CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 MOTIVATION Meandering tube pulsating heat pipes, (PHPs) have already been found some applications in micro-processor and power electronics applications owing to favorable operational characteristics coupled with relatively cheaper costs. Although grouped as a subclass of the overall family of heat pipes, the subtle complexity of thermo-fluidic transport phenomena is quite unique justifying the need of a completely different research outlook. Comprehensive theory of operation and reliable database or tools for the design of PHPs according to a given micro-electronics-cooling requirement is still an unrealized task. A closed loop pulsating or oscillating heat pipe consists of a metallic tube of capillary dimensions wound in a serpentine manner and joined end to end. It is first evacuated and then filled partially with a working fluid, which distributes itself naturally in the form of liquid±vapor slugs and bubbles inside the capillary tube. Respective tube sections thus have a different volumetric phase distribution. One end of this tube bundle receives heat transferring it to the other end by a pulsating action of the liquid±vapor slug-bubble system. There may exist an optional adiabatic zone in between. This type of heat pipe is essentially a nonequilibrium heat transfer device. The performance success primarily depends on continuous maintenance or sustenance of these non-equilibrium conditions in the system. The liquid and vapor slug/bubble transport is caused by the pressure pulsations inside the device. Since these pressure pulsations are fully thermally driven, because of the inherent construction of the device, there is no external mechanical power source required for the fluid transport.

In a working PHP, there exist temperature gradients between the evaporator and the condenser section. These are coupled with inherent real-time perturbations, due to:

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local non-uniform heating and cooling within the evaporator and condenser tube sections,  unsymmetrical liquid±vapor distributions causing uneven void fraction in the tubes, and,  presence of approximately triangular or saw-tooth alternating component of pressure drop superimposed on the average pressure gradient in a capillary slug flow due to the presence of vapor bubbles.

The net effect of all these temperature gradients and perturbations is to create a nonequilibrium pressure condition which, in conjunction with the non-uniform void fraction distribution in respective tubes, as stated earlier, is the primary driving force for thermo fluidic transport. Thus self-sustained thermally driven oscillations are obtained.

1.2 OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of this experiment are

y

To understand the different operational regimes (evaporator, adiabatic and condenser section) of closed loop pulsating heat pipe.

y

To compare the thermal resistance of heat pipe for different orientation of heat pipe

y y

To compare the thermal resistance at different filling ratio To study the evaporator and condenser temperature of heat pipe at different orientation

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Historical Development
Historically, the first application of gravity heat pipes was in boilers and bakeries, the so-called Perkins tube was widely used in the 19th century. This is a bare, thickwalled carbon steel tube filled with a certain amount of water, about 1/3 of the total tube volume, and hermetically sealed. The lower tube end was heated by flue gases, the upper end extended into the boiler where it was used to generate steam.

In 1938 a patent was granted in the USA which describes a tube incorporating capillary grooves to aid liquid distribution and hence vaporization in boilers. The first patent of a heat pipe employing a capillary wick for pumping liquid against gravity was applied by Gaugler in 1944 as a two-phase heat transport device for refrigerators. It was supposed to allow movement of the working fluid without pumps and without natural convection, by utilization of the capillary force generated by a capillary wick [16].

The heat pipe concept was first put forward by R.S.Gaugler of the general Motors Corporation, Ohio, and USA. In a patent application dated December 21st, 1942, and published as US Patent No. 2350348/ on June 6 th, 1944, the heat pipe is described as applied to a refrigeration system. According to Gaugler, the object of the invention was to "cause absorption of heat, or in other words, the evaporation of the liquid to a point above the place where the condensation or the giving off of heat takes place without expending upon the liquid any addition work to lift the liquid to an elevation above the point at which condensation takes place". A capillary structure was proposed as the means for returning the liquid from the condenser to the evaporator, and Gaugler suggested that one form this structure might take would be a sintered iron wick. It is interesting to

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note the comparative small portion of the tube cross section allocated to vapor flow in his designs. The first heat pipe that Grover built used water as the working fluid and was followed shortly by a liquid sodium heat pipe for operation at 1100 K. Both the high temperature and ambient temperature regime soon explored by many workers in the field. It was until 1966 that the first cryogenic heat pipe was developed by Haskin of the Air Force Flight Dynamic Laboratory at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base. Between 1964 and 1966, RCA (Radio Corporation of America) was the first corporation to undertake research and development of heat pipes for the commercial application. The concept of Variable conductance or Temperature Controlled Heat pipe was first described by Hall of RCA in a patent application dated October 1964. However, although the effect of a non-conducting gas was shown in Grover¶s original publication, its significance for achieving variable conductance was immediate recognized. In subsequent years the theory and technology of variable conductance Heat Pipes was greatly advanced, notably by Bienert and Brennan at Dynatherm and Marcus at TRW. On April 5, 1967, the first ³zero g´ demonstration of a heat pipe was conducted by a group of engineers of the Los Alamos scientific Laboratory. This first successful flight experiment overcame the initial hesitation that many spacecraft had for using this new technology to solve ever- present temperature control problems on spacecraft. Subsequently, more and more spacecrafts have relied on heat pipes either to control the temperature of individual components or of the entire structure. Some examples of this trend were the ARS- E, OAO, ATS Fand G spacecrafts and the sky labs. The development of terrestrial applications of heat pipes progresses at much slower pace. In 1968, RCA developed a heat pipe heat sink for transistors used in aircraft transmitters. This probably represented the first commercial application of heat pipes. Publications in 1967 and 1968 by Feldman, Eastman, and Katzoff first discussed applications of heat pipes to areas outside of government concern and that did not fall under the high temperature classification such as: air conditioning, engine

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cooling and electronics cooling. These papers also made the first mentions of flexible, arterial, and flat plate heat pipes. 1969publications introduced the concepts of rotational heat pipe with its application to turbine blade cooling and the first discussions of heat pipe applications to cryogenic processes.

