present rude and uncivilised behaviour of the German army is not an index of depraved nature. if not of such high finish as those of the East. as the Sagas would have enabled us to judge had we not enough surviving evidencebefore our eyes. These were expressedin the great volume of poetry which we know them to have produced. that its poetry must have been of high and perhaps Homeric quality. Modern
. Extinct though it be. and consequentlymanners are good. They are animated. is the foundation and ultimate cause of the good manners of the peoples of Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland. we may infer. and
that is because there the ancient civilisation of Rome
was but slightly set back by the numerically small numbers of the Teutonic invaders and was soon afterwards
reinforced by the distinguished conquering Moors. The inroading Teutons who flooded the Roman Empire came out of their gloomy forests with the manners of bears. as we know.Crowd-Continuity
we pass to Europe the condition is markedly different. and the Prussians are of all European peoples chronologically nearest to barbarism. Rome in her turn must have been an important agent in spreading good manners.
What degraded European manners was the Barbarian invasions. but rather of immaturity.
civilised. partly civilised by the Celts.The
conditions have enabled them suddenly to become. The measure of the civilisation of a people is not. It has taken five thousand years at least to generate the good manners of India. and no blame to them. the manners of the Prussian lieutenant are proof of it.but simply to the fact that they have not been in contact with civilisation long enough for good manners to permeate the folk. the manners of the massesof the people degeneratetill they reachtheir lowest level in Prussia. in proportion to the volume of the Teutonic element in any place is the thickness of the stratum of
populationburdenedwith bad manners. But even so there have only passed over us some fifteen centuries since the barbarian deluge. It met with a relatively feeble population. its equipment
. This is not due to any original sin or depravity in the German people. and they to some extent raised in time the
level of the mass. and they not unnaturally have mistaken strength for a higher kind of power which
they must learn by actual experimentthat it is not. and that is not long enough. In
true civilisation they remain. as the science-poisoned folk of to-day believe. England was deluged with this strong but illcivilised immigration in the fifth and following centuries. in civilising England. and French influence has always been a great factor. but rich and strong. Starting from
the centre of Prance and journeying north-eastward. In France more of the old element
Time will do as much for us unless a new barbarian
deluge occurs. the most backward people in Europe. even before the Norman conquest.
It may provide them with more exact. All of us are on the up grade. The North and West Europeans and the English-speaking folk of North America have not. They use it. had experience of high civilisation. motor-vehicles.telephones. but we have a long road to travel before any of us can come to be a people of gentlemen.telegraphs. not the manners of the aris-
tocracy. is manners. but those of the lower and lowest classes. of that quality which the word "civilisation" was coined
to express. and do not know what the word really means. Not till all the people have good manners are they describable as wholly civilised. as the Indian people actually
are. efficient. The French are more civilised than the English and the Spaniards than the French. but of coursethey use it incorrectly. and elaborate teaching in the sciencesand other subjects of study. as a mass. The people of the Western continent are necessarily less civilised than those of Europe and Asia.
Thus the age of a crowd is an important element in its tone and consequentpower of affecting the individuals composing it. and other material adjustments. but it cannot put on them any individual hall-mark. and the like. trams. hygiene. At most it can but start by incorporating the general ideals of its age and country and giving an opportunity for strong individual teachers to exercise their personal influence in laying the founda67
with railways. water-supply. or upper classes. A newly founded school or University cannot influence its members in the same way as an old foundation. nor even its efficiency in drains. The true measure of what is rightly called civilisation.
from a debatingclub up
to a nation. The same misfortune overtook Greece. each one. But modern Japan is'a direct continuation of old Japan and has suffered no solution of continuity in its years of growth. even the City of Rome continued. Neither modern Italy nor modern Greece is a continuation of the old.-Phi Beta Kappa. The people
of any generation are what their forefathers madethem and are only in a small degree themselves responsible either for the growth or for the decay that may happen in their time. Italy went on existing. to encourageand enforce some special undergraduate virtue or type. The old crowd died and a new one came to occupy its place.The
tion of what will in time grow to be an institutional tone. The Roman Empire perished utterly by the breaking up of its organisation. accumulates traditions and becomes enriched
with idealsand the memoryof pastemotions. They merely live in the old house. for
all its revolutions and invasions. a solution of continuity. notwithstanding the Greek. is
still at heart the land of the Pharaohs
. and Arab conquests. Even Egypt. and every society which is born must some day perish. Alpha Delta Phi.
It is by age that any society. For there are ideals that make for decay as others for growth. India. has in its central structure
the unsevered stem of Brahminism. Roman.-which are intercollegiate and have been formed and fostered. but there was a break.
A realisationof this fact has led the students in young
American universities to supplement the lack of local tradition by aid of the so-called Secret Societies. and so forth. the destruction of its ideals. and the inroads of masses of new people.
Pride of race. in proportion to its age and its historical accomplishments. "Civis Romanussum. They are what the individual
inherits from the crowd into which he happens to be born.Continuity
the same ideals which the pyramids these are emotions expressed for their undervalue. of citizenship which no one will
consider to be anything but a precious birthright for
those who inherit them. to the great names it honours and to the great deeds its fathers have wrought."
."a citizen of no mean
"city. of nationhood." . or
builders.Crowd. It is a notable power for good.
Growth is the sign of life. Whatever lives must have its birth from something that went before. but he is. becausethe larger a crowd becomesthe lesseasily can it be suppressed. and finally the inevitable decline and death. fascinate the victims they are about to devour. like some serpents. The desire for expansion finds its counterpart in a crowd's attractiveness. For in this casealso the victim does not merely join himself to the crowd. then the stage
when it takes on a definite and individual form. Both. like one brick in a building to another. for even in extreme old age it not uncommonly survives. in fact. qualitie amongst
that a longer or shorter period of growth. in certain cases any rate. Through all these stages the instinct of selfpreservation is not absent. to which reference has already been made. are normal qualities of a living entity. so absorbed and digested by it as to lose at
. The former is indeed to a large extent the outcome of the latter.crowds hardly ever. Crowds. its early stages of weakness and comparative formlessness.CHAPTER CROWD-INSTINCTS
instincts which are of special importance in relation to our present inquiry: the instincts of expansion and of self-preservation. Few living things yield themselves willingly to extinction . succeeded a by time of culmination. after
ALL crowds other two possess.
his individuality altogetherand becomean integral part
of the larger creature, as a cell in living tissue. The
hungerof a crowd may be compared with the hungerof an animal; it must assimilate, only that it maygrow not
but that it may merely remain alive. The individual
cells in tissue are worn out, consumed, and have to be
replaced; so is it with the units of a crowd. By death, by changeof mind, by alteration in the circumstancesof individual life, every crowd is being destroyed all the time, and the destruction of its tissue must be made good.
This is obvious in the case, for instance, of a school or
university, and it is hardly less evident in a church or a political body. All clamour for converts, for new adherents, new members. Nowadays many crowds, from nations downwards, try to keep accurate statistics of their membership from year to year so as to detect the first signs of a falling off. The census of a people, like the temperature of a human body, is a valuable indication of the national health. When any undesirable change is registered the political physicians hurry forward to diagnose a disease and prescribe remedies. At such times
the crowd becomes more or less alarmed, as several
European nationshavebeenin recentyearsby the f allingoff of their birth-rate. The suddendrop in the birth-rate of Germany may have been one of the impulses which
impelled the governing classin that country to plunge Europeinto war, and thus, in case victory, to provide of
a new stimulus of growth to the Teutonic crowd. The instinct of Expansion has been throughout all history one of the great causesof war, not, as I trust hereafter to show, the deepest seated cause,but an important
contributory cause. In earlier stagesof civilisation it was ofteneroperativethan in moderntimes; indeed,the ordinary run of historiesseemconcerned with little else throughout two or three thousandyears than wars of expansion. It was by suchwars, or by wars seeming to
be such, that the states and finally the Empires of the ancient world were built up. The growth of organised
humanity waslargely effectedby addingvillage to village
till small states arose,and then by adding statelet to statelet; and this was almost wholly accomplished by war
and conquest. In the remote past of earliestEgypt and
Chaldsea we can dimly perceive the rudimentary process going forward. Thus Egypt grew to be a single kingdom by an agglomeration of small units and the contemporary development of an internal structure that
gave to the whole a commonlife, while simultaneously
the little local gods and totems were amalgamated into a pantheon and a national religion was wrought out of them. Thus Babylonia arose, thus the Hittites, Assyria, the JSgean power, and so forth. And then the kingdoms fought one another into Empires. The Babylonian Empire fell to the Assyrian, the Egyptian and Assyrian
to the Persian, the Persian to Alexander, and the Alex-
andrian to all-embracing Rome. With each increasethe internal structure became more complex and efficient, religious ideas more comprehensive, mankind more socially alive, till finally it was possible for a world religion to be born and a new cycle of human development to begin in the large Empire of Rome, which contained or was in contact with all then existing centresof civilisation. The instinct of national expansion is, however, only an
example a large scaleof what is felt by every crowd, on
even the most ephemeral. A public meeting loves to be crammed. The tighter the pack the warmer the enthusiasm. thin itself? Individuals would be less uncomfortable if
they had more room; yet what meeting would willingly
If the hall is but half full the air is better
to breathe and all present can sit at ease; yet no one is
pleased suchconsiderations;on the contrarya thinly by
attended meeting lacks life and is far harder to deal with than a pack. Those present want a bigger company. They welcome an influx, and if by some managementthe
place fills up, a generalsenseof satisfactionis spread.
Ten meetings of a thousand could be much more easily addressedthan one meeting of ten thousand, and those
presentcould more quietly hear and calmly estimatethe
value of a speaker's arguments. Moreover the ten small meetings would be cheaperto organise and, if reason were the thing appealed to, much more efficient than the one great meeting. But what do we in fact see? An English
movement dates its success from the day when it can fill
the Albert Hall with a shouting throng; and it is an
obvious fact that one successful, enthusiastic Albert Hall
gathering is worth more for purposes of propaganda than a score of smaller gatherings in unimportant halls and chapels. Every crowd desires to grow. The agenciesand arts of propaganda are the expression of this desire. Public meetings, advertisements of all kinds, publicity in every sense, the circulation of literature, the enterprise of newspapers,the adoption and diffusion of popular cries or popular songs- these and all manner of like activities
adherents to them.
have no other end than to spread abroad the ideals of
crowds and attract
other very significant actionswhich display the crowdnature evenmoreplainly. A crowdthat hasnever come physicallytogethergainsgreatly in vigour if it can be in
whole or even in part embodied. If it can be seen it will
bring to bear on outsiders that attractiveness which every
embodied crowd possesses. If it can see itself it will grow hot. Hencethe great political demonstrations which are sometimesorganised,-the huge assemblages, infor stance, of the Primrose League, or the mammoth meetings in Hyde Park. The people who attend them only for the most part know that speaking is going forward at certain centres. Many of them hear nothing, but that makes no difference; they seeone another, or rather they see the crowd, and they are very liable to catch its enthusiasm and become a part of that greater body of which those present are a representative portion.1
1 The following remarks on theatre-audiences by Mr.
are notable in this connexion.
" The truth is, the behaviour of the audience, the theatrical crowd, is "not profitably to be studied as something separateand peculiar. It " ought, wesubmit, to be consideredas part of a larger subject, the behav" iour of the crowd in general. A crowd hasan individuality of its own, " merely becauseit is a crowd, and it cannot but be interested in its own " individuality, apart from all referenceto the cause which has brought " it together. The crowd finds itself an interesting spectacle. From the "
moment of its formation it becomes self-conscious, self-assertive. To
"absorb its attention-that is to say,to makeit forgetits ownexistence 44-is anextremely difficult feat. Howmanyplatformorators, how many " speakers the Houseof Commons, many preachers, many in how how "
actors can do this? So few in any given generationthat the whole gen-
" erationknowstheir names. In his preface LeFih Naturel younger to the "Dumas compared theatrein this respectwith the church. 'Like the
An even more rudimentary application of the principle of crowd-attractiveness is the organisation of processions. The longer they can be made the more useful they are, and the more they attract and impose upon the outsider. Nothing would seem less likely to convert an opponent into an advocate of female suffrage than to see a number of women marching in orderly sequencealong a street, even if they carry flaming inscribed banners and distribute leaflets as they go. But political organisersknow the value of such efforts, and are willing to spend a considerable fraction of their resources upon them. A remarkable instance of this crude method of propaganda was the procession of "Business men" which marched along Fifth Avenue, New York, to show themselves as a crowd opposed to the election of Mr. Bryan to the Presidency of the United States, and to the ideas of his supporters as represented in his person. No one made any speeches. The "Business men" just marched along in
ordered ranks and showed their mass for what it was " *the church/ he said, 'we (i.e., the dramatists) addressourselvesto men "'assembled together, and you cannot gain the ear of the multitude for " 'any length of time or in any efficaciousway savein the name of their "'higher interests.' What is called, then, the 'inattention* of the crowd "is proof of the independence,and the potency, of its existence. It is not "really inattention; its attention, on the contrary, is of the keenest,but
" it is directedto itself. Hencethe perpetual difficulty of all arts which, "like the art of the theatre,involvethe presence a crowd. The crowd of "has assembled because is interested the particularart, but, when it in "
onceit is assembled, finds another subject of interest and a dangerous it
"rival to the artistic subject-namely, itself. The greatdramatist, the " " 'half the people the theatredo not listento the play/ we fear that is in "
an indictment of the play, not of the people."
great actor, is the man who can master this enemy of his, the absorbed " delight of the crowd in its own existence. If it is true nowadays that
The effect produced upon public opinion was conIf it did not defeat the candidate, it contrib-
uted to his defeat, and that, not because of the individual
weightand wisdomof this and the other person marching
along, but becauseof the crowd of them, all united by a common emotion of hostility to Mr. Bryan's raw political theory of things, a hostility just now for the fourth time vindicated, despite President Woodrow Wilson's "affectionate" and solicitude. its existence and increase in volume
Further, the crowd not only needs to make adherents
and power; it needs no less to assimilate, to digest, the individuals which it swallows up. The whole force of public opinion within a crowd is bent on compelling the complete identification of the individual with itself. The businessof every crowd is to change free individuals into
crowd-units, to make them feel with it, act with it, and if
need be give their very lives for its benefit. The dominance of the crowd over the individuals composing it is one of the most important facts to be noted and remembered. A thousand illustrations might be cited. It is nowhere more evident than in the caseof political parties. Most intelligent men if left to themselves would have a set of political views of their own, and no two would think quite alike. That kind of freedom of the individual mind is most undesirable from the party organiser's point of view. He wants "good party men" and them only. Gilbert put the common point of view wittily in the wellknown lines:-
"Every boy and every girl that's born into the world alive
"Is either a little Liberal or else a little Conservative."
Views and theories can only reside in a brain.Crowd-Instincts
The business of the local politician is first to catch adherents to his party and then to drill them into "good
party men/' so that they accept viewsof party leaders the
whole and without question. and change them without
protest when ordered to do so. "Don't reason with them. and Mill. and
that no crowd possesses. Bright. Thus our Free-Trade
Conservative party was all but transformed into a Protectionist body at the word of command of some of its
leaders. If a political body is thus despotic over its members it
. not by argument. likewise became pariahs in their own party and found their very names and watchwords stolen from them and used for the furtherance of views the very oppositeto those that had given them birth. compel them to carry' those views into
effect. The fact is that political parties are not the incorporation of any reasoned set of opinions or political theories.
as we shall see. is to form views and theories and then
catch hold of a crowd and by passion and enthusiasm. The businessof the politician. The samething happened
to the other side.
Henry Labouchere to me. The individual conservative who adhered to
the views he had held for a lifetime becamea party-pariah if he refused to change them. and those old liberals who adhered to the views they had learnt from Cobden. The old Liberal doctrine of Laissez
faire was given up when the Socialists captured the party organisation. but only of a group of emotions." said the late Mr. "hardy assertion is the secret "of all political success." Hardy assertion may evoke
enthusiasm and thus obtain the assent of a crowd when
reasoning would fail.
ness the despotismof opinion in a public school. for "we closed around him.* He "was in a tighter corner than at Exeter Hall.The
is not in this respectdifferent from any other crowd. Thus M. Bergeret. and hundreds of us started sing"ing cB. To do so
is heresy.Being in Hyde Park this afternoon with some " friends. but was stopped by a Hussar. so that to combat and neutralise them is one of the greatest neces-
sitiesof every age.
". dit Bossuet. Dogmatism and intolerance are the necessary qualities of every crowd.. est celui qui a une opinion a lui. but the moment a view has been adopted by a crowd for whatever reason or by whatever means. still
more in a religious body. Anatole France writes. replique M. he was "nearly torn to pieces. illustrated by a letter addressedto the London "Globe" some years ago:" SIB. who was denouncing your paper "for urging on the attack to break up their meeting on "Friday. The views of any individual may be
attacked by another with perfect freedom. c'est que
"les hommes animes d'une foi commune n'ont rien de
"plus presse que d'exterminer ceux qui pensent diff6rem"ment surtout quand la difference est tres petite/' Here is another case in point. we came across a Meeting being held by a pro"Boer from Exeter Hall. Ce qui est vrai. "Un here"tique. He ran for his life down Oxford "Street. . "qui suit sa propre pensee et son sentiment particulier. that crowd considers it
treason if a member of it attacks that view. He was rescued by the police and was taken
.ule Britannia5 and cGod Save the Queen. but I 'am glad to say he had no hearing. . and had what he " deserved.
. for patriotism masqueradesin many
forms. so that the pro-Boers "could not have it all their own way. makes at times supreme claims on every citizen and enforces them by a public opinion so powerful that few can or desire to evade them. but "we would not hear him read them. after which the crowd. yours. The youthful Darwin and the youthful Bill Sikes are the same to it when war
threatens its existence. as they were torn up by one of the "crowd. but no doubt you will "not receive them.and sends
. and the demand is enforced by all kinds of sanctions. drills them to a common obedience. To the crowd all individuals are alike. which is the crowd-emotion of a
Nation. marched back to Hyde "Park in the hopes of finding some more. Patriotism. "I am." "True Born Englishman" no doubt considered himself to be expressing highly patriotic sentiments in this remarkable letter. I may state that this pro-Boer stated that "he intended sending letters of protest to your paper. etc. all singing the national airs. and was "followed by the crowd. "When arriving at the station we sang "God Save the "'Queen/ and the policeman who was escorting him had "the pleasure of taking off this pro-Boer's hat. In time of war patriotism. All praise is due to your paper for announcing "Friday's meeting in Friday's issue. It draws them into the ranks side
by side. demands the very lif e of any of its citizens.Crowd-Instincts
"to Marylebone Lane Police Station for safety. "some fifteen hundred strong. as he was "not gentleman enough himself. "True Bom Englishman. but none were "to be seen.
The slaughter many of
is still only a wound to the collective body.The
them to take an equal chance before the guns of the enemy. nor does their death matter. The crowd does not think much of the death of an individual (unless he be of the crowd-exponent order to be hereafter mentioned). but it is only actually and in very truth so on the assumption that crowd-life.
Have there not in fact been individuals
were more precious than many a nation. that to live is worth while. however mysterious and
inexplicableit may be. What is death to a man is
only a trifling wound to a crowd.
alike heroes. that life means something and is a great and glorious reality. Is crowd-life similarly valuable
and in a higher degree? If the crowd were to break up. We readily assume that the life of a man is precious. though perhaps it might be argued never more precious than the nation
that produced them? For the national crowd at any rate
the death of any individual in its defence is worth while. while all the individuals composing it lived on. crowd-survival. "Who
the dead Bill
"if England lives?"
who sacrifice realised set But Darwin and on fire
The crowd gilds the death of those
for it and calls the dead unrnanifested all the same. But the poor young man who would have
the world was it? is dead Common who
crowd-opinion is that his death has been worth while. From the crowd's point of view all its units must some day die
while it abides. would that necessarily be a catastrophe? Has the crowd also
. and if it possesses potentiality of life and growth. that wound the will heal within the lifetime of the next generation. is worth more than
the highest individual life.
would turn and rend me. and ought
by no meansto sacrificetheir lives evenfor their country whenat war. imagine." speakingthe voice of public opinion impressed upon us from childhood. outside of and perhaps opposedto the organised crowd. Such a revolted individual. always distrust the unconventional man and look upon him with suspicion. I could off-handgive a reasoned and
convincinganswerto this question. if I wereto claim that all martyrs have been ill inspired: public opinion. and it can only be annihilated when it is supplanted by another crowd. but is public opinion right in the nature of things. The instinct of self-preservation is thus also one of the factors in the development of intolerance. As every crowd has small beginnings
. who are the commonest voice used by public opinion. may become the centre of a new and hostile crowd by which the existence of the crowd in possession may be imperilled. which a word must of
now be said.the organised crowd.
If I were to say . That would be
an exampleof crowd-intolerance.Crowd-Instincts
a soul for whose welfare the individual is justified in
"sacrificinghis own life? We say "Yes.as the further progressof my argument will show that I am far from saying .that some individuals are far morepreciousthan the crowd.
Conventional people. as represented my by
reviewers. for a crowd's most potent dread is the fear of annihilation. The reason is because a person who sets minor conventions at naught seemsto them likely to treat in the same easy fashion those higher conventions on which rests Society .
and not merely from the crowd's point of view? Few
as an ancient example. Tribes of low development in the Amazon forests act
in the samemanner. If he ran away from them there was nowhere for him to go. the Pharaoh Amenhotep IV. the instinct of self-preservation makes the members of every crowd fear. Bees not only kill stranger bees from another hive.
Their tribal instinct of self-preserva-
Intolerance finds its classic exemplification in religious bodies. and those not of one age or religion but of all ages and all religions. the reason is to be sought not in some vice of the people involved. They had only to catch an Indian and keep him away from his tribe for about that length of time and he inevitably became their man for life. Mediaeval bigots were not more thorough.The
and gathersin the first instancearounda freely thinking
individual as its nucleus. but in the nature of the crowd itself. and if one of
their own tribe is absentfor six months or more they
kill him likewise on his return.
his old tribe would kill him and so would the members
of any other tribe. the destruction with which the priesthood of Thebes overwhelmed the reforms and the memory of the first great monotheist. but also individuals from their own hive who have strayed away for some days and then find a belated way back. Whenever a particular kind of crowd manifests in successivegenerations over a long period a similar imperfection. that is to say in the nature
. Rubber agents are aware
of this fact and used to avail themselves of it to enlist
rubber gatherers. any individual who differs from them.
tion took that form. and therefore tend to hate. Witness. They kill every Indian belonging
to another tribe who comes in their way.
because the emo-
tion that holds such a crowd together is of an exceptionally
unstable character. rituals. the most liable to vary. but the fact remains that behind all the dogmas. In no category of human crowdship is it so easyto start a new group. Henceof all crowds religious the
are the most emotional. All crowds are rather easy to split. A new form of religious emotion may arise anywhere and at any time. Religiousintolerance involvedin the nature is of a religiouscrowd. and that crowds by their very nature must be fickle. at present it sufficesto note the fact of this instability.
.they are organised usedby leadand
ers to carry out some purpose intellectually conceived. The emotion may be capable of intellectual analysis and its character or concomitant beliefs may be intellectually defined as dogmas. it follows that the instinct of self-preservationin a religious
crowd is more alert than in any other. The semi-religious character of modern socialistic movements is indicated by the tendency of socialistic organisations to subdivide. but none so easy as religious crowds.
1 Further. and organisations of any church there lies finally not an intellectual conception
but a religiousemotion. Thoughall crowds generated are and united by emotion. presently as an independent body. first as a subdivision of an older crowd.Crowd-Instincts
but a religiouscrowd is formed about religiousemotion
and has no other end than to propagate and maintain that emotion. seeing that of all human qualities the emotions are the most evanescent. When we come to the consideration
of the relation of crowds to religion we shall have to consider the means taken by religious bodies to give stability to their structure.
of a beast like itself What it dreads is the creation and inimical
to it.for others as for themselves. A crowd does not fear its own conversion. becauseit fears that an opposed speaker may be able.
The instinct of every crowd is to resentfreedom of speech in any sense opposed to its own views.The
A single orator sufficesto give it vogue. and then resists
with all the power it can control every attempt to alter its definitions or transform their scope. A new form of religion. No prophet of a new emotioncanbe regarded as insignificant even at the start. by the possession of an orator's hypnotic power. after a longer
or shorter period of growth. becomes defined as
clearly as its professorscan define it. delight in free speech. But no crowd can preserve such an attitude towards what it calls heresy. that is to say individuals who are not mere crowd-units. or even
for the most part understand them. but because the
permanence the crowd is involved in the maintenance of
of its formulas. Thus every
church is always in fear of innovators. to create a crowd adverse
to it. The wound a crowd fears
. is almost a necessary quality in every religiousbody. To such men the dis-
cussion of divergent opinions is the very salt of human intercourse. A camel-driver made
Islam. Free individuals. and like to hear views explained and
enforced which are not their own. Intolerance therefore. and the world trembled. The smallest
movement may growwith incrediblerapidity and become a dangerto the persistence the body within which it of arose. not that
its individual members care about the words.
that is to say hatred of any divergencefrom a settled religious form.
"The blood of martyrs is the seedof the Church. Recognition that such must be the casehas led to a great deal
of rather indiscriminate abuse of crowds.
. and their instinct of self-preservation is the parent of some of the worst of these. we are not called upon to be blind to their many essential defects. It in fact fears this worse than their death. whereof let the
following citation from Hazlitt ("Table Talk." Hence the desire to manufacture martyrs. From its unwieldy. Indeed conversion is more than twice as deadly as death. when circumstances do not happen to produce them. 130) serve as an example: "There is not a more1 mean. ungrateful animal than the "Public. It has a lion's mouth. is an expression of the self-samecrowd characteristics as intolerance. It is the greatest of cowards.
"like the man in the Hartz Mountains. It starts at its own shadow. Admitting all the good qualities possessed crowds. whereasif he is not only taken away but added to
another crowd the loss is "minus two. for it is afraid of "itself." p. and trembles at "the mention of its own name. it "dreads the least opposition to it. in the case of an army. overgrown dimensions.Crowd-Instincts
is detachment of its constituent items and their absorption in another crowd. but acting in another direction. If an adherent is killed the loss is "minus
one". "selfish. stupid. becausea crowd may even
profit by the self-sacrificing death of one of its members. dastardly. and recognising how necessaryand by efficient they have been in the development of civilisation and humanity. just as desertion to the enemy is. pitiful." Thus conversion
is twice as deadly as death. spiteful. envious. and shakeslike isinglass "at the touch of a finger.
poverty. But the crowd. with ears erect and sleepless eyes.
. and the consequent continued propagation of the unfit.are not often to be found labouring
for that. vaguely desirousof keeping up its numbers. This instinct inspires the "cockering-up" of the imbecile. curiously enough. but no crowd will realise this. like any other crowd.
wisemen. Nature provides for the extinction of suchby disease. and the like disqualifications.
The self-preservative instinct of a crowd is manifested in countlessother ways. and social
disorganisation should be the aim of every wise individual. which the readercan easily observe
for himself. fights this tendency of
nature. the insane. It will suffice if I cite one more. not at all in the interest of the individual.
instinctively dreadsis loss of membership.'"
If there were not much to be said on the other side the case for the Crowd would indeed be a bad one. What the public. malnutrition. which at our present stage of civilisation is the great impediment to the Eugenics propaganda. that is to say
the untimely death of its members unless they give their lives for it. An executed murderer does in fact part with his life for the crowd as completely as a soldier slain on
the battle-field. the scrofulous. the consumptive. It is in
response this instinct of the public that so much trouble to is taken to save the lives of weakly infants and to keep alive the unfit of all kinds.The
"the heart of a hare. It is this
instinct. the violent criminal.
"It stands listening its fears. The purpose of Eugenics is of courseto make the stuff of a people stronger and the crowd of them therefore more efficient. but at present you cannot get the public to think so. however.
and the emotion of the crowd will force that work along without any sort of regard for the interests and prejudices of individuals.Crowd-Instincts
through an emotionalmisconception its own interests. of
Of coursethe time may come when public emotion may be directed in another direction through the compelling influence of clear-sighted individuals. Kindle in the crowd the desire to be stronger and to contain more long-lived units. make it feel that this can be accomplished by working along certain lines.
. They will succeed in proportion as they enlist on their side the crowd-instinct for self-preservation and expansion. and evoke the passions men on their of
side before they can accomplish any practical result. Only crowd-emotion can bring this about.but reasoning
will never put them in force. It is reason and
science only. not scientific reasoning. Public opinion is not formed
by reasonbut by emotion. be it never so conclusive to the small minority who are capable of understanding it. Eugenistsmust quit their
laboratories and statistical bureaus. at present. must go forth into
the public area. that perceive excellent the results which Eugenic provisions could produce.
To live in the crowd-atmosphere. crowd-standards. and employing crowd-language. or at least of appearing to do so and of shining with a corresponding prestige. to play with the crowd-beast as a lion-tamer with lions. feel its throb. to partake of the mighty crowd-life. which an individual may wield without help from any crowd. In return for these limitations the leader enjoys a greater or less privilege of controlling crowd-action and wielding crowd-power.CHAPTER
CROWD-COMPELLERS g jiave ^^ jar onjv considered the human indi-
individuality as pure and himself as independent as possiblefrom all crowd-influence. its vaster vitality . Crowd-power wielded by an individual
vidual a crowd-unit a man as oras keeping his
. conformably (so far as it is visible) to crowd-conventions. It is said that they have a thirst for power. Money is likewise power. but that is an insufficient description. What then are the conditions of leadership? What is the nature of the relations between the leader and the crowd he leads? The life of any kind of crowd-leader is what we call "public life." It is life led under the eye of the crowd. crowd-morals. its power. But a man may have another and far more important relation to a crowd: he may be its leader.such are the temptations that take some tolerably decent individuals into the bondage of public life.
Suchthe builders of empires." thus described such a man as "a primordial and creative "mind. a public man can only do what he can persuadeor compel his crowd to please. and who drive the crowd to do the work they determine that it shall do. Csesar.Crowd-Compellers
is of another sort and may be. Crowd-leaders fall into one of three categories: the crowd-compeller. often is. in " Coningsby. the crowd-exponent.
The crowd-compeller is a type that will be recognised without difficulty. who fashion and master a crowd big enough to give effect to it. God has "'given me thought. one that will say to his fellows. Disraeli. though the poverty has a way of passing off pretty quickly! A wealthy individual can do within limits what he pleases. describes the former as "men of the mighty subjective "race. in pointing out the difference between the types which I name the crowd-compellerand the crowd-exponent. combined with
relative individual poverty and weakness. Such were the great conquerors of the past-Alexander. Charlemagne. such Disraeli.the initiators of widespreadpopular movements. They are likewise frequently credited with the gift of prophecy. I have discovered truth. and you "'shall believe/ " Observe how naturally inspiration from Heaven is claimed for these. Theseare the men who conceivea great idea or far-reaching plan. 'Behold. Thus Mazzini. who stamp the impress of their own individuality "-like conquerors. and derive the life
. Let us consider these three types in succession. and the crowdrepresentative.both upon the actual world and "upon the world of their own creation. Such in recent days was Napoleon.
as it were. great intellectual qualities of many kinds . that though he was "clothed with little authority. The essential quality without which all the rest profit nothing is what is called hypnotic
force. even the greatest.
"prophet-like. the first more especially awaken our affection. either from the life "within themselves. and that the circle of deference
"to his will was always increasing around him. Each are equally
"powerful: the last more especiallycall for our admira"tion. Poets. capacity for right decision. "and did as he bade them. yet it waspresently seen
"that those who were near him fell under his dominion.canaltheir own individu"ality to identify their soul successively eachof the with
"objects that pass across the surface. do not need it. and many of the great ones have been conspicuously lacking in some such capacities. quick insight.The
"they make manifest in their works. But all business. Foresight.they foresee. The great menof the second "category reflect the images the externalworld like a of "tranquil lake. all doing dependson foreseeing difficulties and providing against them. or from that life of the future which. Every crowd-leader needs foresight.
when he went as Ambassador to Turkey. except what he could
"draw from the resources of his own mind and from the
"strength of his own wilful nature. however. but the foresight of the crowd-compeller is not as to what will happen but as to what he can cause to happen with the human organism under his hypnotic control."^ Foresight is a necessaryquality for a crowd-compeller. scholarsand the like. and."
. understanding of men.all politics. Thus it was said of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe.all these together do not suffice to make a crowd-compeller.
for instance. with the refrain:" 'An de sinner is a burnin' in de pit!' "He droned each verse in a thrilling undertone that was "almost a whisper. everybody joining.Crowd-Compellers
It is seldom that a man can make himself so effective to influence the course of events and the fate of nations as
this great diplomatist actually did for better or worse. is a specimenas reported in the New Orleans "Times-Democrat. As nearly
. He sang in a wailing minor key that went "straight to the nerves. or at any rate
by such masterful speechas attains the effect usually
ascribed to oratory." describing the efficiency of a
negropreacher. When he finally ceased Scott himself jumped "up and began to intone another hymn . As the "hymn died down Scott set up a sort of chant. Then followed the most "remarkable part of the whole performance. and before he got through with
"the first stanza. "when an old cotton-headed negro started a camp-meet"ing hymn. Here.
There is indeed a kind of crowd compulsion of a low order commonly well exemplified in revival meetings. I could feel the tension in the atmos-
"phere. Hamp Scott by name. The meetinghad
been dull. and the reporter was about to make his escape. The effect was "electrical. Normally the crowdcompeller onewhocomes direct contactwith a crowd is into
and masters it by the power of oratory. but when he came "to the climax he suddenly straightened up and rolled "out the refrain like a clap of thunder.a typical negro "composition. and in five minutes half the congregation was "on the verge of hysterics. by the mereimpressof his will upon individualswith whom he camepersonallyinto contact.
foaming at the mouth and tearing at their "clothes. disent une heure. II est certain qu'il' leur a si "bien parle. 1912.
. "staring and rigid. rising and falling like the wind "in the chimney/' This exhibition of hypnotic force exercisedby an individual over a crowd is evidently of a low order.The
"as I could make out he simply repeated the words 'Oh! " TLawd! Oh-h-h!' at the same time swaying his body "back and forth. but the chant soon had "everybody under its spell.1 The occasion in question was a meeting of Polish exiles which was held on Christmas Eve. or mere cumu-
lative excitement. but all the negroes took it up and the "monotonous reiteration had a strange mournful cadence "that reminded me somehowof the breaking of waves at "sea. It is cited from the unpublished Journal de Piffoel. Kar6nine: "George Sand. whereupon "le sombre Mickiewicz" arose and improvised a reply. or the weird surroundings. Still others wept and shouted. sa vie et ses ceuvres": Paris. 201. like cataleptics. "Personne ne peut dire exactement ce qui s'est passe. "de tous ceux qui etaient la chacun en a garde" souvenir un "different: les uns disent qu'il a parle"cinq minutes. et qu'il a dit de si belles choses. Slowacki had recited some verses in
honor of the poet. and others writhed on "the floor. les "autres. and all the "while the chant continued. Someof the darkies fell back. qu'ils sont tous
1 Printed in W. 1840. I can't say.p.in honor of the fete-day
of Mickiewicz. but I will here cite an example of a not dissimilar phenomenon in which a very different classof personswas concerned. Whether it was some peculiar quality in the voice
"of the leader.
I have beforeme the report of a public meeting. mais 1'effet de sa parole sur ses audi" teurs. On n'entendait que
" cris et sanglots. "d'autres n'ont pu dormir le nuit. which well exemplifies this kind of authority. "Mais pendantqu'il lui racontait commeil pouvait non
"pas 1'improvisation Mickiewicz(personne pu de n'a
"en redire un mot). The. and of making it cheer with enthusiasm opinions which were displeasing to the people before the speaker obtained dominion over them.Crowd-Compellers
"tombes dans une sorte de delire. "Les voila tous convaincus qu'il y a dans ce grand homme
"quelquechose surhumain." This kind of ecstatic power is perhapspossessed relaby tively few and may not be very wholesome. si
"etrange quesa femmeFacru fouet s'estfort epouvantee. in the ordinary acceptation of the term. unfortunately too long for quotation and impossible effectively to abridge.speakerwasnot an orator. Le comtePlater. plusieursont eu desattaquesde nerfs. a prier et a divaguer.but the results
producedby it are certainly remarkable. He was a public
man of much force of character. en
"rentrant chez lui. de qu'il estinspire a la mani"
ere desprophetes. etait dans un etat d'exaltation. Of a higher kind is the power which some possess not so much of carrying along with them in their own enthusiasm an assemblageof already sympathetic or at least of neutral persons. whose course of action had
been objectionable to a large body of the organisedwork93
. et leur superstition est si grande qu'un "de ces matins Us pourraient bien en faire un dieu. but of mastering and compelling to follow them an assemblage openly and consciously hostile.and not always
evil. la comtesse Plater est tombeedans le memeetat que " son mari et s'est mise a pleurer.
and the attacking force had had things their own way and were in possessionof the outskirts of the city. Then he insinu-
ated rather than stated some of the points of view to which they had been opposed. By good luck. but it was
half an hour before his hold was secure.or rather attacked from one side. The meeting was at first noisy and openly hostile to him. but did not dwell on them and quickly returned to matters of general human agreement.but that quality is essential. They of course began to cheer. Gradually he thus got hold of them. At all events the direction of
. When he had them well in hand and all their
sympathies were captured he explained his policy and they acceptedit with cheersand sent him away after two hours' speech. Once I had occasion to watch the rapid and masterful effect of the intervention of a single man at a critical moment. however. His instinct rather than any plan led him to put
forward first certain broad statements on which he and
the crowd were certainly agreed.The
men of a great city. covered with such glory and honour as was in their power to bestow. which he addressedat length. My newspaper report says that "verbal hot shot" was fired at him from all sidesof the hall. It was in the capital of a Central American state at a time of revolution. More qualities are needed. He had the courageto call a meeting of his critics. He beganby taking up a manly and courageousattitude. Public men who can accomplish such a result possessthe elements of crowd-compelling power. He adopted great plainness of speech. the Governor of the city either fell ill or ran away. The city was being besieged. Everybody expected it to fall next day and the defending force was on the point of surrender.
such sometimeswas Mr. Indian. and the various half-castes or quarter-castes of all five . were
presently silenced. "who moving others are
Such was Disraeli. however. Crowd-
compelling orators are those. for.worked together. and the consequences of "the decisions taken during that instant may last long "after the orator and the audience have both passed "away. He was not an orator. of course. commonly belong to the crowd-exponent class. The result was produced by one man who authentically possessedthe crowd-compelling gift. The fighting was of the most desperate character. and are no less moved and no more
masters of themselves as stone. No soonerwas he in control than the whole atmosphereof the city changed as though by magic." Orators. Oratory. but he was a born leader of men. The couple of guns which had been fetched by the rebels .ammunition and all on contract from the United States. Out of 5000 men engaged on both sides lessthan 2000 were not killed or wounded by the end of the day.
. breastworks of sacks filled with earth were raised. Trenches were dug in the night. nigger." than are the audience. as Bagehot says.gunners. JosephChamberlain. Chinaman. the citizens lost their terrors. The fighting men becamefull of hope. Every one-Spaniard. but then the city was saved and the rebels were finally chased away. and European. and such need no gift of oratory. so far as I know. is a powerful helper in obtaining crowd-control. When the dawn broke fighting began again.Crowd-Compellers
affairs passedinto the hands of the deputy-governor. Gladstone. "An orator has a do" minion over the critical instant. such also in some degree was Mr.
He was even supposed have been the to
inventor of that idea. Both in
that policy and in his later imperialismhe was acting as
a crowd-exponent. and unaggressiveEmpire" while Mr. voicing the existing ideas of his party. Thereupon he set forth on a new career as crowd-compeller. Mr. to help it to grow and attain power. so long as Mr. a determining part in compelling our withdrawal from the Sudan after the Gordon catastrophe. the Unionist party was in fact a Tariff-Reform body. to make it
obedient to his will. and he so far succeededthat before long it had become large enoughand strong enoughto capture the organisation of the Unionist party and to include the bulk of that party within the limits of his newly formed body. Chamberlain was a little Englander.The
Indeed the highest type of crowd-compeller has not often been an orator. From that time on. subject to his control and existing to enable him to accomplish the ends he had in view. but became the exponent of his own personal opinions. taking. he was no longer the voice of any formed party. not imposing his own views upon them.
He had thenceforward to form his own crowd. for instance. or rather when he threw off the control of Cobdenism (to which he had submitted) and reverted openly to his own original protective views. As a matter of fact he was nothing of the sort. But when he became a convert to protection. They are usually silent men. Chamberlain in the latter part of his ministerial career was
rightly regardedas the incarnationof the idea of British imperialism. Chamberlain remained active in political life. Lord Roseberyhad been shaping and urging the ideal of our "wise. tolerant. Pew will deny that
if his physicalhealthhad beenmaintainedhis party would
Public opinion is never the opinion of the averageman. impose will uponthe wholecountry. he
makes that to be public opinion. with that disregard for individual
"rights which its intriguesusuallygenerate. The business of the historian. Nor is there any limit to the human area within which he desires to reign. He must go forward conquering and to conquer as long as his
own individual life lasts."The crowdcompellerforces the public to adopt his opinion. as far as he can. but he must. therefore. to make it incorporate him. on the contrary he is more likely to resemblethe Claverhouse Sir Walter of
Scott. Nor does that suffice him. so organise the crowd which he
forms as to make it incorporate his policy and continue to pursue it long after his own physical presence vanished. or till some great
successor arose to infuse new life into the old ideal or
replace it by a new one.Crowd-Compellers
havecaptureda majority of the votersand he wouldhave
been enabled. and then have founded dynasties. Instinct impels him to impregnate everybody with his views. has It is thus that in the past men have first made themselves kings. to his The crowd-compeller not listen for public opinion does that he may guidehis stepsby it. for there
. His own energy of na-
ture impels him to project himself upon the crowd. of course. which lasted as long as the original impulse continued. whom he described as "profound in politics and " imbued.in consequence the force of his own domiof
nant personality. but to observe the individual mind expressed in the crowd. is not merely to trace the ideal or crowd-mind from age to ageoperating on the individual. to
realisehimself in its larger life. to make his brain the centre and originating power of its brainless body.