2.2 The Revolution
Starting in the 1980s Sony began incorporating heat pipes into cooling schemes for some of its commercial electronic products in place of both forced convection and passive finned heat sinks. Initially they were used in tuners and amplifiers, soon spreading to other heat flux electronics applications. During the late 1990s increasingly hot microcomputer CPUs spurred a threefold increasing in the number of U.S. heat pipe patent applications. As heat pipes transferred from specialized industrial heat transfer component to a consumer commodity most development and production moved from the U.S. to Asia. Modern CPU heat pipes are typically made from copper and use water as the working fluid. A wickless network heat pipe for high heat flux spreading applications was developed by Cao, Y. and Gao, M. In this study the concept of the network heat pipe employing the boiling heat-transfer mechanism in narrow space has been described. Two flat-plate wickless network heat pipes (or thermal spreaders) were designed fabricated and tested based on this concept by the authors. The fabricated thermal spreaders, which were made of Copper or Aluminum, were wickless, cross-grooved heat transfer devices that spread a concentrated heat source to a much larger surface area. As a result, the high heat flux generated in the concentrated heat source could be dissipated through a finned surface by air cooling. The network heat pipes were tested under different working conditions and orientations relative to the gravity vector, with water and methanol as the working fluids. The maximum heat flux is achieved was about 40 W/cm2 for methanol and 110W/cm2 for water with a total heat input of 393W. A heat transfer analysis of an inclined two-phase closed thermosyphon was developed by Zuo, Z. J. The inclination±induced circumferential flow was unfavorable with respect to dry out because the thin top-side liquid film was easier to

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boil off, but contrastingly was favorable with respect to flooding because the thick underside film corresponded to a large gravity force. Minimum working fluid inventory remained almost constant for a large range of inclination angles (0-70 deg) and then significantly increased for further increase of inclination angle. At a certain inclination angle, the mean heat transfer co-efficient of the thermosyphon reached a maximum value, which was related to the heat transfer behavior in both condenser and evaporator. The highest flooding limit was at inclination angle ranging from 30 to 45 deg, which corresponded to the best balance of the two opposing effects: secondary circumferential flow and gravity reduction. Zhang, J. [3] and Wong, H. studied heat transfer and fluid flow in an idealized micro heat pipe with the support of NASA and LaSPACE. They made an analysis for four different values of length to width ratio of an idealized micro heat pipe, viz. 20, 50, 100 and 200. From the liquid temperature distribution along the length of the micro heat pipe, they found that the temperature profile is relatively flat except the region near the evaporator, and for a micro heat pipe with larger length to width ratio, the length of the evaporator is shorter. From the vapor pressure distribution, they found that the pressure goes approximately linearly and is not strongly affected by the length to width ration. On evaluating the effective thermal conductivity of a micro heat pipe increases with increase in the evaporation area at the evaporator, and length or width of the micro heat pipe. They also added that a fluid with larger latent heart would produce larger effective thermal conductivity. In a study of micro and miniature heat pipes, developed by A.R. Anand, attempts have been made to develop a one dimensional numerical model of micro heat pipes, taking into account the effect of liquid vapor interfacial shear stress. Also governing equations for conservation of mass, momentum and energy have been developed, based on control volume to study the performance characteristics and validate the experimental results. To identify and understand better the phenomena, which governs the performance limitations and operating characteristics of micro heat pipes, Babin et al. conducted a combined experimental and analytical investigation on two micro heat pipes, one made of Copper and one of Silver, of length 57 mm and cross section 1mm2 approximately with water as the working fluid. The steady-state

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experimental results obtained were compared with an analytical model and were found to predict accurately the experimentally determined maximum heat transport capacity for an operating temperature range of 400C to 600C. The results indicated that the steady-state model could be used to predict accurately the level of performance. In 1991, Wu and Peterson developed a transient numerical model capable of predicting the thermal behavior of micro heat pipes during start up or vibration in the thermal load of evaporator. The numerical model was used to identify, evaluate and better understand the phenomena, which governs the transient behavior of micro heat pipes as function of physical shape, the properties of the working fluid, and the principal dimensions. The results were compared with the steady state results obtained by Babin et al. In 1990 and were shown to accurately predict the steady state dry out limit also. The wetting angle was also found to be one of the most important factors contributing to the heat transport capacity. But no experimental data were obtained on the transient operational characteristics. In 1994, Faghri et al developed their mathematical model to examine the heat and mass transfer processes in a micro heat pipe, taking into account the variation of the curvature of the free liquid surface and the interfacial shear stress due to liquid-vapor interaction. The model described the distribution of the liquid chart in micro heat pipe and its thermal characteristics depending on the charge of the working fluid and the heat load. It was observed from the modeling that for the same heat pipe, the charge required when interfacial shear stress is considered, is greater than the charge required if no shear is considered. Further for the same operating temperature the maximum heat transfer, when interfacial shear stress is considered, is less than the maximum heat transfer if no shear is considered.

2.3 Recent Researches
Pulsating heat pipes (PHP) are passive two phase thermal control devices first introduced by Akachi et al. [1]. Mainly, PHPs consist of a capillary tube bent in several curves to form parallel passages. In this application, reduced diameter
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channels are used, which are directly influenced by the selected working fluid. The vapor plugs generated by the evaporation of the working fluid push the liquid slugs toward the condensation section and this motion causes flow oscillations that guide the device operation [2]. There are several applications for PHPs from electronics and structural thermal control as well as microgravity thermal control. Due to simple construction, light weight and low cost, PHPs have gained attention in a lot of aspects to give isothermal characteristic for his component. There are two possible configurations for PHPs, open loop and closed loop. In the open loop configuration one end of the tube is pinched off or welded and the other end may present a service valve for evacuation and charging. The closed loop configuration has both ends connected and allowed the flow to be circulated. Considering the sections of a PHP, it presents evaporation and a condensation section and may also present an adiabatic section. The tube does not have a wick structure and the construction is very simple. As any other two phase passive thermal control device, heat is acquired from the source through the evaporation section transferring to the working fluid and where the slug/plug pumping action will be generated. The fluid then flows by the adiabatic section towards the condensation section. On a closed loop configuration, the fluid is allowed to circulate and after being condensed, the fluid returns to the evaporation section to complete the loop. On the open loop configuration the liquid circulation is not possible. Previous investigations have already addressed the operation and thermal behavior of PHPs. Delil et al. [4] presented a survey on pulsating/oscillating devices suitable to be used in microgravity and super gravity environments. Important contributions related to the PHPs on closed loop configuration were given by Charoensawan et al. [5], Khandekar et al. [6, 7], Rettidech et al. [15] and Tong et al. [9]. The critical issues and an approximate operation behavior of PHPs have been already determined [11]. As a relatively new field, most of the theory involved on PHPs design and operation were derived from the classic two phase flow theory, which could be used as a first approach in analyzing such a device.