The character of the public in any age and country is determined by that of existing and past thinkers. such as Bismarck and
Cavour. If the French Revolution had not gone before him Napoleon might have remained obscure.
It is not the nation we must indict. such giants requiring not merely capacity but opportunity. the Emperor William II. We may suspect the existence of crowd-compelling powers of high degree in Lord Kitchener. not a very rare quality. It is the opinion or group of opinions imposed upon the public by a successionof thinkers. but the fact. who have operated on the crowd and obtained control over it. if it be a fact. Nietzsche.
All nations are natural
The manifestation of great crowd-compellers on the political world-stage is a rare phenomenon. in England at any rate. A man's gifts and powers of insight must match his day. That he was called for imperatively at a critical moment by the national voice is a strong indication that the people recognised in him above all others the leader of -whom they were in need. have been few indeed.Treitschke. To measure the value of German public opinion in 1914 we have only to name the men whose opinions it voiced . The value of public opinion is thus to be measured by the quality of the leaders who control or have controlled it. but the
compellers who dominated it. and such recognition is often sound insight. Cecil Rhodes did not
rise to the full height of a career.The
exists no such. Bemhardi. will only be fully revealed in processof time. It is
. But the crowd-compelling power on a smaller scale is.person. In our own time the number of great crowd-compellers.
extraordinary. India to was conquered is held by the British subaltern. One day the amusements* committee arranged for sports. though developed education.Crowd-Co mpellers
thepower lead to men. priceless a heritage certain of classes
in this country. will enable individuals to become leaders of men unless they are born so to be. navy. the false starts at pulling. Immediately all the competitors became orderly. and there was a young British officer among the passengers. His orders were brief and clear and the sum-
mons to begin pulling came from his mouth like a pistol-
shot. When things were at their worst up came the young subaltern and took the businessin hand. No amount of free education. Unlessthe germ of it by
is in a man at his birth it can never be implanted in him. If it had been his own men he was ordering. of selection by vote or any other agency. and civil service. and one of the incidents was to be a tug-of-war.the
. but unfortunately not for politics. It was amusing to watch the confusion attending the formation of the string of competitors. they gladly did exactly what he
bade them. This poweris essentially hereditary.
I was once returning from Jamaica on a Royal Mail steamship.who and
as naturally leadsthe Indian soldier as a sheep-dog controls a flock. whereit is probably morerichly possessed than in any other. of open competitive examinations. We select politicians by a kind of competitive examination in stump-speaking. That is why good officers seldom rise from the ranks. We do in fact in England breed and train such a class for our army. unless the right type of man has first
been compelledby circumstances enter them. and other little misfires.
. and these belong not to the hands but to the brain of a leader. the success a nation depends. This powerof in command. by which had also beendeveloped him by somepractice. Upon it.accompanied it always is by capacity for as
individual initiative when required. but
it wasa merecasualcrowd of passenger-idlers. giving them
most of their efficiency. far more than upon the individual capacity of working men. best acknowledged. A good leader can get better results out of
second-rate human material than a bad leader out of a
better class. lie spirit and the power of co-ordination. is the most valuable attribute of the upper class in any nation.The
instinctive obedience would have been self-explained. That nation is and always must be greatest in which the power of leadership is commonest.not merely in war but in of all categoriesof activity. Yet they obeyedhim instantly and instinctively because poshe sessed nature the power to command.and most employed.for behind skill and knowledge. and not least in manufacture and commerce.
T " "^HE crowd-compeller. and who expressesin clear language the emotion of the dumb organism. is the
type of man who produces movement a and
either forms or gives a new direction to a nation. or a group of newspaper writers . as we have thus seen. he
. or any sort of crowd. who have not made it but who have beenmade by it. The crowd-exponent is the man who feels by sympathetic insight and mere sensitivenessof nature as the crowd feels or is going to feel. oftenest after his death. "that's true . or a writer. He may be a speaker.you're right!" Such are the normal responsesof a crowd to its momentarily fittest exponent. They are often of a type that would have horrified the crowd-compeller to whose activity they in fact owe their existence. But when the movement is once strong and tending towards the attainment of its object.go it.but whatever he is. or has attained it."just what we've been thinking. sometimes during the lifetime of its originator. The crowd loves anyone who will express its ideas . For all the ideas of a crowd are necessarily of a vague emotional sort and can only be expressedby them in the form of shouts or actions of approval or dissent. produces new leaders. and these men are crowd-exponents. old man! . that movement in its turn.
To the born crowd-exponent the voice of the people is indubitably the voice of God. He waits till that work has been done and the crowd has already taken form. existenceand power. power. Crowd-enthusiasm is the atmosphere in which he lives and breathes and has his being. He in fact borrows his thunder from them and gives back
to them what he has himself received from them. The great men of this sort do not go forth to find out by laborious research what a people are thinking. 'and the faculty he most needs is the power of speech.The
is the voice of the crowd and his utterance is really theirs. that he should often be an orator. nor that most entrancing orators should be of his type. then he plunges into the thick of it and says with eloquence. Whereupon they raise him aloft with loud applause and worship him like a god becausehis voice has given them words and enabled the crowd to realise its own mighty. and then go forth and proclaim a new gospelto an unwilling world. they cannot avoid sharing it. It is only the little men who are always listening at the keyhole of the public to catch some secret of its tones. and having discovered it then consciously adopt and voice the public opinion. His businessand joy is not to think out the solution of some difficult social problem in the privacy of his study. therefore. It is not surprising. and enthusiasm that which the folk about him are dimly and vaguely feeling. his is the stuff of which poets are made. It bears them
. He is by nature akin to an artist. The great men catch the opinion of the public as they breathe the air. if vague and ill-defined.
Hence the chief quality of a crowd-exponent is sensitiveness.
. and that his volte face. but that he did actually and truly change his mind. not intentionally and to gain some end." Notwithstanding these remarkable coincidences. it is generally admitted. Gladstone as they had witnessed it. was not made against his beliefs. in England at all eventsand perhaps the world. in
was the late Mr. "I do not "accuse him. and "to oppose what before he had advocated. and I have "observed that these changes have approximately syn"chronised with the altered interests of his politics. but I claim that his views have "completely changed on two or three occasions. then a very old man." said the Bishop. though he likewise possessed crowd-compelling authority. merely in order to attain power. even on the Irish question. Ellicott. even if that direction be
the very opposite of the line they had previously been pursuingin the wakeof their own judgment. He felt the current changing or about to change in the political field. "of having changed his "views to suit his politics. but because he could not help it. even by those who did not agreewith Mr.Crowd-Exponents
away.so that "he came to advocate what before he had opposed. Gladstone.willingly enough their part asa rule. and he instinctively turned towards the
new ideal. discussing with a contemporary the career of Mr.
If he was thus conscious of the set of public opinion. on that and other occasions. The greatest crowd-exponent the nineteenth cenof tury. Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. but whither on
it flows thither they must tend. He did so. Gladstone. I remember to have heard Dr. that he was not the man to change his views for the sake of personal advantage.
that the two men were unsympatheticto one another. the other expressing only so much of his own personal opinions as he thought fit to reveal. 1881. "There is a little playfulnessin his manner which contrasts with the drynessof his favourite topics and the "intense gravity of his earnest character.
"He will imbibe from one audience different 'vapour' of
"premises from that which he will receivefrom another. The
one speakingthe voice of the crowd and impassioned with all its enthusiasms..1 The contrast
between him and Disraeli was the most remarkable modern
example of the opposition of two types of leader. morals. and many of its its
prejudices. who were of the crowd-compelling sort. never car-
hot wrote of him:-
"No onehalf guides half follows the moodsof his audi"ence more quickly.is now not disputed it
1 "Biographical Studies. more easily. measuring andevents nor men by
the yard-stick of any crowd's morality."
In these respects Bagehot contrasted him with Chat-
ham and Burke. a "sophisas
NotwithstandingDisraeli's satire and the distrust of
manyof his bestcontemporaries. 95. p. . .afterreceiving the from him a douche the crowd's of passion..
andthatoneof themcould define other. He reReives his premises from his audience like a vapour and "pours out his conclusions upon them like a flood. . than Mr.
104. inebriated with the exuberance his of
but the passageis too long for quotation.The Crowd
in Peace and War
he was even more keenly consciousof the mood of a
crowd whose in presence wasactuallyspeaking." London.
After a brief greeting he hurried off. yet. and "not without joyous laughter." wrote Kinglake." There is a yet meaner type of crowd-exponent even
than these who merely at times lose their heads. There
is the leader who is a conscious hypocrite and who follows. excited about some local matter. and knowingly follows. whose politics consist in anticipating the direction
in which the crowd will move and then loudly directing
. being vehement and careless in their way
"of applaudingloud words. A crowd. and whose name is secure of repute among the greatest leaders of the nineteenth century. A man in the front rank stopped to speak with a friend he was passing on the pavement. to be strenu"ous rather than wise. Then. "I can't stop "with you. If he was a crowd-exponent
he was among the best and noblest examplesof the
type. came running down a street. and the result is. grow "blind to logical dangers. that these teach-
"ers. they encourage their orators
"and those also who addressthem in writing. the crowd he pretends to guide.Crowd-Exponents
that Mr. trying always to be more and more forcible. I must run ahead of the crowd. There are others of meaner sort who allow the emo-
tions derived from the crowd they are addressing to run
away with them and make them say the thing that on
reflection they would wish not to have said. Gladstone was a really great man who lived and acted in pursuit of high ideals. I am their "Leader!" There are plenty of public men of this sort also. "Although "the English. saying. reaction begins. and leap with headlong joy into "the pit which reasoners call the absurdum. "are by nature wise in "action.
and this abstract
ideal of might.
. spiritual unification of Germany. hand in hand with the agitation which
accompanied the formation of an Imperial navy (the
Army not being in structure imperial but local) effected
the. I have referred above to the German publicists. They
merely caught from a smaller crowd the notions which they expressed imposedon a larger.The Crowd
in Peace and War
it to go that way. Theunguided crowdis always fool.though appearingto be crowd-compellers and receivingmuch of the credit and applauserenderedto such. They caught and the crowd-spiritof the provincial and backwardPrussian upper classgroup and they gave it currency throughout Germanyand imposedit upon the whole nation as the
German ideal. Treitschkeand the others. But in fact
thesemen were not true crowd-compellers striking but
examples a not uncommon of type of prophet. The philosophers therefore. The new Germany seeking for some ideal.the narrowness.werein fact merely Prussiancrowd-exponents.as the crowd-compellers who
impregnated Germany the vile political idealsfrom with
which the world is now suffering misery. a
and the man that follows in front of it insteadof guiding it must thereforeoften look like a fool also. and they were able to do this because
political developments made all Germanya new big had political unit with Prussia at the top. was not unnaturally attracted by the notions
which had carried Prussia to success. after the political unification had been accomplished. upon which the diverse
andpreviously discordant parts now composing Empire the
could unite. the emotional vice of
their popularphilosophy. with
all the feebleness.
It follows that we have with us and
can study whenever we open our newspapersthe sayings and behaviour of no inconsiderable number of very efficient crowd-exponents. He is. His emotions respond as sensitively to those of a crowd as ever a barometer to changesin atmospheric pressure. It is said that in private life he is the most reasonableand moderate of men. The Welsh crowd as readily accepted Mr. Winston Churchill. Lloyd George and he had little difficulty in obtaining corresponding recognition when he came to occupy English platforms. provided he possesses needfulgifts of sensitivethe
ness and emotional speech. He is the visible and audible incarnation of popular tendencies. recognised him immediately as one of its own sort. because better organised and more con-
sciousof its own existenceand power than ever before. It does not take him long to attain a position of leadership. wagged its tail. The crowd is always quick to recognise an efficient exponent. Thus the crowd merely as it were sniffed around Mr. in fact. ex-
cept perhaps the case the Parisiancrowd during the in of
French Revolution. As a solicitor it is related that he proved himself to be a master in bringing opponents to a com107
. but he has perfectly voiced
the ideas of the crowd by which he acts and from which
he draws both his emotions and his power.Crowd-Exponents
In our own day the crowd has become more prominent
as an active force. and came to heel. the most prominent and powerful crowd-exponent in our day. He has never manifested any trace of an individual mind or of independent thought. No one would guess it from his public appearances. or apparent leader-
ship. He has added nothing to the stock of political ideas.
When he addresses an audience of bankers in the City of London. and both the ideas he expresses and the form in which he puts them are agreeable to his audience.
and then also he was voicing the opinions of the people
he was addressing. In fact it may be suspected that the feeling of the audience led him to state their case with somewhat less restraint than he might have used had
his audience been colder. The strongest warning ever plainly uttered to Germany came from his lips in the City of London. become spokesthe to their
man and executiveofficer when war broke out and the
need co-operation thewhole for with bodyof capitalists
became imperative. and
gathering the incense of cheers and enthusiasm from
able.not because thewisdom enlightenment of and they weredrawing from him. no lesspatriotic
than himself. No onehandled angrymenbetter. Yet the same manwhohad abused capithe
talists of England throughout the length and breadth
of the countryfrom all kindsof popularplatforms.but because wassaying he what theyfelt. For the same reason when he
went down to Limehouse and held up Lord Rothschild
and other prominentcitizensof London.he wasmerely to and voicing
the ignorant prejudices of the crowd in the hall.No onewasevera moredocileand
consequently efficient a more ChancellortheExchequer of
and probably felt truly. The same
sensitivesympathy puts him in immediate touch with
the emotions of a public meeting. he cannot fail to catch their tone. This was of
due to his sensitively sympathetic nature.The
promise. Eachfelt. that he had the sympathetic understanding the intermediary negotiator. without leastdifficulty. scorn ridicule.
speaking for it on February 28th.to listen with sweet
reasonableness the wise. Gladstone. Lloyd George is a more perfect example of the highest type of crowd-exponent pure and simple than was Mr. Mr. could have been more effi-
cient than he was with his docile and sympathetic nature and his desire to discover and do the best. or could
he have brought himself to hesitate. to give to effect to their efforts for the public good. Finally. no one better than Mr. when
party differences oppositionsweresubmerged and under
the overmastering tide of patriotic union with which the whole country moved against the foreign peril. party crowdsdisappeared werefusedtogether and
within the great single national crowd made supreme by the war.Crowd-Exponents
under such circumstances. 1915. by personal and intellectual conviction. of which he himself had so often before
been the applauded voice.of seeing furtherand
more deeply into the enormous problemswhich had to
be solved and solved at once. nor did he hesitate. Both incorporated the emotions of their party or audience with similar ease. Only a really
greatfinancier capable mastering argument bigof in the gestmindsin the financial world. or rather it speaking in him. He had no prejudices. Gladstone's
. Lloyd George expressed the emotions of that crowd also. to tell
the labour crowd. and this he did not as. Mr. some very home truths not pleasant for it to hear. but becauseanother. when. to catch their tone. He caught its spirit at
once and voiced its emotions. was finding voice in him. and for the time being an opposedand superior crowd. holding opposite views to theirs. Lecky made the profound observation that Mr.
in fact. He
was thereto help men cometogether.
Of course he must be an orator. It enlightens and drives him. He does not really guide the crowd. he does not enlighten it. His
emotions are excited. sympathy. because he must possess the qualities of sensitiveness. so that his words and urgenciesare not his own but those of the crowd with which. not
Individuals. he does not drive it. The same observation is likewise true of
Mr. His words are planned and spoken with excitement." an indication or of the absorption of his emotions in those of his crowd. But Mr. but rather
showeda skilful crowd-compulsion avoiding the raising in
of issues which would have placed his crowd-sympathies and personal convictions in opposition to one another. and those he never
compromised at the bidding of any crowd. then. Lloyd George may suffer from a like fine disability.The
vindictiveness was "more frequently directed against
" classes parties than against individuals. and emotion which are essential to an orator. is the voice and expression of the emotional crowd. But the orator neither
conceives nor delivers his address with calm mind. and he must command the flow of language which enables him to state easily and at once the emotions he experiences. He is likely also to be a phrase-coiner. The higher faculties of reason cannot operate except with calm. at the time of speaking. for crowds envisage crowds or crowd-representatives. he is in hypnotic relation. Gladstone was besides a man of powerful individuality and had strong personal
views of his own on certain matters. The crowd-exponent. This with us is as true of speeches
. Lloyd George. The oratorical impulse disorganises a speaker's own mind. Not impossibly Mr.
when carried." According to Bagehot it used to be said that "Mr. they would work. You are carried away. "which isolates the orator. you say more often "than not what others think instead of what you think "yourself. though the temptation to sink to that level is strong. has many advantages. "it is dangerous. The assembly ferments all round and close to "you." Thus the strength of the party system with us may owe a good deal to the mere arrangement of seats in the House of
Commons. Gladstone. conversing with Victor Hugo. There is a magnetic communication.
A crowd-exponent need not necessarilybe a demagogue. standing in the midst of your own "party. it is baleful. You "are subjected to it. but speaks from his place on the floor. There was nothing of the demagogueabout Mr. as in some other deliberative assemblies. "Pitt thought more of the manner in which his measures
"would strike the House of Commons than of the manner
"in which. It is one of the peculiar characteristics of the House of
Commons that a member does not. You rise (here the King rose and "imitated the gesture of an orator speaking in Parlia"ment). But this is bad.Crowd-Exponents
made in the House of Commons as from a public platform. and on that side. you let yourself go. "'with gross indignity/ It is simply applause that is "sought on both sides. "'England has suffered a gross insult'. In France our Tribune. On this side somebody says. described the consequences our method.
. ascend a tribune and address the
whole house. He said:of "Have you seen the English Parliament? You speak "from your place. Louis Philippe.nothing more.
Ambition is not the main motive power that urges the crowd-compeller to action. That is in the nature of the beast. It is not the crowd
that is caught by the demagogue. It may be a concurrent impulse. It is the dwelling-place of ideals. It is the latter that is the function of a demagogue. We saw something of the kind happen to Mr. He became the voice of all that is worst in
class-greed and class-prejudice. Bismarck. to be continually "caught by the rhetoric of clever and ambitious leaders/'
This I believe to be a false conclusion. it is likewise the home of prejudice and greed. All crowds are normally hostile to all
other crowds. As a crowd is merely emotional. its emotions may be either good or bad or both. who was not in this matter an impartial observer. He is seizedby an irresist-
. stated that the support given to the Social-democracy in Germany in his time "rested on the fact that the judgment of the masses "is sufficiently stultified and undeveloped to allow them. He did not instil those prejudices into his audience.but the demagoguethat is caught by the crowd.The
or any of the really great crowd-exponents whose names are held in honour. He has some new thing to accomplish. he wills to drive the world in some new direction. Lloyd George when he went down to
Limehouse. but the determining shock that sets him in action is his own forcefully originated idea. "with the assistanceof their own greed. He found them already there and could not resist the temptation to give them voice. It
follows that a crowd-exponent may either voice the ideals or the prejudices of a crowd. Such is the danger to which crowd-exponentsare constitutionally exposed.
expressing thoseand getting back from the crowd that recognition which it always givesto the speaker who becomes its voice. All his individual qualities and relationships melt in the fire of that passion. not merely its official representative . If they will not follow him he must
am their is called ambition the desire to be
the voice and representative of a crowd.
quiveringin everyfibre with its life and emotions. live without "I the incense leader!"
of crowd-approval. feeling those samex emotions.Crowd-Exponents
ible impulse to act.but its spiritual representative. longs to be that voice. He can realize himself in no other way and must dominate a crowd to that end. ready
to acclaim with shouts and wonder the man that will
express its emotions. Instinct impels him to speak. Once
he has tasted at least run This in fact its savour he cannot on in front is what of them. The approval of the crowd is the breath of his life. or the trumpet of another's voice. feeling with it. But ambition is the mam spring of a crowd-exponent'slife.
There is the great crowd hungeringfor expression. He
cannot and doesnot desireto resist the impulsewithin
him to be a figure-head.
. The crowd-exponent the typically ambitious is
man. applause guides his words. and he.a type with which we have next to deal .
provided that the public is unaware. They may indeed also belong to one of the preceding categories. he stands
for them in the sight of the world.
He speaks with their voice. they do not differ from other crowd-compellers or crowdexponents. he acts for them. but. He performs these functions only in his public capacity. according to one modern theory of constitutional government they are held to be not even desirable in ordinary times. In private life he may be what he pleases. A constitutional king is a crowd-representative. All that the public can of a certainty know of him must conform to the public sentiment. His known acts must conform to the public will. because as the name implies they are picturesque figureheads rather than individual forces.
but more rarely he may be a crowd-compeller. He must at any rate appear to feel as the public feels on all occasions.CHAPTER
WITHcrowd-representat we deal maymor
. The King of the Belgians has shown himself a most efficient and powerful leader of men. Such kings are exceptions. As such he is a kind of official crowd-exponent. in so far as that is the case. who could hold his nation as in
the hollow of his hand or lead it whither without him it
would not have gone. The constitutional king is the personification of his people.
Again when the King opens Parliament or performs some such public function. and its royal spokesmanexpresses the public emotion. But let a great accident kill at once enough men to look like a crowd. So with mining tragedies: each day takes its toll. the crowd takes no notice. the public feels the wound. So when a crowd-representativedies the public is again moved. When Milton published "Para"dise Lost" no king proclaimed the event. is but a
and not any crowd but the particular crowd which is
the nation he incorporates. and even the local newspapers scarcely record the recurring deaths of units. to
ensurethe conformity of his public words and actions with
thesentiment thecrowd. the public. becauseit is wounded. but if a ship goes down and drowns a thousandat one time. The publication by Darwin of the
. he acts for the crowd and
marks the nature of the occasion as one affecting the
organised social body. Hence messagessymof his of
pathy on the occasionof such tragediesas the public
takes notice of. feelingits great self perceptiblywounded.Hence the apparatus all
of ministers. one here
one there.and the like.therefore. not an individual himself crowd.Crowd-Representatives
king. criesits regrets
and a royal missive gives them expression.ministerial responsibility. A thousand individuals may be drowned at seain the normal average number of months. and there follows a more or less public funeral with royalty present in person or by attorney. nor would it
seemcongruous royalty to take officialnotice of even for
the greatest achievement of an independent non-represen-
tative individual. though in a year their total number far exceeds that of those slain in great accidents.
A king. extend beyond the limits of the crowd for which and by which he speaks. from the point of view of his crowd. let us say. and the
largestcategoryof sinsis certainlyof that sort. His infallibility cannot. Thus too the Pope is of necessityinfallible. it follows
that an individual who in fact incorporates his crowd and cannot act but in conformity with it. in but
If sin be defined as an action done by an individual to the detriment of the crowd to which he belongs. whilst constitutional securities prevent him from publicly acting in any other way. like the infallibility which in the law courts belongs to a final Court of Appeals. But
faith is the principal affair of a church. therefore. so that the analogy between the two is complete. the other to the domain of affairs. as to its soundness the future will more or less impartially decide. when he speaks ex cathedra and de fide. The judgment uttered is for men to guide their actions by. can do no wrong when he is acting publicly as king.the other the concernof a crowd: hencethe propriety of the interventionof royalty to give public recognition the latter case not in the former. cannot sin. the openingof docksat Liverpool. The murder of a king is a more heinous offencethan the murder of an ordinary individual. and this is true whether
. becauseit is a more direct injury done to a crowd. but the one was the act of an individual addressing individuals.The
" Origin of Species was a far more important event in the "
world's history than. ex hypothesi. that is to say
under the restrictive control of all those securities which
in fact provide that he shall voice the sentiments of the crowd which he officially incorporates. the difference being that the one applies to the
domain of faith.
but solely the wound inflicted on the crowd. As crowd-opinion
determines the relative heinousness of this or the other
crime. againstsociety. often wondered what his national crowd comes I have
in process of time to look like to a king. From the individual's point of view murder
is alike murder whoever is killed. always halloed at with the same cheers. a stain upon the flag. "and everything which finds expression in the words 'Our '"Country/"
What moved this gentleman's indignation was not the destruction of an individual's life or the grief thereby brought on other individuals who loved him. They are a blot upon
"free institutions. regardedfrom his own local point of view:"There is no conceivable crime so atrocious as the causeless
"murder of the chosen ruler of a free people. the state. who is always blared at by it with the same anthem. They undermine the
"happiness and well-being of the people.law. or massedin open
. at the "town meeting. civilisation. Every word of his invective is directed against one who injures a crowd. but the crowd of course
thinks otherwise. and liberty. and the nation. Here is the
opinion of a prominent American statesman the subon ject. not one who merely slays a man. They lower our
"standing and character in the opinion of mankind. lined along streets. it naturally estimates as worse the crimes done against itself. Such crimes rise
"infinitely higher than crimes against the individual. They are "blows aimed at the Presidency and self-government. They "are crimes against humanity. and the country's "life.Crowd-Representatives
he be a hereditary or an elected monarch. at all our institutions. who always beholds it under the
flutter of flags.
and always shouted when the king and queen were in sight. and it was a specimenportion of the nation itself to which the sovereignsdid their large courtesies. is another type of crowdrepresentative. but in order that he may surely do so he is surrounded by all manner of securities and limitations. for it wasthe nation incorporated in the sovereignsthat the courtiers saluted. In pronouncing judgment upon an offender he speaks with the voice of the public. and to behold the crowd as they beheld it and practically from their standpoint.The
places. Once. In fact both salutations were given to the sameentity. But I could not fail to observe the great respect with which its sovereignstreated it. A Judge. indeed. The opinions expressedby a judge in private life possess more authority no than those of any other educated individual of equal ability. Their deepobeisances it from the to palace balcony overlooking a vast city square were even more profound than those with which they themselves had just been saluted by the courtiers assembledin the room that opened on to the balcony. It possessedone emotion and one only. There was no apparent variation in its aspect or its behaviour. when on the bench.
during a few daysit fell to my lot in a foreigncountryto
be in the immediate neighbourhood of royalty during a national festival. It is only when he occupies the position of crowd-representative and is conditioned by the securities which crowd-organisation supplies that his opinions have
. Its astonishing uniformity of appearancewas what struck me. It was an extraordinarily loyal crowd to look at. who always addressesto it the same platitudes
and receives from it the same reactions.
Thus the following conversation is related to have taken
place between two famous leaders of their respective partiesabout twenty yearsago. "amongall your mutationsof "opinion. Some of them
have reachedthe positionsthey occupyby crowd-com-
pulsion. as uttered
on its behalf and in conformity with its views. the principles of of
. "Has it neverhappened "to you/' inquired the first.
Electedrepresentatives the peopleare those about of
whomthe public knowsmostand whose representative
capacity they most clearly understand. They are merely individuals who have adopted a set of opinions for public and practical use. while their own true opinions remain unaffected. to feel that in fact the principles of our party
"are more in accordance with your own views than are
"those of the party to which you belong?'* "No!"
repliedthe other. It follows that amongst the elected
personages representcrowdsthe large majority poswho
sessnone of the qualities of crowd-compellers or crowd-
exponents. They do not in their heart and natureexpress
the value with which the crowd investsthem. either' because they have imposed theirs upon it or because they have actually absorbed its emotions and made them their own. yet more by and
personal relations with leading individuals.all any crowd can do to
is to choose between the two or three individuals who
have succeeded in obtaining nomination.more by crowd-exposition. who are able to put them forward and procure their election. the two. or locked in the privacy of their own hearts. For
whenit comes the act of election. and efficient
nominationis not made by the crowdbut by the organisers who control it.
Nevertheless they themselves are always honest.not to show and themtheway.and." hesays. so are the forces organisedabout him which compel and limit his utterance. in order that he may consistently expressthis settled opinion. He is in touch with the crowd-exponents and with the whole body of crowd-representatives. is for thepeople decide "it to uponnational duty. and hedgedaround with conditions. It is the immediateemotion
of the crowd that they express. President Wilson's idea seems to be that the head of a nation has no business to do more than
voice the already formed opinion of his people.and doesin fact possess foundation a
of more or lesssettled opinion.
"It is for those who stand at their headto endeavour to "expressthose things that seemto rise out of the con120
. He is
notto guide instructthem.The Crowd
"more inept. so that when he speaksofficially he does so with a very much larger brain backing him than that which is contained in
his own head. But the great national public is slower to change in pro-
portion to its size. According to the representative's position and social function. so their expression chameleon-like its variais in
tion. as nothing is more
fickle. Crowd-exponents are those who in-
stinctively voice the emotionof a crowd and do so because they cannot help it. but chieflyto followin their wake. Avenues of information are opened to him which put him in direct connection with the crowd itself. The crowd-representative is called into being. "In a democrary."
in Peace and War
"your party havealways seemed me perhaps trifle to a
Let me repeat that official crowd-representatives are
not the same as the crowd-exponents whom we have discussed above.
apply to the relations of crowds. The term is genas
erally confinedto relationsbetween nations. whether named secretaries or ambassadors. truthfulness. and nothing needsto be added to his exposition of that matter. the character of the action is the
same whenever two crowds are in communication
Onecrowd communicates deals and with another by
meansof crowd-representatives. except in so far as the whole of human-
ity has sincethen proceeded a very short distance 121
. If Machiavelli did not
understand the nature of crowds. candour.
Even the communications between two cricket clubs in the matter of arranging matches are diplomatic. It follows that the relations of crowds are not like those of individuals. There is as much diplomacy in dealingsbetween organised bodiesof mastersand men as betweennations. but are beings of another sort.Crowd-Representatives
"science.but in fact all
negotiations between crowds of thekind calleddiploare
Seeingthat crowds are not of the same kind as individuals. thepurpose thegreat the and of bodyof
"the people themselves. by which the relations of individuals to one another are judged. they are not governed
by the sameprinciples of action nor by the samemoral
law as individuals. It is merely the field of action that is larger or smaller. hope. mode of communithe
cationbeingdescribed diplomacy. and that not all the tests
of honour. International
politics are substantially to-day what they were in the
sixteenth century. he at any rate truth-
fully perceivedthe conditions under which diplomacy is
carried on by crowd-representatives. and the like. Like qualities are needed in negotiators.
parceque decemment Ton ne peut pas nous "traiter de coquins et de fripons. Ton a "£te oblige de chercher un autre terme qui adoucit la " chose.The
toward the organisation of a world-controlling public opinion. There is no such
thing as a Christian nation. however. The Christ that shall save the nations has not When wars cease for ever yet been revealed to them. and so therefore does diplomacy in the present condition of the world. Hear what Frederick the Great had to say about it. Hence crowds and their official representatives as such stand outside the ordinary moral law.
. voici "au vrai ce que je pense sur la Politique. et c'est le mot de Politique que Ton a choisi infal"liblement. and you "cannot bring an indict"ment against" a crowd." The reason why you cannot treat as a rascal a king acting officially is becausehe is a crowd. The utter feebleness that restraint upon of nations is pathetically demonstrated by the ruins of
Louvain and the battered cathedral of Rhcims. quoi qu'il en soit. Ce mot n'a ete choisi qu'en faveur des "Souverains. but it is not subject to the laws or to the morals which restrain individuals. has often been one of the great aims of diplomacy. To dupe. nor can it be punished in the same way.
His coming will be at hand. Thoughtless persons sometimes talk about the behaviour proper to a Christian nation.
Among men of honour it is recognised that to dupe a fellow-man is a mean and disgraceful action. there areonly Christianindividuals. "Comme parmi les hommes Ton est convenu que "duper son semblable etait une action criminelle. A crowd may and often does act viciously or wickedly from the point of view of individuals.
those. and sooner or later he will find some way to enter public life in a representative capacity. He has frequent opportunities of addressing constituentbody. securesthe subservienceof the representative individual to the crowd he represents. and the system. Here we have only to consider the effect of his representative position on the representative
himself. but of re-election at relatively frequent intervals. and on every occasion the
. like judges. and to maintain itself under to present circumstances. and thus gives dominion to the crowd in proportion to the power of its elected representatives.diplomatists. These men are not prepared
for those positions by any system of education. The only way in which a crowd can operate is through representatives who act in harmony with its views.
In the first place the whole processof candidature is a
great educationto him. or and the like who are educatedand selectedfor the positions they have to fill. not so much of election. are merely elected by different kinds of constituencies the posifor tions they have to fill. there is alsothe largebody of representativemen who. This casual and unscientific system has been suflFered come into being. becausewe live in a time of great crowd-selfconsciousness and crowd-power. as we have just noted. nor are
they any longer taken from a classof menso preparedby
birth and bringing up. We shall have more to say on this matter when we come to deal with the question of government. It is quite possible for any active and pushing individual with a glib tongue to thrust himself forward into public notice.Crowd-Representatives
Besides the crowd-representatives who are born and
bred to the business.
"the chorus in it. He thus comes to be in fact the incorporation for practical purposesof his crowd. but rather from the newspapersand from other agencies that form and spread public opinion. men and "women.
. Its reaction upon him is therefore liable to be much stronger than his action upon it. and such the public believes him to be. for the crowd before him does not derive many of its passionsfrom him. It is said. . his own speeches (unless he be of the rare crowd-compelling sort) having but small formative power on the views of the crowd
compared with the powerexercised the great drifts and by
pressuresof national and local opinion.The
it is his business to make the crowd feel that he is one in
heart with it. the voice on the floor "of the Senate. and who are silent when he is silent."
Such doesthe elected crowd-representative appear in
the public eye. and said with truth.multitudes in smoking cities. consists in the mystical undertone. rich and poor. that "the significance of shaking hands with a Senator of the United States is that it "is a convenient and labour-saving way of shaking hands "with two or three million people. The impressiveness "of the Senator's Washington voice. in the "government of the United States. and may grow to be regarded as almost identified with it. so that after the operation has been continued through a sufficient length of time the candidate may as a rule be expected to emerge "a good party man/5 who can be relied on to conform in all his public statements and known acts to the party standards. It follows that the candidate is more markedly fashioned by the constituency than the constituency is modified by the candidate. who are speaking when this man "speaks.
or vicious in one or more of a
thousand ways. when it is not the opinion of his constituency. not publicly stated in a form which the law of libel can deal with. but as long as his actions are not officially known. a drunkard. so does an elected representative man. and who can yet maintain himself as its accepted representative. hence what Mr." He may in fact be immoral. so long may his constituency remain
blind. Rare is the person who can openly adhere to his own opinion. in the privacy of his own home. So again a man may cherish in private what religious opinions or vacuum of opinion he pleases. and writers of the paper? They may be or they may not. and probably also more or less of the actual writer employed to set them forth. a gambler. Does
anyone suppose that those are the private views of the proprietors. editors. But he must so play the character as to deceive the constituency. Bonar Law has called "the make-believe that is part of the daily life of all poli" ticians. So Lord Morley did for a time at Newcastle when there was an
. In public the mere crowd-representative will have to conform so far as to satisfy public opinion. he may be an altogether different person from the public character he plays. and be content to hold him as a model of all the
virtues and prejudices it applauds. Take for instance a newspaper of high classlet us say the "Times. a terror in his home. the only thing certain about them is that they are supposedand indeed known to be the views of the public that reads the paper.Crowd-Representatives
In actual fact. Just as a newspaperhas to voice the views of its public." It has a definite attitude toward religious questions and may be relied on to express in its
editorial columns certain views in relation to them.
but this consideration is beyond the scope of the present chapter. Usually one should convert the other or they should separate.The
acknowledged divergencebetween him and his supporters on the question of the Eight-hour day. That such a divergence should long continue between a constituency and its representative is not often desirable.
to provide it with a substito
tute for the brain which it lacks. Organisation therefore not merely directs the power of a crowd to some definite end. Let us now for a brief space fix our attention directly on that question. and to give it executive power. can organise itself.
An unorganised crowd or mob is purely destructive. other mobs. A mob can destroy individuals. as a small body of police constables is able to demonstrate whenever called upon. a much smaller group of disciplined units can overpower it with relative ease. It must be organised by individuals who acquire its confidence or
REFERENCEbeenatseve has already made grees of organisationwhich a crowd is capable
points of our investigation to the different deof. that is to say. however. It can rush headlong like a mad creature upon an enemy and fight with the fury of a wild beast. yet even so it is very inefficient. it is without power to create or upbuild. The organisation of a crowd has three
main purposes:to securesomedegree continuity and of persistence its emotions. No crowd. but greatly increasesits efficiency. or the work of men's hands. power to give effect to its emotional desires and ideals in the region of human accom-
sacrifice them in the interests of the emotional
aim.though their authority will finally rest on the belief of the crowd that they are so. The
crowd follows not motives but sentiments and ideals. "Palton ke wastil" (for the batallion). It is their high purpose. cries the Gurkha and chargesjoyously to his death. and direct
it is to kindle and maintain that emotion at a high temperature and over a long period of time. He that loseth his separate individual life in the
life of a crowd shall find another life in that. control. in so far as they belong to the
crowd. But to maintain among the multitude that kind of steadfast volition which will tranquillize every mental tumult in the individual unit presupposes the infusion of a high ideal. whatever their indi-
vidual purposesin life. constraining the unit to high and noble deeds.all are beneficent crowdcries. patriotic and political enthusiasms.
Only an ideal can concentrate the desires of many into a common all-embracing effort. and ideals are kindled rather than taught. and the main
purposeof thosewho would organise. The crowd-units. must. esprit de corps. A crowd has an
emotional aim. For it is only by possessing common a
emotion that a crowd comes into being. They may or may not be themselves moved by its emotions. pride of race.
areableto imposetheir authority upon it. "For God and King!" "For Fatherland!" "Pour la France!" "Englandexpects every man to do his duty !" . The individual is guided by a complexity of motives. This is the end of all noble propaganda and of all proud national tradition. and the like emotions are to be cherished. An individual may have a definite and reasoned purpose in what he does. whereunto all constitutions.
Every agency had been directed towards the intended result. so can a great statesman obtain control over and direct the organisation of a people. "imperial programme. That
Empire was possessed a singleideal . For just as a cunning and masterful speaker can artfully kindle the enthusiasm of a public meeting and direct it whither he pleases. and efficient Empire that declared war on the world in July. such as ancient Rome alone had dimly foreshadowed. technical skill.
Germanyhas given the world an examplefor all time
of how the millions of a people can be organised and
brought to act together for a commonemotionalendDeutschland uber Alles! The contrast is indeed great between the broken. but that is very different from a keen clear senseof national purpose. army-discipline.Crowd-Organisation
which cannot control its members to the common end
will fail for lack of the organisation by which alone that
control can become efficient." Every live nation has some kind of faith in its ideals and confidence in its destiny. social legislation .
. By the purpose and compelling force of a successionof leading men the units and sub-crowds of the Germans had been inflamed with a common passion and at the same time organised into a tremendous integral whole. humiliated German states after the battle of Jena and the unified. "Schools. The number of Germans who did not share it were
too few to count. mighty. commercial resourcefulness. the difference lies in the organising brain that
obtains control over the emotional but brainless human
"governmental efficiency. 1914.all were "well-considered parts of one comprehensive. scientific
"research.its own expanby
This is the veriest
rudiment of crowd-organisation. Every organised crowd realises its own inefficiency and is ready to accept a leader as soon as one becomesvisible
Committees. he from time to time calling out empty orders to steer this
way or that but only as he discovers the vessel itself to be proceeding. but himself actually supplying all the guidance.The
and can train up and direct other individuals to assist and prolong his initiative through a succession generaof
tions. and out of this experience has now grown the well-understood system which in these days is the normal and probably necessaryskeleton
of aU crowd-organisation. Herein. Experience has proved that he must have the support of other
. It is by them that a crowd thinks. even a mere mob thus behaves. that namely of representative
committees. and in the final resort of a small executive committee with a more or less authoritative chairman. themselves in more or less close relation with
the whole or parts of the whole body. The politician is like
some casual man standing on the deck of a rudderless
ship which is proceedingunsteeredamong winds and
currents. steers the ship towards a determined port. consists the difference between a
statesmanand mere politicians.are the by brains of crowds. directing his course by sun and stars and understanding the forms and
forces of nature amidst which the vessel must make its
resembles an able navigator who. whithersoever it happens to head. So long as the leader stands alone his position is perilously insecure. whatever name they are called. using its engines as motive power. indeed.on the contrary.a statesman.
it may be a small deliberative body in which every member has some decisive influence. These are mere questions of detail. and acted upon. These are details about
which the crowd need know nothing and we need not disThe essential fact for the crowd is that it should
believe its executive Committee to be in sympathy with
the crowd's own ideals and aims. the
more elaborate its constitution. but without a constitu-
tion of some kind not even a cricket club can long exist. Its members may be elected directly or indirectly. and he was not really free to decree this or that according to his own whim. The committee may be called into existence in a variety of ways. cuss. but that merely meant that it did what its President decreed. in so far
as the crowd is cognisant of them. and this
constitution may either be plainly set down in words or traditionally understood. but preserved in his mind what he knew to be the habits and preferencesof the members. The one essential is that the feelings and aims of the committee
as a whole and of the individual
with those of the crowd itself. and able and determined
to devise and put into effect means for carrying out the crowd's desires.Crowd-Organisation
is through them that it acts. or nominated by other crowd-representatives. The larger. should be in harmony The various precautions to keep the crowd and its governing and executive committee in harmony with one
another are called the constitution of the crowd. it is in accordance with their
decision that it is governed. I have known a dining-club without a constitution. A committee may have an
acknowledged head by which it is despotically directed. preserved. even as
members of it. the better organised a crowd may be.
however. and the State all the rights that it has not parted with to the Federal Body. What is true of nations is true in a less degreeand mutatis mutandis with all other crowds. In proportion to the completeness the organisationis the powerand of
efficiency of the collective body. In process of time the organisation of so-called civilised national crowds has
become very elaborate. In practice both theories work out to the same result. on the contrary. and the individual is under a like compulsion to do and abstain from doing a great number of acts. only to be measured by the elaboration of its constitution. the County those it has not parted with to the State. but even more by the power to control the action of individual units conceded to the executive by the general body. who possesses the rights that he has not parted with to the all town-meeting. and that subordinate assembliesand individual subjects possessonly such rights as the Government has delegated to them by constitutional enactment or acknowledged tradition. The town-meeting in its turn possesses all the rights that it has not parted with to the County. The more elaborately
. more so in some states such as
Germany. The Democratic theory of government in the
United States is that the ultimate source and reservoir
of power is and remains the individual citizen.The
the Common Law of England is said to reside in the bosom of a judge. is that all rights reside in the sovereign. which in its turn possesses those powers and rights only which it has thus constitutionally received. The degree of a crowd's organisation is not. The European theory of government.lessin others such as England.
The one can restrain where
the other cannot. A
large public fund was at once subscribed to meet the immediate need. I once became cognisant of circumstanceswhich manifested this difference of efficiency in a very remarkable manner. and the administrators of the fund were
faced with the problem of how the money should be distributed. that is to say.
The Church of Rome is more efficiently organised than the Church of England. Many of the Free Churches are lesselaborately organised than is the Church of England and their efficiency for public action is thus feebler.officers. The one is potent for good or evil where the other is impotent.with the unanimous consent of the representatives of all the denominations who had together co-operated to raise the fund. already cognisant of the circumstances of practically every poor family in the afflicted area. and that immediately. could efficiently administer the relief. Of course all sectshelped in the distribution. They.Crowd-Organisation
and strongly they are organised. and they only. and to them the duty was assigned. It was in an English city which was visited with a serious misfortune. but the active distributing agency was and had to be the parish workers of the Church of England. It becameat once apparent that the Church of England alone possessedin full working order the required organisation. more persistentare the
their ideals and the more efficient is their collective action. It alone had a parish system with district visitors apportioned to every group of housesin the poorer parts of the town . whereby multitudes of the
poorerclasses wereput to great hardshipand distress.
. and is to that extent more powerful in its collective action.
and so forth. and that. Disciplineis the nameof the agency which this organic by
unity is attained. enabling it to be under the direction of a single brain. it is the official classthat selects
the men. not the shapely performance of manoeuvres. not merely theoretically.
Disciplineinevitably begetsrank. A disciplined crowd obeys and cannot help obeying its official leader and his
officialsubordinates whoeverthey may be. and it is in fact discipline that makes the differencebetween a regiment and a mob. Such are the army. It follows that here
the organic relationof parts to the wholeis complete. exist.is its true purpose. An unorganised crowd only follows a hypnotising crowd-compeller
or crowd-exponent. the Whentwo armiesjoin in battle the object of eachis not
. So long as a mob is filled with a common impulseit may act as a unit. Drill is merely the agency by which discipline is inculcated. No efficient army electsits officers. the police. Discipline is the means whereby nerves are given to a crowd. but the moment the common impulse wavers the mob has no nerves or brain to bring it back into corporate integrity. not from below upward. Here the organisation proceeds from above downward. In theory no freedomwhatever is left to the individual. Only whereorganiisationis low doesequality actually. and thereby to substitute for mere
blind crowd-instincts directingbrain of an individual. The wholepurposeof military organisation is to groupunits togetherunderthe direction of superiors
of successiveranks. the navy.The
The most powerfully organised crowdsthat exist are thoseformed their executive by underauthority delegated to them by the whole body of a people.
no such complete abnegation of individuality is called for
in turn from them. or the army. which. which he is capable of wielding. Real commanders of men are those who. as much as in any other crowd.are able to raise this heat of passion in their men and thus intensify their power individually and collectively many fold. Every officerin relationto his superiors no wise differs from the men in respectof submission to orders and completeness of discipline. and incapable of resistance. as Kinglake observed. as without it they could never
have acted. Thus by mergingeachman's emotion in the aggregate feeling of the regiment.turns the
defeated body from an organised collectivityinto a mob. they make opinion set one way with all the
volumeand weightwhichcanbe givento it by a multitude
. Whilst the units of an army are thus seento be. if accomplished. in the main except under specialcircumstances. For over and above the discipline which makes men obey orders there is in an army. terror-stricken. of crowd-compulsion. It is for this reason that. the capacity for that kind of high enthusiasm which enablesindividuals to act under its compelling influence. but an officer
in relation to the men he commands can avail himself of
all the powers of leadership.Crowd-Organisation
the mere slaughter of the other's units but the destruction of its organisation. without initiative and altogether subordinate and obedient to their officers.the harangues
which seem to touch soldiers do not often embody a new
and lofty conception.
whether they be subalterns or generals. but utter somethought which comes within the reach of all. the brigade.
it being universally true that a mob in the presence a of disciplined force is a thing impotent.
before it had been long in existencecame to approximate to the military form under the able direction of Mr. which aimed at attaining one result. This was becauseMr.
direction. In practice also the rank and file were under severediscipline and disobeyed the orders of their leaders at their own peril.but in practice the leader selected all the officials of the party. and that simple. there is no other type of organisation so efficient as the military. even peril of life. and so im-
pressed systemupon the body of his supporters his that. definite. Parnell was not merely a crowd-compeller of
exceptional force. No other such disciplined political party has in modern days existed in Great Britain. and the intention is to give effect to them even by force if possible. Parnell.like a disturbedgyroscope.
of human souls when they bend their whole forces in one Where a crowd is to be organised to accomplish a fixed and definite result through the employment of physical force in the ultimate resort. This is why the organi-
sation of political parties approximatesmore and more
closely to the military form in proportion as party-aims becomedefinite and narrow. but because likewise possessed a he in
high degreethe genius for crowd-organisation. nor has any ever had the efficiency or maintained over so long a period the singlenessof its aim. Thus the Irish Home Rule Party. even when he himself lost control. the party he had shaped regained equilibrium. its
and continued to revolve about the axis he had fixed for it. and by all its adherents well understood. In theory indeed the party elected its leaders.
as a public or as a multitude of individuals. and of other legislation which regarded only classes. and may be said
to resemble the skeleton of the whole structure. and as an independent living creature.CHAPTER GOVERNMENT AND
X THE CROWD
INtheseeingthat Governmentis an essentialpart precedingnecessary chapter to itwas encro to deal. It is
obvious that man. We have had experience of legislation intended to promote directly the well-being of individuals. the governments of the peoples of the world from the beginning till now may be divided into two classes: Kingdoms and Crowddoms. the individual. Finally the power which governments wield and by which they impose their will upon a people may be supplied by organised crowds or by the
assent of a multitude of unorganised individuals.
somewhat upon the subject with which we have now of the organisation of a national crowd. These
general considerations will suffice to suggestwhat large questions are opened when we propose to discuss the interrelations of crowds and governing individuals or
bodies. In the
Broadly speaking. will regard government differently from his twofold point of view: as a crowd-unit. Similarly the governing body or sovereign may regard the governed from the same two points of view.
By co-operation again
one individuals ruled. whether by birth. or revolution. I shall call that man in every
casea king who exercises individual volition as a ruler his
over a crowd. it not infrequently happened that he was only the executive officer of public opinion and had little or no power of imposing his own individual will on the people he was supposed to rule. though throughout the ancient and mediaeval worlds the headship of almost every state except a very few was held by an individual who looked like a king. at far less inconvenience and labour than
each household would have to suffer or employ to safeguard itself against all comers. Without attempting any such leap into the dark unknown past. Kingdoms and Crowddoms are both very ancient forms. prehistoric times. for. and one is not necessarily older than the other. Clearly they would be twofold: the need for co-operative protection and co-operative action. by murder. By uniting together they could provide protection for the persons and property of all. by any of the many forms called of right divine. where by aid of imagination alone they have described how government arose. or
by election or selection. based upon "social contract" and other the like pictured foundations. it may be permissible to inquire what would be the needs of a number of independent individuals unlinked to one another by any laws or agreements but living within range of one another. intrigue. Writers upon theories of government have sometimes taken the liberty of transporting themselves and their readers into unrecorded. in the other public opinion. It matters not how the King be chosen or obtain his
as all crowds are and must be. ideals take shape. and a military organisation be mosteasilyand quickly accomplished can
and afterwards maintained. But a crowdhasalreadyto possess
a common feeling before it can thus be organised. and quite different in kind from the life of the individuals who collectively and successively compose it.and the common feeling makes it conscious of and interestedin
itself. and that. that many a priest-king (of whom instructive and entertaining details may be read in Sir JamesFrazer's "Golden Bough") had little individual authority. Both for common protection and for ele-
mentary forms of common enterprisethe organisation requiredis of the type known as military. Where public
opinion exists and common emotions are felt. under the direction of a
singlehead or king. such as irrigation. there existed many a little state in which the real source of authority was not the will of an individual but the desire of the crowd.
All this follows from the twofold
nature of man. To travel down the long course of history sorting out Kingdoms and Crowddoms would be an interesting but a lengthy adventure. the
gregariousand the non-gregarious attitudes which he
not only warlike attack but various forms of labour can
be more efficiently accomplished and at less cost. can only thus be accomplished at all. larger. and the body politic has a life of its own. The reader will easily perceivefor himself that in many an early patriarchal system of government the power of tribal opinion was very strong. long before any definitely republican form of governmenthad been devised. and
some works. a life longer.
as in a town. where people are congregated." he says. We have here. public opinion is weak and socialistic arrangements are unpopular. Where people live in close proximity to one another. to wit that it is in towns. a "measure of the areas within which local patriotism in "educational matters is effective in a greater or less "degree. that the crowdemotion is strong. but we are now concerned only with the observation it records. made the following significant observation: "Whilst. That is why recent socialistic legislation.
down to the present day. but in the country.The
assumes toward his fellows according as circumstances impel him. Mundella. the municipal bor"oughs within the county are fairly willing to rate them" selves for their own benefit. crowd-qualities lie dormant
them." This is really a priceless passage.every sentence and almost every phrase of which would afford subject for entertaining analysis. whose passion was the development of a democratic system of education under popular or crowd-control. and the smaller urban
"townships have eagerly incurred heavy burdens when "assured that they themselves would reap . all of which is begotten in towns and passedinto law by town-represen140
.the profit of "their expenditure. and the individual
is content in the main
This is still true
after his own interests. Where people live in scattered homesteads. "it "seems almost impossible to get the counties to levy a "county rate for technical education. Thus Mr. if we realise it. where people live at some distance from one another. the gregarious element predominates and the crowd obtains control. and socialistic measurescan be carried into effect with public assent.
tatives (speaking broadly). and presently of its power to coerce the individual and make him labour and pay. It was in the ancient city states that crowd-dominion first openly and plainly took shape. It was in them that the individual ruler .the wise man. in the other the orders of an individual ruler. though popularly elected. and power passed
once more into the hands of other crowds and from those
of various kinds of kings. not only for himself and his family.was first openly tabooed and reduced from lordship to service. the difference to the individual being that in the one case he had to obey the orders of some sort of public. the typical king . was first proclaimed .
. Where economic other conditions or
bring a great number of people together and cause them to live in close proximity to one another. generally speaking. but also for the so-called common good. there the individual tends to be merged into a crowd.the Liberty for example by possession which the Athenians of slew Socrates! In the Middle Ages it was in the towns that this same Liberty again appeared. nowadays usually contains
provisions enabling the central authority to impose on
recalcitrant. It follows therefore that. there the crowd becomesconscious of its separate existence. the intensity of the crowd-spirit is proportioned to the density
of the population. mainly country authorities. the strong man. the necessity of carrying into effect and paying for a number of provisions which no country population would ever willingly adopt. quaintly misnamed Liberty.its needsand desires other than those of the individuals composing it. It was in them that the condition.
Hence. Moreover crowd-representatives openly claim the right so to domineer. . possessingall the
qualities that we haveseento belongto a crowd. the rule of a king has ever been. the individual citizen runs a good
chanceof being infectedby whateverenthusiasmmoves
the crowd and therefore of desiring what the public desires. that is to say crowd-rule. one of
which is the infective quality of the general opinion. and often has been more despotic than. . may be just as despotic as. But an individual. as I have said. "He who was the
"strongest. Here is a plain statement by a democratic politician of modern type. strong and independent enough to escapecrowd-dominanceover his mind. and able to form his own opinions for himself.obtainedthereby "the right to rule. The gospel democracy that of is "thosewhocan run the biggest crowdinto the potting booth
. who could bring the greatest number of clubs "and spears in stalwart hands into the field. For majority rule.there is a probability
that the individual citizen will be more or less of one
mind with it. consequently he may be expected to find himself
in agreement with the generaltendencyof legislationand
administration when that is determined by public opinion. as kings have seldom dared. the
Hon. he who "could show the greatest fighting prowess.The
Of coursewhen the public rules. who could
"best handlebig battalionsand big guns. Stafford Bird of Tasmania. and for him and all like him (the strongest and best class of folk anywhere and at any time) crowd-dominance will be not less but much more objectionable than the despotism of a king. . will probably be out of harmony with public opinion all or most of the time. seeing that it is a crowd.
" it was Bismarck.
Between Kingdoms and Crowddoms there exists the same hostility as between the really free individual and
the thoroughly incorporatedcrowd-unit.Government
The man who
"shall be the governors the country" of
does not share the emotions of the majority and is out of
harmony with public opinion needs protection from crowd-despotism even more than ever a subjectneeded protectionfrom the powerof a king. and the like is
true of regal despots and crowd-representatives. engagemutually. in whatever country it may
rower and more emphatic expression than in the following two articles of the Treaty of Verona (££ Nov. "to use all their efforts to put an end to the system of "representative government. are the
naturally out of sympathy with the aspirations of a crowd and are incredulous of the value and efficiency of crowdgovernment. 1822). wherein are authoritatively set forth the essential points of difference between individual and crowd
"ARTICLE I. The high contracting parties being con"vinced that the system of representative government is "as incompatible with monarchical principles as the "maxim of the sovereignty of the people is with divine "right. If any man was "every inch a king. Des-
potic monarchs. It would be easy to cite contemptuous and hostile opinions of his as to the merits of
crowd-government. and in the most solemn manner. But in this he merelycarried on the
and indeed necessary attitude of kingship
which never received a nar-
crowd-domination. and especially wisest and ablest. who really ruled his country with a power seldom surpassed..
to form a free crowd even locally. it is not. almost impossible under normal conditions. and without a free popular press great national crowds or parties cannot be built up." It is rather strange that this document. makes no mention of the right of public meeting. public opinion. Where public meetings are effectively prohibited and there is no free press. Government is representative when the members of its executive and legislative bodies are not merely elected by. it is difficult. which singles out the danger to kingdoms of a free press. but also "in the rest of Europe. of course. When that is the case the crowd really rules. Public meetings and a popular press are the two chief sourcesof crowd power and the two chief enemiesof individual rule.The
"exist in Europe. produces a crowd-compeller for its head. By public meet-
ings and popular journalism crowds are initiated and
built up. but are amenable and responsible to. and to prevent its being introduced in "those countries where it is not yet known. As it cannot be doubted that the liberty "of the press is the most powerful means used by the
"pretended supportersof the rights of nations.except on the rare occasionswhen a crowd-compeller appears and for the time acts a kingly part. This. of whatever shape. the high contracting
"parties promisereciprocally to adopt all proper meas"ures to suppressit. implies that the members of the government are all of the type of crowd-exponents or crowd-representatives above discussed. to the
"detriment of those of princes. not only in their own states. "ARTICLEII. for these are the two legs on which Crowddoms stand. When a government. so long as he is
"There is talk. Unless reason can. just before the passageof the Roosevelt Railway Bill. for what we call "experts." he says. how. really representative. government by public opinion. "of the need of experts. and the whole business is to be handed over to a body of representatives. it must be despotic over the individual. mainly amateurs.Government
in control. The crowd is moved wholly by emotion. a Senatorial champion of it was privately declaiming on its inevitability." So that even an expert in governing is to be excluded from government. Nothing could be more precise. There
is no escapefrom the conclusion that crowd-government. now keen in one direction. the expert by knowledge.
reason is to be excluded and emotion is to decide. sir.
was recorded in the " New York Nation "
a few years ago. that when the American
.for public opinion then
is what he makes it. none. in fact. the proper place for the "'expert' is as the servant and not the master of the "public. none for science.
representative ruler or ruling class is made by crowdopinion and carries out a crowd's behests. "I tell you. now in another.
variable. translate itself into an emotional
form and obtain control of the passion of the crowd. it must aim at reducing all to the common form of crowd units. Well. In crowd-rule emotion is to give the law. It follows that in undiluted representative government there is no place for reason.
as how seldom it does. government by the crowd for the crowd. none for experience." Let me again cite the priceless Mundella. it does not make him. It must be intolerant. it must be passionate. must of necessity possessall the qualities which belong to the crowd and which we have discussed in preceding chapters.
then another. That is most easily done by exciting its greed and directing its hostility against some
smaller crowd or class. Senator.
His idea was merely one of perpetual agitation. He said that if by means of delay. an apostle of crowd-rule pure and simple.*' "Well. Keir Hardie. "what will it amount to after it is
"passed?" "Nothing whatever/' was the prompt reply." Mr. should maintain
a set of representatives in well-paid office to pass laws in haste giving effect to these successivepassions.
"the people will think no more of it. and will turn their "minds to the next agitation. Thus picturing the process of crowd legislation. A crowd may likewise be inspired with enthusiasm for a high ideal. whether the country would like it when it had got it.The
"people rise in their might and demand a law of this kind. The order of proceedingswas first to promote a great agitation for some measure and then to pass it while the hot fit was on. he was by no means without understanding. these
considerations did not occur to him as worth notice. Whether the measure would work. for if legislation were ever to become a purely crowd business it is only thus that it could be carried on. in which the crowd. causedfor exampleby a secondchamber. it frequently changed its mind. so-called reform. and thus you lost your measure. In an im146
. the public had time to cool down. The crowd cannot act except through passion. kept at boiling point with enthusiasm for
first this. which is the favourite field of
action of the demagogue." asked a bystander. It does not desire to act at all until its passions are raised. once explained the conditions of its working. "there is no withstanding their will.
. as for the legislationit produced.Government
perfect worldits good and evil passions usuallyminare gled together. but they were exceptional. little gooddid that accomplish. is liable to all crowd diseases. Crowd-rule is passion enthroned.Who that lived through it doesnot remember Mr. Only the individual can proceedby
reason. and the accompanyingbehaviour of
the House of Commons? The passion was not of an
ignoblesort. The crowd strongly influences but still does not wholly direct our legislation and administration. Stead's" Maidentrib"ute" agitation. but. Members were voting to give away other people's money and taking to themselves the joy and the credit of the giving. The samekind of phenomena accompanied passage the Old Age Pensions the of Bill. Great Britain is not subjected to purely representative rulers. Those were moments of undiluted crowd-rule. what are we to say of Kingdoms. though its exponents are loudly clamouring for the removal of every restraint that impedesor prevents the entire liberty of the crowd to do and order what it pleases. being a crowd.under
the deluge of which it widened the scope of the measure and destroyed many of its sanest limitations. with our new single-chamber government. Those
presentstated that the House was carried away by a
passion of generous emotion! Nothing could better indicate the nature of a crowd. Even to-day. On that occasion it was suddenly swept away
by a wave of vaguely sympatheticenthusiasm.
The House itself. If pure Crowddoms are unsatisfactory and indeed in the long run impossible.
We in Englandhave seenexamples enoughin our own day of legislation by crowd-passion.
Perhaps the future will solve the problem after the way of the bees. however. it sufficesthat kingship is not an admissible method of government in
. for. The world has tried the hereditary principle in limited monarchy with tolerable success. with an orientalized court.but it has never called in the aid of scienceto direct the breeding of a truly royal race. The correspondingdanger in the case of crowddom has yet to be learnt by modern experience. At present that method is outside practical politics. is the invention of a method for discovering and raising to the headship of a people the right kind of man for kingship. endowed with wisdom and that kind of instinct and insight that make his choice of human instruments generally right. Bees breed their queens. every one knows the danger that a kingdom may develop. perhaps impossible of attainment." for such is the generally received opinion.The
that is of governments not formally but actually directed by a personal king? It is generally admitted that when he is a truly great man. like the ancient Empire of Byzantium. and stifled individual initiative. gifted with crowd-compelling power. a decayed public spirit. in the long experienceof the world has proved to be difficult. and it may be that what a church accomplishescould be accomplished also by a state. no form of government is better. and yet the Church of Rome seems able nowadays to provide itself with a successionof excellent Popes to whom authority can be safely given. if the perils of crowddom are not nowadays clearly realised. What. For our present purposes. I say "perhaps impossible. into a splendid and selfish despotism. at all events.
however. and enabled the British Empire to grow to its present high estate. Only in Russia America(in the and so-called Republics Centraland SouthAmerica)does of
it really exist. and lived under.
It hasbeenthe good fortune of Great Britain for a long
series of years to have produced. during a century or more. may be lessof a true king than he appears. but partook of the nature of both. The Czar. an almost unique position in the world. and demands. but various individuals altogether independent of and irresponsible to the public.a positionof supremacy
or at least powerful influence in the government.and especially thosein which the population is scattered. to some extent also in Germany. the Presidentsof the various States being as
a rule personally supreme and not in fact representative. as under pure crowddom or pure kingdom it could not have
This tendsto supportthe conclusionthat kingship is only possible in politically backward regions.communication difficult. for better or worse. and is
ableto obtain. Where ordinary modern conditions prevail the public is a more organised crowd. a constitution which was neither a kingdom nor a crowddom. who at this time of writing would venture to prophesy? South America
is really the one continent where true monarchy still flourishes. The crowd obtained a great influence in the government.Government
themodern world. likewise had a share of political power.
as to the future of German Imperialism. and the level of education low. the press weak. It was this compromise and balance between the power of the crowd and the power of individuals independent of it which gave to Great Britain.
and the crowd. and it is to the Senate of the
United States more than to any other branch of its government that continuity of policy. Both in England and in the United States the crowd during recent years has. Such. for instance.
though in form elected. rushed the country into war. Corresponding ills accompany its unfettered actions in the areas of domestic policy. by the wisdom of the framers of its constitution. On the occasion of the Spanish-American war indeed the safeguard failed.were in actual fact not closely
responsible to. provided an important sphere of influence in the government for potent individuals. and guarded resistance to sudden popular emotion have been judged due. This is the kind of catastrophe sooner or later too likely to happen when the crowd dictates foreign policy. when there was not a single point in dispute which the enemy had not officially expressedwillingness to settle to the satisfaction of the United States by friendly negotiation. lashed to fury by a section of the irresponsible yellow press. alike in legislation and administration. under the guidance of its exponents and representatives. nor under the immediate influence of the
The United States also. who. put forward claims for a larger and indeed a supremeinfluence upon government. It has in many a recent enactment invaded the area properly belonging
to courts-of-law and has substituted administrative for
legal decisions in matters concerning the rights of individuals. were and still to some extent remain the Federal Senators. Now claims are openly put forward for the complete dominance of the crowd in all parts of govern150
. steadfastnessto national tradition.
and acquired excellencies of knowledge and wisdom. generation after generation. and as one able man can generally outwit a crowd. To such slavery mankind will not long submit. Their industry is a veritable nightmare of self-abnegation. A human society in which every individual
wasaswholly enslaved the crowd as is a beeto the hive to
would be an intolerable despotism.
As it is the ablest men that are thus the most indi-
vidual and the most resentful of crowd-imposition. There is nothing in nature so horrible as the life in a hive of bees. each for the next. and his desire to realise and express it. Every act of its life is done for the hive. among and
above his fellows. not
even in cities.and that not evenmainly of the living
community but of the unborn generation that is to follow its own. A bee all its life long is in unbroken slavery. But he is not.
If manwerea purely gregarious animalthis orderof governmentmight suit him well enough. so much the keener is his sense of differentiation from the crowd.Government
ment. and if the steps taken in that direction were to be
pursued muchfurtherboth GreatBritainandthe United
States would become advanced Crowddoms. Its passion of work is used up in the interests
of the community. and so much the
stronger his desire to escape from crowd thralldom. for in the long run perhaps the most vital element in each individual is his ultimate and keen senseof his own separateindividuality. gifts. That is exactly and without exaggeration the kind of life that every crowd tends to try to generate among its members and to impose upon them. it follows that crowddoms pure and simple can never long main151
. Moreover the higher a man stands in character.
It therefore follows that
the purpose of government is as much to protect the individual from the tyranny of the crowd as to provide that the tendency and aim of both legislation and administration shall be in general harmony with the emotional direction of the public. But
. They must possessco-ordinate authority. such as many members were in former days. Nowadays there is no difficulty in providing a fit and clear meansof expressionfor popular emotion. and it was by negotiations between these groups that majorities were built up or destroyed. has been organisedto that end. and each must be free from the control of the other. Under such circumstances the House of Commons could be a deliberative assembly. but perhaps not yet far enough. but over a reasonably extended period of time. becauseonly they correspond
to the twofold nature of man. Limited crowddom or limited monarchy alone can possessstability. not indeed at this or that moment. The whole system of elections. and therefore both crowd-sentiment and independent human reason must find their spheresof action in the governing body. Independent gentlemen. In former days (to confine
our attention to Great Britain) the House of Commons
did not even mainly consist of true representatives of the public.The
individuals. and party organisations. fall naturally into groups. under a loose party system. It has been carried far. Its members were to a large degree independent of public opinion.
tain themselves in power against the subtle assaults of Hence in a stable government both the gregarious and the individualistic nature of the governed units must be regarded. parties.
Indeed. should in fact express it immediately and clearly. But exactly in proportion to the power of expression thus given to the popular will should be the power of restraint and direction provided for individual wisdom. Universal male and femalesuffrageand to
annual general elections are logical developments of the widely current representative theory. It does not follow
that its desires are attainable or attainable at once. The crowd possesses none of these qualities. is there any deadly objection to be taken to such reforms.
Granted that the direction of legislation and administration must be in general harmony with the public will. nor.
In so far as that is the case it fails in the function which
it is now supposed to fulfil. and every security that party discipline
can invent is being taken to maintain the closest possible
connexion between the emotions of the constituencies and those of the House of Commons. It merely desires. at all events toward the time of a General Election. Every enlargement of the franchise and every shortening of the length of time between General Elections would tend to make the representative chamber more and more exactly what it is
supposed be. if public opinion is to be one of the main factors in government and legislation. As that recedes into the
distance the constituencies may change their wishes and the House may and often does fail to change with them. experience.Government
now the House tends to become purely representative of
popular feeling. and foresight.
. so long as the influence and power of the crowd is limited by a co-ordinate authority. it is obviously desirable that the body whose purpose it is to express that.
it might be supposed that crowddom would have come.
When the concurrent authority of the House of Lords. none to securethat.
have said. In the past this was accomplishedby the aid of a second
chamber. the main protection
. The body of peers was allowed to grow too big and ultimately the House ceased to perform satisfactorily the
business which was its function. the form. the marriages upon which heredity depended should be of a satisfactory character. The liberated crowd-chamber. must be matter for rational discussion and decision. where heredity provided an entrance to the assembly. side by side with the House of Commons. though a long step was taken towards it. By the weakness and carelessness successiveadminisof trations or successive generations the House of Lords was allowed to run to seed. was done away with. But.The
the time. As crowdexponent speakerswere fond of asserting.
proceeded to undermine this. First there was the whole mass of exist-
ing statute law and the body of judges who administered it and who are not as a rule amenableto political pressure. the members of which were not elected and
were therefore independent of crowd-control.membersof the House of Lords represented only themselves. and worst of all came
to lose faith in itself. and all the details of measures intended
to give effect to that will. This was in fact the very raison d'etre and merit of their existence. No care was taken to purge it of the unfit. that is to say they must for those purposes be removed from the purview of the crowd and therefore of its representatives. there remained certain limitations to crowd-power which
still have force.
but it will take a long time to socialise the law-courts. It is thus not merely possible but certain that within the body of the Cabinet itself parties will form. it becomes possible for one party
. before the
Reform Bills. though a Minister when he appears in his place in Parliament is constrained to express opinions harmonious with those of his party all over the country. New offices were formed. From being a mere Committee it became an assembly. the growing complexity and multitudinousness of its life and activities. and so the Cabinet increased
in size. But with the increased size and the intrusion of
of the nation. In fact that change took place which we have discussed in earlier chapters.Government
which individuals possess against crowd-tyranny. and what is more important a secret assembly. When. The Cabinet grew to be itself a small crowd.the Cabinet was a small and relatively
weak executive Committee. new Ministries called into existence. the House of Commons was really a deliberative assembly.
popular control into every sphere. As long as it was only an executive committee the secrecy of its deliberations was normal. but when it became an assembly this same secrecy assumed a novel importance. in the secret deliberations of the Cabinet he is under no such compulsion. A more subtle barrier against complete crowd-control had also been built up almost unobserved. For now. to wit the
privacy of Cabinet deliberations. and as the collective decisions of a Cabinet must be made to appear unanimous to the onlooking crowd. the organs of government multiplied.
and before that has been accomplished reactionmay be
its dictation.but interfering with oneanother in performing. There is one obvious intention with regard to it: it is not to be able to rival or overbear any Cabinet. overlapping functions. or by whatever namethey pass. constituencies. The only use for a second chamber is to express the mind and intelligence which residesin individuals but which is intrinsically absent from all crowds. Moreover it is to be made responsible to public opinion.publics. Such a second chamber would of course be superfluous.was due to the jealousy bound to develop between two rival bodies.and that not alone in
the case of Liberal Cabinets . constraining all
It maybe questioned whetherin point of fact the Cabinet nowadaysdoesnot efficiently perform many of the
functions of a second chamber.
within the Cabinet to dominate the rest. and no second body is required for that function. both endeav-
ouring to perform. It is to con-
sist of crowd-exponents and representatives subject to re-election by some kind of popular constituencies.
We have heard much about the reformed Second Cham-
ber which is some day to replace the House of Lords. It is to be
crowd-ridden like the House of Commons. to Possibly it might be argued that the growing hostility
which could be traced in recent decades between the Cabinet and the House of Lords . It is the business of the House of Commons to express the public will. But if onewereto be created. To invent
and setup a second crowd-chamber wouldbe mere superfluity. or at least whether it does
not contain within itself the germs of a body destined under stressof circumstances perform that function.the only result that
The public feels where the shoe pinches.
therefore. It would
jealouslyprotect the secrecyof its deliberations. tossedhither and thither by every wind and current of mutable public opinion. The
Cabinet would acquire the determining qualities proper to a second chamber. is to inspire but not to direct legislation. in any system of government which takes account of the actual and unchangeablefacts of the nature of man. that is to say the opinion of the national crowd. It would continue to grow in size and it would inevitably break up into groups. But although.
We are thus led to the conclusion that the proper function of organisedpublic opinion. would steadily losepower.Government
could follow is the same that would in any case follow if
the presentconstitutional arrangements continued. what it alreadygraspsat. entirely independent of the crowd. and incapable of performing deliberative functions. If the body politic suffers from disease. The
popular chamberbesideit. complete
control alike over administration and legislation. there yet remains one further func-
. The limits between emotion and reason are
not hard to draw for practical purposes. and it might finally obtain. the impulse toward legislation will normally be given by the public and the form which legislation takes will be the work of men of individual ability.and the governmentof Great Britain would becomea more or less elective oligarchy. strong enoughto hold the popular chamberunder its thumb.it will know that it is suffering though it may seldom be able to diagnoseits own
ailment. and they define the areas within which the crowd and all its exponents and representatives can properly act and those wherein
only [individual intelligencecan operate.
With the secondstage. do not like the Referendum. The Irish Home Rule Bill would have been rejected.knowing as they do that most great measures now scrambled through Parliament would be rejected by the country.The three readings
which a bill receives in each House of Parliament corre-
spond the threephases to throughwhicheveryproposed
measure ought to pass.to vote for and thus to carry it. "The office of the Senate.The
tion whichthe public may be organised perform." They can only fulfil that function if the
. and men of specialintelligence. so would the Insurance Bill. for final acceptance or rejection? Politicians. of course." saysHarrington. Politicians of present-day
type cannot therefore be expected to desire the introduction of the Referendum.and nowadays great popular measureever comesbefore no
Parliament at all until it has passedthis great and benefi-
cent public first reading.lawyers.to it to may be allotted the ultimate decision to acceptance as or
rejection a completed of measure.the
second reading and Committee . In the first stage the principle
of the measure should be stated and accepted. This
stageis in fact carried through by the public press. and so possibly would the Bill
for Welsh Disestablishment. which need not now be discussed. When the measurehas taken form under the hands
of these. though enough members who had been returned to vote against it were induced by negotiations. what should hinder its direct submission to the
public by what is called the Referendum.the public ought not really to be concerned at all. "is not to be commandersbut counsellors "of the people. Here is the proper area of
activity for experts. The famous Budget of 1911 was in fact thus rejected.
If it be contended that a representative body. quite possible to organise under modern conditions.man
beingthe twofold creaturethat throughout thesepages we
have postulated. as they may be seen doing in the interesting photograph here reproduced.Government
final voice.1 The unanimity which generally characterises a crowd physically assembledin one place. resting on a wide enough franchise and renewed at sufficiently fre1 I am indebted to the Swiss periodical "Heimatschatz" for permission to publish this photograph. is clearly apparent even in this small photograph. This decision is generally given by aid of the ballot-box." In most modern states Parliament both resolves and decrees.
. Legislation thus achieved after full debate and final public vote would have a binding force beyond legislation passed by any representative assembly.
then Parliament has no kind of right to "decree" . after it has had time to become conscious of itself. the ultimate Yea or Nay. Suchwas the ancient Romantheory of legislation expressed the words "The Senatehasresolved. whereas if Parliament
really and truthfully reflectsits constituent crowdit cannot properly " resolve. in the "people have decreed. but in some small cantons such as Appenzell the actual body of voters is brought together at one place and votes in person. The submission of measuresfor final approval to the whole body of voters in a country as large as the United States is a mere matter of machinery. be not theirs but the
people's. In some Swiss cantons the public has retained the right of final direct decision as to the passing or rejecting of legislative measures."whilst if it doesnot so reflect it.
would be sure to accept or
reject all.a legislativechamber hasno greatvalue. or an average of more than 50 for each Representative or delegate. responding to the party whip.053 bills and joint resolutions were introduced: in the Senate 7. which affect the structure of the nation and are
in fact constitutional innovations. Here. answer that underthe existing the is party system.a quantity of minor legislationin
which the great public is not interested and about which
it could not be consulted. For great measures of national
reform. 700 laws were enacted . as supposed agent of the public.cent of those introduced. thisis evidentlynot the case. of course. for instance. 417 of these enactments were public laws.shouldbe in suchclosetouch with the greatpublic asto renderany otherdirect appealto the people superfluous. 1915.616 bills and 441 joint
resolutions. It is obvious that such a flood of legislation must pass through a representative conduit and cannot by any
possibilitybe submitted by Referendum the judgment to
of the whole people. whereasthe whole body of the people might be expected accept somemeasures reject othersproto and ceedingalike from a single party government. any rate. is the record
of the doings of the Legislature at Washington during the Congressthat closed in March. at
for.only a little over £ per.
Thereis.751 bills and £45 joint resolutions. 30. in the House £1. exceptto registerthe will of the people
and provide opportunity for expert individual minds to set
forth that will in a form adapted accomplish much to so
Peace and War
quentintervals. £83 were private measures. an average of more than 83
for each Senator.a body of representatives.
Such a body has nothing to do with individual opinion. If the representative body is to reflect truthfully the emotion of the public . and industrial conditions have fashioned them. accept. coun-
try districts that have been separate units for a long time
are crowds. They exist because historical. When brought together it ought itself to be a crowd. small towns are crowds. only on a smaller scale. nothing to do with reason. or reject. But for minor and private bill
legislationand to keepan eyeon the national expenditure
and the executive actions of government a representative body is obviously needed. continuous through both of them. Cities are limited crowds. Such crowds cannot be called into existence by a stroke of the pen. and the businessof that body is to reflect truthfully and immediately what is actually the public opinion of the moment. but its inspiration and its decisions may be concerned with matters too small in
themselves and too numerous to be submitted to the
whole public. Rochester and Chatham. No motorist passing along the main street. I will cite as a single small example the adjoining cities. that is to say should represent one of the separately existing crowds of which the nation is built up.it
follows that each individual member should in turn
represent a crowd also.the great national crowd . It can only inspire.Government
of the national
desires as under the circumstances of the
day can be accomplished. could
. As a crowd it can never usefully deliberate.
economic. the exact image of the nation. To cut the
country up by a long-division sum into equal electoral areas is not to create so many new and separate crowds. One cannot alter these facts.
with differenthistorical pastsandwhollydifferentmunicipal character. in orderto enlargethe voting numbers of a town.The
in Peace and War
obtain directobservation vaguest where by the idea they divide.or voices. In the result you get neither the opinion of the country nor that of the
town.'" said Ruskin. of as wehavealreadyseen. By every visiblesign they are one city. you make the inhabitants of neighbouring country areasvote as of the town. whereas they do nothing of the sort. The country
crowd has one set of emotions.
You might as well seek the average taste of sugar
and salt. "I
"have told my working-menfriends frankly that their "opinions. 'not worth a rat's squeak/" nor are arethe reasoned opinions anysavea very few. however. In fact.arosefrom the false idea that men go to the polling booth and vote each according to his own reasonedidea of his own individual interests. youwouldaccomto all plishwouldbe the certainty failingto getfrom either of
the true expression local crowd-opinion." what
would be the value of their reasonedjudgment about
anything? "In 'Time and Tide. The same of thing is true if. Seeingthat the people of any country must of necessity. thefoolish aslikely but and are
. There is nothing in the nature of a mean or average to be arrived at between the two. not an expression individual is of
reason of crowd-emotion. at our present stage of evolution.giving
a part of Chatham Rochester. 'they are two. the town crowd another. be "mostly fools.
The foolish notion that anything is accomplished by dividing up a country into equal electoral areas. Voting.If you
wereto cut them into two equal electoral areas.
"Le vote de chaque individu. La veritable adhesiondesmasses
"n'existe qu'a la condition du contact des hommes reunis "en assemblee. and
in the fire and passion of the time to transmit their ideals to the representatives they cast up. s'interrogeant. but to give
singleness clearness the crowd'sideals. Individual opinion has so small a sharein voting as to be negligible. if you want the national crowd distilled.Government
as the wise. We do not want
an averageof foolish opinions. but the intention of crowd-organisation is to prolong it." The object of an electoral campaign is not merely to throw up a set of representatives. but an integration of popular aspirations." writes
George Sand. it is those and the like actually existing component crowds that must be represented. perhaps even more likely than the wise."n'est pasle vote (by which shemeansthe "aspiration) de tous.not overlapping sections of them. the county of Essex is a crowd. and with it the vitality of the crowd itself. to catch a fine crowd-ideal. Such singlenessof purpose seldom abides long in any crowd. s'eprouvant. and that tliat in turn is preferable
. and it is as fortunate
as it is inevitable that it should be so. se livrant les "uns aux autres. The City of London is one crowd. the City of Edinburgh is one crowd.to makethe and to
various crowds realise and concentrate their aims. It follows that the old-fashioned representation by counties and boroughs was a more scientific way of reflecting public opinion in the House of Commons than is the present half-and-half system. s'engageant par la publicite des debats
"et pouvant £chapper la aux influences par etroitesde la
"famille et aux suggestions passageresde Finteret per"sonnel.
The civic character of London. and if the votes of members counted (as they do in some Labour
Thus there is nothing gained by splitting up integral local crowds into sections which have no natural separate existence.Washington. Phila-
It shouldbe remembered the emotionalcomplexion that
of anygivencrowddepends if at all. This is said to have happened to Boston when that old Puritan and characteristically New England city was submergedunder a flood of Irish. out of thecountryat random of cut without regard to its pattern.
They change little from one decade another. and smallercities like Bath or
Londonderry. uponits numlittle. are possessingstrong crowd-character their own and prea of
serving it by contact with one another.hasalwaysbeena fairly constantquantity. its character may alter little. that a totally new spirit may be introduced.The
in Peace and War
to a systemof constituencies containing same each the number voters. Every one realises that the weight of a member in the counselsof the House of Commons is greater is some proportion relative to the importance of the constituency that returns him. Should London then count for no more than Londonderry in the representative chamber? Of course not. on the contrary the representative character of their representatives is weakened. Even to
when a city increases tenfold by steady infiltration of immigrants. It is only when a great massof incomers of one sort. The newcomers.if they comeas detached units. in
volume sufficient to revolutionise the local crowd-character. quickly receive
the local tone and are made as effective agentsin carrying
on the local spirit as persons born and bredin the place.
bers. New York.