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The PHP operation presents some unique characteristics and a very interesting thermal behavior. One particularly of PHP operation is that it presents thermodynamics instabilities associated with the plug/slug dynamics, even though such a dynamics is in mechanical equilibrium. The vapor plugs formation and collapse presents a chaotic behavior that is difficult to model. During its operation, metastable conditions of the working fluid are present, which are directly related to the thermo hydrodynamics particularities of this device [5-7]. Quasistationary modeling has showed great potential in predicting PHPs operation, which was in accordance to experimental results [12]. The slug flow dynamics is dependent on the applied power to the evaporation section, tilt angle and amount of non condensable gases [13]. A mathematical model has addressed the operation of PHPs, where the chaotic behavior can be reflected which were in accordance to experimental results [14]. Other mathematical models have been formulated to describe the PHP operation, considering the geometric parameters and the effect of working fluid [15] as well as the heat transfer effects on its operation [2]. The pulsating action of heat pipe is directly influenced by the inner diameter of tube. The parameters influencing the plug/slug formation in reduced diameters must be observed for this application, such as the correct working fluid selection, surface tension and shear stress effects, etc. Without the pumping action the heat pipe will operate as a solid bar conducting heat from one end to another end. Another factor that influences the PHP performance is the number of turns. The increase of number of turns improves the performance [5] and this higher heat fluxes could be dissipated. For the proper working fluid the Clausius ± Claperon relation (dP/dT) Tsat = i lv/ (Tsat V iv) In here higher magnitude of (dP/dT)Tsat is desirable. A comparison of this parameter related to several working fluids was presented by Khandekar et al. [7]. This represents a small change in saturation temperature will result in a large influence in the saturation pressure which will affect the pumping force of PHP. Other parameters are latent heat of vaporization and surface tension.

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CHAPTER 3
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

In order to study the heat transfer characteristics of pulsating heat pipe, an experimental facility has been designed, fabricated and installed. The detailed description of experimental apparatus and procedure are presented in the subsequent sections of this chapter.

3.1 Experimental Apparatus
1. Pulsating Heat Pipe 2. Working Fluid (Water) 3. Test Stand 4. Heating Apparatus a) Power Supply Unit b) Ni-Cr Thermic Wire c) Variac 5. Cooling Apparatus a) Battery Fan b) Adapter Circuit 6. Measuring Apparatus a) Thermocouple K Type b) Selector Switch c) Digital Thermometer (Y Type)

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3.2 Pulsating Heat Pipe

A closed loop pulsating heat pipe or oscillating heat pipe consists of a metallic tube of capillary dimensions wound in a serpentine manner and joined end to end. It consists of 3 sections. They are:  Evaporator Section  Adiabatic Section  Condenser Section

Evaporator Section:
It is the section of the heat pipe where the refrigerant (water) absorbs heat and evaporates. It is located on the bottom section of the heat pipe .The heat is supplied on the heat pipe by Nicrome wire which is connected to the variac. As the copper tube is good conductor of electricity so it is not directly connected with Nicrome wire because it can make short circuit. So, the Nicrome wire is surrounded to a Mica sheet and kept in a distance of Copper tube. Glass wool is kept between the mica sheet and the Copper tube. So, the heat is transferred to the Copper tube through the glass wool.

Condenser Section:
It is the section of heat pipe where heat is rejected from the working fluid on this section the working fluid condenses and rejects the same amount of heat which

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it absorbed from the evaporator section. On this experiment it is located on upper section of the heat pipe.

Adiabatic Section:
It is located between the evaporator section and condenser section. In here the liquid and vapor phases of the fluid flow in opposite directions and no significant heat transfer occurs between the fluid and surrounding medium.

Table 3.1: Experimental Parameter and Their Ranges Parameters
Inner diameter Outer diameter Total length Length of evaporator section Length of adiabatic section Length of condenser section Material Air flow rate
2.2 mm 2.3 mm 155 mm 30mm 75mm 50mm Copper 3.5 m/s

Condition

3.3 Working Fluid
For choosing the right working fluid some properties have to be considered. They are:
y y

High value of (dP/dT) at saturation temperature Low dynamic viscosity

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y y y

Low latent heat High specific heat Low surface tension

In this experiment water (H O) IS used as working fluid. The thermophysical properties are

Table 3.2: Thermophysical Properties of Water
Freezing Temperature (t) boiling temperature Absolute pressure(p) Density ( )
0 100 3.2 MPa 997 (kg/m3)

Specific volume (v) Specific Heat (cp) Specific entropy (e)

1.00 *10-3 (m3 /kg) 4.181 (kJ/kgK )

0.367 (kJ/kgK)

Dynamic viscosity ( )

0.890 centipoise

Kinematic viscosity ( )

1.004

Expansion coefficient

0.257

Specific enthalpy

104.8

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3.4 Test Stand
The test stand is a wooden structure which holds the heat pipe .It has a base where an aluminum box is located. It contains the evaporator section of the heat pipe .the evaporator section is connected to Ni ±Cr themic wire which is connected with the variac . The test stand can be rotated and can be kept on any different orientation between horizontal and vertical position. The whole structure is supported by two columns which are situated in a large wooden base.

3.5. Heating Apparatus
Variac Table 3.3: Variac specification
Type: Rated capacity: Rated frequency: Input voltage:
3 300 volt 60 Hz 220 volt

Power Supply Unit
Type: AC Voltage: up to 220 volt Frequency: 50 Hz

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Ni-Cr Thermic wire
Diameter: 0.051 inch Power: 120 W

3.6 Cooling Apparatus
Fan

For cooling the working fluid, forced convection is used. For forced convection a D.C fan is used. It is located on test stand in front of the heat pipe.

Adapter Circuit

As the fan is a DC fan and the power supply is AC. So, for running the fan a converter circuit is required to convert the AC current to DC current. It consists of a transformer, full wave rectifier circuit to convert the AC to DC current.

3.7 Measuring Apparatus
Thermocouple
A number of thermocouple is glued to the wall of pulsating heat pipe. They are calibrated and connected to different sections of heat pipe for measuring temperature. This thermocouple is Ty (Chromel/Alumel) Type K. It is µgeneral purpose' thermocouple. It is low cost and, owing to its popularity, it is available in a wide variety of probes. Thermocouples are available in the -200°C to +1200°C range. Sensitivity is approx 41uV/°C. Use type K unless you have a good reason not to.

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Selector Switch
Selector switch is a type of rotating connector. That can be rotate to different positions to make contact with the particular position of the heat pipe through the thermocouple. For this experiment three selector switches are used. Each of them has 8 points and used to measure the temperature of different points in heat pipe.

Digital Thermometer

Table 3.4: Specification of digital thermometer

AC voltage DC current Resistance Frequency

2V 20V 200V 750V 2 mA, 20 mA, 200 mA 200 20khz -200M

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3.8 Experimental setup
For studying the thermal characteristics of heat pipe, an experimental setup [fig 3.6] has been built. It is made by a circular copper tube. Its outer diameter is 2.3 mm and inner diameter is 2.2 mm. The total length of this pipe is 155 cm. The tubes are bent to U shape. Two of the extreme bents are connected by a T connector. This forms the closed loop heat pipe whether the open loop heat pipe has no connection between the two extreme ends. For pulsating action of this heat pipe distinct liquid slug and bubble formation are essential. This liquid slug and bubble formation are related to the Eotvos number or Bond number. Eotvos number is the ratio of buoyancy force to surface tension force.