Citizens have to make their living. Leviathan (to usethe metaphorof Hobbes). it is merely a group of co-operating individuals.Government
assemblies)in proportion to the size of the crowds that returned them. each desirous of his own profit and realising that that can only in the special case be obtained by co-operating with others. The purpose of a nation is the pursuit of ideals. the desired result would be obtained. a tremendous human
organism. No one inquires as to the character of his fellow shareholders. nations would only be great beasts of a pernicious character.
It hasbeenassertedthat aa state is in essence great a "joint-stock company with unlimited liability on the "part of the shareholders. and the first aim of civilisation would have to be to break them up. It is only when something goes wrong and when a company does not effect its purpose that a common emotion of any sort arises in a company meeting. it is little that any government can do to help them. without the necessity for any redistribution bills or other gerrymandering arrangements. though in much it can hinder. If it were not so. even and
then it is only the unlimited liability that all share." The analogy will not hold exceptin a time of war for national existence.
. The units are not united by emotion. Every country pursues its ideals collectively rather than its business. The purpose of a company is dividends. That is what gives dignity to the great crowds. You never see a successful company moved by emotion even when assembledin general meeting. A state is essentially a vast crowd. a
A company on the other hand is not a crowd.
He was free to choose whom he would serve. The ancient condition of freedom was the opposite to that of bondage or slavery.free to starve if he pleasedand serve no one. If he had to serve some master of for
free to save and live at leisure on his savings.
trades-unions demanded it. For
the purposesof the present chapterI proposeto distinguish Liberty from Freedom and to employ each word in its separatemeaning.No man indeed can be absolutely and unlimitedlyfreein this sense unless lives.
Slaveslonged for freedom.dissenting bodiesclaimedit. The word
Freedom will here be confined to this kind of individual
independence. it was the condition of an
individual who could decide the main circumstances his life for himself.
and his service was given in exchangefor something in the nature of wages. but the freedom or liberty aspired to by thesevarious classesis far from being one condition.
he could at any rate select that master.CHAPTER
LIBERTY r I
^HE best and latest of all dictionaries of the English
language how wordshave shows the I written at
the headof this chapterarevaguelyusedto carry
all sorts of different and even incongruous meanings. free
to come and go at the bidding of no one. subordinate states have gone to war for it.like Robinson he
Thus all the citizens of a country are supposed to share alike the emotion of patriotism. Witness the dominion of fashion over so-called Society people. Where people
live within the range of one another the freedom of each must be limited by the freedom of others. however. For every
crowd limits and must limit the freedom of its members
and not'merely their freedom of action. or "good form'* in a public school.
more or less.Liberty
Crusoe. if many of his fellowcitizens heard that utterance. A member of a church is
supposedto hold the church's faith.
So speaking regardthe individual as an independent we
unit.aloneupon an unpeopled island. A citizen who in time of war should assert that he was not patriotic would find himself in very unpleasant circumstances. so that the formula of individual freedom is this: that each individual is free to do and live as he pleasesin so far as he does not interfere with the corresponding freedom of
other individuals. he becomes a member of a
crowd new limitations to his freedomoccur. and to suffer penalties if he doesnot. A liberal is held to accept the ideals of the Liberal party. their freedomof thought. or the esprit de corps of the army. but. what is far
moreserious. and existing by the possession of a common emotion in its units. Evidently there is an opposition between the individual and the crowd in this
matter of freedom. the moment. and so it is. a member of the Labour party is under the like or even a more severe compulsion. The crowdbeing
a creature of emotions. and he who would retain as much
. it is impossible for those units to escapethis subordination of the soul. with all the crowds to which men and women
Peace and War
individual freedom as possiblemust be careful to limit within the smallestcompass adherence crowds. to diminish (if possible to the vanishing point) the freedomof its members. What would a democracy be like if based on millions of independent Joneseseach of whom decided to vote this way or that as he pleased? The dominion of the crowd would be
at an end both for better and for worse. The advantage of parting with his
individual freedom of choice is not so obvious.
induced jointhat party.the Liberal party than with its rivals. and always must tend. He is. We shall not
behold any such revolution in the world as we know it. instance. his to
That a politicalorganiser should desire suppress to the individualas a separate politicalunit is naturalenough. If Jones can only once for all be dragooned into a party he need no further be bothered about.
Thus we must concludethat the crowd by its very nature tends. My excellent friendFitzgalahad Jones.
The day when he doesnot vote for those nominees he
becomes a "traitor.
day Democracy rests on a few organised parties. But look at the question from the point of view of Jones. say. and have to spend money and trouble on trying to win his suffrage.therefore.andthenceforward always to must
vote for its nominees." Jones as an individual with a
volition of his own is a nuisance to all the organisers who do not know what he will do. for finds
himselfat a given momentmorenearlyin agreement with. not merely his own preferences. How easy would politics become if every one were once for all definitely a party member (as most voters are in the North of Ireland)Political leaders could then sell the vote of Jones if it
That is the claim of most crowds. The crowd's desire is to swallow up the individuality of its
members and to reduce them one and all to the condition
of crowd-units. they generally say and think that conformity to their
standards is in the interest of the individual. It is immaterial for our present purposeto note that
the type in questionis superiorto that of the ordinaryindividual laid hold of.whosewhole life is lived according the to crowd-pattern is sacrificed devoted crowd-interand and to
ests. Many interferences with liberty are permitted in war time by
. AH. but in all." an organ permeated with the spirit of modern Crowddom. Look at the Salvation Army.Liberty
and not in one or two respects alone. however. but often mischievous in the case
of those of fine nature and high capacities." The type is perfectly definite and the aim of the organisation is to make each individual approximate as closely as possible to that type. that we are
here concerned to record is the fact of the limitations
individual freedom imposed by crowds on their members.
Suchlimitations will be advantageous the case perin of
sons of low character. and that therefore the effect of such a
change upon each would be a great improvement in his individual character. and often on
the claim may be warranted. which happensat the moment to be of great importance to the country at war. are reducing their capacity of doing their proper work. for instance. by drinking too much alcohol. and observe how if it could it would make every one of its
members"a good salvation soldier.the "Westminster Gazette.
An excellentillustration of this crowd-dominance crops
up in my afternoon paper . It appearsthat in certain parts of the country artisans.
goes to Africa. and hotel as "upon the public house. It is accordinglyproposedto put difficulties in the way of thesedrinkers by executiveorders. To it every one of its constituentmembers like anotherand is
all must be drilled and controlled alike. and by hard work succeedsin making money enough to satisfy his needs for the rest of his days. As to the form
this control should take. or Borneo. for instance. If things were to go much further in the same direction individual freedom would be dangerously restricted. which proceedsto take from him as much of his money as it pleasesand to spend it in ways of which he may thoroughly disapprove.The
generalconsent. and sooner
or later ends by upsetting it. my paper says that "there is a
"great variety of alternatives. A man. But this is not the way the crowd works. If he must not drink in
. Mr. Asquith must not take a glass of sherry with his lunch at the Athenaeum! That is characteristic of all crowds in respect of individual freedom." of which it proceeds to give examples. We live in days when crowd-dominion over the individual has been advancing at a headlong pace." Could anything be more absurd? Lest a gunmakeror a shipbuilder in Glasgowshould drink too much. and it is that quality which in the long run produces an accumulation of individual hostilities to crowd-rule. He returns home and is perforce swept into the national crowd. or North or South America. the crowd-voice but comesout in its concludingsentence "whatever measure adoptedmust fall is
"evenly on all classes. restaurant. upon club. Onewouldsuppose the just way to do this wouldbe that
to make a list of the drinkers and prohibit their indul-
capture and overwhelm the individual. and this can only be done by limiting the crowd's right of free self-organisation. to absorb all his life for its service. The instinct of all crowds is to dominate. The crowd will not willingly protect him against itself. The ultimate It cannot. We should all be ordered about in every
relation of life from infancy to manhood. and for ever hostile to one another. regardless of the capacity of the parent.by the national constitution in the case of a country.
Hence individual freedom and the crowd are normally. He must insure for his dependents the attention of an ill-educated physician and the administration of drugs known to be useless. and in all our
relations matters with better children than and servants. necessarily. and this not becausethe crowd can arrange
the individual.in other words it must be effected by the constitution of the crowd . In the United States a written constitution and a powerful SupremeCourt to interpret it do. and no true freedom is possible for the individual unless he can be protected against crowd-dominance. Freedom would It lacks
utterly vanish. to make him its
slave. why shouldnot his eatingbe alike limited? Why not the style
and cut of his clothes? Why not the size and character
of his house? He must cause his children to be taught at least the minimum of muddled information which the government calls education. If the crowd had its way every mother and every infant would be under the orders of inspectors.Liberty and Freedom
Londonlest a Glasgowengineershould get drunk. reason for all this
interferenceis the crowd's desireto swallow up and control
the unit. the individual's brains. Such protection for him must be imposed on it.
Mr. and all that remained between the individual and the despotic crowd was the body of existing statute law and the judges with power to enforce it. So long as a number of non-electedindividuals possessed co-ordinateshareof legislativeauthority the a individual was protected." Thus if I am the owner of a rare and beauti-
ful picture. But when the so-calledveto of
the House of Lords was abolished.
Great Britain there is no longer any such assuredsecurity. " Whenever private privilege comes into collision with "the public interest the public interest must have right "of way.but
all thepleasure life consists the possession jealof in and
ous maintenance of such rights. even this protection wasremoved. that is obviously a caseof private privilege.
and to whom I please. of individuals Winston clash Churchill
stated the crowd's claim in naked simplicity when he said. when.if somewhat ineffectuallyafter
the House of Lords had been allowed to become a feeble
and frightened body. as obviouslyit is to the public interest that they should be able to see it. I am thereforeto be compelledto
show it to them! I would sooner burn it than suffer
such compulsion. replacing by administrative orders the decision of courts
of law in all cases where the interests with the interests of the crowd.The
considerable extent. What is mine I will show if. There is nothing.
If a man does not wish
to fight for his country is it right to compel him to do so?
. to hinder the abolition of this security except the time necessary for passing other legislation. An individual'sprivate rights are always liable to interfere with somepublic interest.
The United States is in fact a limited Crowddom. however.effectthe protectionof the individual.
That is the nature of the beast.Witness the silly interference with individuals in the supposedpublic interest brought about by Building Acts in towns. The despotism of kings has been tried and the experience of mankind showed that unless a king's powers were limited the individual was bound to suffer. In time of war the relation of the citizen to
his nation is changed. The only question is where to draw the line. No doubt there will always be room for difference of opinion as to the interpretation of this proviso. but the crowd in its desire for dominion is not concerned about any such question. There exist in fact two separate and alike inalienable
. It desires to control the whole lif e of each of its units and cannot help so desiring. he
One of the finest musical artists in the world told me that
he was a hopelesscoward and that nothing on earth could
makehim faceeventhe noiseof the firing of a gun.
except when that freedom limits the corresponding freedom of other individuals.Liberty
Suppose knowshimself to be a constitutionalcoward. to say
nothing of his dread of a bullet. Now the despotism of crowds is on trial and a similar experienceis arising in relation to them. as we shall see. and all other the like interferences with individual freedom. Insurance Acts. . and it is precisely becausethat is its nature that it needs to have its powers limited. but in times of peace the limitation of public despotism over the individual is necessary in the ordinary affairs of life. Innumerable instances of their folly could be cited. The
same is true of Education Acts. Why should he be com-
pelledto fight for his country? He did not makehimself
or select his own nerves and character! This is an extreme case.
Emile Faguet. The contest of between thesetwo rights was the central featureof nineteenth-century politics and the tendencyhasbeentowards victory for the rights of the people. sympathised with
what was coming. Therightsof manareto individual freedom. II est done a la "fois necessaireet legitime de proteger Findividu.or in the words of M. and as far as he saw. as is shownby the following passage from his Essayon Carlyle: "That which rules the period
"which is now commencing. de toute sftrete
"individuelle. de toute garantie consti"tutionelle. contre le despotisme du Peuple aussi bien que
"contre celui des rois absolus." Notwith-
standing this moderntendencyit none the lessremains
and always must remain true that. s'il y "a lieu. protection from violence.The
rights. de toute propriete. "la diminution progressiveet la "suppression pour finir de toute liberte. de toute resistance a Foppression. to continue the quotation."
Mazzini saw. "L'individu a droit a Fexistence et par suite au "libre developpement de sa personnalite sous le regime
"de la Souverainete Nationale aussi bien que sous celui
"du Droit divin.in all its manifestations. his own property. Ce doit m6me etre le but essentiel de
"la nation en tant que Peuple Souverain d'assurer cette "existence et ce Kbre developpement. that is to say inalienable without damage both to
men and mankind. and constitutionalguarantees.and "seek good as well as bad remedies that which every174
. They are separate and indeed
opposed rights. The rights of the peopleare to the limited sovereignty public opinion. these are the rights of man and the
rights of the people. that
"which makes everyoneat the presentday complain.
"Liberty. in politics. democracyfor "governmentsfounded upon privilege. Individual thought inspired by collective emotion. that is the only prolific power. and how far Liberty and Freedom are capable of existing simultaneously in the same society. But individual freedom
have now to ask wherein what is popularly called Liberty consists." It all sounds very plausible. and Fraternity!" Liberty.in social econ"omy. Equality. therefore. A fallacy." There is no such thing as collective thought. the spirit of universal tradition for the solitary "inspiration of the conscience is the work of an idea "which not only alters the aim but changesthe starting
"point of human activity.in reli-
gion. the spirit of Humanity visibly substituting "itself (for it has been always silently and unperceived at "work) for the spirit of men.Liberty
"where tends to substitute. Now whatever condition the word Liberty implies it must be of a kind consistent with the revolutionary watchwords .
Having thus briefly considered the condition of Freedom and the relation of a free individual to the crowd. lies hidden in the phrase "collective thought. however. it is the collective thought
"seeking to supplant the individual thought in the social "organism. association for unlimited competition . very hopeful. Thought residesonly in the individual brain. Whatever it casts upward presently falls back to the ground again and none the
better for its excursion into the inane. That alone leads mankind upward along a solid track. must be a condition consistent with a simultaneous
state of equality amongst men. Collective emotion uncontrolled by individual thought is merely explosive.
not the same as individual freedom.and self-realisation. Liberty. freedom for crowds from impediments to
. if all individuals for. but "the liberty of the commonwealth.The Crowd
in Peace and War
andequalitycannotexisttogether. and transmit
to their collaborators their
"own conviction that for them liberty lies in dominion. As Hobbes stated: "The liberty. it is not in the interest of individual development but in that of crowd-authority that the goddess of Liberty is
stereotype consequent the inequality generation genafter
eration. and liberty must be a condition consistent with such a despotism. It is
not the individual but the crowd that calls for Liberty. but the antithesis to or from the dominion of
it. whereof there is so frequent and honorable "mention in the histories and philosophy of the ancient "Greeks and Romans and the writings and discoursesof
"those that from them have receivedall their learning
"in the politics. Equality can only be attained and maintained by the collective despotism the lessable multitude over of
the more able few." This is not alone
true of nations. the abler and more gifted will imposetheir directive authority upon the less able. then. a function of constitutions and national organisation. is a political condition. is not the liberty of particular men. therefore.
Liberty is not freedom to the individual from the
dominion of other individuals
crowds. Liberty is freedom for crowds to dominate individuals.
Bismarcksaid of the Church of Rome that its clergy in
any country "constitute a political institution under
are free.organisation. it is true also of lesser crowds.
and the right of crowd-formation and organisation.
Liberty in this sense implies the possessionof three principal rights: the right of assembly and unrestrained speech. Society closesthem in the name of good form.liberty to impose will of the majority its the
on the minority. Churches close them in the name of
. It is proof of crowd-rule if a man of ordinary prudence finds it inadvisable openly to oppose public prejudice. but that is a misnomer. That is what the political demand for liberty always means: liberty for some crowd to
enslave certain free individuals. in order to give effect to some
political or social ideal. which aims at accomplishing an organisation of the national crowd. whenever does rule.is jusshe not
in complaining of Diocletian-like persecution/'
This demand of the church for liberty is the demand also of all political parties and of every association. a man may not openly say the thing he pleases if it be in opposition to public opinion. No crowd tolerates freedom of speech.Liberty
"and that theChurch. Labour demandedliberty to organise crowd. Nations close the mouths of individuals in the name of patriotism. or any part of it. The first of these rights is generally called the right of free speech. Imagine the kind of hearing a Tory would receive from a confessedlyLiberal audience if he were openly to speak his mind. Nor is the crowd less intolerant of free speech in the ordinary circumstances of life.the right to print and publish without restriction. Who would be wise to utter unpatriotic sentiments in a full railway compartment during the present time of war? Where the crowd is ruling. liberty to extinguish the individual freedom of its members.
and organised.No! what the publicmeans freedom by of speech certainlynot freedom eachindividualto is for express own personal his opinion. So-called freedom of speech no part of personal is freedom. Under normal political conditions
freedom of public utterance is essential for the formation
of a new public opinion.a free
press:all these thingsare partsof liberty. developed.it is onlya factor
. It can only be dispensed with when a vast number of individuals are so eager to work against a government as to be able to createa national movement by multitudinous personal activity.
and the press that crowdsare formed. Where these are controlled and
directedby a central authority.The
Freedomof speech. In order to form and build up an opposition to the powers that be. The
German Government. Wherethese prevented regulated are or crowdformation is difficult. by controlling and directing almost all organs of publicity. public speaking. Theyimply
the liberty of the crowd from the control of independent
individuals or from limitation of power by constitutional restrictions. liberty of propaganda is almost essential. It is by public meetings. Such a movement was thus created in
Italy against the Austrian governmentbefore the day of Italian unity. that is to say of a new political
crowd. a definite direction may be imposed public opinion. freedomof public meeting. which under free instituon tions might have adopted a contrary attitude. succeededin creating a national opinion of singular force and unanimity in sympathy with the wishes and aims of the government itself.
It is obviously the interest of the better and more intelligent workman to be paid more highly in proportion to his superior skill and ability. supplanted.Liberty
The impulse being thus given. No one
can be sure to what a new party may not grow. The employer is prevented from thus differentiating. We have all beheld the organised body of Labour fight for and obtain this liberty. This liberty of theirs does not suffice them unless it includes a power to control and dragoon the individual member. The
right to organise has therefore been a right that has had to be fought for. different
formation of new crowds result
the normal crowd-
to stifle non-conforming bodies! Such resistances to the
instinct of self-preservation. and how those in. for only by a new crowd can an existing crowd be rivalled. or destroyed. The facts in this caseare so obvious that it would be waste of space to illustrate them by many examples. Existing parties view with disfavour the formation of new parties. liberty to organise the new body is a further necessity. Witness the great and bitter struggles by which liberty of religious organisation was won. not in order to further his particular interest but only that of the collective body. How
the Roman Church resisted the formation of Protestant
bodies. It is to the interest of
. one will suffice. this right to enslave the individual workman by miscalled peaceful persuasion! It is the open and avowed object of the trades-unions to compel all workmen to come within their body and to exercise over every individual member a complete despotism. Hence the demand on the part of all who would form crowds for liberty to do so if they can.
If some want holidays. all must take holidays.
Here therefore once
. where liberty of association is limited.
Obviously. He is
forbiddento manage morethan one. Trades-unionsset their faces against his doing so. and limitations of the crowd they incorporate.so that employment may be provided for a larger number. In these and countless other ways an organisedand despoticcrowd
sets the interests or fancied interests of the many before those of the individual. If some are not to drink. it is to his interest to do so. Liberty so to organise crowds is what the crowd calls Liberty. inevitably a low level. all must not drink. They are the people on whom restraint falls. and it is always the superior individual whom the crowd sacrifices. so in the smaller crowds that exist
within a nation a similar limitation of poweris essential
if freedom is to be maintained. For to all crowds all its units are alike. Just as in nationalgovernments unlimited Crowddom is as wretched a state as
unlimited monarchy. all must be slow workers. All
must be depressedto the level which all can reach. If one man can manage several machines. as all crowds and crowd-men must. The men
who call aloud for this liberty and are never tired of
praising it are the crowd-representatives.The
a quickworkerto be ableto earnmorein a day than a
slow-one. prejudices. It is the very reverse of Freedom. instinct with all the passions. if individualfreedom to bepreserved is crowd-liberty mustbe limited. If some
are to be slow workers. any interferencewith their action as corporate exponents. and be paid accordingly. and always the
inferior whom it fosters. resent. ambitions. then. and they.
occupation. individual self-realisation be not impeded. that thereby individual initiative. it is a main function of the central authority to preserve an equilibrium between them in every rank. It is as useless as it is foolish at this time of the world's history to rage against the organisation of crowds and attempt to prevent their easy formation. and class. In a sound society the preservation of individual freedom is as important as the preservation of public liberty. individual thought.Liberty
more we are driven to the conclusion that for a healthy community neither complete individual freedom nor complete crowd-liberty should be allowed.
. It is their power of organisation and control over the units that composethem which needs to be limited. and these being hostile the one to the other.
It might be supposedthat." Some can learn from one. and for each some special future is more to be chosen and prepared for than any other. The gifts of each child are different from those of the rest. for here surely is not the sphere for block treatment. where education is a matter of
government ordering. a given child cannot be equally well taught by any of tlie
class labelled "teachers. and a universal routine is applied to all alike. but the matter is too important to be thus lightly passed over. Each has his own possibilities. whilst the relation of the crowd to education has many other aspects and
REFERENCE to educ hasmade the been above
producesvarious important results. if the individual's interests in any area of
life are to be provided for. Under no circumstances
be fully realised.CHAPTER
tional value of their own public opinion upon the scholars in a school. the ideal of individual treatment for the purpose of attaining the best individual development is not
even aimed at. his own difficulties. it should be in respect of education.
some from another. and the best ultimate output is arrived at by the combination of mutually adapted pupil
and teacher. apart from consideration of the interests of the crowd. Moreover. Of course. but a system that does not and cannot
Here we trace the dominance of the sentimentality of the crowd.Education
even contemplate it as to be aimed at. Socialists into
Socialists. It is on the contrary an exceptional treatment for the half-witted. fearing in each superior individual a restive crowd-unit. resents the intellectual inequalities which nature decrees at birth. Our modern public educational system does. not of the wisdom of the wise. looking to its own continued existence throughout a far longer period than the span of human life. liberals into liberals. upon whom is lavished a care and attention which they of all children least deserve and can least profit by. the Nonconformists into future Nonconformists.
The crowd. which would regard all units as alike." Hence the struggle on the part of various crowds to retain the right of polarising the
. regards education as the process whereby the new generation is to be made in its own likeness and to continue
its own immediate aspirations. make one exception in the uniformity of its treatment. to devote special attention to the more gifted children so as to make the most of unusual abilities. must be false in the very nature of things. and the whole nation acclaims the wisdom of
bending all efforts to fashion each and all into what are called "good citizens. however. but it has no corresponding dread of the half-witted and can satisfy its sentimentality by according them exceptional advantages without danger
to itself. as an observer from anotherplanet
might have supposedit could be.
That exceptionis not. For the crowd. squires into squires. tories
into tories. The Church desires to fashion the young into future Churchmen.
It is only a gifted teacher who can rise above the ordinary level of instruction and compulsion.
.and this though experience shows
the exact contrary to be often the case. The parson wantsto havethemtaughtthe
catechism and so forth." All alike are
earnest in their effort. and can create
a desired newpublic opinionamonghis charges. Nonin the conformistthat they are not taught these things but
another set. that can
reallyaffecttheir character stamp lastingimpress and a
upon it. so long will various crowds clamour for liberty to preside over the education
of their children a liberty.The Crowd
in Peace and War
education of those children on whom they can respectively
lay hands. In these matters it is not by the teacher but by the public opinion of the taught that an individual
child is influenced. and no amount of mere instruction will
in any way alter or negativethe powerof that opinion. not for the person educated or his parents to choose what he shall be taught. but for the
educatorto imposeon him a determinedand perhaps
hated teaching. "There is no god. Thus the introduction of undenominational school-board education was
presently followedby a remarkable revival in the vitality
of the Church of England. as the generation thus educated grew up. So long as this superstition exists. becausethey believe with pathetic
unanimity that if you train up a child in the way you wishhim to go he will remainin that way after your compulsion is removed. like that other we have
just been considering. the Roman churchman to see
that they arewell grounded Catholicdogma. the Socialists would have their young lips
early framed to sing.
A remarkable instance what canthus be accomplished of is givenin the Blue Bookentitled "Annual Reportfor 1913 "of the chief medicalofficer of the Board of Education. wherein related is howthechildren theHughes of
Fields Girls* Council School at Greenwichwere taught the rudiments of cleanliness and decent living. all were looked at. that the staff wereconstantlyabsent "through illness. The children were also asked at what hour they went to bed the previous night. "This "schoolis situatedin an extremelypoorpart of Deptford. and so forth.and doing in things.
boots. and the attendance was
"frequently as low as 60-70per cent for the wholeyear. and whether they had slept with an open window. and the dirty and untidy were shamedby being
put right in the presence the class. This was the real of
educational force. handkerchiefs. A new public opinion was created. nails. hair.
consistingof lessons hygiene. "Indeed.237)."
(p. the basins and towels with which they had washed. inspections. clothes. collars. the condition of the children attending the
"school was at one time so trying to those who came in
"contact with them. The lessons may be imagined. nail-trimming drill."
Accordingly. They were only given to the older children. handkerchiefs. and
. teeth. The master of another large school invokes the aid of public opinion in the same direction by having a pre-
paredblackboardin eachclassroom with spaces the for
insertion of figures detailing the number present with clean boots. hands. it becameimpossibleto keep supply
"teachers more than a few days. nails. The inspections weredaily. nine years ago a new regime was introduced. and it was fostered by such exercisesas tooth-brush drill.
thus starting with dirty teeth.it means "teaching them to behave as they do not behave. and who sleep with their windows open. we reach clean teeth. bitten nails. and neatly mended "clothes. hair tidily done." If that were all that education means it would be entirely a
matter for crowd-influence and not for instruction in the
ordinary meaning of the word."
Hardly could one cite a better illustration of Ruskin's contention that "Education does not mean teaching "people to know what they do not know . the "members of the staff are no longer frequently absent "on sick leave." Such are the results brought about by a healthy public opinion. "properly tended hands and hair. "are named "specials/ and there is a great rivalry amongst
"them to be so classed. and from being a place avoided by teachers "it has become a field of happy and useful work. the effect of these methods can be "best seen by passing from the lowest class to the "highest. A child. the "children now bear the closest inspection. un" kempt hair. clean collars." The result of this effort after nine years on the Deptford school is thus described.The
"open windows last night. or desirous of obtaining new posts. and untidy clothes. "teeth brushed. Taking "the school as a whole. who passes through such a school as this. "In many schoolsthe children who systematically attend "school with clean boots. The happy air and healthy looks of the chil"dren make it hard to believe that this is actually a school "of *peculiar difficulty/ The children obviously love "the school. and are able "to progress normally in the ordinary subjects. is likely to receive a per186
. "The attendance now averages over 92 per cent.
just as from an evilly minded public he would with difficulty avoid catching low and base ideals. As Dr. Instruction cannot do this. because our English Public Schools and Universities have developed this kind of moral force. as I have said above.Education
rnanent impression from it. "Opinions once received are seldom "recalled to examination. by the absorption of their atmosphere.
Seeing that crowds are the home of emotions. The case above cited is an example of the proper use
of crowd-emotion for the improvement of the individual. to have its image in some
degree stampedon his own individual character. all animated by noble ideals of different kinds. he is the moral educator of the young. It is.the emotions of the individual are mainly to be aroused or even created. therefore. tends to defeat instruction
its own object if it deserts its proper domain of transferring facts and developing skill. and no other can take his place. is obvious. Johnson said. The whole power of education in respect of character lies in the school's public opinion. the chances
are that he wrould catch those ideals one after another
and himself become impregnated by them." This is as true of false opinions as of sound ones. having been once supposedto "be right they are never discovered to be erroneous. it follows that from them. it is to ennoble the unit. by infection and influence. that they have been so efficient in the formation of our national character. If you could bring an individual into contact with successivecrowds.to have
his opinions in some degree fixed by it for life. They may not be the best agencies
. and he who can influence the growth in that of high ideals and just principles. The use of crowdship in
and young workers accordingly find the life of a "smug" far from easy. and the young work hard and willingly. and if our public schoolboyswere to forsake the ideals of good form they now so keenly
in the world for teachingfacts. The national crowd. there alone does this desire exists an emotional faith
commonly arise in the young. Germanschools claim to turn out better equippedintelligences hour of teachper ing. or only by teaching as a result of study. for it cannot be established by inculcation but only by infection.that is the difficulty. All of us learn the facts and acquire the skill we need for life mainly from life itself. not to the amount learnt by a child but to the tone acquired. But to establish that desire in an individual . Teachers can impose on us but a slender equipment. if wisely directed. but to what is caught. but as agencies the formation of characterthe for EnglishPublic Schooland the old universitiesmay claim
pre-eminencein the world.that chief attention is
be given. then. will
demandof a national systemof education. Most of us learn by study not by teaching. in Germany. He that desires to learn can be easily taught if you give him the opportunity. In Scotland. but if our schools were caused to lose their
present high moral tone in exchangefor a more efficient
systemof instruction. not to what is taught.
I know not where else.-there
in education. He
that can teach the nation a new faith in work will accom-
plish for England the great revolution of which it stands
a crowd-faith in education. In countries where the mass of the people have an emotional belief. In England such faith does not exist.whosemain business to producegood citizens.
If ever a world-university is to arise. clean-living Englishmen.
more readily than here. that also will have to grow. and who shall say where it is likely to take root? If. the first businessof a state is the
. which could there be acquired. "I will do it. it was evolved in long processof time." That is the finest tribute to our country that the world affords.their very efficiency as character-forming bodies is the reason why our ancient and incomparable Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are of relatively little use to foreign students. They have served our national purpose superlatively well.the change would be disastrous and England would presently lose her high place amongst the nations. is a matter for the world to discover. in some branches of learning at any rate. The public opinion of our public schoolsis the medium in which that honest English spirit is most efficiently cultivated. as Macaulay said. Curiously enough. however. not even to our kindred American students. and only in a secondary degree to manufacture scholars. the main business of
Oxford and Cambridge has been to turn out straight-dealing. Moreover the spirit of our Universities was not produced by taking thought. It is not impossible that they might equally well turn out citizens of the world. the reason being that they were seeking to acquire knowledge and skill. In the past they have gone chiefly to German universities. "On the word of an Englishman?" inquires his friend.Education
maintain and take up instead a cold ambition for intellectual success. not
for us to aim at. After all.
That. impregnated with a high international or super-national human tone." promises the South American. "Yes! on the word of an Englishman.
is exit. socialisticideal the
. or perhaps small local divisions. it must be based on
the moral educationof every member the community. From the point of view of the nation the promotion of a high moral tone among the scholars in every primary school is the first object to be aimed at. and it must not be left to chance. and they should of necessity vary widely from time to time and from place to place. If Religious
Education is the chosen means to this end it must be
something altogether different from mere instruction. is the formation of character.The
education of its citizens. by parents. of for until all our hearts are changed. till what agethey shall be kept
at school. or divided among a lot of conflicting sects. These
are all questionsthat should be determined by individual teachers. actly this side of the educationalproblemto which the legislaturein its large lack of wisdom appearsto give no thought. what hours they shall attend. The one universal need. and that is supposed to be attained by what is called Religious Education. the sameeverywhere. The Labour Party
are in favour of having no religious education at all. such
is their misunderstanding their own socialisticprinciof
ples. the very word employed indicatesthat the matter to be attended to is the development in them of the character of citizenship. If Socialism is to be a reality. or confined to a definite set of hours. By one of those
strangecontrarietiesof which modemsystems governof ment and legislationafford so many examples. or
least of all abandonedaltogether. What subjects pupils shall be taught. such are the matters in relation to the young
that an Education Office is called to determine.
as of old. Each pupil is a separate problem. reacting against a teaching imposed. by a prophet. a new emotion must be kindled within it.Education
is impossible of attainment. on them." beyond the probability that in after life those very individuals. One powerful impetus and one only can the national crowd give to education. in the senseof learning facts and acquiring skill: it is to supply the infective passion for learning. are called upon to devise some universal method for stimulating throughout all the primary schools
the same kind to Great Britain. For no crowd can generate a new emotion from the depths of its own multiplicity. Each teacher must solve each such problem for himself in his own way. that must always be and remain an individual's business. will be more liable than others to become highly superstitious and credulous. but all persons. who have the future welfare of their country at heart. of fine ideal of conduct which has made
our public schools and old universities so great a blessing As for the teaching of facts and the development of skill in the individual pupil. no central administrative body can help it. all that the interference of a central authority can accomplish. Not socialists only or mainly. The socialist Sunday schools
accomplish nothing by making their childrensing "There
"is no god. It must be as variable as are the
individual teachers and the individuals taught. if it insists on meddling in these matters. No general laws can govern it. no
code can define it. What
. There is no other possibility. is to impede where it fussily proposes to direct and help. But it can only supply a passion which itself experiences.
so that. a fuller intellectual life. manifests also a lack among us of personal efficiency in those things which have to be learned by study.and surely now is the time for him to appear:now whenthe greatobject
lesson of German efficiency looms so large within the vision of us all. and to determine that in the future we will labour to implant in our nation a new faith.The
England needsis a prophet of learning. The same great light which manifests
the inestimable value to us of fine national character. while we may indeed thank our forefathers that they have not imposed upon us the overburdening weight of a vile ideal of mere brute force. to
. "There is nothing in any state so terrible.
fashioned within our people by the successive ideals laboured for and proclaimed by the generations that have gone before." said Sir Walter Raleigh. and a wider diffusion of every sort of skill." Let
us see it that at long last ignorance to shall be nationally realised be amongthe greatestof national perils. "as a powerful and authorised ignorance. a new aspiration toward a larger learning. we ought likewise to perceive that ours is now the duty to make good what is lacking.
but the man who so acts descendsin the human scale and thus injures himself and
is immoral. It was vile because he was a man. limb from limb. The hideousnessof that act did not depend on the social relations of the evil-doer. as it were in a crowdvacuum. or descendingin the hawkly scale. all the problems that arise among members of a community. but he could still harm himself and behave brutally to the animal world about him. becausefor our present purpose it is sufficient to indicate the existence of individual morality in a man's relations to himself and to nature.CHAPTER MORALS
was relieved from. I will not pause to inquire whether that morality could have been developed in such a vacuum. It was a sin against his own humanity. A hawk tears a dicky-bird to pieces without becoming thereby an immoral hawk. a being highly enough developed
to be able to enter into relations with the exterior world
ROBINSONwhenon islan CRUSOE. I once saw a Dago sailor plucking a little live bird to pieces. his alone
of nature and animals on a higher plane than that of mere destructive brutality. He could harm no fellow-man by any action. Clearly Robinson Crusoe could
There is therefore a morality which applies solely to the individual as a separate unit.
by sloth he might havedulled his powersof observation and action. Its laws
are primarily those of hygiene. Individual morality heeds the adjustment of
the individual to the external world of nature. Similarly by idleness he might have lowered his
vitality. In these and many other ways he
might have sinned against himself. enforcedby the will and stimulated by individual conscience. or he could have indulged
in other private vices. this prick
of conscience. It is an instinct completely individualistic alike in origin and in its purpose. his conduct toward each
of them and theirs toward him. or he could have brewed intoxicants and become a drunkard. so far as the individual has
knowledge. Individual morality. This impulse. Any action harmful to the health either of his body or his mind would have been rightly describable as an immoral action.
Science determines them. will enforces them. would have resulted from the mere instinct
of self-preservation which every healthy-minded individual possesses. and all of them might have been
called immoral becauseall were acts by which he injured himself.
More important are a man's relations to the persons
with whom he comes in contact. I shall apply the term Individual Morality to a man's obedienceto such laws as his instinct for self-preservation and impulse toward self-development unite to impose upon him. and if he
realised it to be so there would have risen within him an
impulse not to do that action.The
have overeaten himself.does not carry us very far. which operates apart from any relation and to his social surroundings. physical and spiritual. We may apply the term Mutual Morality to the principlesensuingfrom the con194
though applied to individuals. and it is a dangerous force.Morals
duct of such mutual relations between individuals as
those of husband and wife. becausethe crowd is certain sooner or later to impose on them consideration for its own supposed interests.
acts up to their standard. as indicating the kind of power by which individuals may be governed in their mutual relations. Honour even to-day in some countries drives men to kill one another in private
. unless individuals
voluntarily call for its sanctions or interference. and so forth. and of men in business relations to one another master and servant. however. That is the individual's option. for brevity. This is not mutual morality but a kind of crowd-morality. or they may make a legal bargain which crowd-representatives will enforce. those of parents and children. I have used above* the word honour. in his relations with other individuals. a great danger. Thus individuals may invoke the crowd to take cognisance of an agreement. The admission of the crowd as party to a bargain between individuals is. those of friends. but that already assumesthe existence of crowd-morals enforced by public opinion. brothers and sisters. landlord and tenant. All these are individual relations over which the crowd only
by usurpation obtains any control. under which before long theirs may be overwhelmed. Two men may make a verbal bargain and trust one another's honour. and the crowd may permit its representatives to do so and may define the terms on which they may do so. Marriage is an obvious case in point which we shall presently consider. Honour is what the crowd of his own kind renders to a man who.
buyer and seller.
Each one of us must belong to many crowds and our lives and feelings must be to a greater or less extent
conditioned them. He may generate towards it within himself a share of the crowd's enthusiasm. ask himself does he. however. Love is the fulfilling of all the law of mutual conduct.
indeed. Then let him. not mankind. It has no relation to the crowd. That is not love. nothing more. It operates only between individuals. retaining if he can a perfectly detached attitude towards the enthusiasms of the multitude. The crowd.love it with an emotion wholly the same as the emotion he feels towards a human friend? Of coursehe cannot. the flower of rhetoric. attempts to confuse the individual mind and to impose on itftthe duty of collective loving. He may be possessedby an enthusiasm of humanity. Henceindividuals in a gregarious by
. and it might be shown to be far from a perfect guide of conduct under all circumstances. If anyone doubts it let him attend some big public meeting and gaze at the audience from the platform.
The human crowd. and he that sinsagainst his fellow-man sinsalways against love. but he can only
love individual men. Love is the sufficient stimulus that forms and quickens the mutual conscience. exists and must always exist.
actually and truly love that seething assemblage. No! the guide to a perfect mutual morality is the whole group of Christian virtues. conscious of the power of love. Only by confusing his own mind with crowd-passionsand mistaking his share
of them for individual emotion can he deceive himself
into the belief that he loves mankind. can he. and greatest amongst them is Charity. but this is mere crowd-speech.The
When that happens a conflict is set up and interesting problems arise for solution. that. The national crowd or great public is the important morality-making power. which remain the same whether the individual be living as a Crusoe. and healthy persistence of the said social organism or particular crowd for the time being under consideration. the crowd im-
poses social morals upon the unit. The crowd being. Social Morality is independent alike of individual and of mutual morality.Morals
world are necessarily involved in a third and more complicated morality. not human. or as the unit of a crowd. as one of a family. municipal.
. or of any other sort. whether it be national. as by hypothesis we are regarding it. in some
ways superior. These are the interests involved in the preservation. but built up of human units. His own well-being of body and mind and that of those personally associated with him are as much matter for pursuit by him under the one condition as under the other. and in so doing regards not his well-being but its own. higher development. but with this practical difference. whereas the unit imposes
his own individual morals upon himself. religious. so long as what is good for him does not prove to be bad for the crowd. to the life of its component individuals. and the crowd having a life of its own.in others inferior. Social morality bears to crowds the same relation that individual morality bears to individuals. which we may designate as social. to which all minor crowds are. as living tissue is built up of cells. altogether different from and independent of the interests of those individuals. a kind of beast. possesses corresponding number of a interests of its own. growth.
powers. tradition. It stigmatises as crimes those actions which are obviously injurious to the social organism and which can be defined and are capable of proof. and prevented by force. the crowd that
imposes moralsis not the merebody of living folk at any
given moment in the country or to be numbered in the
nation. capacities. All
are mereunits. Against these formal laws are enacted and enforced by representative executive authority. oneas goodas another. social structure. strives to impose this subserviency upon the individual. proved.
The crowd accordingly. do not come within its ken. except in the case of a crowd-representative. and any other discoverable agency employable in its service can bring to bear.The
in this matter.interests. The wellbeingof the nation as a wholeis the sole interestof the
national crowd. unless they are employed
representatively its service. Morals are not the invention of the people of to-day. sacrificed to those interests. Further.accomplishments. To it all individuals are alike. Leaving crowd-representatives out of account. It includes the generations that have passed. by every means in its power. It caresno more for the in
life of one of them than for that of another. These it attempts to suppress by the power of public reprobation and by the exercise of every kind of restraint that education. they have been slowlyproducedand continuouslydevel198
. preferences. It stigmatises as vices actions injurious to the individual or those which injure itself in a vague manner and cannot be precisely defined. all other men are to it of equal
value and all alike are to be subordinated to its interests
and if need be. of insignificant importance.
No public opinion ever really to approves individual success. They are the productof but the cumulative public opinionof many generations.
It is evident that it matters nothing to the individual
whether he flourishesin health and happiness consein quenceof his individual morality or in consequence of his accordancewith a healthy crowd-morality. but the informal and indirect. This imposition is effected by public
. and it desires to take security that so it shall be. Such a private
venture will never be regarded sympathetically by the crowd. were to obtain happiness. It is not. It insists directly or indirectly on having its
morality imposed everywhere and on every one. and
the purposeof them now and always is and has beento
promote collectivehealthand general the well-being of
the national crowd. But this the crowd can never
be expected conceive. however. which is driven by its own nature to desire control over all the formative agenciesthat go to fashion a coming
generation.Morals opedand handed downin the longprocess time.a country
wouldbe filledwith happyindividuals withoutany help
from a crowd-morality. goinghis own way and followinghis own rule of conduct. Nor
would it really matter to a nation whether all its units were to flourish for the one reason or for the other. the formal and legal imposition of
crowd-morality that is most important. If
everyindividual. A of
given generation add themor givethem slightly may to a
newdirection. that is all.A man for instancemay of keep a private schooland turn out from it a succession
of fine young fellows impregnated with noble ideals and
perfectly fitted for the struggle of life.
Alcohol may be advantageous to a given individual. and presently also by its aid the law. which some of its units were drinking too freely. if that were all.
. The body politic. it discountenances the act in all and tries
to put an end to it universally.he must give up drinking it.to make its conception of its own interest prevail. often with success. It is only when the crowd as such suffers by the action of individuals that it begins to talk of right and wrong. No matter! If it hurts the crowd by the misuse of some. but regarding
all as units.The
opinion enforcing upon the minds of all what it calls the laws of right and wrong. As soon as it obtains an emotional realisation that a given act is injurious to the collective body it directs public opinion. was suffering from alcohol. Those things are held up to us as right which are beneficial to the crowd. Under such circumstances an opposition may readily arise between individual and crowd morality. but. it may be helpful to his digestion or even to his mind. Thus recently we came for a time very near to a condition in which a man would have found himself regarded as doing a wrong action if he drank a glass of wine. Those who did so undoubtedly sinned against individual morality. This concrete instance is merely one of a countless number that might be cited where the interest of the crowd and the interest of the individual may be at variance and where the crowd endeavours. or at least every effort the crowd can make shall be employed to drive him to give it up. those things as wrong which are injurious to it. and knowing as it does no difference of persons. against that act. the crowd would have beenprofoundly indifferent. we were told.
in eachparticular species. That relation is obviously as
a crowd affair.to outwit a crowd if he or she sets his or her mind so to do. and
is one with which an observerfrom another planet might suppose that the crowd would have nothing to do.
. That is the most individual affair in the whole range of human relations. Theloose first phrase was I therebetrayed into usingis one of crowd-manufacture. as will result
"in the production of the maximum number of offspring "capableof surviving. Very different.
confusingthe true issue. and is usually able .and wereit not that the individual is much cleverer and more inventive than any crowd
can be. however. The relation betweenthe sexes should mean nothing else than the relation of the mass
of men. however. crowd-despotism over sex-
ual relationswould have beencompletelyestablished long
ago. climate. wherein it is contended:
"That marriage consists in the union of the sexesfor "such a term.is the personalrelation between
two individuals of opposite sex. as of regarded anothercrowd. regarded onecrowd. but has small practical importance.with the mass women. It is. one of a thousand such and
not more authoritative. and under such conditions.Morals
Themostprominent importantsphere and withinwhich
the crowd'sinterest has beenmadeto prevail over that of individuals is in the relation of the sexes. where some journalist has set down in plain language the crowd point of view on this
"and grade of civilisation.
A paper lies before me.or rather of
individuals opposite of sex. this matter that the crowdis for ever attemptin ing to be most despotic.
and where there are no children. The desire of two mutually loving persons for
the possession oneanotheris their purpose marriage.nor from that of the "female. and once entered into with its consent and under its auspicescan only with the greatest difficulty
be dissolved. Indeed. All this belongs to the sphere of mutual morality. but for the mutual company and happi-
nessof two peoplewho find joy in the presence one of
another. a child is born. When. however. and the desire for mutual com-
panionship is at an end. the crowd would not allow the
dissolution of marriages under any circumstances if experience had not made it feel that worse evils can arise to
. and the attitude of the parents has to take account of the needsof
the child. the whole purpose of marriage
ceases when love ceases." There you have the whole contentionin a nutshell.The
"That marriage is therefore to be regarded neither "from the point of view of the male. after the crowd's happy-go-lucky way of dealing with units. and that whether there be a society around to
interfere in its behalf or not. a third individual has to be considered with its interests. not those of the crowd in it. but solelyfrom that of the race. and nothing could be lessin harmonywith the interests of manyindividuals. of in
and the last thing most lovers are thinking of is the benefit of the race. But from the point of view of the social crowd the marriage relation bears so important a part in social structure that all marriages are put on an equality. Marriagefrom the point of view of
an individual is not primarily a union for the production of children at all. its own
individual interests. From the point of view of the individual.
a weight of hostile public opinion is brought against her which few are strong enough to resist.which seldomdeclares itself as a separate power except in this relation.
by aid namely of public opinion and of conscience. however. Unless the individual woman can satisfy this instinct under the aegisof matrimony. So furious and insane is this opprobrium that it usually also blasts more or less completely the young life that springs from an unrecognised union. however. Both. are treated by the law of divorce exactly alike. where the relations between individual men and women come out into the open and are handled by courts of law. the crowd is not to be regardedas
in thesmallest degree considering interests happithe and
nessof the individuals concerned. The reason is obvious
. and childlessmarriageswould be treateddifferently from fertile marriages. The
crowd acts far more intimately in thesematters upon individualsand imposesor attempts to impose will upon its them in a much more subtle and usuallyeffectualmanner. however.
Divorce. There exists in most women the instinct
of motherhood. one of the most powerful instincts in humanity. Oneproof of this will suffice.In allowing such
dissolutions.but only its own interests.Morals it from undissolved wrecked unionsthan if the worstof them are allowedto be dissolved. If the interest of individuals were contemplated.
More wonderful than all is it that in this matter the
effective force employed is the public opinion of the great
body of women. Take again a concrete instance and observe how the individual
is controlled.a very important considerationwould be whether there wereany children of the marriagein question. is only an extreme case.
enough. Women throughout the ages have depended in the main on the support of men. Each woman has needed to have a man for her supporter, and the sexual attraction which Nature has given her, backed by social sanctions, has been the means whereby she has obtained
supportthroughout the whole of her life and not merely
in her youth. It follows that a woman who gives herself to a man and becomes a mother without securing from him the life-support so essential for the general body of women, seemsto do an injury to that general body, even if she does a benefit to herself. The public opinion of women, based upon the experienceof all past generations, is turned against the offender, and it would take a very strong character indeed to face that opprobrium and to
be satisfied with motherhood, where motherhood and not
wifehood was her desire.
If throughout long ages women had been self-supporting and had been able to make their livelihood independently of men, it is safeto assert that this attitude of the
whole sex toward the unmarried mother would never have
arisen; and it may be concluded that, now that women are making themselves more and more self-supporting, a change is likely to come slowly about in the feminine attitude toward not the "weaker" but really the stronger and more independent sister. Even in the past, women of genius,great actresses,singers,artists, and the like, have often set public opinion at defianceand have refused, and successfullyrefused, to permit their right to motherhood and wifehood to be defined and circumscribed by public opinion; and public opinion, finding itself powerless against the independent action of strong individuals, has
regretfully beheldthem go their own way, and has continned to acceptthem as esteemed evengloriousperand sonages. It is really because such womenare obviously self-supporting that they have beenable to conquerand preservetheir liberty. Probably, therefore,as the number of self-supportingwomenincreases, their freedomto
determine the character of their own relations to men will
correspondingly develop. So-called sexual morality, and several other moralities, based merely on what is the interest of a crowd, stand on
but a poorfoundation. Whennothing but public opinion opposes individual passion,especially as may happen, if,
that passion is not in itself ignoble, public opinion is likely enough to be flouted. The firm and solid foundation for a good and beautiful relation between individuals, whether of opposite or of the same sexes,is what we have called mutual morality. The relations between two individuals have nothing to do with the public, nothing to learn from the opinion of any crowd large or small. They are only governed by the same duties, the same self-sacrifices,the same mutual consideration on which Christianity is founded, and these are determined not by law, not by public sentiment, but by the love and kindness which each
owes to each.
Here, however, we touch a branch of our
subject which can be better treated in a chapter to itself Returning to the illustration above cited from contemporary experience of the attitude of public opinion
under the stressof war to what is calledthe drink-question, it may be made to servea further purposein introducing us to an obscureand little consideredagency,
wherebythe crowd attempts to dominatethe individual
in its own interests. We passed through a stage of
propagandawhich began to be successful. The public
interest in the question was aroused. The King, as national representative, ordered the consumption of alcoholic drinks to be discontinued in his palaces. Other influential persons followed his example. It almost became "bad form" to be seen drinking a glass of wine. Just as society in the nineteenth century made public intoxication shameful and thus largely put an end to it, so perhaps society may attempt to put an end to the public consumption of intoxicants even in moderation. Assume that to happen and to be maintained. Parents will then be telling their children that it is wrong to drink wine or spirits. Virtuous persons will assume the new custom of abstinence to be axiomatic. Before long this general attitude will begin to implant in sensitive individuals an emotion of shame at the mere thought of transgression. Abstinence will become a matter of conscienceand every "good citizen" will come to possessa conscience equipped with this further inhibitory reflex emotion toward the mere suggestion of drink. It is not difficult to add to the activities of a lively conscience. I knew, for example, an old lady who had been brought up to think card-playing wrong, and that playing-cards were implements of the devil. Her consciencewould not permit her to handle them. She would have been unhappy for days if she had permitted herself to offend it in this particular. Yet she loved the harmless game of Patience, which she willingly played with slips of cardboard numbered from one to thirteen. Those
were not the devil's playing-cards, and her conscience permitted her to use them without offence. Here consciencemay be said to have been superfluously active. On the other hand it is easy to cite instances where conscienceis as remarkably dull. Thus to avail oneself of a man's services against his will is generally described as robbing him of what is justly his. Yet quite honorable and upright citizens of the United States, in the long period
precedingthe present days of international copyright,
were not pricked by their conscienceswhen they purchased"pirated " editions of the works of English authors,
nor do I think it would be affirmed that the American
publishers of such editions regarded themselves or were
regardedas dishonestpersons. Their consciences gave
them no trouble on this score. International copyright was at last brought about, not becausepiracy was considered to be wrong, nor on account of any public ideal of honesty, but simply becauseAmerican authors found it difficult to make a living in competition with "pirated" publications. A beheadedfrog, though dead, will still for some hours move one of its legs to rub away a drop of acid applied to certain spots on its body. This action is called reflex. The nerve irritation caused by the acid sends a message to a centre in the spinal cord, where it stimulates a motor
nerve and causes the reflex movement of the limb.1 No
intervention of thought is required. The nervous structure of the creature's body is such that the stimulus directly causes the reflex action without the intervention
1 I hope this statement is physiologically correct, but am writing only from memory of what I believe myself to have been told.
of the brain. In human beings a great number of movements are reflex. Moreover habit, by linking together
certain nerve centres, tends to make many movements,
originally voluntary, become more and more nearly reflex by frequent repetition in response a recurrence the to of
same stimulus. The businessof conscienceis to produce in the moral domain a correspondingly automatic response to definite stimuli or, as we call them, temptations. It is the business of conscience to provide the individual
tempted with an automaticreactionagainst temptation. If it were possibleto make conscience hereditary ina
stinct, all men would in time become by birth completely moral beings, and would behave in a moral fashion as instinctively as a bird builds its nest. Acquired characteristics, however, are not inherited. The conscience
of each has therefore to be built up, and this is accomplished by habit and instruction, backed and enforced by public opinion, whose operation on the young is particularly efficient. The main effort of parents and responsible persons is to implant consciencewithin children before their minds have had time to take independent shape. That is why conscienceis often most vigorous with the young. They have no other guide of life. The development and reform of conscienceis the work of later life by the assertion of individuality. Diverge from the prescribed norm and conscience protests; hold to the divergenceand conscience atrophies as far as the particular divergenceis concerned.
But this guiding SocialConscience: What is it? Clearly it is nothing more than the voiceof the crowd speaking in and to the individual. The inward voicesayingthat
this or that is wrong has no other sanction than the
general opinion thesociety whichtheindividual of in grew up. Did not Huckleberry Finn's conscience him prick
severely a low-downimmorallad because assisted for he a nigger to hide who was believedto be a runaway slave? The ancient Egyptians at the time of the eighteenth dynasty had already recognisedthe social conscience, which they calledthe heart, as the guideto a comfortable
crowd-harmonising life, likely to lead to prosperity. Here is what a doubtless estimable person had to say of
himself on his own tombstone:
"This is my character to which I have borne witness, "and there is no exaggeration therein. ... It is my "heart that caused me to act through its guidance unto "me. It was an excellent prompter unto me; I did not "infringe its commands; I feared to transgress its guid"ance. Therefore I prospered exceedingly, and was "fortunate on account of that which it caused me to do; "I succeeded reason of its guidance. Of a sooth, true by "is that which is said by men: 'It (the heart) is the voice "*of God that is in everybody; happy is he whom it has "'led to a good course of action!'" How the priests of Amen instilled this rudimentary idea of conscience into their people is not recorded. The mediaeval Christian Church accomplished that end by
aid of confession. Confession enabled the voice of the
Church to pronouncejudgment on the sinsof the individual. The voice of the priest wasthe voice of the Christian crowd. By education, tradition, environment, and equipment the priest was efficiently shaped into conformity with the
ideal of the Church. Thus, whereas Protestantism
do all they can to heighten the power of
suggestion the authority of the priestly operator. Has it not been said that
"Conscience doth make cowards of us all"? That is not because it is the voice of God. He will acceptimplicitly what is of told him by the operator and the impression received maysurviveafterhis emergence from the trance. and
Alas! the Social Conscience is only the voice of God in so far as the voice of the people is the voice of God. to take their own line in
spite of public opinion. In that
conditionthe subjectbecomes peculiarlysusceptible the to influence suggestion. voice of the crowd. If confession the hadbeen optional. This is why the sacerdotal churches. to confessthe unorthodox faith in an orthodox
Peace and War
a later date and by reactionenthroned individual the
conscience. individualmighthavecalled the the in helpof the crowdif and whenhepleased. confession but beingcompulsory crowdconscience thereby the was forciblyimposed theindividual Moreover power on the of this imposition enhanced the formalities prewas by that
ceeded accompanied their purposebeing to bring and it. Many individuals fear not God. It is conscience that makes
. Yet no wise man will underrate either its value or its power.
the penitent a mildform of hypnotic into trance.to sayopenlythe unpatriit
otic thing. to do what is unpopular.without actually resorting
to hypnotism. but because it is the voice
of the multitude. Catholicismhas always enthronedthe collec-
tive conscience. but few indeedare they who do not instinctively fear the
Crowd. Consciencecan be nothing more than a measureof the divine inspiration in the crowd.and are strongenough their individualityto in be ableto standagainst .
a man among men. and to make him abstain from actions
on the groundthat they are wrong. Granted that conscience is the agency by which this development is accomplished. Their consciences at peace. It is likewise true that the same agency may be and often is equally employed to impose absurd restrictions on the freedom
of the individual. he may perchancebe a great criminal. above it
. the ideal undergraduate. Such an individual may be a great prophet. basing his actions upon the judgment of his own reason. their problems are solved without debate. whether public opinion be healthy or debased. The individual who decides to go his own way.and this will are be so whether the society of their day be in fact on the up-grade or the down-grade. the orthodox churchman or chapel member. is to make that individual live the comfortable kind of life that results from
fitting perfectly into his place in his various crowds. an original seer. their ways are made plain before them. will have many a difficulty to face which the other avoids.such lead easy lives. the good party man. be its possessor never so docile to its promptings. All that conscience can accomplish. though believed by the crowd to be injurious to its interests. the publicspirited citizen . the voice of the crowd within is even more
potent than the voice of the crowd without. Granted that public opinion and the ideals of different crowds are the most powerful agency for the developmentof
individuals. The model schoolboy. the convinced and disciplined trades-unionist.which in fact are perfectly innocent. whether the national ideal be high or low.Morals
them cowards. In either case he stands outside the crowd.
welling forth from the fullness of a rich and individual nature. but the duty lies on him to seethat his reasonreally is enlightened. The value of conscience. It is inconsistent with. It is a force unlike any other. its light or its foe.such an one will of necessity
be devoid of charm. charm. The secret of charm is a beautiful
spontaneity and unexpectedness. within
proper limits is not to be denied. and corrected by reflection and experience. Mere mechanical morality is a deadly thing. whose life is that
of the normal crowd-unit .as of public opinion. The
person whoseevery thought and act can be predicted. it has been developed. A fully developed intelligencewill
make both subservient to an enlightened reason. by the impact of the notions of the society into which he was born. enlightened.The
or below. but regardless of public prejudice and popular judgment. it grows not with accretions from without but by evolution from within. It is the irrational
machine-like obedience to them which marks the com-
monplace individual. and the man who tends and follows its light is little likely to go far astray in the journey of life toward its
undefinable not thereforeunattainablegoal. The crowd's emotion of hostility to the independent individual is not after all without some justification. oftenest perhaps its foe.
whose voice is the voice of the crowd. If originally formed. a thought. spontaneity of action. as all young consciences are. Such a person's conscienceis a law unto itself. in accordance
with nature. an attitude governed by emotions of kindness and love to individuals. but
. even antagonistic to. It looks not to the
ideals of others but to its own reason and to nature for
its sanctions. and speech.
All is tentative.
. What is the relation of this twofold
nature to religion? Is religion a part of his individual or his crowd equipment? Is his God the God of men or of Mankind? Is the relation of man to God a personal or a collective relation? or does it partake of both characters. It is with the utmost humility that any suggestion is made for the guidance of others. my remarks are in the nature of the tentative suggestions of an individual. As the reader will long before this have perceived. and yet I am not aware that they have received any formal consideration whatever. difficult. through an unmapped region. and profoundly important area which we now approach.and is governed now by his social instincts and now by his own individual reason. I cannot assume to be fully informed. and every
word I write is set down with full consciousness of its
merely personal value. as on so many other matters of fact in relation to so vast dnd obscure a subject. and. in what degrees? These are questions so obvious and so important that a large literature might be expected to exist concerning them.CHAPTER
IF manin possess her does the nature fact twofold
assumed. though on this.it is obviously
important to inquire. and that especially in the case of the vague. if so. the groping of a solitary traveller in the dark.
The history of religions is like a bowl of water drawn from the flooded upper Indus. the lessenlightenedwill be man's religious ideas. capable only of perceiving the tiny
spherewhich his own spark of light illumines. therefore. and the area illuminated by it has correspondingly expanded. and his ideas about that can only be based on. or tested by. the relative difference is still
immense.of what he conceives that darkness to contain.The
in the midst
of the infinite
a firefly in the night. but the infinite unknown still surrounds him. The appealing interest of religious history is not the light it throws on religion but the light it throws on man. on the darkness. the man who would further that must master the latest ideas and need not trouble himself about alchemy. It follows that the fur-
ther back in time we go. clear and drinkable on the sur214
. his projection. but the last and nearest approximations to truth which have been added by highest contemporary thought and imagination. gain much knowledge of the fundamentals of religion by following back its history and tracing its earliest discoverable forms. Religion is man's description of his ideas about the great unknown. his knowledge of the finite illumined space around him. Although in relation to the truth of things the difference between the most advanced human knowledge to-day and that of prehistoric man may not actually amount to much. In the
processof time that light has steadily increasedin power. The history of chemistry is not a study that furthers chemical discovery.
We shall not. for the fundamentals of religion at any moment are not the errors it has inherited from the past.
they were added on. but muddy. They werenot evolvedout of any germ in the
mind of prehistoric man. We can begin with them when they themselves
. for our present inquiry. the immeasurable wonder of the sea. A glorious god is like some priceless ruby. we need not go back to origins. Thus also is it with the gods.but with many a low and even
vile feature inherited by them from their filthy predecessors.and ending in a thick sedimentof slime. not the mud. It follows that. is the thing we worship. We may perhaps find it with some uncrystallized matter attached. We have no concern with uncrystallized gods. The pool is not deep
becauseit is hard to seeinto. In the hands of the great Greeks they were further
purified and idealised.. that matters. just another form of alumina which differs little from clay in the material of which it is made. the power of the air. We want the gem. not disentangled. If so we disentangle it from that. perfect and complete. Early religiousideas are not profound. Thus in Greek religion the Olympian gods are notable
and evensplendidbeings. In those rudiments the divine qualities did not even exist in
embryo.but growing muddier and muddierbelow. it is merely foul. but in the presence of its inestimable beauty who cares what it is made of? It is the form of its structure.elements of nature that still seem to us instinct with the splendour of the divine. not the gloomy and horrible of
totems whose filth they have sloughed off. they cameto embodythe glory till
of the sun.Religion
face. and what remains. the power that crystallized it. It is this
splendour theirs we love. we even cut out its own imperfections.
both together are the expression of the nation itself. By conquest nation swallowed up nation.
. In the wars of the nations the gods contend.Bel of Babylon. thus forming pantheons under the hegemony of a chief. Assur of Assyria. For several centuries the processwent forward.those
and their contemporaries? Were they not in every case the embodied ideal of a crowd. Efforts were made to bring order into the chaos by identifying tribal gods. the focussedimage of a nation's desires? In god and king the nation was incorporated. the god of the Hohenzollerns. till in the vast empire of Rome all the gods and worships of the united peoples were contained and confused together. possessingsimilar characters but of many different lands. whom Kaiser Wilhelm invokes.. the absorption of nations into an empire weakened national ideals. and the god of the victorious nation rules over the gods of the defeated. the expression of a national ideal. gods who were
worshipped men in the van of human thought when by thinking had begun. above Sargon flies Assur.The
begin to be great and majestic beings whom the nations worshipped. When Pharaoh advances into battle Horus flies over his head. The pax romana put the old fighting gods out of business. and one national god consequently rose above others. and god and king were closely allied. Jahve of the Israelites. . Amen-Ra of Thebes. These national gods are like him of Germany. as different forms.gods who were masters of nations worth considering. What then werethosegods. the only survivor in the west down to these late days of the old pagan divinities. Local divinities became almost meaningless and belief in them faded.
a name and a memory
but little more. Under such conditions there was no place for the national gods. But the attempts of logically to consolidatethe multitudinous company of
all the heavenly hosts in all the countries within the bounds of the Roman Empire could not succeedin the
presenceof an educated and highly critical society. The mere existence and successof the Roman Empire. worshipped as a god. great as was the position which the Roman Emperor filled. But great as Rome was.Religion
local manifestations. the gods withdrew into a loftier and mistier empyrean. Thus it came to pass that. At the same time the old national crowds
citizen than that he was a Cilician.
were tending to dissolve. for the Hellenistic Greeks and the Romans. and Roma caput mundi took their place. Their old raison d'etre was gone. a singlegod. and could not but fail. but he failed. but caused them actually to disintegrate. to fill the spiritual role of a worlddivinity in a civilised and reflective age. It was more to a man of Tarsus
that he was a Roman
The great imperial over-crowd not merely submerged many of the national crowds it included. implied the need for a divinity more compre217
. therefore. he might be called a god.
They no longer incorporated the vital national ideals
that had given them form. Each of them alone came to be an almost meaningless entity. Even the presidentof the Roman pantheoncould not be
raised to the height of an imperial divinity. and so the
Roman Emperorhimself had to submit to deificationfor
purely practical purposes. The gods went the way of the kings. There were no national ideals and passions for them to incorporate.
A world-god was needed. And yet a new and higher type of godhead was imperatively called for. In the struggle for existence all the would-be imperial divinities were choked and faded
away. It was a condition of things that never existed in the world before. though its prestige for a few centuries was high and indeed became higher as its actual strength faded. so did Judea. Egypt tried her hand.
The reason is fairly obvious. The Roman Empire was never one at heart as Ancient Egypt had been one. No
national god could serve. never grouped and knitted together into a firm and self-conscioussingle crowd all the people of the Empire. might be attained. The Sun itself was not divine enough. though its laws took root among men. though its system of government became fairly stable. It follows that there did not exist the needed all-embracing passion that could find expression in a single imperial god. so did Persia. in the
military casteor in some other sections of the population. It is to be found in the fact that Roman Imperialism never exalted itself into a world-embracing passion. Somesuccess here and there. as the people of Egypt or Judea or Assyria had been knitted and wrought together into nations. all the old gods being worn out and having become incredible. even when combined and identified with the Imperial
power on earth. The Roman Empire.The
hensivethan any that had been conceived before. but all failed.and the creative faculty to make and impose one on the vast population of the Empire seemedto be lacking. and it produced a result
. but none of the competing religions succeededfor long.
had the thoughts or actions of man been lesstramelled. welookbackonit. The Empire offeredwide scopefor individual initiative.resulted a relativelystrong in development
of individualism. The first four centuries of our era produced a wonderful crop of well-marked and differen-
individual enterprise and resource. seems though mighthave as as it
been foretold. but aimed at
entering "a still smallvoice" into the heart of each. the moment had come for the revelation of a god with whom each individual could enter into personal relations. Never before had
the mind of man been so free. Never were there fewer
orthodoxies up. The whole teaching of Christianity as set forth by its Founder ap-
plies only to individuals. He did not address the enthusiasm of multitudes.Religion
which. they might have given to the Roman Empire the unifying spiritual force which it lacked. But the Christian god was not of that sort. that it was the in
cause of a loosening of national and other ancient social ties.
Bear in mind that the pax romana. noth219
It follows that if there was no call then for the revela-
tion of a new imperial divinity. in fact of a breaking up of old crowds into their con-
stituent units. as
There is not a word about crowd-ritual from him. Had the Christians been able to impose on Rome in the second century a greater crowd-divinity than the world had known before. and this was what Christianity supplied. individual administrativecapacity. and for lack of which it ultimately fell to pieces. He
did not come to save mankind but men. Christ did not contemplate
crowds. his words contain no legislation for them.
He called for a
change of heart at a moment when many men desired. place. It dependedon no organisation. with each individual fitted
into his placeand obedient to the common law and organisation? Christ's Kingdom was not of that sort.the poor. the union
of the individual with God. I
need not enlargeupon this point. each after his own fashion. tended. His folof
lowersare all thought of as comingto him one by one. or circumstance. each intending thenceforward to
lovehis neighbour. "Who is my neighbour?" askedan
inquirer. Whatwould theanswer be to-day Humanity. that is
each for a new heart. a condition independent of
time. The Kingdom of Heaven which Christ promised was promised to each. For him the neighbour was another individual. The paradisesof most prophets.The Crowd
in Peace and War
ing aboutgreat assemblagesthe faithful. The individual man wanted his soul
saved. and it was to be within each. an internal happiness. Thus it came to pass that
the Christianity of Christ was the first widely successful individualistic religion the world had ever known. if he confines his attention to the recorded
words ascribed to Christ. ?
the suffering humancrowd. and that was why it was able to spread at the time when it appeared. It was a state of mind. Anyone who knows the Gospels haveno difficulty in filling out the picture will
for himself. to be individually loved. the laggardsin life's
race who need to be collectively helped. what are they but
Utopian socialistic states. The moment was ripe for a religion of personal holiness. That was not Christ's view. no groupings of hierarchies. and Christ offered to save it. one by one. and helped. a dwelling in love. to attain a higher spiritual level.
not the crowd of mankind but men.dependents. the
trusting that the Lord would provide for him the neces-
saries life. each individual man with whom he came in contact. property. He was to be a
"come-outer. As soon as Christians existed in any number they were forced by the nature of things to become communities. everything. It spran^ into existence theoldsocieties fallingto pieces. relatives. Permanent traces of Buddhist influence from before the
Christian era are said to be distinguishable there. little crowds. That was becausethe hermit ideal already existed there.Religi on
to saya dwellingof each believer severally Godand in
God in him. Buddhist missionaries from India are believed to have visited
Egypt within two generationsfrom the time of Alexander
. His renunciationwas to be complete. to the new life. of
It was impossible for Christianity long to retain this purely individualistic character. Its very success involved a change.
TheChristianity Christ in fact a disintegrating of was
rather than a sociallyconstructive religion. He was calledupon to love God and his neighbour
. Egyptian Gnosticism contained Buddhist elements as Syrian
Gnosticism contained Persian."Hewasto goforth andpreach gospel. when were
when the old ideals were dead. and as soon as that
happened the normal reactions of a crowd were set up. This mission is attributed to Asoka. The GospelChristian was calledupon to abandonhome. In Egypt indeed ultra-individualistic Christianity was carried on for a time by a vast number of hermits. when the emotions that
had united crowdstogetherhad lost their powerto bind.
their unkempt hair.and "shy . their dreadof malignspirits.such as we may imagine our hairy progenitors to
"have been. incited by Buddhist example. But pure individualism is as fatal to what is best in man as pure socialism. saysMr. their distrust of sunshine and ordered social
peutseor contemplativemonks in Egypt. It was into this turgid
medium. went forth into desert caves and Egyptian hill-side tombs. In their bodily mortifications. or out of it. animalesque. that Christianity was born. Small wonder then that in Egypt the followers of the new individualistic faith tried many an experiment. their ferocious inde"pendence. and tried to lead a purely individualistic existence saving their own souls. Multitudes of them.
Buddhism.their abandonment conto templation.
and the necessities commonlife wrought them into of
. They were thrust back in their "development. Under the influence of their
"creed they reverted perforce to the more bestial traits "of aboriginal humanity.their
"cave-dwelling propensities. Hence their dirt and vermin. forsook all. Thus for at Alexandria Greekphilosophy.Zoroastrianism. They crowded one another into communities.
"an atavistic movement. and the latest developmentsof the Egyptian
religion all met and mingled. we may trace such an affinity to Indian mystics as guarantees both a commonorigin. Judaism. Norman Douglas.all bestial characteristics!" But the multiplication of these creatures terminated their isolation. They becamesolitaries. who seemto
havesprung fromtheunionof Alexandrian Judaism with
the preceptsand modesof life of Buddhistdevotees. their horror
"of learning. The hermit life as led by these men was. their foul dieting.
A follower of Christ was one in whom
the great changeof heart demanded Him had taken by
. even in the personsof hermits. He was the founder. the individualistic
Christianityof Christ had to be sociallytransmuted. A member of a school. with them too it failed. a nation. Membership of organised crowds is usually easy of definition. a club. a university. But by no public act
can a man become a follower of Christ. He it was. before
all others." they learned to say. communities had to take shape.Religion
societies. at any time of the world's history. who showed how to weld the faithful into an
organic whole. but of the Christian crowd. incipient crowds. At Jerusalem they appear to have tried pure communism.but that experiment has never succeededanywhere. a system apparently best in accord with
the preaching ascribedto Christ himself." St. "We being many. The Epistles
enable us to seethe rudimentary difficulties they had
to overcome. not of Christianity. becomes such by some definite public act. a society. But wherever Christianity penetrated. "are one "body in Christ and every one members one of another.
If. In the Acts of the Apostleswe can
watch the young communities forming. and if the Christians of Palestine actually essayed it. a corresponding development far more imperatively was calledfor in the caseof Christiancommunities living in
cities and consistingof men and womenhaving to do the work of the world. bound develop the to along
lines whichall crowds thenature mannecessarily by of
follow. This was the origin of monasticism. Paul stands forth in the generation succeedingChrist as the great organiser of the new faith. as defined by Christ himself.
adhesion demanded by Him was an internal invisible
changeof attitude toward God and man.
224. It was not enough be baptised. but there could be no certainty that all members of the community were in fact followers of Christ. It follows that from the very start the Christianity of Christ and the Christianity of the Church were not identical. and the that only. and this no
outward test could ever avail to prove. A community of persons believing one another to be such might be formed. and the convert. A like effort was also collectively made to invent formulae
of faith which shouldenshrine teachingof Christ. Hence the earliest Christian communities could only consist of persons who professed and called
themselves Christians. an avowed adherent. If all members of Christian communities had become ipso facto "sheep. Open confession of dis-
cipleshipdid not makea man oneof Christ's flock.
.by acceptingthose formulae.The
place. to obtain all possible evidenceof the change of heart before a convert was permitted to undergo the ceremonies of initiation. No doubt a powerful effort was made. the other by ceremonial and formula. Hence it was
impossibleto form a visible body solely consistingof
members of Christ. submitted to the rites of initia-
tion. or to become. and gave verbal acceptanceto the formulae of faith imposed upon them. especially in early days. The one was defined by an internal change. So clearly was this recognised that it wasfrom the beginning acknowledgedthat only at the Day of Judgment would a true separation be made between the sheep and the goats." a Last Judgment of separation would not have been necessary. to
so Christianity. but
is the ideal of the crowd called liberal from time to time. Betweenthe crowd-opinionof sucha
Christendom and the pure Gospel of the Founder of Christianity there had therefore to be a wide divergence. But such were rough and ready criteria. differing as it has patently differed from age to age and from country to country. as its vital a
. as soon as it came into existencepossessed life of its own. the membership of the
triumphant Church of the fourth century could not in
the nature of things contain more than a relatively small
minority of such. Formal Christianity. Just as Liberal-
ism is not any definite set of formulated principles. The Christian crowd.
It was bound to become the expressionof the independent
life of that crowd and to take on the forms that the crowd
would from time to time impose upon it.Religion
was held to accept the teaching of Christ as the law of his life. starting at first with the impulse of Christ himself and the passion kindled by him in his disciples. has at each epoch and place been the public opinion of the particular
Christian crowd then and there existent. the Christianity of
the future was whatever that crowd should make it. which became lessand lessefficient as the Church grew in size and
power.and altogetherlost any efficiencywhen they were applied to young children and even infants. A crowd including all who professed and called themselves Christian once formed. was then the expression of that passion. but only then. like any other. If the
Christian Church of the first century consisted mainly of the true followers of Christ. and.
and consequently has varied so widely as to have aimed
at one time towards ends which it has shunned at another.
and so also what the Church was to come to was
decided only by the seed life implantedin it by its not of Founder. of on of yet the ultimate full-growntree is also fashionedby
external circumstances of soil. and their faith was
altogether individualistic. into which each indi-
vidualwasfitted andshaped his place. was conse-
quential the character the originating on of germ. climate.body and soul. and the action of animals. In proportion to the strength of its organisation the individuality of its members became
circumscribed. So long as the Christian Church exists as a continuous crowd. From the very nature of all crowds it follows that the Christian crowd in its earliest beginnings had to be organised as it grew.The
in Peace and War
principle possessed force.no doubt. The first followers of Christ were a number of detached individuals.but by the circumstances the world in which of
it flourished. reaching back to its Founder by an unbroken sequenceof individuals. But the original strain becomesin processof time a very small factor in the ultimate growth. for such continuity of spirit is the essential property of all long-lived crowds. to
. it has a right to claim that it enshrinesthe Spirit of that Founder. and consequently requireda long periodof relativelyslow growthsuchas all long-lived
crowdsbegin with. opportunity for no
beingleft for individual divergence faith. as the history of any church or any nation sufficesto demonstrate. Christian great the crowdhad
a long lite beforeit. and whether divided into sub-crowds or not. The full-grown mediaeval
church was a powerful socialism.asthe growth anoakisconsequentialthenature an acorn. This growth. The followof
ersof Christgavethemselves Him .
Ritual had thus
. and for them neither ritual nor liturgy was needed.and that impulsein the handsof a crowdhad
to become social. Men had worshipped to the best of their powers since the
earliest times of which we have record. an accretion of conceptions and traditions from earlier religious bodies could not be avoided.and the necessity of things involved the development of ritual and the definition of sacred scriptures and dogmas. The social shaping of Christendom was only begun by the early Church. Thus it could not but come about. But the impulse given by Christ could not
have endured in this world unless it had been carried on
by a crowd. but when assemblies grew to contain hundreds and even thousands of worshippers both rituals and liturgies became essential. that it must take on different shapes in different parts. and in particular that the apparently fundamental difference of nature between the peoplesof the East and of the West must bring about marked divergenciesbetween Eastern and Western forms
As soon as the organisation of the mixed crowd of true and merely professing Christians began to take shape. Christ contemplated the gathering together of "two or three" in His name. and had to lose its individualistic form. Worship itself. however. No two conditions could be more radically different. was no new thing.Religion
MediaevalChristians were born into an organic body which
imposedon them a completeset of doctrinesand a perfected ritual which they were compelled to accept and follow. if
Christianity was to survive at all. and is a work never finished but only handed on from age to ageto be reshapedaccording to the
ideals of each.
Any crowd at that time possessedthe then existing raw material of legend andlof dogma in its own heart. could only use the dogmatic forms then existing. many rituals. we know the sufficient fact that elaborate
religiousrituals did exist all over the civilisedworld at the
time when Christianity wastaking shape. had perforce to use many a pagan form and ceremonial. and.
So also was it with dogma. to organise and define itself. Its faith. Thus the Christian crowd in its struggles to grow. Its passion of admiration for a man could only find expressionin the forms then existent. which is always presentin crowds. corrected and controlled as it now is by the serious impediment of the prolific printing-press. and to get expression for the vitality within it. and could
not do otherwisethan adapt to collective Christian worship such portions of existing rituals as might be made to serve
been elaborated. if it was to be expressedfor it in any form of words at all. so too with the forms required by the legend-making instinct.
The individualism of original Christianity continued to manifest itself in one respect. which by degreesbecame modified under the
stress of internal and exterior contention. The individualistic follower of Christ did not need them for private worship in his own chamber. though at that time it wasmuch stronger than in our own day it remains. The mere fact
that the object of worshipwas changed however simplified and elevated did not render existing rituals wholly valueless. though we know little about them.
but the mixed Christian crowd did need them. long after individual free-
dom had been suppressed within the Christian body.
It was not the Pounder alone who remained a great inspiring Individual The
early Christian centuriesare signalised the numberof by great namesthey havehandeddown. crowd. Christianised forms in some casesof ancient local gods. No great religious
movement the world hasproducedsomanyoutstanding in
individual leadersas Christianity. and thus
invested him with imaginary powers and miraculous accomplishments. But even when they were true historical personages. but were creations of the legend-making imagination of the crowd. never in fact existed. though thus in form often untrue. and to which it gave legendary shape. indeed. and thus all saints are to be regarded as
creationsof fancy evenwhen fancy had a historical personageto crystallize around. living and dead. and of markedand
influential personalities whose individual characters have
been recorded and are held in honour. reacting as the crowds will from the effect produced upon them by some compeller.or give a
If the great leaderswho create new crowds. Many of these latter.Religi on
This was in the semi-deification granted by the Christian crowd to its leaders. expressed in forms essentially poetic.or wholly or partly
the creation of fancy. The legendsof the saints. in others mere creatures of inspired fancy. were in fact the quite truthful expression of the crowd's emotions when those legends arose.and this whether the
saintsin question had been real people. In so far as they were saints it was the aspect of them which the crowd's fancy beheld.that was fashioned into sainthood. cast back on to the memory of the great man
some of the emotion he had aroused in them. Such are the
Fathers and the uncounted multitude of the Saints.
are of necessity very interesting personages the student of history. Hruodland. Upon that single fact a vast legendary structure was built up. The ideal characters of the past are not so much the images of individuals who once lived as they are incarnations of the human crowd in the midst of which they acted. who fell in a rear-guard action at Roncesvalles. Nothing more is known about him. the great for personageswho never existed at all. but were created by the fancy of crowds.The
new direction to crowds existent. with the intent of truthful narration. governor of the Breton March. pictured its own aspirations. . has it
been possible draw any kind of fairly definite line beto tween what a personactually was and what the crowd
thought him to be. are no less important and often far more delightful. Nay. of someof them it may be affirmed that they have done more for the uplifting of the hearts of successive generations than was accomplishedby any save a very few actually oncealive heroes. Only since the days in which contemporary written records of events have been made. which Taillefer sang before the host at Hastings .when Charlemagne was returning over the Pyrenees from a rather inglorious campaign in Spain. but that he died a glorious death may well have been a true tradition. Thus Roland of the Song. and the crowd.what was he but the ideal of knightly courage and honour? There was indeed a noble soldier. in describing them. Go further back
and you arrive (very soon too) at a time in which individual fact and social legend are so inextricably interwoven that it is impossible to separatethem. when the growing spirit
.with the result that epic poetry has
been banished off the face of the earth.
but the splendidly imaginative and truly inspired narrations. the other instinct with a new and
. because it alone could absorb the inroading barbarians and thus fashion the new world. The Empire was therefore compelled to unite itself to the new Church. the one losing. The Roman crowd died. when the gods died. the one disintegrating. Thereby was produced.the life which reorganised Europe after the destruction of the social organism that
had been Rome. In the third century we behold the two crowds side by side. It arose because it alone then fulfilled the needs of a day when the gods were dead. This could not have happenedhad there been
contemporary newspaper reporters to set down the facts. the other gaining strength. It was because the Roman crowd was dying that the Christian crowd arose. whose hierarchies already possesseda considerable power of government which imperial officers were tending to lose. the one saddled with the burden of a worn-out organisation and a dead faith.Religion
of chivalry seized upon the romantic times of the founder of the Holy Roman Empire and expressedits young and
splendididealsin the form of the mediaeval Carlovingian legend. though it replaced. worn out. The new crowd had to succeed. The story of early Christianity is similarly glorified by the projection back on to the past of the ideals of triumphant Christianity. not the bald narrative of mere events. the other crystallizing. did not de~ stroy the Roman crowd. which crystallized and expressed in vital and undying form the faith by which the whole of Christian society was quickened.