Eo = Eotvos number. = Change of density. = Surface tension. L ± Characteristics length.

Selecting the perfect diameter
There is a critical diameter above which the heat pipe will not function as pulsating heat pipe. This critical diameter is related to Eotvos number. For pulsating action the Eotvos number has to be less than or equal to 4.For selecting the inner diameter of heat pipe, the working diameter should be less than the critical diameter. In this experiment the diameter of the heat pipe has been taken 2.2 mm which makes the Eotvos number less than 4.

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Number of turns
The number of turns increases the level of perturbations inside the device. If the number of turns is less than a critical value, then there is a possibility of a stop-over phenomenon to occur. As the thermal performance of heat pipe is a function of number of turns, so this has to be selected properly. On this experiment the number of turns of heat pipe is ten (10) which is a optimum number for this diameter and corresponding working fluid.

Selection of working fluid
Working fluid is very important part of heat pipe performance. In this experiment water is used as the working fluid which posses all the characteristics of a good working fluid such as high latent heat, high thermal conductivity, high specific heat and high surface tension.

Filling process
In this experiment, water is selected as the working fluid. The filling process is done by using the filling valve which is known as T connector [fig: 3.15]. The liquid filling can be done by different processes. In this experiment the filling process is done by making the pressure difference at the two ends of the pipe. Due to some technical problem t the filling ratio could not be controlled at desired level. For 450 inclinations the filling ratio is 85.6% and for horizontal position (90 0 inclinations) the filling ratio is 85%.

Heating process
Heating process is done at the evaporator section. It is situated at the bottom of the heat pipe. The heating process is done by passing the AC current through the Nicrome wire. As the resistance of the wire is very high, heat is generated during the current flow. This heat is passed to water and the water is evaporated when the evaporator temperature is higher than the vaporization temperature of water.

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Cooling process
The cooling process is occurred at the condenser section. It is at the top of the heat pipe where the water vapor is condensed. The cooling process is done by a DC operated fan [fig: 3.12]. An adapter circuit [fig: 3.16] is used to convert the AC to DC. The fan speed is 3.5 m/s.

Measuring system
For recording the temperature at different position of the heat pipe, K type thermocouples are used. The data is recorded at a regular time interval. The time interval is 10 minutes. A digital thermometer [fig: 3.14] is used for observing the temperature. Selector switch [fig: 3.13] is used for selecting different thermocouples to observe their corresponding temperature.

Orientation
The heat pipe is tilted by changing the angle of the rotating plate of the test stand. Different thermal characteristics are observed on different orientation of heat pipe by changing the tilt angle of this plate. The different orientation angles are:
y y y

Vertical orientation (00 ) 300, 450 and 600 inclinations Horizontal orientation (900)

Fig 3.1 to 3.5 show the different orientation of heat pipe and fig 3.7 to 3.16 shows the various components and essential apparatus to conduct the experiment.

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Fig 3.6: Experimental Setup of Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP)

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Fi 3.7: B used for measurement of water

Fi 3.8: Araldite used for sealing and connecting materials

Fig 3.9: Copper tube used for constructing Heat Pipe

Fig 3.10: Glass wool

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Fig 3.11: Variac used for variable cooling

Fig 3.12: Fan used for Forced Power suppl

Fig 3.13: Selector switch for selecting different thermocouple

Fig 3.14: Digital Thermometer

Fig 3.15: Filling valve for filling water

Fig 3.16: Adapter circuit

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3.9 Mathematical Equation

Eotvos Number or Bond Number:     ‰  

Thermal Resistance:

(Te-Tc) / Q «««.. (1)

Where, Te= Evaporator temperature (0C) Tc= Condenser temperature (0C) Q= Heat input (W)

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
To evaluate and understand the heat transfer characteristics of closed loop pulsating heat pipe, the wall temperature at different points of the CLPHP is measured. The temperature profiles are plotted against the heat input and time. By using equation (1), thermal resistance is determined and then thermal resistances are plotted against heat input.

Vertical Mode
In vertical mode, the vapor bubbles take up heat in the evaporator and grow in size. Their own buoyancy helps them to rise up in the tube section. Simultaneously other bubbles, which are above in the tube, are also helped by their respective buoyant forces. These rising bubbles in the tube also carry the liquid slugs trapped in between them. In this mode of operation there is a natural tendency for the liquid slugs to travel toward the evaporator helped by gravity force. Simultaneously the vapor bubbles have the natural tendency to travel towards the condenser helped by buoyant force. Fig 4.1 shows that the thermal resistance of the PHP decreases with the increase of the heat input. At 100% filling ratio, PHP acts as single phase buoyancy driven thermosyphon. In this case, there is no bubble formation and the liquid starts circulating inside the device due to density difference associated with the temperature gradient. So decreasing trend is higher till the heat input of 35 W and then with the increase of heat input the temperature difference does not change much between evaporator and condenser due to higher buoyancy force is required to overcome the liquid phase. So the trend remains nearly steady. Fig 4.2, with 100% filling ratio, shows that the average evaporator and condenser temperature increase with the heat input. At 100% filling ratio the maximum