The Christian crowd. and fashioned into a crowd palpitating with life .
never entirely ceased from the earth. must always haveexby
isted. the greatest of such reactions took place. though not in all
agesdiscoverable the historian. more or less clearly perceived to be such. Such efforts. with its appeal to the individual. thereby opening a wider
gulf betweenthe individualistic religion of the Pounder and the organisedsocialisticreligion raised upon that
foundation. but that would lead us too far. though thus cov-
ered out of sight. Sometimesthey adopted. however. and the Reformation was the result. could not be favourably regarded by the official class of the organised Church. It would be interesting to follow down through the centuries the successive emergings of the individualistic Christian spirit. Then the essential opposition between the Christianity of the Gospels.
Its true nature could not be wholly forgotten while the Christian scriptures remained accessibleto whoever could read. and from time to time they made efforts to revive the individualistic religion of the Founder. When at length the printing press spread the Bible abroad and: placed it in the hands of all who could read. with all its socialistic
. against the formal Christianity of the organised Church. and the organisation of the Christian crowd could not remain a voluntary matter but had to be an affair of laws and compulsion. and the Christianity of the Church. Individual followers of Christ. but only to regulate. All mystics are individualistic Christians. a particular movement. sometimes they forcibly suppressed one.The
Thus before long the Roman world becamenominally
Christian. Mysticism has always been in fact a revolt.
sanctions and organisations. It is the force that Christian reformers of all ages fall back upon.
till the very nadir of the Christianity of Christ was reached when the ridiculous but practical peace-treaty formula was arrived at .no Staterecognino
tion. altogether independently of social organisms. When-
ever social Christianity breaksdown. or
But the new individualistic Christians of Reformation
days wereno better able than the Early Christianshad beento maintain existence without themselves becoming a
crowd. As soon as they did so. and the end is not yet. not the power of the Church.in fact the identical sequencerepeated. The "love of Christ" constrains them.cujus regio ejus religio ! Yet the vitality of individualistic Christianity is no less strong to-day than it was in the First Century. becamepatent. ritual. the new crowd reacted
upon its religion in exactlythe sameway as before: dogmas. And then new individualistic revolts took place against the new bodies. Moreover. organisation. as by the wearing
out of its organisation it frequently must. and the Bible
was openlyrecognised a dangerto the organised as body.in the nameof Christ. It may be as vital to-day as eighteenhundred years ago. compulsion . Warsof religionfollowed. and becauseit constrains each individually it may operate anywhere and at any time. as before
againstthe old. there is individualistic Christianity waiting in the background potentially ready to take its place. The relation between the
individual and "the man Christ Jesus" is one that de-
pendsupon no organisation. Church. orthodoxy.the
new bodies in their turn becameentangled with the State just as the early Church had been entangled with the
It is assumed that a society. that a society all of whoseunits conduct their lives on Christian principles will necessarily conduct its collective life on those prin234
. Crowds are another sort of animal. Christianity is the religion of men. or dogmas. mind.
We often hear the phrase. Only men can form a society. and soul of his own. which were not laid down for them
any more than for tigers." It is claimed that a Christian nation should adopt a certain kind of policy and should refrain from certain acts as unworthy of it. but it is not a man and does not possess the normal qualities and equipment of a man. is necessarilya Christian society. Now there is not and never can be such an entity as a Christian nation. "a Christian nation.The
governments. Christianity postulates an individual man with a human body. contemporary crowds cannot form a Christian society. they mutually exclude one another. The adjective and the noun are incompatible. An elephant cannot be a Christian. The laws of Christ apply
only to men.
crowds cannot act as Christians
An individual cannot
one another. all of whose units are Christians. A crowd possesses none of these elements. or rituals. It is a beast. Entirely independent crowds.
Christian. such as nations. Thus it remains to this day the single indestructible vital force by which the Christianity of Christ has kept returning to a world whose socialistic tendencies must always operate to drive it
away. admittedly of high order. cannot be governed by the laws of Christ. Men can be Christians and can show their Christianity in
their conduct to one another and even in their crowd attitude be a
of Christ control crowds.
The latter may be Christians and may behave to one another as such. Two diplomatistsmay
have a deep affection for one another. "Your " civilisation has never been Christian. not being men." The reason is simple. but those cannot act as in-
dependent men would act. A Chinese official wrote. The latter may
behave to one another as Christians. Christ in terms of individual men. Therefore the Chinese "look first to the
"society andthen to the individual. but crowds cannot be Christians at all. Confucius thought in terms of crowds. because they are not independent men but crowd-representatives.. crowds cannot fulfil the law. whereas ours is
"Confucian through and through. .
They may join in hostility to a third
ciples. Neither internally in
the relation of the State to individual citizens. Nothing couldbe less true. Only the Judaism beneath it is a true crowd-religion. the former cannot. and yet it may be
their business to declare to one another that their nations
are at war. The relations of crowd-representatives then cannot be governed by the principles that govern the
relations of independent individuals." Christianity regards
the individual. How is that possible for crowds? If love is the fulfilling
of the law. and they must act
astheir crowdswould havethem.
The relations between one crowd and another are not of the same kind as the relations between two individuals.
It is the first duty of Christians to love one another. Nations indeed conduct their mutual relations through individuals. With you economic "relations come first. nor exter-
nally in the relationof State to State. Crowds cannot
love one another.
The only kind of religion possible to a nation is one of the type of the ancient pagan national religions." It is needlessto multiply illustrations. Would it have been possible for the Sermon on the Mount to be delivered to the sovereignsof a number of countries. Conceivably all the crowds in the world might be united in a collective worship of humanity. to come." and of one that "turned its "back to the smiter. and that may even some
. have been thus addressed. and. not as individuals but as kings? It would have had no application to their circumstances. Christianity is concerned not only with the present but
with the future life of men. The words would be meaningless addressed to a social organism. if you can. but not as the executive officers of peoples. no world to come to expect.The
crowd. themselves the expression
of the emotion of their crowds.
"Come unto me all ye that are weary and heavy laden "and I will give you rest. It offers them What world salvation or damnation in a world to come can
there be for the Roman Empire? Christianity has nothing to offer to crowds. The power of mutually loving does not reside in crowds. of course.acting on the advice of responsible ministers. in consequence co-operating against it. They cannot love one another as men love." said Christ. of a crowd that was "meek and lowly of heart. in which the nation worshipped itself in a deified form. but that is all. As individuals they could singly. they of may come to value one another. and which look not to a future life but to a long life on earth. which have no soul to be saved. so long as that co-operation lasts. Conceive. exceeding manyfold the life-time of a generation.
That was one of the forms taken by social Christianity. and of
their attitude to the infinite unknown must be different. is different. becausethe kind of knowledge they have of it. monks. The mediaeval Church provided priests.however. by
Hence when crowds have attempted to make Christianity a crowd affair. it has been necessary for them to invent a representative worship.these all belong to socialistic representative religion and are necessarily contrary to the spirit and needs of personal religion: hence the anti-ritualism of the Evangelical Movement of the last century. Thesebelongto different categories living things. symbolical services. identifying the nation with the religious body. The union of the soul
with God which the mystic desires and labours to arrive
at by help of religiousobservance not possiblefor any is
crowd.elaborate rituals and so forth . and so forth to perform religious ceremonies on behalf of the crowd. which in a general way may be compared with other representative institutions. Such a religion. against which of course individualistic Christianity revolted.Religion
day cometo passin a form we cannotyet conceive. Nations must have their worshipping done for them. We cannot invent or conceive of
a religion suited equally to individuals and to crowds. A crowd indeed cannot be religious
in the sameway as an individual. hence on the contrary the ritualism of the socially religious
. and this can only be accomplished by an artificial convention. Priesthoods. or emotion toward it. though their emotions may be quickened fellowship. Even united worship does not carry to the Throne of Grace the crowd. but only the individuals composing
it. be one altogetherunsuitedto the will
needs of individuals.
as we have just shown. But an action which is immoral from the point of view of some crowd may be perfectly harmless or even meritorious from the point of view of a particular unit of the said crowd. but it is not wrong becauseit is immoral.The
Oxford Movement which followed as a reaction against it
. and He certainly
never confused morals with his law of love. It may be wrong. and other crowds have seizedupon religion at certain stages of their history and availed or attempted to avail themselves of its sanctions to enforce their own laws and morali-
ties. By this means morals. Christ indeed
upon some notable occasionsdefied the morals of his day. none are religious. Morals are the product of society. but Christianity was the revelation of Christ alone. a social thing. Right and wrong are not identical with moral and immoral.
To put the matter in briefestform. though how often wehear an immoral action spoken of as wrong. Governments. a personal thing. while all crowdsare
moral. Even a church cannot be
collectivelyreligious. Churches." whilst if the crowd's government is
. that religion will give to the crowd's morals the sanctions of "right" and "wrong. It is not even correct to speak of Christian morals. and religion. or it may not be. All actions are immoral which are contrary to the emotions of the crowd that creates the morals in question.examples the endless of see-saw betweenthe primitive
individualistic Christianity of Christ and the socialistic
push to paganiseit which no crowd of Christians can
avoid. have often been and still are confused together. Nevertheless if there is a religion conterminouswith a given crowd. The history of the Churches proves
It must not. correspond to some eternal law
of right and wrong. whilst much of our morality is obviously transitional. though far from always. and that to set them at defianceis
necessarily to do a wicked action! To accomplish that result religion had first to appropriate a foreign area of morals. for example. however. not
of a divine revelation. the laws will tend more and more to be so shaped as to impose its
morality by enactment. would claim that the present age is marked by any such congruity. He may differ from one of the great crowds
. and such a harmony has characterised the culminations of some important epochsof civilisation. its morals. If so-called Christian morals are in very
truth a part of Christianity.Religion
identified with its religious organisation. and the religions of its citizens are taking place simultaneously. be forgotten that in the evolution of a people the evolutions of its government. Under these conditions the individual is fortunately able to preserve a good deal of freedom. What a remarkable feat of governmental interferencein the past generations has it beento impose the public mind the ideathat marriage on
ordinances. however. and then government had to usurp the authority
of religion. Thus in the great age of Chivalry and Feudalism the religion of the people matched very closely the moral and governmental ideals of the day. it must follow that Christianity is merely the outcome of a crowd movement. It is an age of rapid change alike in governmental and religious ideals. a happy state of things is arrived at. Where a harmony exists between all three. not only of thought but of speech. No one. by equal stages.
without offending all simultaneously. the individual will be so powerfully controlled
by the forces of all three bent in the same direction as to
lose his freedom in the presenceof the mighty crowd. so intimately connected with the preser"vation of the authority of Princes. how strangely antiquated it seemsto us! Yet even so recently as in the days of Ruskin's activity he could claim that "our National "Religion is the performance of church ceremonies and
. and public opinion are all in hearty agreement together on such questions. This is why it has recently come to pass in Great Britain that the law of
marriage in the Statediffers from the law of marriage in
some of the churches. and the contracting powers join in offering their thanks to the Pope for "what he has already done for them."
This was written barely a century ago. It runs as follows: "Convinced that the principles of religion contribute "most powerfully to keep nations in the state of passive "obedience which they owe to their princes. church. with the' aim of ameliorating their "own interests. the high con"tracting parties declareit to be their intention to sustain. How efficient in controlling individuals the alliance between government and religion has been was clearly demonstrated by the third article of the same Treaty of Verona already cited. "in their respective States. whilst the attitude of public opinion towards marriage is somewhat undecided and does not heartily agree with that either of the State or of the churches. and solicit his con"stant co-operation in their views of submitting the
"nations. those measures which the "clergy may adopt. Obviously when State.
The State. incredible dogmas. Christianityof the Gospels. All that crowds
haveeveradded it hasbeenunchristian to incomprehensibilities. if it for will andalways mustusethe sanctions religionto enof force decisions theState.Thewhole Christianity itself an of
is within the capacityof a child to grasp. the does
notlend to such office. Christianity.Religion
"preachingsoporific of truths(oruntruths) keep to the
"mobquietlyat workwhileweamuse ourselves. unnecessary and ceremonials.
invented solely for collective purposes. thepower theState the of or of to
enforce dogmasand promote the interests of the relithe
controls religious organisationis controlled or thereby." The emancipationreligion of fromcrowd-control the first is
essential Christian religiouslife.
unless its religion is limited by race. Similarly if one crowd divides into two independent sections. must be to expand and embrace the whole world. Its undeniable aim. an instinctive mutual hostility arises. these sectionswill always be hostile to one another. like that of the Jews. No better instances of the mutual hostility of similar crowds can be cited than organised religious bodies afford. especially those calling themselves Christian. but being crowds they cannot. and that the existence of a rival crowd obviously puts a limit on its expansion. This hostility is not due to their religion but to the fact that they are crowds and cannot help possessingthe universal
characteristic of crowds. or in some similar fashion. The great religious crowds all claim universality and must therefore be jealous of one another and in fact mutually hostile.
IF independent kind in crowds come of similar con a
. This dangerous but fundamental characteristic of crowds is due to the fact that every crowd desiresto expand indefinitely. and therefore are not truly Christian. except when two or more crowds unite in hostility to a third or to another group of crowds. If they were truly Christian they would love one another. therefore.CHAPTER OVERCROWDS
tact one with another. Every religious body conceives of itself as the depository of divine truth.
England. but it exists. but. Neighbouring towns do not regard one another with affection. The
Eton and Harrow cricket match. the only protestant against such friendly co-operation being a bishop who felt himself more strongly drawn to an imaginary "Catholic" overcrowd
. Thus Bakuyu showed how rival Christian communities can unite in the presence of active heathendom.
if all their common interests as against the rest of the
world could be put out of mind. however. If their union is brought about by the active hostility of the overcrowd to some other crowd or overcrowd. I have heard an estimable mayor of Chatham state his honest opinion of the adjacent City of Rochester.
It is not necessary to labour this point.
It is a dormant emotion no doubt. used to end with a scrimmage that would have developed into a free fight had there been no superior force to intervene. and Ireland get along together. Scotland. Oxford does not love Cambridge any better than Harrow loves Eton. nor I believe does Boston adore New York. their remaining emotion
towards one another would be the reverse of affectionate. it will be all the more efficaceous suppressing in internal jealousies and friction.Overcrowds
Observehow the great public schoolsdislike one another. Wales. an overcrowd is formed. the
mutual hostility of these subordinate crowds remains dormant so long as they are conscious of their union in the overcrowd. seeing that the fact is universally admitted and has been established by the experienceof mankind in all ages. All nations tend to mutual hostility. not so long ago. which embraces and contains two or more subordinate crowds. It was not complimentary! Manchester does not love Liverpool.
and they of smaller social groups. the Protestant union being the result of
conflict with the heathen. The Protestant
overcrowd consequently availed to absorb all the Christian bodies and individuals except those that were overwhelmed by the Catholic ideal. Is this a sign of that dangerous Americanism. in fact.The
than to one composed of local Christian communities of different complexions.
By uniting and sub-
. It was in fact a case where three overcrowds were in question. such as a nation. Subordinate crowds. is built up out of a complex structure of subordinate crowds. and that
this alliance manifests itself in the football field in matches
between a joint team of those against a team of these. are the limbs
and organs of a great body politic. and so on down to the component
244. who cannot fail to be thus induced to look on one
another with less of crowd-prejudice in proportion to the strength that the overcrowd tie may develop. a "Catholic/5 a Protestant. The effect of such co-operation must be to soften the otherwise strong opposition between Romanists and Methodists. so distasteful to the
ultramontane authorities who have not been led into the
temptations involved in playing football in a combined Roman-Wesley team against a common opponent? an Every great crowd. I am told that in the University of Toronto there exists
or existed an informal alliance between the Romanist and
the Methodist students as against the Baptists. and a heathen. The mutual hostility
between the Protestant and Catholic crowds was strong
enough to prevent them from being united even by their common hostility to heathendom and Islam. whilst the Catholic union arose
from a different and unconnected ideal.
I think it was Mr. limiting the area of operation of each. each having a consciousness its own and interof ests of its own. it enables them to co-operate to the good of the wholeorganism. but are opposed to them. Oxford and Cambridge are united by stronger common emotions and ideals than those that divide them. How does it accomplish this result? Partly by the material force given to it with the general consent of the public opinion of the overcrowd. but much more by the greater force usually possessed over the passions of individuals by the ideal of the greater crowd over the ideal of the component bodies. Thus it comesto pass that an overcrowd
is not hostiletowards subordinate crowdsso long as they
are content to remain subordinate. but only if they en-
deavourto become conterminous with it and to supplant
its organisation by their own. They are inspired by each Alrna Mater with similar standards. they start the life of men with a similar hallmark. for all their rivalry. and preventing them from mutual conflict of an active kind.Overcrowds
ordinating them. but because. Mallock who described the social aggregateas a litter of beasts or groups. but as against the rest of the world they embrace each other with a mutual pride. besidesbelonging to a common country in the f ash-
. When they think only of each other it may be with disparagement. which usually do not coincide with those of the rest. Their members belong to a common class. Oxford does not abstain from attacking Cambridge in force through fear of police and military. The overcrowd imposes upon these rival interests the limitations which enable the groups to live together in peace and even in happiness.
which if strong enough will sufficeto make every smaller section innocuous to the
nation as a whole. The same is likewise true. No one need desire to
obliterate erase the or even weaken lines that limit their diverse characters each.Englishmen all .Jute. Celt. for example. called patriotism. and crowd-subdivisions of all sorts within the body of a nation. organised into a single crowd by the possession of a common ideal. North and South are one. All or to that is each from
needed is that. Norman. however subdivided. nor a population talking a common language. with the people of the North and South of England.if they
Though far from being wrought into a unity of blood by intermarriage.
not vice versa. Saxon. But. and what-not. who have many
divergencies ideal and look towards one another with in
no small lack of sympathy in certain aspects.
What in fact is a Nation? It is not merely a number of individuals dwelling within a particular geographical area.notwithstanding their differences of blood -
ioning of whosedestiniesthey look to take an important part. they should likewise be united above their subdivisions by the possession a of common passion. A nation is the whole population of an area. nor is it to be defined by the possession a common stock or of blood-relationship.
against the world. It is patriotism that makes a nation. they are welded into one by the English
ideal which all share alike. Thus Africanderswill be a nation. and
their small local hostility is a trifle set against the crowdforming ideals they possessin common. Angle. Thus also it is or should be
with all the classes. Thus the overcrowdmightily inspires them.
ill. I have before me the report of an action brought against the sellers of certain oysters which
it was claimed were unfit for food.
. That man is virtuously
patriotic whoseemotion. and the common ideal oncecreatedis liable to grow into that kind of passion
is an immaterial detail once the passion of the overcrowd
is stronger than that of the section.sharedwith and drawn from the
overcrowd. Tim Healy informed Mr. so that the moment that feeling or prejudice can be invoked in favour of some object the tendency of the public will be to range themselveson its side." Patriotism is a very curious force and operates on individuals in all manner of unsuspected ways. canbe recognised whenit shows itself to be "something
"that men willingly die for.Overcrowds are notsoalready. but in its unifying. it may here be assertedthat the
supreme value of that emotionis not in provokinghostility or resisting the rivalry of other countries. is much more powerful than the emotion shared with and drawn from any subordinate crowd. emphaticallyasserted"that it was important that the "public shouldknow that they wereonly importedoysters
" and were not Natives"!
Leaving out of consideration for the moment the relation of patriotism to war. to obtain
the help of prejudice on his side. There is no reason even to desire an individual
to forgetwhether he is of British or Dutch origin. as Mr. as againstthe oysters. When that hasbeen brought about a nation exists. The reader will be refreshed by an absurd instance. Counsel. nation-making force. whentheirfeelingof unity overpowers
and submerges their attachment to their component racecrowds.
his church. or any other crowd to which he belongs. but if he is more loyal to a sub-crowd than
to the national overcrowd he is a traitor to the nation. the rebel. whatever their system of government: "No republic can permanently "exist when it becomes a republic of classes. his class. but it has been treason. only under quite exceptional circumstances of revolution and the like that such complicated oppositions of ideals arise to puzzle the actions of men. he lacks patriotism.
Where I now sit writing I have but to raise my eyes to see the Gateway beneath which Sir Thomas Wyatt. There have been traitors and traitors. which. he is a sectional traitor. He may love an individual more than he loves his country. Roosevelt said of republics is equally true of all nations. must have sound intellectual reasonsin
its favour.a crowd-sin. bade farewell to his young wife and infant child when he rode away to put himself at the head of the Kentish Rebellion .
Some traitors have been heroes and have had good personal reasons for their treason. He puts the part before the whole. but he was not therefore necessarily a
wicked man. He was a traitor.the object of which was to prevent the hateful Spanish marriage of Queen Mary and Philip II. more than he loves his country. What Mr. if it is to be individ-
If a man loves his town. when the "man feels not the interest of the whole people but the
. however. In normal times a nation must be possessed throughout by the single patriotic ideal which subordinates all the minor crowds to the body politic. It
is. for patriotism is a crowd-emotion only and is not concerned with individuals. none the less . his order.
"An employer went to the strikers' headquarters. An overcrowdcan only exist when the emotionthat generates is morepowerful it than the severalemotionsby which its subsidiarycrowds are generated. or
"fancies that he belongs. of prime importance. failed
to operate against bitter sectional self-consciousness. but they occur sometimes in the case of
modern socialistic bodies. supremely mischievous. where "the men had congregated.
When sub-crowds of such strength are formed their existence becomes a peril to the body politic." Here the overcrowdship. with different sections in different
arises. Aristocracies. A crowd is a being fashionedby an emotion." That as is a particular case of a general law. Where a crowd is not contained within the limits of a
nation but spreads abroad through the world. 1904. 30. "The strikers flatly refused. Such is the condition of. for example. and other crowds have at times
been. There had beena ghastly fire in the Iroquoistheatre and numbers people of
were killed and injured by the flames. like the heartless Chicago strikers. the English Roman Cath249
. another kind of conflict
of it will then be within the
hypnotic area of two unco-ordinated overcrowds. and asked the men to go "to the Iroquois theatre to help to remove the injured. trade unions.
churches. Here is an instance which
happenedin Chicago Dec. A local
nations.Overcrowds "interest of the particularclassto whichhe belongs. About that time a strike had occurred among the livery-stable drivers.
Failures of patriotism are not common with sub-crowds in our own day. not only of the nation but even of the human race.
fearing the crowd. is not likely to utter unpatriotic sentimentsin presence the public of his new home. seem to show that the case varies to a
olics: they are both part of England and part of the
Roman Church. Hence the ill-founded belief in most countries. In America it is common to hear it
asserted that five years' residence turn any foreigner will
into a good American. of He will be far more likely to err hypocritically in the other direction. It is conceivablethat a situation might arise when the interests of the two would be antagonistic. and especially in new countries. and that that of the country from which he
comeswill gradually fade away. An individual. He would have to becomea traitor
or a heretic! In either case he would be driven to commit a crowd-oflence. that immigrants are far more rapidly absorbed into the new nationality than
is in fact the case. owing to the movement of population. when."so far as they can be usefully of
"consulted. This entails the process called
Another case of difficulty arises under modern conditions. at least from priority. men are almost compelled to changetheir nationality as economic conditions drive them to change their home from one country to another. But now
I read (since the great war began) different story. and a man would have to choosebetween his patriotism
and his orthodoxy. a Examples absorption. We in England used to nourish
some such illusion about naturalised Germans. As a rule it is sound to assume that a man
will quickly catch the patriotism of the country to which
he removes. Such antinomies are rare and cannot
endure in a world where the very existence of civilisation
depends the co-ordinationof crowds.
is there a possi-
bility of knowing whether the German-American more is
German or more American?
There has been no considerable change in racial stocks
in the United Kingdom sincethe Norman Conquest. they tend to merge." He speaks." NeverthelessDr. New York. he may pray as he pleases "or not at all. without authority when he continues: "We
"have huge Celtic. as years "pass. President Columbia University. but that they "are the outgrowth principally of social and political con"ditions. so long "as he does not violate the law. Germany.yet
. Nicholas Murray Butler. Teutonic. Latin. appears havebeenpretty but to
"effectually Teutonised judging from his diatribesagainst "England. This proves that such antagonisms are not myste"rious attributes of geography or climate." Of course in normal times within the area of the American overcrowd such sub-crowds will have no occasion to come to blows.One man is thoroughly Anglicised "or Americanised. Here a man can do about what he likes. The Old World antagonisms have become mem"ories. and he may speak any language that he
chooses. creating new and homogeneous "types. Herr Chamberlain whose writings are so
"dear to the Kaiser'sheart and sopopularin Germany "was an Englishman.Overcrowds
"perplexing degree. and. another while remains as gooda just
"German as though he had continued to live on Ger-
however. and Slavic populations "all living here at peace and in harmony. says that of
the United States have proved "that race antagonisms "tend to die away and disappear under the influence of
"liberal andenlightened politicalinstitutions. say. but until the United States
have been at war with.
have each their own pressand will
probably maintain their sub-crowdship much longer than would have been possible illiterate days. as preciousin time of peaceas in war-time. the supreme test.
our people far from beingmerged are into a homogeneous type. Now the press tends to keep alive racial sub-crowds. and so forth. Only a pain thetic faith (in things as they essentially not) can beare
lieve otherwise. and it has been applied to the British Empire with results that all the world can behold and
understand. the Dago-Americans. national public opinion will be stronger than any sectional opinion. Race patriotism has had a good dealmore
to do with the attitude of United States citizens toward the
belligerents in the present great war than it would be politic for either party to acknowledge. and curiously enough we English would rather have the support of the people of our race on the other side of the ocean upon the solid ground of race-prejudice than becausewe are engaged in a just war! In normal days in the United States.and most efficientunder the great inquest of warif it hasbeenlongand beneficently operativethroughout many peaceful generations. and that notwithstandingthe fact that for some 700 yearsthey werenot impededin racial mixing by the existenceof a prolific printing-press. however. Here then is the value of patriotism. or at least in enough of peace and harmony for all practical purposes. The Irish-Americans. the SlavAmericans. as much as but no more than in other civilised countries. and the overcrowd will contain all sectional crowds in peace and harmony.
. It is the unifying force. The upheaval of war is.
To weld together into a single polity divers nations has been attempted again and again these two thousand years and more. In
later days the effort has frequently been made to denationalise a conquered nation. By the extraordinary ability and skill of statesmen trained in the Revolutionary War. which slowly learnt by repeated experiment that the way to attach sec253
. which has so far led us to consider nations. That lessonwas not lost upon Great Britain. the thirteen revolted colonies were at length welded voluntarily together into a federation. outrun our subject. The organisation of a national crowd thus treated was broken up. The Finns have been
similarly attacked. The ancient way was to carry off a conquered population bodily from their home. Napoleon succeededin deprovincialising the French. however. but denationalisation has never been successful. Cromwell tried to denationalise the Irish and failed. it tended to disintegrate into its units and those to recombine with other people in a new home.Overcrowds
In thus referring to empires and wars we have.
failed. whereby they were enabled to preserve their individuality and yet to form what proved to be the nucleus of a strong imperial state. Meanwhile
These and like efforts have quite
States demonstrated the modern
possibilities of federation. Only peoples and governments lacking in true political gift have even made the attempt in modern times. Germans and Russians have essayed
to Germanise or Russify the Poles. Charlemagne's translation of a large body of Saxons
was about the last successful effort of this kind. Empires and racespresent larger problems.
that will be one of the chief structural principles of the organisation of mankind. in the world-epoch now beginning.yet no one could delimit existing
. We speakfreely of the racesof mankind. It is becoming clearer that only by the application of this principle can the Balkan problem be solved. the unshattered crowdship of each sectional component crowd.
Another kind of overcrowd.The
tional statesto a largerovercrowdis for the includingbody to makeit plain that its first duty shall be to preserve the inviolability of the local independence the included of
states. It enlists on the side of the central organisation the strongest of all crowd-instincts that of self-preservation. the fun-
damentalprinciple of empire may be said to have been
established. It is by at least a recognition of it that Russia was led to
proclaim the future unity and subordinateindependence
of Poland. is the Race.differing from an empire in that it is altogetherlacking in crowd-organisation. we
recognise that race is an important element in human
structureand relations. and there can be little doubt that. Thus the principle of Home Rule for Nations is at length emerging as the true foundation of empires. Who shall say how far the integration of nations into world-states may go on this basis. The wisdom of this policy has become so apparent that at last. even perhaps at long last into the ultimate formation of a world-embracing overcrowd. This is the vital principle which has enabled the British Empire to hold together in the present time of trial. and not fully till quite recently. namely that the basis of empire is the guaran-
teed preservationof the local freedomof each included
After a thousand years of intermarrying. possessing common a more or less in definite group of ideals. Celt.
Saxon. Moreover it is only necessary to compare the Russian. for example. Hungarian. the German. No one can pretend that it is anything but a mixture in which very numerous varieties of blood are united but not blended. the English-speaking races. there is an indefinite mixture of different stocks. but rather for a multitude
. It is indeedgenerally assumed that a race is mainly to. Within the Slav. except
in the caseof those who ceased be Jews. You may seein England to-day men with headsthat absolutely repeat the type of the Assyrian man-headed bulls. and North European Jews to be convinced that they form together a race no more "pure" than. and Iberian are not blended. Spanish. Race is not
always the word for a multitude of people who inherit a
common stock of blood. be definedby the
possession a common blood. but before that to time there was no such isolation.
and all these ideals differ from one another. is nothing but a convenient term for a kind of overcrowd. the English race.
Race. but each of these over-
crowds possessesby historical descent a certain ideal. We hear the Jews called of a pure race. Since about the fifth century of our era the
Jewsmay not haveintermarriedwith other peoples. the Latin. Levantine. As for that we know its history. As a matter of fact intermarriage does not blend. in fact. In the Roman Empire the Jews freely accepted adhesionsfrom without.Overcrowds
racesor even accuratelydefinethem. Where
are all the Phoenicians and other Semites who were scat-
tered over the ancient world? Probably many of them were merged into the Jewish body.
ing a common stock of traditions. It is the outcomeof crowd-memory
alone and possesses therefore the pride. nor by the genesis of a new religion. a common outlook on life up to a certain point. The great war is increasing our internal cohesion. An Empire must be more or less organic: a race is not organic at all. If ever the British Empire becomes strongly organised it will be thanks to Germany. No such forces act upon races. usually in the form of wars. Nations "slowly wise" gradually assemble themselves together as needs. The
German peril has been a vivifying force in recent decades. nor by
geographical propinquity. A race exists solely by the
inheritance of ideals.not so the greatness of a race. What has formed the British Empire? Primarily the opposition of other powers. compel. Empires grow. It
cannot be made suddenlyby economicforces. By nothing but long historical sequencecan a
race be created. its prosperity . just as German internal unity arose from fear of France. but a race recognises no such link.
The greatness of an Empire depends upon its power. The loyalty
of Canada was born from fear of the United States. Empires act. they emerge
from them. That depends on its history and its ideals. racesremember. Empires look to the future. the moral force. Unity of ultimate governmental authority makes an Empire. its numbers. The
. and the momentum which belong to all the fine old things. Time alone can fashion one. If ever humanity as a whole is to become an organic overcrowd it will not be by the junction of races but of Empires. races to the past. They do not grow into Empires. races only endure.
is what all nations are. to
That type of man has little opportunityfor the display of his qualities to-day. but their moral environment. of not on
it depends uponthe chance whether gifts and ideals its
match given a day. must
everlastingly remain. The bold Spanishadat venturerwasof all men bestequipped be a conquistador.
Professor Karl Pearson claims that a nation. the white race may probably enough
sink below the first rank. No onewill denyto the Spanish race honours greatness. When the age of science passes. In the thirteenth century Venetian Marco
Polo marvelledat the greaterprosperity and capacity of Chinacompared with WesternEurope.Overcrowds prosperity a racedoes depend its greatness. as it seems to me. every class. WesternEurope
and America have really only come right to the front along with science. and. may
theirideals in general are harmony those adapted with best
to succeed a particular time. and who knows what now obscure
group will arise to replace it?
federation of the world
Ere then perhaps the
will have been effected. With racesas
with animals. Western Europehasnot always
been ahead of the rest of the world. however. their prosperity depends their adaptaon tion to their environment not merelytheir physical environment. properly
organised for the struggle for existence among competing nations. these not itsgreat the of but are daysbecause ideals not matchthe present its do day.'* Such a mixture. Every individual.as some day it may. Its folk were barbarians when Greece gave civilisation to the Mediterranean area. "must be a homogenous whole.
The samemay be said of the Chinese. not a mixture "of superior and inferior races.
it not be the casethat what is properly called the caste system is the result of the action of natural laws and is
therefore an essential factor. Thus if all Jews were financiers and all financiers Jews they would be a caste. each better adapted than the rest to some particular branch of those complicated human activities
which go to make up the life of a modern nation. especially when those layers correspond to occupations. whether realised or not.The
haveequalpolitical rights with everyother. in
the structure of a modern nation?
In America the term " caste" is misapplied in popular usage. there is a tendency for a certain group of Jews to become such in most civilised and progressive countries. The tendency is for
different trades or occupations to fall into the hands of
groups of personsof different nationalities respectively. but that does
not affect the essential and enduring superiority and
inferiority of racial layers within a nation.
. Castes are racial layers within a people. and also becausein some parts of India it is enforced by social
sanctions. because there the influx of immigrants of many different races has been so
voluminous during recent times. India is the historic land in which the caste system is most easily studied because there openly acknowledged. On the contrary. where it is supposedto be equivalent to the artificial ordering of social ranks. In the modern world we can see the caste
system taking visible form more clearly in the United States than in any other country. it may be arguedthat the very success a nation of in the world's struggle may be forwarded by its composition out of suchsuccessive layers of differently gifted
and this by the operationof purely economic and social forces. Bootblacksare generally Dagoes. Navvies are
likely to be Hungarians.Masons frequentlyNorth are
Italians- and so forth. Time doesnot tend to obliterate but to accentuatesuch divergenciesof function;
modern labour organisations tend in the same direction.
Menof a common originandraceacttogether organand isethemselves potentlythandomenofdiverse more origin.
The freer the political institutions of a country, therefore, the more easy is it for caste to arise, in fact if not
in name. Nor doesthe obliterationof the memoryof their originmake muchdifference.Adaptability given to typesof labouris asmuchhereditary any other gift, as
and will act without the help of nomenclature.
The strength of great Britain is largely due to the
astonishing mixture of races contained within these
islands, and to the fact that so many of them camein by conquest. The earliest stock of which we have vague knowledgewas that which inhabited the country in Neolithic days. It was doubtless already very mixed.
On to that came conquering raiders of the Celtic race
in successive waves: Goidelic, Brythonic, and perhaps
others. Belgic invaders added their contingent in South
and East. Next followed the Romans; then the various With them
Teutonic tribes, Jutes, Angles, and Saxons; after them
Scandinavians of sorts; last of all Normans.
the conquering aristocracies ended. Each in its turn had added a layer to the population, and each, by conquest, had demonstrated the possession some superior of quality to that of those it overcame. The era of physical conquest was not, however, the end of all accretions. A
country capable of defending itself may still import folk, either of inferior gifts suited to perform rough labour, or
of special talentsenablingthem by aid of economic fitting
to establish themselves at a higher level. Such were the Flemish weavers; such again the Industrious and able Jews, who added a new and most valuable factor to the complex races already settled and mutually adapted. The whole of this complex forms a union of inferior and superior races, some gifted with powers of administration, some with powers of manual skill, some merely with an almost blind physical strength. You have only to look at a miscellaneous assemblageof Englishmen to become aware of the wide divergence of racial types of which they are composed. The Neolithic Englishman is still
discoverable, the red Celt also, and the fair-haired Norse-
man, the highbred Norman too, the sturdy Fleming, the Huguenot, and all the different races that compose the Jews- they are as identifiable as if they had been newly brought together from as many different lands. They are a mixture of inferior and superior races, and intermarriage does not racially blend them. Children revert to the different ancestral types and perpetuate their various abilities and disabilities. Thus it must be, always and everywhere, in spite of all social ordinances and constitutional impediments intended to put everybody on
Notwithstanding such racial divergencethe whole mass forms a nation, and it does so not by uniformity of blood or even of language, but by the possessionof a common national emotion, a common patriotism, a single crowdconstructive ideal. It is this that so obviously divides
the English Jew from the GermanJew and often makes
the former just as much an Englishman as the purest descendantof Anglian forefathers. It is this that unites and animates the whole body politic, that swamps the individual, happily, willingly, and completely, in the great crowd. By such results is crowd-formation justified. It creates out of a vast multitude of units of varying gifts,
capacities, and values,an integral whole,a living organism, wherein as in any other animal some parts are made
for honour and some for dishonour. We are all members
of one body, depending on each other, not for equal gifts but for dissimilar gifts, and it is in the due and free subordination of the lower to the higher and the due and free functioning of all the parts that the health of the whole
I have used the words inferior and superior as applied to layers of the population of any country, not however intending thereby to postulate a permanent relation between them, but merely as describing their relation at a given moment in respect of their several adaptabilities to the conditions of a particular day. Thus it will be obvious that at one time the possession greater physical strength of will give to a race a superiority over a less sturdy folk which they may lose whenever physical strength becomes unimportant as compared, for example, with ingenuity. A particular race may be gifted with powers of government and administration, adapted to one stage of civilisation but not to another; and many more such variations of aptness, due to changesin economic or military conditions, will occur to every reader. It follows that, within a nation, the relative positions of racial levels may change
fromtime to time. The conquered oneagemay become of the economic conquerors another,and so forth. Hence of
that nation will have the securestfuture which possesses
within it the largestracial variety, eachracial layer being regardednot merelyas possessing gifts which it best the
exercisesfor its own and the common good at any given
time, but possibly also possessing latent powers which at anotherstageof civilisation may prove to be invaluable and may raise it, within the community, to a social
level higherthan it was suited to occupybefore.
Allusion has already more than once been made to the fact that a crowd has only a limited, not an indefinitely prolonged, lifetime. It has, like any other animal, beginning, middle, and end. Thus the rise and fall of nations is a commonplaceof history. Where are the Babylonians, the Ancient Egyptians, the Minoans, the Hittites, the Assyrians, and all the rest? Where is the Empire of Alexander, where the greater Empire of Rome? They all beganwith a day of small things, waxed to a maximum of strength, and eachcame ultimately to its
end. It does not follow of another that a nation that went is the same because it. The Italian
it occupies the same area and consists largely of the
nation is not a continuation German
of the Roman, but a new
crowd, welded into a unity by a new ideal.
crowd is not a continuation
of mediaeval or
even RenaissanceGermany; it is a new crowd, a quite
youthful nation, vigorous with a new life, shaped by an organisationof novel spirit, and tending towards a
goal altogether different from any that previous German crowds tried to attain. The English nation is old be-
causeits ideal is old, it is instinct with an old patriotism, it follows after the general aims of its forefathers, but it is no older than the Norman Conquest, when Saxon England and all that it stood for came utterly to an end. Waxing nations and waning nations must always exist side by side. In former days the one conqueredthe other. That is now less easy owing to international impediments and the existence of international overcrowds. Yet nations still must die. Their ideals must
passaway, and be replaced by new ones,which will fashion the multitude of individuals living within a given geographical area into a new kind of crowd, which will in fact be a new nation. Immigration has remade Argentina. Immigration is likely before long to remake Brazil. The births and deaths of nations do not depend wholly on wars and conquests; they can happen and assuredly will happen without their aid and despitetheir impediment. It does not follow that the individuals in a waxing nation are of better human material than those in one that
is waning. Spain cannot now be called a waxing nation, yet where will you find a better set of individuals than the splendid Spanish peasantry? You could match them man for man against as many individuals of almost any other nation, and they would not yield the palm of human worth. It is not the Spanish individual that is lacking in value to-day, but the Spanish crowd-forming ideal. A nation fails when its ideal is worn out. Humanity in its
evolution makes use of a succession of ideals. Each
belongs to its day and its place. Each fashions the people it animates into a body politic, capable of existing in power and health as long as the ideal is alive. Thus
the Greeks, the Romans, the Franks, the folk of Islam, the Turks, and all the rest, world-scattered, time-scattered,
havefollowedeachtheir ideal, like a pillar of fire, as long as the light shonebeforethem in the darkness surroundof ing fate. Whenthe light failed they lost their respective ways,or took to following"wandering fires" and so came to grief, eachby their specialtragedy. But eachin its
day led the whole race of man onward while it was in the van, and, as each failed and dropped behind, another was ready to come forward and take its place. Thus all the formative ideals that have shaped men into nations and other crowds have served the increasing purpose of all mankind. They have ceased one after another to be crowd-constructing powers, but they have remained in the individual a portion of his separate inheritance, so that to-day, and here in England, the ideal of mighty repose which fashioned an Empire on the banks of the Nile, the ideal of strength which made the Assyrian, the ideal of balance which formed the Greek, the ideal of legal order which inspired the Roman, may still animate the heart of an individual Englishman though none of these ideals is any longer exclusive in fashioning a Nation or an Empire.
a barrister. are those that are not united together by any
and an Englishman.CHAPTER WAR: ITS CAUSE
XVI AND CURE
may be of two kinds: similar and dissimij lar. Similar
subordinate crowds may be and generally are jealous of one another and would be actively hostile but for the harmonising restraint of their overcrowd. Similar crowds are those in which membership of one excludes from membership of the rest. Such independent crowds as nations. An undergraduate cannot belong to both Oxford and Cambridge at once. a liberal. or as the great international
. These are all examples of sets of similar crowds. a Londoner. nor subordinated to one. Thus crowds to which a single individual can belong simultaneously are dissimilar crowds. Thus a man cannot be both an Englishman and a Frenchl
man at one time. a Cambridge man. A boy cannot be at Eton and Harrow together. He cannot be a Roman Catholic and likewise a Wesleyan. Nations therefore are similar crowds. But the same individual can be an Etonian.
a member of the Leander boat-club. and conA man cannot be at once a member of the liberal
servative parties. Independent crowds. as their name implies.