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temperature 101.78 C is attained at 56.67 W heat input. The maximum condenser temperature 46.24 C is attained at same heat input and time. In this figure the slope of evaporator temperature is higher than the slope of condenser temperature. With 82.5% filling ratio, small amount of bubble formation occurs and natural circulation of flow is hindered. Evaporator temperature increases which results high temperature difference between evaporator and condenser. Fig 4.3 shows that the slope of decreasing trend of thermal resistance is higher till the heat input of 12 W. Bubble formation increases with heat input leading to higher pumping pressure and thermal instabilities. Then the pulsating mode starts and thermal resistance decreases smoothly. Fig 4.4, with 82.5% filling ratio, shows that the average evaporator and condenser temperature increase with the heat input. At 82.5% filling ratio the maximum temperature 101.39 C is attained at 62.31 W heat input. The maximum condenser temperature 56.53 C is attained at same heat input. Fig 4.5, with 63% filing ratio, shows that the thermal resistance of the PHP decreases with the increase of the heat input. At this filling ratio the partial dry out of evaporator section occurs and the true pulsating mode of PHP starts. The performance of the CLPHP improves. The pulsating action starts properly and the thermal resistance is expected to decrease smoothly. But the curve does not show the smooth trend due to the entrapped air in the heat pipe which enters during the filling process. Fig 4.6, with 63% filling ratio, shows that the average evaporator and condenser temperature increases with the heat input. At 63% filling ratio, the maximum temperature 102.67 C is attained at 62.81 W heat input. The maximum condenser temperature 61.56 C is attained at same heat input. At 41.3% filling ratio, the dry out of evaporator section increases. So, the bubble formation increases and the pumping action improve. So, the figure 4.7 shows that the decreasing trend of thermal resistance is almost smooth throughout the heat input. Fig 4.8, with 41.3% filling ratio, shows average evaporator and condenser temperature increases with the heat input. At 41.3% filling ratio, the maximum
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temperature 102.43 C is attained at 64.27 W heat input. The maximum condenser temperature 62.83 C is attained at the same heat input. At 28% filling ratio, the internal bubble size increases in the evaporator which creates the dry out of evaporator section. The flow instabilities increase the level of perturbation. So, the decrement of thermal resistance is high. Fig 4.9, with 28% filing ratio, shows that the decreasing trend of thermal resistance higher till the heat input is 20 W and than the decreasing trend becomes slow. The maximum performance is observed at this filling ratio. Fig 4.10, with 28% filling ratio, shows that the average evaporator and condenser temperature increase with the heat input. At 28% filling ratio the maximum temperature 104.01 C is attained at 63.36 W heat input. The maximum condenser temperature 72.41 C is attained at same heat input. Fig 4.11 shows that horizontal mode (90 inclinations) of operation with 82% filling ratio. It shows the thermal resistance of the PHP nearly steady with the heat input. This suggests that gravity force is uniform throughout the PHP. So, the gravity force is inactive and the only dominating force is surface tension. At horizontal inclination (90°), all the temperatures of the adiabatic section rapidly become equal and there is no movement of bubble plugs. Bubbles only oscillate about a mean position with high frequency. The temperature difference between the evaporator and condenser increases with the increment of heat input proportionally so the thermal resistance remains nearly steady. Fig 4.12, at horizontal inclination with filling ratio 82%, shows that average evaporator and condenser temperature increase with the heat input. At 82% filling ratio, the maximum temperature 101.87 C is attained at 40.92 W heat input. The maximum condenser temperature 48.42 C is attained at same heat input. At 60 inclination with 79% filling ratio, the pressure force is created due to the temperature difference between the evaporator and condenser. The pressure force acts with the surface tension force inside the tubes. At first the bubbles move slowly to condenser, then the bubbles move faster with the increase of heat input, so the heat

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transfer increases and Fig 4.13 shows that the thermal resistance of the PHP decreases with increase of heat input. Fig 4.14, at 60 inclination with filling ratio 79%, shows that the average evaporator and condenser temperature increase with the heat input. At 79% filling ratio, the maximum temperature 104.57 C is attained at 56.78 W heat input. The maximum condenser temperature 57.44 C is attained at same heat input. Fig 4.15, 45 inclination of with 85.6% filling ratio, shows that the thermal resistance of the PHP decreases with increase of heat input. Before 30W heat input the decrease trend of thermal high and after that the decrease trend becomes slow. Fig 4.16, at 45 inclination with filling ratio 85.6%, shows that the average

evaporator and condenser temperature increase with the heat input. At 85.6% filling ratio, the maximum temperature 103.54 C is attained at 58.68 W heat input. The maximum condenser temperature 61.08 C is attained at same heat input. Fig 4.17, 30 inclination with 79% filling ratio, shows that the decreasing trend of the thermal resistance of the PHP is uniform throughout the heat input. At this position the pressure force due to temperature difference is higher than the gravity force. The surface tension force is also active. Fig 4.18, at 30 inclination with filling ratio 79%, shows that the average evaporator and condenser temperature increase with the heat input. At 79% filling ratio, the maximum temperature 104.74 C is attained at 61.23 W heat input. The maximum condenser temperature 64.33 C is attained at same heat input. Fig 4.19 shows that the comparison of thermal resistance vs. heat Input at different filling ratios. A closer look at comparison curve, it has been found that in between 25% and 65% filling ratio, the PHP functions in a true pulsating mode. Thermal performance improves at lower filling ratio with partial or total dry out in the evaporator section. The maximum performance was observed at about 25% to 30% filling ratio.

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Fig 4.20 shows that the maximum heat input vs. filling ratio. The maximum heat input was found at lower filling ratio and minimum heat input at 100% filling ratio. At 100% filling ratio, the buoyancy induced natural liquid circulation. Liquid circulation gets hampered due to surface tension which results insufficient perturbations. So the performance of the device is hampered. But at lower filling ratio, more bubbles are formed which produce more perturbations. The PHP operates as true pulsating mode and give high throughput. Fig 4.21 shows that comparison of thermal resistance vs. heat input at different inclination nearly same filling ratio. A closer look at comparison curve, at 30 inclination closed loop PHP performs better than other position but comparatively at vertical mode of operation it gave maximum heat throughput. Fig 4.22 shows that the maximum heat input vs. inclination angle nearly at same filling ratio. The maximum heat input decreases with decreasing the inclination angle. The maximum heat input was obtained at vertical inclination (0°) and minimum heat input was obtained at horizontal position (90°). At vertical inclination, the motion of the liquid slugs and vapor bubbles at one section of the PHP moves toward the condenser. This works as driving force. On the other section the motion of slugs and bubbles moves toward the condenser. This works as restoring force. The inter-play between the driving force and restoring force leads to oscillation of the vapor bubbles and liquid slugs in the axial direction. So heat input is high at vertical position. At horizontal inclination (90°), all the temperatures of the adiabatic section rapidly equalize and no movement of bubble plugs. Bubbles only oscillate about a mean position with high frequency. The input heat has to be stopped for safety and surface tension predominates in capillary dimensions of the tubes. From all the curves, some deviations are found from the expected theoretical value. During the filling of working fluid, theoretically the tube must be vacuumed perfectly. But due to technical limitations, the tubes could not be maintained vacuumed. Some air infiltrated in the heat pipe. So, during heating the entrapped air is also heated with the working fluid and the resistance of the air cannot be neglected. So, the actual thermal resistance is greater than expected theoretical value.