We can now state the axiom on which the remarks that
follow will be founded: All similar independent crowds are mutually hostile.
There exists no single individual who does not belong to one or other of these independent crowds. the independent crowds great and small not so combined include the whole massof living humanity.from the merest latent distaste up to the bitterest active combat for life and death.andconsequently
they are instinctively hostile to one another.
. belongs to one or other of these independent national or imperial units. The normal man uttering the crowdemotion is invariably more or less hostile to every foreign independent nation.The
religiousbodies. with a hostility either latent or patent. Of coursehostility may be of many
degrees. Individuals nowadays may be far enough advanced in true civilisation to feel no hostility to any foreign independent nation. nor can one of them add one new citizen to its body by accretion from without except at the expenseof one of its rivals. but the crowd is not. In what follows it is with nations only that we shall be concerned. an enemy. practically all the valuable land-surface of the globe. Leaving out of account all nations and states which have combined into overcrowds or empires. Further.a person towards whom a
Roman washostile. Its existence seemed so
obvious to the ancient Romans that their word for a
foreigner was hostis. and none of them can add to its holding except at the expenseof someother. independent are crowds. In times called times of peace this hostility is latent. That was their definition of a foreigner . and we start with them from a specialform of the above axiom: All independent nations are mutually hostile to one another. except the archipelago of Spitsbergen.
impassable forests. All alike. seas. The fact that the land was but sparsely peopled. As soonas a tribe could spare the time it attacked some neighbouring tribe and endeavoured to destroy or engulf it. it follows that the possession this of instinct makes each of the great crowds a menace to all the others. That is no longer possible. like mountain ranges. and that there were great vacant spacesas well as efficient natural obstacles. and to obtain possession of new populations and lands without depriving rivals of their folk or possessions. If they were not always actually fighting. it was possible for the growing national crowds to increase at the expenseof the unabsorbed. it is not becausethey don't want
. If all the nations of the earth are not always fighting. The primitive communities of remote antiquity (so far as we are informed about them).was there. it wasbecausethey lackedthe leisure. put considerableimpediments in the way of this universal tendency of separate crowds
to fight. are quickened in their hostility to the rest by the instinct of self-preservation. however. swamps. and all squeezed together within a box which they unite to fill. large and small. filled with gas. and the
sametendency still exists. like the savagetribes of Africa a century ago. lived in a permanent state of warfare with one another. Existing nations are like so many bladders. If one of these bladders is to expand another must contract. There is no other way.and so forth. The tendency. So long as there were unabsorbed populations and lands. therefore.War:
Seeing all crowdspossess instinct of expansion that the
and that any one if unresisted and unsplit wouldexpand
to include the whole population of the earth and to own all its land-surface.
because they are restrained by the action of contrary
forces. and intervals of equilibrium have becomelonger. and behave like them. but because they have other things to do. are nothing is the interest of the individual more opposed to the tendency of a crowd than in this matter of war. and would be their normal state but for the impediments placed in their way and continually renewed.The
to. that is not
true of individuals. Though. is the natural condition of independent crowds. When these are in equilibrium there is peace. an internal expansive force and an external resistance. The balance of power is to independent nations what equality before the law is to individuals . who incarnate crowds. We must go back to a time earlier than that of tribal formation to find the hand of every independent head of a family turned against his fellow. however. all crowds are warlike. It is not the cause of war that requires to be sought. A state of war. therefore. in which what is called the "balance of power" has existed. like the equilibrium of an inverted pyramid of acrobats. and can only be maintained by ceaseless attention. moved by their if we leave out of account all kinds emotions. Rudimentary crowdformation at once enlisted the interest of the individual
.the guarantee of national as of individual independence. In
of crowd-representatives. but the cause of peace. Hence each national crowd is operated on by two forces. If every crowd desires unlimited expansion. Unfortunately this equilibrium is unstable. all other similar crowds are interested to prevent the expansion of any one. The organisation of this resistance has steadily increased in efficiency with the growth of civilisation.
peace-crowd within a nation has ever yet availed to stop
war when there was any real danger of it. either in helping or in hindering the formation within it of a given kind of opinion. and every individual suffers more or less. pushing their pri£69
. An examination of the means and limitations of this kind of individual activity would lead us into too much detail. can and often do have a considerable effect upon a crowd. guile. not formed into any kind of crowd. and personal initiative. it swallows up or renders insignificant and
ineffectual all contained crowds of whatever sort. Suffice it here to point out that
individualsgoing about their business. In war the rights of individuals disappear. The results of war may be such that some individuals thereafter prosper.Individuals may
work to form a peace-crowd and may have some success in time of profound peace. Independent individuals. Our own experience in the Crimean and South African wars suffices to illustrate that statement. foresight. however. but retaining their individuality. and even during war the economic interests of a few may be forwarded.War:
on the side of peace.the impeding
action of individuals against crowd-passion. but in the main the individual members of warring crowds all suffer more or less. but when the national crowd makes for war. Thus if crowdsare the sourceof
internationalhostility they are likewisethe origin of
domestic peace. I do not
refer to their action as a peace-crowd. with all its advantagesof intelligence. so that every individual who keeps himself free of crowd-
passionis almost certain to be on the side of peaceand
This is the second greatrestraining force.
Those nations are most imperilled which are in closest contact
. The crowd generates a hostile passion towards a rival as spontaneously as yeast generates fermentation. and it is to these. but they have no need to provoke it. In both the emotion of the crowd is the moving force. Gusts of
passion are the most frequent cause of actual war. A democracy when it sets warwards is every bit as dangerous as a tyranny. or restrain it. in spite of
all that its official leaders did to restrain it. maintaining personal and intimate
relations with other individuals in foreign and potentially enemy countries. and the hostility proceedsnot from the leaders but from the crowd itself. Waxing and waning nations imperil the stability of international equilibrium or the balance of power. he merely wields it. do have a great cumulative effect upon their crowds. Democracy possesses special virtue of restraint. that democracies are especially liable. It is often asserted that democratically governed countries are less prone to war than others. The power that makes war and wins victories is the passion of a people.The
vate enterprises. This is a pure superstition without an atom of fact to rest on. a purely democratic upheaval brought about by the crowd itself. However constructed internally. and this effect is mainly a force on the side of peace. coming on suddenly and with uncontrollable force. no Witness the Spanish-American war. All crowds alike tend to mutual hostility. Leaders may fan the passion to some extent. The despot does not supply the strength of his people. every national crowd alike is liable to the war-passion. which is always latent within it.
and the difficulty of maintaining equilibrium is correspondingly increased. In any such period the consciousness. and still more unfavourably affecting the unstable equilibrium of national crowds. thereby
intensifying their mutual latent hostility. a a previouslyweakor insignificant. the danger its neighbours for is
necessarilygreat. becomes impregnated with somenew and efficientcrowd-forming ideal and begins to growwith rapidity. Thereupon arises a fever of diplomatic
activity the purposeof which is the readjustmentof the
equilibrium by co-ordination of exterior forces to meet
and resist the increased pressuresurroundingthe growing body. self-consciousness
and consequently size and power.
is silenced and only those can be
heard who trumpet for one or another of the competing A waningnation is likewise a great danger the peace to
of the world. till at length it is no longer able to be maintained and war breaks out. upsetsthe internal in domesticbalanceof forces and threatensto derange the
social equilibrium of some modern states. a consideration
which we cannotherepursue. A waxing crowdof necessity presses its rivals. becomes increasingly pronounced.When crowd. This is not only true of nations. Thereupon crowd-emotions explode. the
voice of the individual
crowds. every in
affected national crowd. The
growth of Labour. of its latent hostility to the crowd or crowds. whose expanding force threatens its integrity.War:
or rivalrywith such neighbour. To return
to our simile of the gas-bags:if one of them shrinks
. and for a corresponding reason. and that pressurecannot fail on to raisethe internal temperatureof thoseaffected. in organisation.
in Peace and War
others must expand.that is to say national
crowdsnot united by alliance under any kind of overcrowd. and
similar dangers arise. and that kind of force cannot be
providedexcept by an overcrowd. When it fails to do so
the result is what we call Revolution
some new crowd.
."The common emotion whereby the existence of an overcrowd induces peace between subordinate crowds. and all those that are pressing
upon shrinkcr tendto growandfill theforming the will gap. "war is
"the only form of law-suit by which the claims of inde-
pendent Statescan be asserted.is the existence of
independent national crowds. so that its ideals came to possess labourthe ing classwith a force much stronger than that with which they were possessed by the patriotic national sense. therefore.
The ultima ratio of war. It is
their independence an overcrowd of whichdeprives their necessary mutual hostilitiesof a sufficientlypowerful
counterbalancing emotion. If they choose to attack one another there is no power capable of prevent-
ing them. So long as they exist wars must occur. as every reader can picture for
occurs oftenest in consequenceof the rapid growth of
Labour were to
grow very much more rapidly and strongly than it has grown of late. The competition expansion engendered in thus
produces conditions similarto thosejust described.
Even an overcrowd is not always strong enough to keep its subordinate crowds at peace. does not exist in independent crowds. It is ultimately onlyforcethat preserves peace
between similar crowds. In other words. or enforces it upon them. Thus if the
or Civil War.
then become inevitable and one crowd would have to
overcome the other as the result of combat. that spreads. When a party clamours for revolution
it desires to substitute for the ideal and the leaders of
the existing nation its own ideal and its own leaders who incorporate and express it. containing at least some fine elements. in this case.War:
Labour would no longer be a crowd subordinate to the nation but one in competition with it. physical or
moral.that attracts and
. The changethey advocate would in any casebe to their personal advantage. even if it be a labour-crowd calling for higher wages and better conditions of life. cannot be similarly indicted.
It may be objected that. sufficient allowance has not been made for the controlling influence and the ambition of leaders. Certainly all agitators for change. are to be regarded as suspect. who desire to alter the ideal of a nation by the
substitution for it of their own. but it is the fine part that is vital. They may be mistaken ideals. they may be imperfect and mixed with evil elements. It is only ideals. It may easily be assumed. that hotly inspire mankind.it will not be a crowd of much volume or force. who are or aspire to be leaders.as in that of the opposition of national crowds. are liable to be more
actuated by personal ambition to occupy high place than for the triumph and power of the ideal it is their business to express. But the crowd at whose head they stand. Unless the ideals of a crowd are quickened. their results may be disastrous. or both. that the leaders of parties out of power. unless its aspirations and sympathies are raised above the level of mere self-seeking. perhaps too easily.
he would not have become the portent of an age. by any existing force. It was because the crowd-forces of the world were shaping themselves
toward this inevitable contest that those who were nearest
the heart of them. Those leaders. If peace is to be imposed upon them. wrought to the condition to which the Revolution had brought it. probably
passionatelyinspired. No force will be strong enough to accomplish this constraint except a new overmastering ideal. William II could not have launched the present war if the German crowd had not been slowly fashioned to desire it. it can only be by the creation of a new force. when they cannot be restrained from falling upon one another. broadly speaking. resi274
. with whatever is fine and vital in
the faith by which their crowd is quickened. If Napoleon had not had the French crowd ready to his hand.are in the main inspired. were led to make the long and careful war-preparations for which they have been blamed by the shortsighted leaders of other nations. and therefore most conscious of their
nature. partly in consequenceof its own sudden growth. war would not spontaneously arise. and partly by the spread of the ideals which took form simultaneously and to a large degreebecauseof that growth.The
is effective. come to
the top who. even if ambitious and infected with the
leaven of self-seeking. or crowds striving for independence. however ambitious. filled with independent similar crowds. and could not be brought about by individuals.
Were it not for the existence of independent crowds. There come times in the history of a world. and who
honestly believe themselves especiallyadapted to give
effect to it.
The national crowd has got well rid of the emotion that lingers on in them. cheerfully and a propos of nothing give vent to the exclamation. Our own relation to France and Russia proves the power of overcrowdship to generate goodwill and dissipate the instinctive hostility of peoples. now admired as a people of heroic
nature. public opinion has changed in relation to Servia.War:
dent in an overcrowd of larger dimensions than any that
has existed in the world up to now. I remember to have been inordinately impressed. A similar change has taken place in the attitude of the English crowd toward Russia. crowds previously independent have formed an overcrowd. "Damn all Frenchmen. which called the Anglo-French overcrowd into existence. The Pax Romana was created by the Imperial overcrowd. Thus it is . but they do not count. when a lad. of rather beneficent and kindly nature. by conquest or alliance. The
alliance has created an overcrowd. A
few hard-shell Nonconformists or doctrinaire socialists
may retain the passion they absorbed in anti-Russian days from the foolish Crimean War down. not merely by the fortune of war and the agreements of diplomatists but
. say I!" It would be hard indeed
to find a Briton animated by that emotion since the con-
clusion of the Entente. So too. by hearing an old gentleman.also with our other allies.to form in the stormy ocean of human history. peacehas resulted between the component parts. they are now only individuals with peculiar personal views and with no crowd-following of any importance.
Where. and other great overcrowds at different times have causedlarge areas of peace . since the war.
brought about the triumph of a higher feeling . even amid the worst sufferings. Leon Bourgeois a speech by in made on 1 May. putting an end to internal friction.
the man of to-
morrow will be able freely to develop himself in the "complete liberty of his opinions and beliefs. beneath a sky "no longer threatened by storm.the solidarity necessaryto all true spirits and generous hearts. and becoming the mirror of every soul. and. in the assured " respectof his rights and in the fulfilment of all his duties.The
by the inspiration of a commonand powerful emotion
shared by all alike. in a Europe in which "peace has been re-established. He continued: "This "which common it became soul must survive of itself. and this is the only force
"Some time before the outbreak of this awful war.
war wiU not arise between them. Let "us know how to express our will.and thus briefly reported in a Reuter
dispatch. "To-day. The masterful effect of overcrowdship in creating a common ideal throughout two previously hostile crowds
waswell expressed M. 1915. The common soul was emerging little by little. the terrible It must crisis in continue conscious
"to animate humanity with its all-powerful breath. and by that we mean a "real peace resulting from the final victory of the forces
over those of barbarism." which. do you not
"think that we have come nearer to that land?"
So long as a common crowd-compelling emotion binds
into one any numberof otherwise independent crowds. it
"seemed as if the Promised Land was very far from us. He said that there was arising in each of the allied states what he called "an interior alliance.
Armageddon will be the
last battle between the last two overcrowds into which
the world will some day consolidate. After it there will be
peace on earth so long as the overcrowd endures.so long as that union of crowds lasted. it will be a battle
between Christ and Antichrist. either by conquest or by federation. Conquest followed by absorption is the old-world method. The normal processby which international overcrowds are formed is the processof agglomeration. The Triple Entente is an example of alliance for defence against a waxing crowd.in a future perhaps not so distant as might be thought. When it has been fought the ideal of the victors will be called "good/' that of the vanquished "evil. This is by the formation of an international
. Bethmann-Hollweg openly confessed. the addition of crowd to crowd. war would cease. or by voluntary alliance. Conquest followed by compulsory alliance is the method tried not without some successby Germany in the case of Austria. large enough to impose it upon all the rest. and that battle is
still doubtlessfar away in the depths of the future. usually for purposes of defence against some other threatening crowd or overcrowd. Germany also tried to force England into her alliance. If the whole world were to be thus united into a single overcrowd.War:
by which war can be banished. as Dr." or in the language of the first prophet that foretold it. But there are signs of another possible method of overcrowd formation which may "threaten the independenceof nations" . and that would be so long and so long only as a single ideal animated in common a number of previously independent crowds. if necessary by overwhelming force.that dire disease.
and that notwithstanding that it has been preached and
propagated enthusiastic by generations excellent of men. is not a creative but a consequentialideal. It has been
attemptedfor nearlytwo thousand yearsto form a world
overcrowd around an ideal of righteousness. its aim being to grow so strong.The
crowd which shall honeycomb all the nations and wholly include none of them. Righteousnessin fact.
sacrificingtheir lives in the endeavourto extend it throughout the world. but as no suchobject of common hostility is as yet apparent. and will not feel it till humanity has beenwelded into an overcrowd by some more potent force. as an ideal to be attained.
and so too righteousness arisesin an organisedand healthy
society but does not.cause the
formation of such a society on any world-embracing scale.
with an independent of its own. The great massof mankind doesnot feel it. If
humanity the whole race of man could be threatened
by the inhabitants of some other planet about to invade the Earth.humanity is not
. That enthusiasm also would appear to be consequential rather than creative. Righteousness exalt a nation but has may
never formed one.as ultimately to domlife inate all independentnational crowds and overcrowds
and substitute itself for and over them all. Similarly the possessionof a common humanity has not amounted to very much as an international crowd-compelling force. The attempt
has failed. like peace. humanity would group itself into a single
organised crowdfast enough. having a commonindependent exteriorcrowdto hate and fear. The "enthusiasm of "humanity" has ever been but the pdssion of the elect. Internal peace
follows but does not cause the formation of an overcrowd.
" says ProfessorKarl Pearson. then all we can say is that a nation
1 "National Life." p. that he loves "the Kafir as he loves his brother. nor one square centimetre of skin. The political supe"riority of the French Government over the German is "so slight. Hence we do "not know what national honour is. The super-nationalism of the dis-
tant future will not destroy nations but tend to combine them. of indifference to us whether we are French or We have thus decided to answer an order of
"mobilisation by a general strike of reservists at first. 50. that it is
"a matter "German. If he is not.
and have in no
"degree a love for the Mother Country. "The man. Some wild persons have thought that to obliterate patriotism would causethe emotion of our common human-
ity to take its place." Such purely negative anti-nationalism is of course the
merest moonshine. that he has no patriotic sentiment. cherishing the individuality of each. on account of the similitude of the economic "and social organisation of the two countries. that he has no senseof kin-
now affected by any common emotion powerful enough
to weld it into a crowd able to absorb nations and subor-
dinate their several patriotisms. and not weakening patriotism but rather strengthening and enforcing it.
.1 "who tells us
"that he feels to all men alike. As for the defenceof "our Mother Country we will give neither one drop of "blood. Suchan one is M. is probably deceiving "himself. GustaveHerve
who said: -
"We are Anti-Patriot
Internationalists. "and then finally by insurrection.
it can"not survive in the struggle of the nations. could alone follow.in"deed one of the highest forms of social. I doubt if we have anything like enough
"of it.it may evenbe nationally "dangerous. When social Christianity began to take shape in the early Christian centuries it formed what at
first was a subordinate crowd rendering to Caesar the
. The national spirit is not a thing to
"be ashamed of. So far from our having too much of this spirit "of patriotism. or an ignorantassertion superiorityto the of "foreigner. or even a nation with a large minority of "such men. but a movement which proposesto sap the individual vitality of nations is to be regarded with suspicion. as the educated man seems occasionally
"to hold. will not stand for many generations. moral "instinct. of making its social and economic conditions
"such that it is able to do its work in the world and meet "its fellows without hesitation in the field and in the
"market. it may be ridiculous. without destroying their individuality."
Any movement which proposesto unite nations into an overcrowd. If that spirit be the mereexcrescence the of "music-hall. that is. it cannot be a "factor in the contest upon which human progress ulti-
"mately depends. being what they were. but only by limiting their independence through the superposition of some higher common ideal. The Mediaeval Church thus threatened what has proved to be the line of development which the people of Europe. is obviously one likely to be beneficial to mankind.The
"of such men. but if the national spirit takes the form of a "strong feeling of the importanceof organisingthe nation
"as a whole. then it seemsto me a wholly good spirit .
destined. like any other religiousbody. The Church overcrowd was strongest in Carlovingian days and even then only moderately efficient. lost the small efficiency as an overcrowd which it had ever possessed. The Kingdom of God can never be of this world. Later. in spite of all kinds of jealousies and conflicting interests. in theory Christendom and the Empire became one . When it waxed strong and becamethe established religion of the Empire. for the ideals of mankind will always transcend mundane
. and the Reformation with its cujus regio ejus religio put an end even to its claim to be such. There is. has beeninternational butnotsupernational. before the Middle Ages were over. nor does any unbiased person expect that it will become supernational again at any future date. It never kept rivals at peace as the common Anglo-American ideals have kept the peace between the British and American Empires for the last hundred years. The Roman Church. when the Empire vanished and independent states arose out of its ruins. to embody all that was best in those that had preceded it. the Church became an overcrowd. like Christianity in the past. but not strong enough to hold the
nations together as against a common foe. the nature and prospects of which cannot yet be defined.War:
things that were Caesar's. at all events not in its present shape.two aspectsof a single crowd. Should that prove to be the fact it will not form a political overcrowd.however. when the integrity of Europe was assailed by Islam. at the present time a newinternational movement taking place. Sometimes it looks as though it were the manifestation of the incipient growth of a new religion. From that time the Roman Church.
on the other hand. one vision
still haunts the eye of faith . Overcrowds will grow larger and
. in that case it will assuredly go under. Should that prove to be the case one of two things must happen. and will content itself with inspiring
local developments in harmony with some fine human
ideal that all men can grasp. thus continually extending the area of peace and replacing the arbitrament of force by the restraints and decisions of law. for the moment described as social-
istic. it is that no ideal can possibly now succeedin forming a powerful supernational overcrowd which does not make the insurance of the integrity of nations the very stem of its
structure. Either it will accept the principle of nationality. Or. Sometimes seems though it as
the modern movement. for the ideal of nationalism has demonstrated its strength in our own day beyond anything that could have been expected by our forefathers two or three generations back. through much tribulation and by slow accretion.
Whatever the immediate future has in store. it may set itself against
the principle of nationality and the mighty forcesof patriotism. and of a consequentreign of peace on earth and goodwill amongst men. If anything can be confidently asserted about the stage of the world's history upon which we are now entering. As in the past.thus fostering the co-operation of nations and the formation of a powerful overcrowd. so surely the crystallising processmust continue. as did the liberalism
of the last century.The
and temporal limitations. human units have been built together into ever larger and yet more large integral bodies.a vision of the ultimate unity of mankind. would be purely political.
and the nations will not rule or serve one another but will
live in peace. the result would have been as mischievous
to both halves as was the division of the English-speaking race accomplished by the American Revolution. One point more before we quit this branch of our sub-
ject. it follows that nothing is more disastrous. one of the North. If the greateststeptowardspeaceis accomplished
when two crowds becomewillingly and contentedly united by somecommon ideal into a single overcrowd. nothing more retrograde. and someday. Thus to give Home
Rule to Ireland or to South Africa within the limits of the
Imperial Great British overcrowd may be not a weakening
but a re-enforcement of the strength of the whole. Each fraction desires entire independence. than the sundering of one crowd or nation into two. The Scandinavianrace occupiesits relatively insignificant position in the world because of its incapacity to form an overcrowd. each under its own flag and all under the banner of a common and realised humanity.
one of another. far. So
longasthe overcrowd maintainedthe kind of sundering is
to which I refer does not take place. far off it may well be. the needful unification of the structure of mankind will be effected. Few
foreigners will deny that if the various nationalities composing the Austrian Empire had been given local independencethe Empire would have been strengthened. the other
of the South. and even little Iceland manifests the same
disease. Was it the Scandinavianelement in our composition that took the lead when we parted company from the United States? or was it merely lack of statesmanship on
the other hand if the United States had been divided into
two independent federations.War:
and to postpone (who knows for how many future centuries?) that union of many peoples under a common ideal upon which
peace on earth ultimately depends. which unites even its
utterly independent sections more closely than they are united even with their acknowledged allies. Who can tell what might have been? The future only is ours to fashion. however." It is as true of crowdsas of individuals. the English-speaking race is not without
some common cement of idealism. but that all may flourish together. the result has been to
weaken the power of our race In the world.The
both sides? Whatever
the reason. even
as things are. is "the slayer of delights and the sun-
"derer of companies. not in order that superior races and nations may rule others.
. under the imposed condition of universal peace. Had it been possible to maintain the unity of the Roman Empire. To discuss the mighthave-beensof history is. futile. Fortunately. Death. without hindering the development of nations within it. each in its own fashion. civilisation might now be a thousand years more advanced than it is. said the Arabian poet. Let us labour to establish in it as soon as may be an overmastering ideal of our common humanity.
qua crowd. Destruction. but the remarkable
fact is that it ceases to animate the victorious crowd as
soon as its final and complete victory is secured. that is to say the disruption of its organisation. not an end. they become open enemiesand the avowed object of each is to destroy the other. Once utterly defeated there was
no desire to destroy the individuals of whom the defeated
force was composed. Instead of being rivals and competitors jealous of and more or lessdistasteful to one another. The meaning of the word "destroy" used in this connection must be examined.but in someway to usethem. therefore. They were perhaps carried away captive or they were annexed. the ruin of its structure. No one will deny that the passion of destruction animates fighting crowds.CHAPTER THE CONTEST
XVII OF IDEALS
WHEN for and breaks war deathout life betwe
two crowds their internal condition undergoes an immediate decisive change. Even in
ancient times a victorious army did not usually slaughter the defeated. is a means. and the overthrow of its ideal.
A crowd is strong or weak according to the nature of its organisation. The superiority of one crowd over another
. Hence the destruction which a fighting crowd aims at is not that of the individuals composing the enemy crowd. but of the crowd itself.
resistanceshattered. The useof the slaughter. More "or lessall these things are needed. which (because the mystery of its origin) of "the churchmen were willing to ascribe to angels coming "down from on high/'
A defeated army or nation is one which has descended
to a lower level of crowd-organisation than that of the victor. In that way
"a commandof the meansnecessaryfor inflicting death
"and wounds is one element of victory. themselves "remaining unhurt. A mob is inferior in fighting power to a much smaller
body organised a regiment."the merekilling and wounding. its writes Kinglake. but the truly govern"ing power is that ascendancyof the stronger over the "weaker heart.The
as a fightingforce lies in its betterorganisation. The defeated may remain more numerous and each individual of them as strong. completer its unity. Thus. its higher discipline. are nevertheless disturbed by the "sight of what is befallingtheir comrades.which "occurs whilst a fight is still hangingin doubt. as a duel between men
is not a fight between cellsof whichthey arebuilt but the
. nor yet by contempt of life. Its struc-
ture is then destroyed. The combat is not
between units but between crowds. doesnot
"so alter the relative numbers of the combatants as in
"that way to govern result. lies mainly in the stress "which it puts upon the mindsof thosewho. and able as the victorious units: all that is nothing. that men can "assure to themselvesthe mastery over their foes. its greater
size. Hence the purposeof as
battle is to turn the defeatedarmy into a mob. keener its spirit. nor is it by perfectness of "discipline. healthy. But it is far
"from being the chief one. the "which takesplaceat that time.
the destructionof a crowd kill its units. Two similar independent crowds in contact will be hostile to one another even if that hostility is the only ideal of which they
are conscious. They fought at first for no principle. But the parties thus formed exist to-day. and even more between the souls resident within them. but did not create them. Thus. 358.and that in fact it is issuesthat beget ideals as often as ideals beget issues. merely calling themselves Whites or Reds for purposes of convenience.
Before war can arise there must exist two opposing
Whites clericals. no soonerhad Uruguay finally obtained its independencefrom Spain than the followers of the two leading local generals fell upon one another and divided the newly-born nation into two factions.The
between the two organic bodies. Yet it may be argued that this is only an appearance. This is evident in the case of mobs.
if they do not coalesceand are not prevented. the Reds the party of the towns. always fall to fighting. and issuesin politics or war appear to arise out of a contest of ideals. That suffices.1
It is an excel-
1 Lord Bryce's "South America. It is not necessary that there should be a definite issue for them to fight about. The purposeof
war is to overthrow not the fighting units but the crowd
. the Reds anti-clericals. The Whites became
the country party. which. It has also been claimed that any causemay be justified by a good war. The death of an individual
does not immediately kill the cells of his tissue. As a rule modern nations seem to fight for someprinciple. It has been said that any war is justified by a good cause. Opposing ideals caught
indeed.the fact remains that it is usually difficult.The
lent example the fundamental tendencyof crowdsto of fight. The ideals
that are tried in the furnace of war are not the cause of it. That notion passed away. or at least formulated. Young Germany. we are not fighting Germany for righteousness' sake. but becauseGermany has been a strongly growing crowd which upset the equilibrium of Europe and aimed at the hegemony of the world. yet the war is not causedby those ideals but by the mere existence of the independent rival crowds. in spite of all we read and hear. When two such crowds fall to fighting their different ideals are opposedto one another. It is in the instinctive and growing opposition of independent rival crowds that the explosive substance consists which any spark may kindle.
though they may contribute to the victory of one crowd and the overthrow of the other. to However much we may wish to believe that great modernnations if they fight will fight for something some ideal that they hold to be infinitely precious . to define such a cause of contention. England once passedthrough a somewhat similar stage when a vague notion seemed be in the air that the to future of the British Empire might be an almost unlimited growth. of necessity generatesa national ideal and is reacted upon by it. with the consciousness of
afterwards. A national crowd. Thus at the present time.
but would rather seethe Empire take its placeas a member of the vaster whole which the evolution of civilisation
is preparing. Wars happen first
and the ideals are discovered. and to find out something fight about afterwards. so that now the British Imperial public desiresno suchfuture domination. often impossible.
What it does include.
The fundamental ideal of modern Germany is an ideal of national discipline under the guidance of science. however. admire.
Hence the great war. Once begun. The growth of this ideal has been accompaniedby a corresponding development of crowd-conceit. The "Kul"tur" they talk of means that and nothing more. This discipline has been accomplished in the
." For war-purposes there was small temptation to put forward abstract ideals. and formulating divergent ideals which became as it were the flags of the opposing
whole German movement has been concrete from the
beginning: the aim of all its discipline and sciencebeing mere material wealth and physical dominion. war itself reacted upon both contending groups. came to hope and then to strive for the universal
dominion which the rest of the world will not suffer.The
its own strength and the ignorance of inexperience in all that concernsthe administration of a world-empire. and imitate. as do all growing crowds. feeling the growth within it and reaching forth. We are "peerless. consolidating their overcrowdship. So too are our organisations and institutions. "Kultur" does not pretend to include the German idealism of the past. that is fine and precious is the magnificent national discipline which the foes of Germany should be the first to recognise." This is the language of crowd-exponents. but this degenerated in the popular mind to a mere passion for "Germany over all. diminishing internal rivalries. which finds expression
in such "will statements as the Kaiser's: or Professor "There Lassen's: is but "We one are and that is mine!"
"morally and intellectually superior to all men.
produced religious and political liberty as their ultimate outcome and ended with the Napoleonicupheaval. and hasbeenaccompanied of by
the development of a strength so eminent as to have
engendered the commonherd a crowd-idealof mere in
and especiallyof growing crowds. The Allies sometimes describe themselves as fighting for freedom. The fight produced
the ideals. but the fact is that they are fighting to save the structure of their own society from supercession by the new disciplined and socialistically subordinated structure which Germany has elaborated and would impose upon the world if she could conquer it. incidentally makes them the enemiesof all the human race. What then is the other kind of social structure which is in competition with the German? What is in very truth the ideal of the Allies which this war must make manifest and will either establish or destroy? For that is what wars accomplish. not the ideals the fight.
and shouldunite in oppositionto them as much force as
is needful to overcome it. They set up and then test opposing ideals and the one that survives wins an epoch in
which to realize itself.The
process Germangrowth. sometimes for law.the innate hostility of crowds.
Thus the German popular ideal induces in her opponents a higher ideal that negatesit.
. For that ideal no name is required and none has yet been found. Thus the wars which resulted
from the displacement of power wrought by the Renaissance and the consequent discovery of new worlds. The causeof them was. sometimes for righteousness. as always. Those ideals were not their cause but their consequence. which for the moment carries them away.
the Allies will not conquer. German industry. the war would have had
a different termination.The
We hear much talk nowadays of the dangersof German militarism and how it must be destroyed. It is the fire of faith that ultimately wins in a
world contest. Then it is that the opposing
ideals are tested in the fire of national tribulation and self-
sacrifice. All are parts of a single structure. but because France had nothing particular to fight for and Germany had much. It is only when their strength begins to be exhaustedthat they fight on for the sake of the ideal that the war has generated or manifested. The first principle for which
. every German activity has been organisedon the same principles as German military power. but German militarism is a mere detail of the general and efficient structure and discipline of the German crowd. Had France been united in a disciplined enthusiasmequal to that of Germany.
What then actually is our ideal? Germany's is a Centralised Discipline. an expression of a single crowd-compelling force. In point of strength the two powers were fairly well matched. At the beginning of a war nations will fight out of sheerpugnacity. for our ideal is only now taking shape in the melting pot of war. and more than once the German position was perilous in the extreme. German commerce. Germany did not win in the Franco-
German war merely because she was the stronger. though no one realised it. what have we to opposeto it? The answeris not easy. What is the opposite ideal which the Allies are fighting for and which the war is enabling them to realise? Unless that ideal proves to be as inspiring to them as the ideal of disciplined might is to the Germans.
then to the other colonies which have grown one by one into nations. to produce whatever flower of civilisation
arises freedevelopment by from the particular plant. We
have laughedat the absurditiesof the Captain of Koepenick and shuddered with disgust at such incidents as the cutting down of the lame cobbler of Zabern by Lieutenant von Foerstner. then to South Africa. We
oppose the rigid uniformity of Prussian to discipline. We have seen it applied with successto Canada first. by long experienceand now by the contrariety of war.part alsoof the commonidealshared by
. to flourishin its own soil after
its own fashion. which
would drill the world. the variety and variability of all the
national crowds. We have watched the failure of attempts to
Prussianise Poles and Alsatians. large or
small. We have observed that
Prussiandom has learnt nothing from those failures. We oppose to a general Prussianisation the ideal of national variety.The
we stand is for the variability of the human crowd. Thus.the right to be itself. We claim for each nationality. We know that thus Prussia would control over behave to the rest of the world if she obtained
it. We therefore stand for the opposite of that kind of uniform discipline. national freedom from internal control by any external crowd. and last of all in prospect to Ireland and
tentatively to India. We have also observed how failure
to apply this principle has been the ruin of the Turkish Empire and how it has sapped the life of Austria. We
have seenthe various states of Germany suffer from Prussianisation. a
faith in the integrity of nationalitieshas become part of our imperialideal. We in England have found the imperial value of national freedom within the limits of the imperial overcrowd.
she would organise it by force. She would form a world-empire by force. they are endeavouring to overthrow that ideal and substitute the opposite.if Germany defeated. The ideal of the Allies can but be the opposite of that. being the natural line of human crowd development. is will see morepartitions Poland. nationswill neveragainbesubjected the
to any the like peril. Whether they know it or not. but if the Allies are
finally victorious. is notlikely to no of and
behold seriousattempts to Russify the Finns or to French-
ify orAnglicise nationwhatosever.Thefuture. This consideration brings us nearer to the heart of our ideal. can be prevented only by dire com-
pulsion. voluntary imperial organisation towards which we are unconsciously aiming? Great Britain has discovered that the strength of the Empire depends upon the willingness of all its parts to belong together. the of persistent attempts
would be made to Teutonise us all. It follows that he who would encourage the
diversity of nations must necessarily be opposed to the compulsion of crowds by the imposed force of an overcrowd. she would direct it by a single will to a single end. National diversity. The German imperial ideal is the very opposite of that. Is it not really overcrowd compulsion that we are combating? Is it not.The
all thealliedpowers. and whichever wins will become the type of world-organisation in the epoch that is opening. therefore. Germany any If were to become overcrowd Europe.
. One great factor in the ideal of the Allies may therefore be named the ideal of National Diversity. It is voluntary as contrasted with compulsory overcrowdship that are at grips.
that is to say
of enforced disciplineand uniformity. would find new uses for it. But now it seems though as
side by side with it a process. no nation would be overcrowd to any other.
Progressin this direction
is likely to be continued. Mankind. Not "Germany
"over all. Let it once become established as the
root-principle of human organisation and it must of necessity penetrate deeply into the heart of social human life. has been growing in
civilisation as the human overcrowds have increased in
size and decreasedin number. It is crowd-libertythat claimsextension:not indeedthe liberty of crowdsto sunderthemselves from overcrowds. pervades whole the Teutonicbody politic.The
in Peace and War
But just asthe Prussian idealof force.not necessarily individual freedom. not one above another. during the last ten thousand years at least." but "Germany alongside of all" would have
to be the limit
for ever. The new age would develop it. new expressionsof it.if the opposite ideal wins. and the outcome would become what no one can foretell.not of division but of sub£94.
of German ambition
This ideal of internal crowd independencecannot end
with nations. but all nations would be elements
of supernational overcrowds which they would belong to side by side." in other words "Germany the world's overcrowd1*! If our ideal were to prevail.
which has always to fight for itself within eachcrowd. See how opposed this
crowd-libertyis to the Germanideal of "Germany over
. but their liberty to developinternally without the direction or control of any overcrowd. observe. must
liberty pervade agethat victory for it will usherin: the Liberty.
It may linger on
. They have put their theory to the test of experiment.and for no other end than their national aggrandisement.
of written documents. They are trying their ideal in the fire.may be set up. they are a
condition of the heart of a crowd. The infinite variability of individuals may thus be provided with a
larger opportunity of manifestationand expression than in an ageof uniformity. and local differences. may tend to increasein number. A defeated crowd
may have to suffer the loss of territory or of wealth. wherebywithin eachovercrowd. inter-
nally independent. and ratified treaties. The dull and pitiable of uniformity. such as the Germanizing the of
world would bring about. Now they have made war after long preparation.The
division. In case of defeat their theory will be overthrown. What does matter is that the crowd's ideal has been weighed in the balance of the inquest of the world and found wanting. it may have to promise this or that. War according to the Prussiansis a legitimate political agency. at a moment of their own choosing.
fostered and protected by it. may then give way to a rich variety. which modern civilization tends to impose. They never asked themselves what would be the effect of defeat. to be prepared for and brought into being for the sake of the profitable material results of victory. national. All such results and expressions of defeat are of minor importance.
Thus the diversity of the past which led to wars may be
replacedby a new and morepreciousdiversity developed locally under the aegis peace. subordinate crowds.
Victory and defeat are not matters of terms of peace. the expression
of racial. their ideal destroyed.
If. we all know. What is important is the change nationalcharacter of that war may produce. What the new France will grow
into none can say. War
changes conqueror conquered.The Crowd
in Peace and War
in the mindsof a few backwardindividuals for a generation or two. relatively unimportant in are the long vista of the life of nations. castinto a new mould. Let us pray that the sealof all that is noblestin the ideal developed in the warmaybe set uponthem and that its drossmay
be refined away in the furnace of our present affliction. Suchis the effectof a war if fought in
out to a finish. Terms of peace indeed. but they will be powerless inspire a nato tional crowdwith it solongasthe humanepochnow being ushered endures. from which frightful misfortune may the Lord deliver us by victory in the present contest! Such a changeof national character affects nations differently. There is no need to expressthese
resultsin termsof peace. It brought home from the fields of France an overweeningimperial pride.
From the Franco-German war France and Germany
emerged new peoples. The new Germany. but it does affect them all.the Allies should prove ultimately victorious in the present struggle. but its crowd-character is evidently different from that of the France of the past. the Germany of the Empire. and we do not wholly admire it.
No nation can emerge from war as it went in. they will come
forth from the fire. as we proudly hope. unless
they involve annexations. teststheideals both and It
of both. They belongthenceforward to
the structure of nations. strengthening that of the victor and destroying
that of the defeated. That result alone justifies war and sanctifies the sac296
rifices that it calls for. a rich and precious contribution to
the happinessof all the generations that come after
and shape the fair and healthy structure of a nobler humanity. making the death of each who falls on the field.
victory. peacedifferentiates. A crowd that can thus perfectly organise itself is the strongestthat can be fashioned out of a given group of people.A crowdat
war should have but one purpose. To that end. for example. therefore. Only thus can the intellectual side of man develop and mani-
.CHAPTER THE CROWD
XVIII AT WAR
CROWDSdegree perpossess self-con every of by the English-speaking to the strong race. felt. This is what happensto a nation of at war.
from the vaguesense unity. sity integrates into as compactan organism it is as
capable becoming. No room is left for variety of opinion or
freedom of individual choice. War integrates. it needsto be as completely organised as a hive of bees. The common end must
be pursued in common and every individual must lose his freedom and take his allotted place in the organic whole. In proportion as a crowd lacks this capacity for being organisedit lacks military might. not alone for the life and death of its units. so that individual freedom has and should have considerable play. of
ception integralsocial in a regiment. but for the con-
tinuedseparate existence its corporate it of necesof self. Sosoonas of life
a crowd realises that it is fighting against another. In time of peace the constraining or crystallising force within a national crowd is relatively weaker.
. or they cannot expect to be victorious. If his country is to attain its fullest strength.whose individualism is so strong that they will not
submit themselves to such restraint. Now. some can do better work at home than at the front.
times the crowd is indeed the enemy of the individual. must either be com-
pelled to submit to it. all must be co-ordinated together. If in one country individual liberty is entirely done away with. in the interests of the crowd's collective power. This does not necessarily mean that all citizens must fight. complete of the co-ordination of all has been rendered possible. Some are weaklings. and their interests are divergent. by aid of de-
veloped means communication. these and a good many others are better suited for the various kinds of work that need to be done outside the fighting line. its opponents must submit to a like suspensionof freedom. its enemy must submit to a like discipline. But all must be ready to perform the function indicated for them by the hierarchies of authority that war should
install. but modern
conditions have altered all that.
In former days it was impossible to co-ordinate for war
purposes morethan a smallpart of a nation. But in time of war there
is no place in a fighting country for an unco-ordinated
individual. or should sacrifice their citizenship. and those countries which have devoted themselves scientifically to preparation for war have learnt how to mobilise all the forces of
a nation to the purpose of fighting. some are cowards. If one combatant is thus organised. and individual freedom
must be in abeyance.The
In such normal
fest itself in the creation of fine works.
Not only were we equipped with only a trifling military force. on the other hand.The
Of the powers now at war.to many. all we could do as a nation was to put our political
. Wars we have had. has learnt many an important secret of domestic organisation. We have broken up at home into parties. Germany. It follows that whereason the call to arms Germany rose as one man to the summons and each individual fitted immediately into the place prepared for him. and our insular position adds to the detachment with which ordinary English people have been able to regard war throughout the whole of what we may call the modern epoch. The long peace we have enjoyed at home has produced in the national crowd its normal disintegrating effect. but the Government of the country had for years possessed so little foresight that the very machinery for manufacturing arms and equipment for a large force did not exist and had not even been planned for. The people of Great Britain.but of supreme value to the nation in time of war. but
the nation has never within the memory of man been called upon to organise its whole strength for a war. when war struck us. highly deleterious to the individual in times of peace. having passed through the discipline of several preceding wars within the memory of living men. more interesting than the nation itself. Hence war finds us internally unprepared. whilst of late years the socialist-labour party in particular has been far more interested in its own prosperity. have no remembered experience of a
national war for life and death. which have become. and political power than in the prosperity of the nation at large. organisation. in England.
A few politicians making a few well-advertised speecheswill
accomplishlittle. but that takes time. possessing everyindividual in the country so completely that he willingly loseshis individuality in the collective whole. and offers himself for any and every service. that can be done quickly if enough leaders can be found. but must be artfully kindled by immense and unceasing organised work. So far so good. but merely
removed someimpediments out of the way of organisationThere are only two ways whereby a crowd can be
wrought into a concentrated organicunity: a passion of
collective emotion shared by every unit. able to work together and possessed the needful of organising capacity. which only a department of government can nationally supply and direct. every group of workmen must be vigorously ha301
. which organised nothing. The nondemocratic procedure is to impose a military organisation on all. however. or an imposed
organisation as elaborate as that of a regiment. At any rate it creates conditions under which to organise is easy. will not kindle itself.but that was only a short step.such a crowd-compelling passion will go very far toward producing the needful organisation. or hours of labour. The
democratic way of going to work is to try and create such a collective emotion. Such a passion. every street in every town. A universal passion of self-sacri-
ficing patriotism. whilst it raises the power and efficiency of each individual to the highest degree.The
oppositionsaside and hope that the Governmentwould
be able to organise the country. Every village. if it was not hampered
by a criticising opposition. or any limitation whatever except his own utmost strength . without question of wage.
or to office work. the only alternative. or
to transportation. Every man's life and powersbelong to the country as a whole. Now no regimentcan be democraticallygoverned. this and to
processof agitation is compulsoryuniversal organisation from above. He must take
. the whole if
nationalcrowd is to be wrought up to the requiredwhite
heat. the transformation must be imposed
upon it with the concurrence that part of the populaof tion which is actively patriotic.The Crowd
in Peace and War
rangued. afterdayand week day afterweek. Orders from above. If it will not accomplish this transformationby
its own enthusiasm. Each must do
what he is orderedto do.these are necessary in every army and they must be submitted to by every individual citizen of a nation
at war. The organisation of the army in the United States is as undemocratic as it is in Germany. or to the medical serv302
It follows that the first step to be taken for national war organisation is the suspension of every democratic principle and expedient in government and administration for so long as the war lasts. he must employ that skill as ordered. There does not exist a
democracyin the world that admits democratic principles to operatewithin its army. If he possesses that canbe moreprofitskill
ably turned to the production of munitions of war. unquestioning obediencefrom below . The alternative. If he is best suitedto fight he mustfight. Short of such a domestic campaign the condition
of thepeople continue will lukewarm the nationwill and
remain weakand disorganised will not deservevicand
tory. By some meansor other a modern nation at war must be organised elaboratelyas a regias ment.
In a life and death struggle there is no other alternative. The fighting crowd. If he will not thus act voluntarily he must thus act under compulsion.will assuredly to win. An attempt to run democracy homeand at
war abroad would be doomed to failure. There is probably no better or quicker way to make the whole mass of a nation understand that it is veritably at war than by bringing it at once and completely under military discipline. So to act will be infinitely more effectual towards kindling the national spirit than any number of public meetings addressed by the most eloquent orators. it will submit to a kind of dictation which its
units would not willingly suffer in days of peace. A war-government that descendsto negotiating with either capital or labour is one unsuited to command a fighting nation. He must for abandonevery relaxation or indulgence not essential to
his fitness for labour. and subject to the
samepenalty as awaits a deserter the field. An aggressive minority can always
. Moreover nothing is more certain than that as soon as a crowd realisesthat it is fighting for life
and death. the individual nothing but
without questionthe pay given to him. other things beingequal. If the Govern-
ment has not the pluck to do its duty (convinced that there does exist in the country enough patriotism to give it the requisite compelling force) it is a traitor government. He must work asmany hoursas it is possible him to work. which most closely approximates this ideal. The crowd must be all in all. Observe how trade unions can dominate and dictate to
their membersso long as they are actively engaged in
raised to any required pitch of elevation if they are boldly and wisely led. It is then chiefly.The
drag an indifferent majority into a strike. "it is only in war that a people becomes in "very deed a people. and for some only then. A nation in danger of defeat will destroy a government none the less mercilessly that it has approached defeat through the truckling of that government to the crowd's own
weaknesses. "a man's love of his country is under" stood to represent something more than common benevolence towards the persons living within it.5* Or in the
words of Kinglake. According to von Treitschke.
One thing can be securely asserted of every healthy nation in time of war: the patriotism of its citizens will be. and holding wide sway in the world. or can be. but
"there is a screw loose in the man himself. and if in
victorious will always be forgiven. and upon their fathers in
. the of and "battle." The expression is clumsy but the sensetrue enough. blessed with freedom. The man who then does not love his country is. For if he be
"the citizen of an ancient state. and the strife which have shedglory upon his
"countrymen in his own time. as Lord Morley said.
"renowned in arms. A government can then be as
despoticas it pleases the interest of victory. that love of country becomesan exalted emotion felt by individuals of all classes and ranks. it is much more emphatically true in time of war. "his love of his country means something of attachment
"to the institutions which have made her what she is -
"meanssomething pride in the long-suffering. If that is so
in semi-peaceful oppositions. "not only odious and detestable in the public eye.
The war-crowd reduces to insignificance all the subordinate crowds within the nation. are all of a pronounced type. even though he be "not an invader. still attempts to hack at her power/' War. by
. It was often a sheer sense of duty. has this merit that it may unify a people as nothing else can. which may last long after the return of
peace. It means that he is bent upon the upholding " of her dominion." said one of them. No English subordinate crowd is stronger than one of our old universities.
It means that he feels his coun-
" try's honour to be a main term and element of his own "content. The national overcrowd swallowed up the university subordinate crowd at once. and is so tempered as to become the "sudden enemy of any man who. It exalts their patriotism and inspires individual citizens with unselfish ideals. by whatever name they may be called.
We can behold an excellent example of this in the depletion of the universities at the present war-time. "I look upon the profession of arms. For the war-crowd is altogether different from the peace-crowd. Just as soon as war broke out Oxford and Cambridge were deserted by practically every undergraduate capable of bearing arms. even sometimes unsuccessfulwar. their pride in it. "with unutterable loathing. It was not in many cases the sporting desire to fight that led these youths to enlist. their esprit de corps.The
time before him. It is thereforethe duty of those to whom falls
the direction of a nation during war-time to foster in every way all the forces that make for the growth of the sense of patriotism and to suppress without hesitation those that have a contrary tendency. But. Their consciousness corporate existof ence.
for its exerciseby every one its call without exception. I will not stay here and let the other fellows
"fight for me without taking a hand myself. whether by choice or by compulsion. But you cannot negotiate for patriotism. Where patriotism prevails the result is inevitable. easiest to direct. It is for the nation's leaders to direct and if necessary force it into channels of activity. Complaints will becomeinsignificant if once the nation lays hold upon its own and infuses into all the spirit of patriotism . strikers will work overtime. into the organisedbody. Shirkers will becomeindustrious. and they become as much seizedby the war-spirit as if they had enlisted voluntarily. Organise a nation for war in the presenceof war and a unifying spirit will pervade them in spite of themselves.
." The nation capturedtheseindividuals and swallowed them up
as mere units into itself. You must assume existence. It is potentially everywhere. Almost everybody will catch it if he be once incorporated. and then you will not fail to find it. A man needs no tuition to be captivated by that kind of crowd-emotion.easiest of all infections to catch. Foreign nations compel their youths into their armies. The same would be true with us or with any people. easiest to develop.The
as an individual. The faults of the public its silly sentimentality. is as essential a part of the nature of every individual as is his
individualistic instinct. its lack of restraint. his emotions of the latter.these and countless other imperfections and vices are so evident that the impulse of an intelligent person must often be to contemn and despise
it as a beast of a low order. The mob has so often appeared in glaring conspicuity as a raging wild beast. by which crowds are formed. its noisy clamour about matters often of small moment. Moreover. that man. be contended. Such a conclusion. if we consider what
parts of a man's nature belong to him as an individual and what parts respond to his condition as a social unit.CHAPTER THE VALUE OF
XIX THE CROWD
TTJHILOSOPHICAL political and writers have selintellectual impotence of collective humanity is obvious. its admiration of itself . destroying much that is precious to all noble souls. we are led to conclude that his reasoning powers are a main part of the former. It will.for the single and sufficient reasonthat the social instinct. and justly contended. its yet more annoying indifference to others of vital importance.
jT^ dom much to say had good about crowds. however. its susceptibility to the wiles of demagogues. The
must be erroneous. its fickleness. not only reasonsbut also enjoys or suffers
. of course.
and that such emotions are
clearly of an individualistic sort. refined. We
can read how it took form in Francis himself. The love that welled forth from his heart like a volcano availed. in its
crowd-incarnation. the high strivings.these have been the gifts of the gods to collective hu-
manity.the great faiths.raiseslightlybut permanently to the
from those keen emotions which arise out of the love of one individual for another. by which it was carried all over Western Europe. are fundamentally
social. The Franciscan movement is an obvious ex-
ample. They persistonly because they are shared. the revelation granted to one man. presently generates a crowd-movement whereby it is imposed upon the laggard mass. how it first
entrapped few of thosewith whomhe camepersonally a
into contact. All the great ideals. The fire that burned in Francis became
indeeda feebleglimmer far away at the edgesof his
crowd. then formed and organiseda crowd. who are thus carried
forward. and have found their noblest ex-
pression a socialatmosphere. how has that been accomplishedbut by means of the crowd? The flight of fancy. experienced by all other individuals enhances them through sympathy and
enlarges them by resonance from other hearts in unison. The elevationof the massof mankindfrom the
level of brutes. then*spread to the multitude.
Most human emotions. fortunately fully recorded in its early stages. in wherethe consciousness
that the like emotions are. yet even those have
been elevated. but even there it was a glimmer. caught up from him by his followers as individuals and spread by them to a widening circle. the launchings forth towards imaginedislands of the blest
. or may be.
some at least of the emotion that stirs within us still
proceeds unbrokendescent by from the sensitivelyloving
heart of the great gentleman of Assisi.
As it is with small. that nature
. They are the ultimate reaction of some crowd from the impact of a man upon it. and must come. The
fertilisation of all kinds of cells has received the attention
of a generation of able biologists. the pitiful. and so it is with all reputations. Every revelation comes. If to-day. and especially upon the unfortunate. the crowd is the medium in which the germ of individual emotion is hatched and spread. sublime emotions so likewise is it with many of whom never How does the multitude. individually quite incapable of originating it. as we look with
kindness upon man and beast. to an individual. itself the product of a previous generation. For such a life it needs a public to feed on and root in. Save for cultivation in that medium the emotion would merely flit through a single heart and disappear. will not some one devote a like study to the fertilisation of the germ of an ideal? That likewise proceeds from a kind of marriage. When Francis was born. become consciousof the greatnessof Shakespeare? That recognition has been imposed upon them by crowd-hypnotism. Individuals initiate the recognition. but a reputation is not formed till that recognition has been so imposed upon some crowd as to be shared and accepted by a mass of men. with his richly sympathetic nature. It must be deposited as a fertilised germ in a suitable soil before it can attain a separate and spreading life of its own. the sorrowing.
read a line he wrote.The
general goodwillof mankind. and the bereaved.
And Greek art in its turn. Again when the peoples of the North presseddown on to the ^Egean and met the art traditions and the craftsmen of late Mycensean days. where a vague possibility is turned into a
definite actuality by the union of two previouslyunconnected factors.some
accident of an event beheld. Babylonianart had a like origin when the hill folk of
Elanxmet Ea. and the Barbarian
schools. religion. in contact with
Persia and presently also with the civilisation of Rome.
changedin characterand.The Crowd
in Peace and War
of his resembled an unfertilised egg. All the
great schools art have arisenfrom the meetingof preof viously unassociated styles. afford countless examples of such happenings. or word spoken within his
hearing and thereupon eggwasfertilisedand all the
the future wasthenceforwardpotential within him. with the ancient schoolsof Egypt and Mesopotamia. Thus. philosophy. through the Phoeniciansand others.generated the Byzantine. Where the inland art of Asia Minor came in contact with the peoples of the sea the seed of Minoan art was fructified. it is with all newideals. the fish. by new combinations. and each arose
. the Moslem.
I hold. The histories of art. Ancient Egyptian art was
born from the contact of some invading race with the
previouslysettled populationof the Valley of the Nile.there aroseby successivemarriages of these several ideals that new and richly endowed art which grew to be the wonderful product of classical
Greece. At some definite
momenta germ enteredthat egg from without . of which last Gothic proceeded. they ariseat some point
of contact. Every sucout
cessivestyle was offspring of a marriage. and likewise came in contact.
and thus with all the ideals by which the laggard masses of mankind are carried forward. Nature's prodigality with seed is one of the commonplacesof every one's observation. self-sacrifice. The infant mortality of ideals is appalling. Thus also is it with new ideals.
A microbe only flourishes on a suitable culture. but it was the only one for which the soil
had been perfectly prepared. and all the finest flowers of manhood. but only Christianity matched its place and day. Thus it is likewise with religions. of a million. which germinated in the heart of a camel-driver and spread victoriously over half the West within a few generations. probity. Multitudes of them are continu-
ally being deposited in the hearts of individuals. but only now and then does one take root and grow into visibility. honour. thus also with schools of philosophy. In the Roman Empire what a profusion of religious notions was put forth! Each no doubt possessedsome excellent quality. justice. Thus also was it with Islam. and then
it may flourish with astounding prodigality."seeds she "often brings but one to bear": and this is true also
of the seeds of ideals. Duty. and rapidly obtained its ascendencyover the minds of the multitude. and grown and spread by crowd-agency. .
. it was one of many forthputtings of the hungry
Arabian heart." -one might perhaps as truthfully say. " Of a thousand.The
the area of some crowd and took its
strength from a social organism. public spirit. although each in its
turn has been born within the heart of some individual. and so took root.
each has taken root in a crowd. It was not a unique product.
. Each is a revelation. Yet within him at every momentis both
his own individual life and the life of the crowd. But what do we mean by "shortness" .The Crowd
in Peace and War
born in the hearts of many of us and for the most part
perish unuttered.into keener sensibility. Eachoneof can
them. and swiftly vanish away even from him. Or they
may be uttered by him and find acceptance his small in personalentourage.how few eventransiently touch the
heart of a multitude 1 Whilst the ideals that overrun the
world and master whole generationsof mankind are
scarcely morethan the reader count. few how
are acceptable evento the few! Of thosethat obtain a body of adherents. Of thosethat are expressed. however. But each does its work.
such evanescentvisions have done their work. but yet assuredly a revelation of something further on. Those who have passed middle life realise it vividly. for a brief moment perhaps.equallyplainly realised within us. All admit it. outward. quickeningthat. though he passes swiftly away. clouded it may be. something that draws the heart upward. onward toward the as yet
The shortness of human life is the commonest of com-
monplaces. Or they may spread
yet more widely. thrill the heart of somelonely of watcher.short in comparison with what? What is
the longthing. Each is so far precious in that it opens some little glimpse out of
the darkness of mere materialism. They may come
in the silence the night. has an endlessvalue.compared
with which the life of a man is short? Is it not the dura-
tion of the life of the crowd? The crowd to which an
individual belongslives on and on.
The crowd lives
while the ideal it incorporatesendures. The great nations. That is the cause of the infinite variety of the world's many schools and styles of art. An ideal that is incorporated in a crowd is a burning lamp. unless it ignites some inflammable mass. thus also religious crowds. It is by the death of crowds that room is made in the world for the successionof great ideals. Thence arise all the literatures of all the ages. some lasting longer than others. political parties. each in its own bed. and all other products of the ideals of our own day will not last for ever. but death ultimately awaiting all. some failing. Some of them are now growing. each in its turn an experiment by which the whole race of mankind is enriched. thus Imperial Rome. and another of the Arab. It is only
. There is one glory of the Greek.
An ideal that arises in the heart of an individual is like
a spark struck from steel by a flint . which have flourished. and been the glory of a given time and place. As it has been so will it be. Each in its
turn has to perish that the rest may in their turn arise. languages. When a great national ideal dies a nation dies. The whole area of the past is a great garden of various ideals.gone in a moment. arts. Thus the Egypt of the
Pharaohs perished. literatures. That is what gives its changeful splendour to human history. and the rest have come and gone.The
consciousness of both -
his own short individual
and his share of the long crowd-life. some culminating. another
of the Roman. each resplendent with a brilliance of its own. All will ultimately fail and die and others now inconceivable will take their place.
the world might gladly accept Prussianleadership and learn from her an invaluable lesson.as aforesaid. As the German nation is a very new crowd so is its ideal a new ideal. the crowd that incorporates may live long. If the ideal is in conformity with cosmic structure. All the enemiesof Germany are endeavoring to imitate it and regretting that they did not adopt it sooner. generation after generation.
The German ideal is on trial at the present day. A crowd thus animated has to endure or go
under in the competitionof the world. But no national ideal is simple. The Prussian people
stand in point of time many generations nearer to bar-
barismthan any of the nations opposed them. and the war has manifested its value in the sight of the whole world. That ideal. Many an ideal hasthus been tried and found wanting. Ideals incorporated crowdsmay be described ideals in as
on trial. Great national ideals
are only definable by action .
It has been tried and it has succeeded. If the Prussian
ideal were that and that only.by the conduct of nations and their human output. is undoubtedly a fine one. others
are still on their trial. developed. Like all the ideals of great nations it is of a mixed sort and
not to be defined in mere words. and enforced by Prussia. Thus to Prussiacannot but give a barbaric form to her ideal.the crowd will soon be broken up.
. National ideals
arenot soeasilydefinable and. expounded. If the ideal is not in such it conformity. never before tried as the motive power of any
nation. completely are definedonly by national deeds. I have described it for shortness as the ideal of
a crowd that can give continuity to the combustion.
is Mr. 1015: "We were the "worst organised nation in the world for this war. . hasbeenled to mistakethat strength by
for the ideal that produced it and to worship the result
instead of the cause. The most sensitive man in Great Britain to the condition of any crowd with which he is in contact. humanity. as he told the people of Manchester on 3 June. and this is what the war has taught him. . "We are fighting against the best organised community "in the world . however. irrespective of which side wins. whether for war or "for peace. even in peace.
. go-as-you-please methods which. honour.strength as superiorto good
faith. leisurely. I cite this merely as an example of how the ideals of nations are tested and purified in the furnace of international strife. is already manifesting what is wrong as well as what is right in the Prussian ideal. whether in open war or in peaceful competition.The
however fundamentally sound it may be. .
"believe me. justice.'* That is how the sound part of even an enemy's ideal gets established and understood throughout the world.and we have been employing too much of "the haphazard. would not have enabled us to maintain our
"place as a nation.the best organised. integrity. very much longer. The fire of war. de-
veloped by her ideal of National Disciplineand greatly strengthened it. and the long agesthat are to come will have no difficulty in deciding the relative merits of national discipline and national dishonour as factors in the present struggle. Lloyd George. Hence her barbaric admiration of
strength for its own sake. Prussia. and all the other national virtues that the course of history has revealed. the most sensitive crowd-exponent.
I cannot do better than conclude this chapter with a
further citation from Dr." which is bind-
ing upon all crowds and all individuals alike. Chalmer Mitchell's admirable
essay entitled "Evolution and the War:""I assert as a biological fact that the moral law is as
"real and as external to man as the starry vault.and
"freedom to make our choice. He can cultivate the whole gamut of fine ideals the world has ever experimentedwith
and established. "and his religion. "variety. that has been tried by a crowd and has succeeded. from that no man can escape. thus enters into the common stock of the ideal
of humanity. The total of these tried and established ideals forms what we call "the moral law. "We require. Its creation and sustenanceare the
"crowningglory of man. as a nation is." That is where the individual comes in. but is en" shrined in his traditions. No longer has it need of a specialcrowd to incorporateit. What have been national ideals in a past stage may becomeindividual ideals for all future time. Nations are the structure of the human world. He must be carried away by the ideal of his own nation and time. It has "no secureseat in any single man or in any single nation. to a single ideal. It becomes incorporatedin humanity
as a whole. "It is the work of the blood and tears of long generations "of men.
. different ideals among which to choose. He can pursue many." saysDr. inborn or innate. and his consciousness it puts of
"him in a high place above the animal world. It is not in man.The
but what oncebelongs humanity has no need a mere to of nation to preserveit.in his literature. in his customs. Chalmers Mitchell.
But an individual is not confined.
not by their immediate needs. but the struggle of
"measured. nations rise and fall.The
lives and of
nations must be
"live and die. but as they "tend to the debasement or perfection of man's great
mais encore la verit6
"relative n'auraient plus un seul adepte. r£veurque
"tu es! Elle ne parle pas dans les plantes et dans les
1 "Hist. Vol. demaVie:" Paris. 34fc. mais dont tu etends a tort Papplication a tous "les actes de ta volonte et de ton intelligence. p. Elle n'est pasdansla solitude. Tu as beaucoup travaille
"a conquerircette liberte pour toi-m£me. a leurs freres. Car la v£rit6
"ne montepas en croupe fuyardset ne galope des pas "avec eux. puisque tu es "maitre d'en faire la loi de ta propre vie. Songe "a ceci que.
. tandis que les "miens ne peuvent se realiser sans des miracles. a leur tache. si tous les amants de la v£rit6 absoluedisaient "comme toi adieu a leur pays. Tu Fasperdue
"dans 1'abandon du coeur a des affections terrestres qui "ne 1'ont pas satisfait. IV.1899. "non seulement la verite absolue. Eh bien! voila un sophismepire que tous ceux "que tu me reproches et plus dangereux. Tu te "dis que ta personne t'appartient et qu'il en est ainsi de "ton ame.CHAPTER THE JUST
GEORGE the diatribe SAND following l puts into
the mouth of the revolutionary "Everard" (the lawyer Michel): "Tu r£ves une liberte de 1'individu qui ne peut se conOilier avec le devoir general. et a present tu te reprends toi"m£me dans une vie d'austerite que j'approuve et que "j'aime.
3" This eloquent passageposes.The Just Mean
"oiseaux. as so many other writers and speakers have posed>the great problem which each
one of us has to face: Where are we to draw the line
between our duty to ourselves and to one another individually. Le divin philosophe que tu "cheris le savait bien quand il dlsait a ses disciples: *La
" 'ou vous serez seulement trois reunis. Individualism against socialism: that has been a contest waged within men and mankind from the remotest ages.
The socialist and the individualist alike
must fail because each would effect one of these ends by
destroying the other. must be a narrow-minded
bigot. It is the great domestic issue for most of the progressive nations at the present day. Neither of the twro contending principles can ultimately succeed. ou c'est d'une voix si mysterieuseque leshommes "ne la cornprennent pas. and this because man is neither a wholly gregarious nor a wholly non-gregarious animal. mon
u< esprit sera avec vous. en men nom. selfish. A wisely living individual and a wisely constructed polity alike must combine both in a balanced equilibrium. the voice of every current of public emotion. The service of mankind by each and the free development of
the individual within no narrow limits have both to be
kept in view. who
is the mere unit of a crowd. the slave of his surroundings. An uncritical socialist. No sane man can help being an individual and passionately desiring individual free319
. and our duty to the crowd? A pure individualist must atrophy into an entirely barren. the flotsam and jetsam of the stormy ocean of life. It is as absurd to be a socialist as to be an individualist. and ultimately miserable being.
but he would take abundant trouble to help any "one person who was in distress of mind or body. . It is the free individual who has the
. "I cannot say. chiefly of course in relation to art and liter a"ture. "how it was "that Rosetti took no interest in politics. He is of necessityboth an
individual and a social unit simultaneously." he wrote. The truth "is he cared for nothing but individual and personal "matters.
Morris criticised Rosetti for being too much of an individualist.
erred in the other direction and. Glutton Brock and in that
avers. "than about the troubles of individuals. He must not. . too muchsocialism timesof suspended of activity
or slow decay. neither is it possiblefor him to avoid captureby various social organisms. . however. He must be both individualist and socialist at once. as Mr. but "the evils of any mass of people he could not bring his "mind to bear upon. Too much
individualismis characteristic times of enterpriseand of growth. He
muststrive for the development himselfas an individual of
and at the same time for the development of the organic
crowdshe belongs as crowds." Morris himself. to agreeto starvehimselffor the sake a crowd. Hence the wise man must aim at the attainment of a condition which shall be a mean between individualism and socialism. In practical politics he must take a middle line. on the contrary." The greatest men and the culminating periods of civilisation have attained a temporary equilibrium between
individual freedom and crowd subservience. "was always more concerned about general evils "respect he belonged peculiarly to his own age.The
dom.normust he of neglecthis duty to crowdsfor his own easeand pleasure.
Some would-be prophets have bidden us slay within ourselveswhat they call the great evil which devours us . and thus passing from mouth to mouth. Thus. Any of us at any time may make a light remark. who may hand it on. but it is the social organism destined to sur-
vive him which holds and transmits whateverpart of his achievement individual hasbeenableto impress the upon
it. I am doubtless for the most part only expressing in more or less connected form the ideas that are vaguely floating about in the minds of the public of my day.to launchforth into the unknownworld of thought. A citizen as such is a mere cell of a crowd. which may chance to be heard by others and so to influence one or two. which
may strike some of my readers as true. a free individual may at any moment. deliverance would be death.The Just Mean
courageto think for himself." Alas! the cosmic process alone will accomplish no such deliverance. but now and then I may chance to set down some
new idea. become. through a flash of insight. to plan and organise. All the great movements of the world have started from such insignificant seed. or as Hartmann put it. and may ultimately become a tiny part of the general ideals of a future day. it may spread throughout the human organism. born out of contact between those others. Moreover.of faith. a crowd-leader. the product of a moment's intuition. if only for a moment. Life is in the struggle (alike within
. may by them be transmitted onward. as I now write.personality.
or of action. "Fabandon com"plet de Findividualite au processus cosmique pour que "celui-ci puisse atteindre son but qui est la deliverance "gen6rale du monde.
The individual must incessantly fight to maintain his individuality and to shun that entire absorption. any more "than he would care to be out of agreement with them on "questions of meremanner.
"not so much through his own free election. Paul felt it.' entire. the more developed the life. He will regulate. or. He found within himself the two laws at variance.the provocation
of such threatened dominance
over the mind
the heart. that called forth the following energetic
. The double nature
of man will always endureand will always be at variance. habitual. "Oh wretched man that I am! Who shall deliver
"me?" No one will ever deliver us. as from a
the individualand within humanity as a whole) between
the individualistic and the social instincts and tendencies.still morewhat he abstainsfrom doing. "to custom .to the actual habit or fashion of others. even of dress. He felt that "other law in his memberswarring against the law of his "mind and bringing it into subjection. St. unconscious.in the words of Pater's Marius
"what he does. Yet
in so fighting the wiseman will avoid goingto the other
extreme. It is a cowardly escape. say.
"from whom he could not endure to break away. the
greaterthe suffering. To live is thus to suffer."
But if the wise man will thus in his actions conform to
the prejudices and ideals of the crowd to which he is content to belong. Buddhism tells us that this suffering can be avoidedonly by a total abandonment of individuality and absorption the individual in what is of in fact the universalcrowd. I suppose. an 'assent." and he cried aloud.he will never allow it to govern his thoughts or imprison his faith. and the pain of the strife. It was.
fortunately the imperfection of the one is the counterpart of the strength of the other. the collective mind with right feeling. but so too is every individual. and break them up.The Just Mean
protest from Emersonin his essayon the "Conduct of
"Leave this hypocritical prating about the masses. in mind. . lovely. I wish not to concedeanything to them.narrow-brained. lame. and no shovel-
" handed. The worst of charity is that
"the lives you are askedto preserveare not worth pre"serving. if kept untrammelled by crowd-prejudice. "sweet and accomplished women only. Hence it is the duty of the wise man to keep his
. or rather lacking. the individual is gifted with reason which may be developed to any extent. . and draw "individuals out of them.
"This man said that the folk were a bad lot/*
The folk are in truth an imperfect lot. the crowd is made and maintained
by enthusiasm.gin-drinking million stocking"ers or lazzaroni at all. but to be "schooled. drill. Masses! The calamity is the masses. . divide. but honest men only. pernicious in their demands "and influence. and need not to be flattered. The individual mind should be concerned with the discovery of truth. "Masses are rude. I do "not wish any mass at all. and let us have the considerate vote of single "men spoken on their honor and their conscience/' Emersonwould have agreedwith that disgruntled Greek who had engraved on a kotyle. found at Chiusi. Away with this hurrah of "masses. strong in science
but weak in faith. but "to tame. The crowd is weak. The individual is liable to be selfish and unemotional.
Leehas to say about it: "The most perfect states are found among the social
. saying in the noble lines of Frederick Myers:
"Yea with one voice. let him do so whole-heartedly. such is the law of the Just Mean
as it applies to the individual. an intolerable tyranny."
In emotion then we may be of the crowd. but in thought
should be crowd-free. I must makeup my mind which is right. G. with the approval of his own reason. where he can share them. he must courageouslywithdraw himself from it.The
mind free from crowd-dominance in relation to all matters
of fact and truth. But I shall "try to. Stand thou on that side. At the other extreme lies a com-
plete crowd-despotism. tho* thou deniest. Nora. in Ibsen's "Doll's House. for on this am I. but to yield to crowd-influence wherehe can share its healthy emotion. like the now vanishing Fuegians. far from it." The individual's intelligence must decide as to the rightness of any crowd's tendencies and admiration. Not all crowd-emotions
are sound. O world. society
"or I. S. such as was enjoyed or rather suffered by prehistoric man and equally backward peoples of our own day. What is the form of that law as applied to the crowd itself? Where should the line be drawn dividing the two areas within which the
individual is free or crowd-controlled respectively? At
one extreme lies complete individual freedom. replied: "No. I^et us hear what Mr. but where he is convinced that the crowd is wrongly inspired." whom Helmer had accusedof not understanding the society
in which she lived. such as that exemplifiedby a hive of bees. I don't. even unto martyrdom.
foremost of which are to be mentioned the "honey-bees. This society. the individual nothing. becausein war-time the nation is admittedly everything.improvement or happiness. Where is the
line to be drawn?
The question pressesfor consideration. If socialists will study this "and other examples of states which have resolutely "worked out the social problems to a successfulfinish they "will perhaps get an inkling of how far off is the realisa"tion of all Utopias. All exist. queens must kill "their sisters or be killed by them. I am not referring to the actual period of war. "This perfect state consists only of a queen-mother and
"thousands of sexless slaves. and poets and philosophers have immortalised "it with their words. Truly it seemsan ideal "state."
Neither of these extremes will men tolerate. and each "labors for the common good. thousands must be "relegated to ceaseless toil. not for their
"own individual pleasure.The Just Mean
"insects. one tending in one direction. and kings exist but for a day. the other
. over-socialisedthey cannot attain individual development. What could appear more perfect? ''Each member of the society is apparently free. "Unsocial-
ised they cannot attain civilisation. The last half century has been and the century that is to come will be compelled to considerand solve this problem: Where is the line to be drawn betweenindividualism and socialism? On that issuepolitical parties must presently divide.but "only for the community. but. to attain this ideal state. has won the admiration of the "world. which man has had under "domestication so many thousand years that the begin"ning has been forgotten.
by thosewho interestthemselves broadpresentin day political and socialproblems. The fundamentaldivergence by which the people were actually divided.Hencesocialistic measures passed were
into law in a crude and in many respects unworkable
form. the socialistic faction. and cross-currentsof opinion which
did not coincide with the division-lists. nor were they strenously opposed by an organised anti-socialist opposition. The criticism they met with was sporadic
anddisorganised.The confused politics of the last fifteen yearshavebeendueto the fact that old party issueswere dead. about as much harm as good. Almost every important social measure introduced of late has been accepted
in principleby both parties. There will be no Incid politics until that
divisionis plainly manifestand recognised. Hence an inevitable confusion of issuesand policies. for both included separatesections animated
by these opposing ideals.this was not the dividing line between
parties. and thus it came about that socialistic measureswere neither properly criticised on consistent and reasoned grounds.and quarrelledover in detail for the sakeof keepingthe partiesalive by having something to quarrel about. two tendencies the which run to pure
individualism in one direction and developed socialism in the other . and they consequently produced.
.the eternal oppositionbetween.The
in the other. the enormous is growth. in all parties in the House of Commons of late years.
Moreover.when put into
The important fact that has to be constantlyborne in mind. was stronger than the individualistic. by which I mean the group of men whoseideals tend in the direction of socialism.
If a similar enthusiasm existed to-day it would put the whole of Europe and America in movement on a gigantic scale. A political movement is no longer local or even national. For these reasons the power and importance of all kinds of crowds are much greater to-day than ever before. and that development still continues. by meansof the daily press. Thus the formation and organisation of all kinds of crowds has become easy where before it was extremely difficult. Movements consequently affect vaster aggregations of mankind than ever before. Therewasneveranything
like it before in the history of the world. but civilised humanity at large. That growth is the distinguishing fea-
ture of the nineteenth century. or even of a nation. The size to which a crowd can grow dependsupon the certainty and easeof communication between its parts. were insignificant expeditions. from a modern point of view. for the conditions that made it possible did not previously exist. A public man. The scientific achievements of the nineteenth century effected improved means of communication such as the world had never imagined before. A wave of similar political movement passes almost simultaneously over all progressive nations. Witness the world-wide extension of the temperance movement as one example. and on a very large scale impossible. nor in fact could there have been. The civilised peoplesof the world may now be said to live almost in the presenceof one another. and each crowd in some
. can to-day address not merely the people of a locality. An overwhelming enthusiasm alone availed to set on foot the Crusades.The Just Mean
of the crowd in power and organisation during the last hundred years. which.
Mazzini. it has tended to
be overlooked. however. "all the "boldest and most innovating theories sought. The
crowdhas alwaysexercised dominionin this matter. but of individuals. "We thirst for unity.
This growth in the power of the crowd at the expense of the individual has produced many important changes in the point of view.guaranteesfor free individual "action. and changesin fashion spread with aston-
ishingrapidity by aid of the press of modern and commercial organisation. "we seekit in a new and larger expression of
"mutual responsibility of all men towards each other. but till about a century ago the powerwas in the hands of
local crowds. -
. and unless that tendency be arrested
tyranny must follow." That
must for ever remain one of the chief functions of a
healthy state. "Half a century ago. but every
decade sees the western ideal more and more dominant. Now the whole westernworld
dresses alike. and costume consequently varied from
onelocality to another. Of late years. the State was in their eyes only the power of "all directed to the support of the rights of each." wrote Mazzini.As the crowdchanges clothesso it its changes ideals. Large parts of the population of Asia and Africa are still outside the pale. Fashionin clothesmay be cited as an instanceof the
extension of crowd-dominance over the individual. and each of them as it
passes helps unify the civilisationof that massof manto
kind which is within the area subjected to modern scientific methods and ideas.The
degree limits the freedom the individualscomposing of it. in the "organisation of societies. Wavesof commoninterestand comits
mon emotion similarly spread. not only of the public.
and almost any assemblageof people can be made to go wild with applause at the glib expressionof this kind of sentimentality. and whosoever does "not labour in accordance with it. . . It all sounds very fine and is superficially attractive. necessarily remains "behind. One can swell with emotion as one votes some one else's money to relieve it.no marching forth at the head of a shouting majority after a triumphant division. Cheap sympathy for the so-called unfortunate or unfit. which may involve the subordination of his own development to the development or prosperity of some crowd. that is to say the submission of the individual to some collective aim. but with work and self-sacrifice and sympathy." Collective Duty has in fact become a leading modern ideal. There is little glory in that . after a period of
. But behind all this crowd-enthusiasm lurks the hideous demon of despotism. . Such is "the tendency of the present times. The gilded surface of ce qu'on voit hides the grimy disillusions that reside in cequ'on ne voit pas. It is quite a different thing to follow the law of Christ and be helpful. by which somesentimental though logically absurd piece of legislation has been added to the burden under which thenceforward the country has to
labour. as a class. We seek the har-
"mony and meaning of the worth of individuals in a "comprehensive view of the collective whole. is so easy to feel.
Eaise a man to a position of power. not with mere money alone.The Just Mean
"the indissoluble co-partnery of all generations and all
"individuals in the human race. The most commonplace orator can grow eloquent about it. to individual sufferers.
By suchmeans.it will then be easyenough him to dictate for
and enforce the enactment of any measure of so-called
socialreform. and investing it with the power to give them practical and legislative form. We were there led to conclude that the
function of the Crowd in relation to government should mainly be to inspire a legislature. providedit be large enoughto strike the imaginationand pretentiousenoughto engagethe uncritical enthusiasm of a nation already bewitched by
demagogic wiles.can (to wrenchfrom its context a phrase Mr. Asquith) "the intelligence of and spontaneity "of a peoplebe fettered and hampered the State."1 by
It is unnecessary here to retraversethe ground. where we dealt with the Crowd and
Government. When the crowd. The crowd may control the
emotions but should have no sway whatever over the
reason of the individual. put into
his handauthority overthe politicalmachinethat controls the votes of a majority of the representatives the of
in Peace and War
competitive examinationstump-speaking. which in during
he hasbeen profuse promises the multitudeof the in to
distribution of other folk's goodsamongst them. attempts to control the liberty of the individual reason. quite as efficiently as by Germanmilitarism. 1915. whether it be a religious or a political organisation or any other.
. 8th June. infecting it with the ideals to be pursued. that is to say the liberty of the individual to act as his
reasondirects (providedthat in so acting he doesnot
actin a manner contrary whatis wholesome right to and
1 House of Commons. As it is with government so is it with the general relations of an individual to the crowd. covered in a former chapter.
The Just Mean
in the spirit of the crowd to which he belongs) .the power of great wealth.when the crowd does or attempts to do this.limitations upon the noble ideals and high aspirations of the crowd. crowd-tyranny is the worst . but all citizens fall together under the dominion of the developed crowd and lose some of their freedom to it. The correspondinggrowth of crowd-power could not perhaps be avoided. when its coming is least expected. In that case individualism will have gone too far. to attain possession a degreeof actual of power over their fellow creatures such as can scarcely be paralleled in any other age. Possibly the astonishing growth of crowd-power in modern times. contemporary as it has been with the advance of scienceand the greatly enhancedmight attainable by individuals. for instance . not as wielding the power of responsible government but merely by the acquisition or control of wealth. and of all misfortunes that mankind can suffer.
.if you like to call them so. existed before advancing science disturbed it. Certain it is that it is now possible for individuals. it invades the freedom which every individual has a right to possessand enjoy.crowd-tyranny controlling the actions of our lives and worse still controlling the freedom of our thoughts. Tyranny may be at hand at any moment. overpowerful. Yet the number of powerful . It is of course possible for individuals to invade the proper province of the crowd and to impose by individual power . it may be contended.individuals whom the crowd has to protect itself against are few. has been nothing more than a maintenance of the equilibrium between individualism and socialism which.
in literature. sh&^^ have hfc^tfe^eficentbethelifeof may
which crowd no c^ild eithercotieeive bringto fruition.
. nor by science. and by
them only. The masses humanity arenot to be raised of by intellectualeffort. and who in art. jo6man great
Great\ ManMni^but is greatf&Jso is Man. in
by strivingfor. hasenabled be formulatedand to enter to
the hearts and become fabric of the conscience of all noble
individuals. by the labour nor of individuals.or in masterful
anindependent unit^meffecting results. each in his own resources and
Splendidindeedhave beenand still remain the great
ideals which mankind has collectively striven for and. But in the
heritageof the world no lessprecious the noblelives.who have faced the world
with fearless confidence.the great works. in philosophy. they can be elevated by the infection of fineidealsonly. are
the high intellectual accomplishments. who have followed each
his own star. and to theseand the crowdsthat have incorporatedthem the great advancefrom the beastlevel to where we stand has been due. not of thoseonly who have occupied high public position and
loomed large within the vision of their contemporaries. By crowd-forming ideals the lower masses
of mankind have been and are being elevated. inj^jy^ageous action. but still more the forgotten multitudes of separate and variously gifted individuals.
and the splendiddeeds individual men: and they. who have lived and laboured each under
the guidanceof his own reason.