29

Inclination: Vertical FR=100%
ermal esista ce vs Heat I put
2.5 2

ermal 1.5 esista ce (° / ) 1
0.5
0

Fig 4.1: Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input
Avg. Evaporator & o de ser emp. vs Heat I put
120 100 80

emp. (° )

60 40 20 0
0 20 40 60 80
Avg. Tevap (°C) Avg. Tcond. (°C)

Heat I put (

)

Fig 4.2: Avg. Evaporator and Condenser Temp vs. Heat Input

30

¥

£

¨

§

¥¤ £ ¢ ¡  ¤ ¦

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Heat I put ( )

Inclination: Vertical FR=82.5%
Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input
2

1.8
1.6

1.4

Thermal 1.2 1 Resistance (°C/W) 0.8
0.6 0.4
0.2

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Heat Input (W)

Fig 4.3: Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input
vg. vaporator an Con enser Temp. vs Heat input
120 100 80

Temp. (°C)

60
Avg. Tevap ( °C)

40

Avg. Tcond. ( °C)

20
0

0

20

40

60

80

Heat Input (W)

Fig 4.4: Evaporator Temp vs. Heat Input

31

Inclination: Vertical FR=63%
Thermal Resistance vs Heat Input
2 1.8 1.6 1.4 Thermal 1.2 1 Resistance (°C/W) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Heat Input (W)

Fig 4.5: Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input

Avg. Evaporator and Condenser Temp. vs Heat Input
120
100 80

Temp (0C)

60
Avg. Tevap ( °C)

40 20 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Avg. Tcond. ( °C)

Heat Input (W)

Fig 4.6: Evaporator and Condenser Temperature vs. Heat Input

32

Inclination: Vertical FR=41.3%
Thermal Resistance vs Heat Input
1.8

1.6 1.4
1.2

Thermal 1 Resistance 0.8 (°C/W)
0.6

0.4
0.2

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Heat Input (W)

Fig 4.7: Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input

Avg. Evaporator and Condenser temp. vs Heat Input
120 100 80

Temp. (°C)

60 40 20 0
Avg. Tevap ( °C)

Avg. Tcond .( °C)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Heat Input (W)

Fig 4.8: Avg. Evaporator and Condenser Temp vs. Heat Input

33

Inclination: Vertical Filling ratio: 28%
Thermal Resistance vs
2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 Thermal 1 Resistance 0.8 (0C/W) 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

eat In

t

eat In t (W )

Fig 4.9: Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input

Avg. Evaporator and Condenser Temp. vs Heat Input
120 100
80

Temp. (°C)

60 40 20
0
Avg. Tevap (°C)

0

20

40

60

Heat Input (W)

Fig 4.10: Evaporator and Condenser Temperature vs. Heat Input

34 

©

Avg. Tcond .( °C)

80

Inclination: 90° (Horizontal) FR=82%
Thermal Resistance vs Heat Input
2 1.8 1.6 1.4

Thermal 1.2 Resistance 1 (°C/W)
0.8 0.6

0.4 0.2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50

Heat Input (w)

Fig 4.11: Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input
vg. vaporator an Con ensor Temp. vs Heat Input
120
100

80

Temp. (°C)

60
Avg. Tevap (°C)

40
Avg. Tcond. (°C)

20
0

0

10

20

30

40

50

Heat Input (W)

Fig 4.12: Avg. Evaporator and Condenser Temp vs. Heat Input

35

Inclination: 60° FR=79%

Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input
2.5

2

Thermal Resistance (°C/W)

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

20

40

60

80

Heat Input (W)

Fig 4.13: Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input

Avg. Evaporator and Condenser Temp. vs Heat Input
120 100 80

Temp. (°C)

60

40
Avg. Tevap (°C)

20 0
0 20 40 60 80

Avg. Tcond. (°C)

Heat Input (w)

Fig 4.14: Avg. Evaporator and Condenser Temp vs. Heat Input

36

Inclination: 45° FR=85.6%
Thermal esista ce Vs Heat I put
2.5 2

Thermal esista ce (° / )

1.5

Heat I put (

Fig 4.15: Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input

Avg. Evaporator a d o de ser Temp vs Heat I put
120 100

80

Temp. (° )

60 40 20
0
Avg. Tevap (°C)
Avg. Tcond. ( °C)

0

20

40

60

Heat I put ( )

Fig 4.16: Avg. Evaporator and Condenser Temp vs. Heat Input
37     

  

1

0.5

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

)

80

Inclination: 30° FR=79%
Thermal Resistance vs eat In t
2.5 2

Thermal 1.5 Resistance (°C/W) 1
0.5 0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Fig 4.17: Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input

Avg. Eva orator and Condenser Tem vs eat In t
120

100

Tem .
(°C)

80 60

20 0 0 20 40 60 80

Avg. Tevap (° )
Avg. Tcond. ( ° )

Fig 4.18: Avg. Evaporator and Condenser Temp vs. Heat Input 

eat In

t (W)

38

" !

40 

eat In

t (W) 

 

Inclination: Vertical
Comparision of Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input at dfferent Filling Ratio (At vertical position)

2.5

2

1.5

Thermal Resistance (°C/W)
1

FR=28%(VERTICAL)

FR=41.3%(VERTICAL)
FR=63%(VERTICAL)

FR=82.5%(VERTICAL)
FR=100%(VERTICAL)
0.5

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Heat Input (W)

Fig 4.19: Comparison of Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input at different Filling Ratio (At vertical position)

39

Maximum Heat Input vs Filling ratio
65

64
63

62

Maximum 61 Heat Input 60 (W)
59
58

57
56

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Filling Ratio (%)

Fig 4.20: Maximum Heat Input vs. Filling Ratio

40

Comparision of Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input at dfferent Inclination (Nearly same filling ratio)
2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Inclination 90°( FR=82%)

Heat Input(W)

Inclination 30°( FR=79%) Inclination 45°( FR=85.6%) Inclination 60°( FR=79%) Inclination 0°( FR=82.5%)

Fig 4.21: Comparison of Thermal Resistance vs. Heat Input at Different Inclination (Nearly same filling ratio)

41

Change of heat input with inclination angle
(Nearly same filling ratio) Maximum Heat Input vs Inclination ngle
70 60 50

Maximum Heat Input (W)

40 30

20 10
0

0

20

40

60

80

100

Inclination ngle ( eg.)

Fig 4.22: Maximum Heat Input vs. Inclination angle

42

$

#

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The following facts summarize the essential aspects of this study: 1. Valuable information related to the fundamental characteristics and operational regimes of a PHP were generated. An operationally better performance and selfsustained thermally driven pulsating action of the device was only observed in the ¿lling ratio range 25±65%. Above this range, the overall degree of freedom and the pumping action of bubbles were insufficient for rendering good performance. Below a certain range of ¿lling ratio, partial dry out of the evaporator was detected. 2. The results also indicate that a 100% ¿lled PHP (not working in the pulsating mode but instead as a single-phase buoyancy-induced thermosyphon) is thermally better performing than a partially ¿lled pulsating mode device under certain operating conditions. 3. The tested PHP did not operate in the vertical mode constantly for the working Àuid tested. The reasons are attributed to fixed number of turns and atmospheric pressures existing at testing conditions. 4. Although the Eotvos number of water was much below the prescribed maximum limit of Eo = 4, gravity forces were definitely seen to affect the performance. This suggests that, in the vertical mode Àuid transport is mainly by the bubble pumping action thereby providing substantial heat transfer. 5. Closed loop pulsating heat pipes are complex heat transfer systems with a very strong thermo- hydrodynamic coupling governing the thermal performance. 6. Different heat input to these devices give rise to different Àow patterns inside the tubes. This intern is responsible for various heat transfer characteristics. The study indicates that design of these devices should aim at thermo-mechanical boundary conditions which resulting convective Àow boiling conditions in the evaporator leading to higher local heat transfer co-efficients.

43

7. The inclination operating angle changes the internal Àow patterns thereby resulting in different performance levels. The best performance is obtained from vertical direction and the worst performance is obtained from the horizontal orientation.

44

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. A comprehensive investigation can be carried out on the closed loop heat pipe by changing the filling ratio, working fluid, cross sections, shape and using stainless steel and aluminum. 2. Further investigation can be carried out on closed loop pulsating heat pipe by introducing more angle of inclination with different filling ratios. 3. Air velocity should be varied to test the thermal performance and water cooling can be incorporated for the comparison of heat transfer performance between water cooling and air cooling. 4. For accuracy, temperature reading should be taken electronically via interfacing system with real time data acquisition. 5. Room temperature should be controlled and atmospheric properties should be uniform. 6. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis can be done to investigate the reasons of difference in thermal resistance.

45

REFERENCE
1. Akachi, H. polasek F., Stule P., ³Pulsating Heat Pipes´, Proceedings of the 5th International Heat Pipe Symposium, 1996, pp.208-217, Melbourne, Australia.

2. Khandekar, S., Dollinger, N., Groll, M., ³Understanding Operational Regimes of Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes: An Experimental Study´, 2003, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 23, PP. 707-719.

3. Zhang, Y.,Faghri, A., ³Heat Transfer in a Pulsating Heat Pipe with an Open End´, International journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 45, 2002, PP. 755-764.

4. Delil, A., A.M, ³pulsating and oscillating Heat Transfer Devices in Acceleration Enviorments from Microgravity to Supergravity´, SAE paper #2001-01-2240.

5. Charoenswan, P., Khandekar, S., Groll, M., Terdtoon, P., ³Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes Part A: Parametric Experimental Investigations´, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2003, Vol. 23, pp. 2009-2020.

6. Khandekar, S. and Groll, M., ³Pulsating Heat Pipes : A Challenge and Still Unsolved Problem in Heat Pipe Science´, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Transport Phenomena in Multiphase systems , 2002,35-44 (ISBN 83-88906-03-8) pp. 2002 Vol. 3.

7. Khandekar, S, Schneider, M ,Schafer, P., Kulenovic R., Groll, M., ³Thermofluid Dynamic Study of Flat Plate Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes´, Microscale Thermo physical Engineering, Taylor and Francis, 2002, (ISSN 1089-3954) pp. 303-318, Vol. 6/4.

46

8. Rettidech, S. and Roger R. Riehl, ³Characteristics of an Open Loop pulsating Heat Pipe´, SAE paper #2004-01-2509.

9. Tong, B. Y.,Wong, T. N., Ooi, K.T., ³Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe´ , 2001, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 21, pp. 1845-1862.

10. Khandekar, S., Groll, M., Charonsawan, P., Terdtoon, P., ³Pulsating Heat Pipes: Thermo-Fluidic Charecterstics and Comparative Study with Single Phase Thermosyphon´, Proceedings of 12th International Heat Transfer Conference , Vol 4, pp.459-464, Grenoble, France,2002.

11. Chowdhury, F., et. al. ³Study on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Looped Parallel Thermosyphon,´ Proceedings of 4th European Thermal Science Conference., s10-HPI-2004.

12. Swanepoel, G., Thermal Management of Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Using Heat Pipes, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Stellenbosch. 2001.

13. Zhang, Y, Faghri, A ³Heat Transfer in a pulsating with an open End ³, International journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol 45, 2002, pp .755-764.

14. Roger R. Riehl, ³Characteristics of an Open Loop pulsating Heat Pipe´, SAE paper #2004-01-2509.

15. Rittidech, S., Terdtoon, P., Murakami, M., Kamonpet, P., Jompakdee, W., ³Correlation to predict Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Closed End Oscillating Heat Pipe at Normal Temperature Condition´, 2003, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 23, pp. 497-510.

16. Asselman, G.A. and Groll, D.B., "Heat Pipes," Philips Tech. Rev., No. 4, PP 104 - 113, 1973.

47

APPENDIX A

A.1 TYPICAL HEAT PIPE
A heat pipe is a heat transfer mechanism that combines the principles of both thermal conductivity and phase transition to efficiently manage the transfer of heat between two solid interfaces. At the hot interface within a heat pipe, which is typically at a very low pressure, a liquid in contact with a thermally conductive solid surface turns into a vapor by absorbing the heat of that surface. The vapor condenses back into a liquid at the cold interface, releasing the latent heat. The liquid then returns to the hot interface through either capillary action or gravity action where it evaporates once more and repeats the cycle. In addition, the internal pressure of the heat pipe can be set or adjusted to facilitate the phase change depending on the demands of the working conditions of the thermally managed system. A typical heat pipe consists of a sealed pipe or tube made of a material with high thermal conductivity such as copper or aluminum at both hot and cold ends. A vacuum pump is used to remove all air from the empty heat pipe, and then the pipe is filled with a fraction of a percent by volume of working fluid (or coolant) chosen to match the operating temperature. Examples of such fluids include water, ethanol, acetone, sodium, or mercury. Due to the partial vacuum that is near or below the vapor pressure of the fluid, some of the fluid will be in the liquid phase and some will be in the gas phase. The use of a vacuum eliminates the need for the working gas to diffuse through any other gas and so the bulk transfer of the vapor to the cold end of the heat pipe is at the speed of the moving molecules. In this sense, the only

48

practical limit to the rate of heat transfer is the speed with which the gas can be condensed to a liquid at the cold end. Inside the pipe's walls, an optional wick structure exerts a capillary pressure on the liquid phase of the working fluid. This is typically a sintered metal powder or a series of grooves parallel to the pipe axis, but it may be any material capable of exerting capillary pressure on the condensed liquid to wick it back to the heated end. The heat pipe may not need a wick structure if gravity or some other source of acceleration is sufficient to overcome surface tension and cause the condensed liquid to flow back to the heated end. The materials chosen depend on the temperature conditions in which the heat pipe must operate, with coolants ranging from liquid helium for extremely low temperature applications (2±4 K) to mercury (523±923 K) and sodium (873±1473 K) and even indium (2000±3000 K) for extremely high temperatures. The vast majority of heat pipes for low temperature applications use some combination of ammonia (213±373 K), alcohol (methanol (283±403 K) or ethanol (273±403 K)) or water (303±473 K) as working fluid. Since the heat pipe contains a vacuum, the working fluid will boil and hence take up latent heat at well below its boili ng point at atmospheric pressure. Water, for instance, will boil at just above 273 K (0 degrees Celsius) and so can start to effectively transfer latent heat at this low temperature. The advantage of heat pipes over many other heat-dissipation mechanisms is their great efficiency in transferring heat. They are a fundamentally better heat conductor than an equivalent cross-section of solid copper Some heat pipes have demonstrated a heat flux of more than 230 MW/m², nearly four times the heat flux at the surface of the sun.

49

Fi

.1: Operati

of Heat Pipe

A.2 T PES OF HEAT PIPE:
Heat pipes can be di ided into different categories depending on t eir structure and shape.

On the basis of structure and operation:

y y y y

Flexible heat pipe Looped parallel heat pipe Rotating heat pipe Pulsating heat pipe

On the basis of shape

y y

Flat t pe Tubular and cylindrical type

On the basis of cooling system in the condenser y y Water cooled heat pipe Air cooled heat pipe

50

A.3 PULSATING HEAT PIPE
The Pulsating Heat Pipe is an innovating technology that has gained attention in the last 5 years. This is a special type of heat pipe and the driving force is the slug/plug motion of the working fluid in the tube, generated by the evaporation. PHPs consist of a meandering tube bent to form several parallel channels. It can be configured as an:
y y

open loop pulsating heat pipe closed loop pulsating heat pipe

In the first one, one end of the PHP is pinched-off and welded, while the other end presents a service valve for vacuum and charge the closed loop PHP is an endless tube as both ends are welded together. Each PHP configuration presents particular operation modes, which are mainly guided by the chaotic slug/plug motion. Either PHP configuration presents a high dependence on their thermal behavior related to the gravity vector during operation, which must be carefully considered. Higher operation temperatures are achieved when the PHP operates at the vertical orientation, while at horizontal orientation, the operation temperatures are lower.

Fig A.2: Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe

51

Fig A.3: Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe

A.4 APPLICATIONS OF HEAT PIPE
Heat pipes are very efficient heat transport elements. They can be described as light weight devices with high thermal conductance. Heat pipes allow the transportation of high fluxes with small temperature difference with no change in the operating temperature. In addition, there are no moving mechanical parts in heat pipes, and special sets of them can be used for temperature control, as thermal diodes and thermal switches. Also, they can be built in difference geometries and sizes. Most suitable where:

y y y y y y y y

Low humidity level necessary Humidity control required Air reheated after cooling in traditional HVAC system Large quantities of ventilation air needed Electronic component production, assembly and storage Film drying, processing and storage Drug, chemical and paper manufacturing and storage Candy, chocolate processing and storage
52

y y y y y

Swimming pool enclosures Hospital operating rooms Grocery stores Telephone exchanges, relay stations, clean rooms Underground silos

Other Heat Pipe Applications
Heat pipes have been used for many applications: a. Remote heat rejection from a concentrated source (e.g. computer chip) b. Obtain uniform temperature c. Efficient heat exchangers. d. Space technology e. Note book and Desktop application f. Laptop heat solution g. Solar thermal h. Pipeline over permafrost.

53

Fig A.4: Heat Pipe in Miniature Form

Fig A.5: Application of Heat Pipe on Computer Technology

54

A.5 LIMITATIONS OF HEAT PIPE 
When heated above a certain temperature, all of the working fluid in the heat pipe will vaporize and the condensation process will cease to occur: in such cases, the heat pipes thermal conductivity is effectively reduced to heat conduction properties of its solid metal casing alone. As most heat pipes constructed of copper (a metal with high heat conductivity), an overheated heat pipe will generally continue to conduct heat at around 1/80 of the original conductivity. 

If the heat source temperature drops below a certain minimum value, depending on the specific fluid and gas combination in the heat pipe, a complete shutoff can occur. So the control feature is particularly useful for fast worm up application in addition to its value as a temperature leveler for variable load conditions. 

The rate of heat transfer through the heat pipe is solely dependent on the rate of evaporation and condensation. If the temperature difference is not high enough, the heat transfer rate at condenser section would decrease. Natural convection by air is not high enough to support high rate of cooling.  If non condensable gases are present in the gas mixture, then the heat transfer will be affected. To ensure effective heat transfer, a mechanism has to be introduced in the heat pipe system.  Most manufacturers cannot make a traditional heat pipe smaller than 2 mm due to material limitation. Experiments have been conducted with micro heat pipes, which use piping with sharp edges, such as triangular or rhombus like tubing. In these cases, the sharp edges transfer the fluid trough capillary action, and no wick is necessary.  Heat pipes are excellent heat transfer devices but their sphere of application is mainly confined to transferring relatively small heat loads over relatively

55

short distances when the evaporator and condenser are at same ho rizontal level. This limitation on the part of the heat pipes is mainly related to the major pressure losses associated with the liquid flow through the porous structure, present along the entire length of the heat pipe and viscous interaction between the vapor and liquid phases, also called entrainment losses. For the applications involving transfer of large heat loads over long distances, the thermal performance of the heat pipes is badly affected by increase in these losses. For the same reason conventional heat pipes are very sensitive to the change in orientation in gravitational field. For the unfavorable slopes in evaporator-above-condenser configuration, the pressure losses due to the mass forces in gravity field adds to the total pressure losses and further affect the efficiency of the heat transfer process.  As a result of these limitations, different solutions involving structural modifications to the conventional heat pipe have been proposed. Some of these modifications incorporate arterial tubes with considerably low hydraulic resistance for liquid return to the heat source (arterial heat pipes), while others provide spatial separation of the vapor and liquid phases of the working fluid at the transportation section (separated line heat pipes). 

Though these new forms of heat pipes are able to transfer significant heat flows and can increase heat transport length, they remain very sensitive to spatial orientation relative to gravity. To extend functional possibilities of two-phase systems towards applications involving otherwise inoperable slopes in gravity, the advantages provided by the spatial separation of the transportation line and the usage of non-capillary arteries are combined in the loop scheme. This scheme allows heat pipes to be created with higher heat transfer characteristics while maintaining normal operation in any directional orientation. The loop scheme forms the basis of the physical concept of TwoPhase Loops (TPLs).

56

APPENDIX B DESIGN OF PULSATING HEAT PIPE B.1 WHY HEAT PIPE
y y y y y y

Limited space budget No electrical consumption Zero noise or noise reduction Low maintenance and high reliability Stagnation region Low weight

B.2 COMPONENTS OF HEAT PIPE
The three basic components of a heat pipe are: 1. The container 2. The working fluid 3. The wick or capillary structure

Container
The function of the container is to isolate the working fluid from the outside environment. It has to therefore be leak-proof, maintain the pressure differential across its walls, and enable transfer of heat to take place from and into the working fluid. Selection of the container material depends on many factors. These are as follows:
y y y

Compatibility (both with working fluid and external environment) Strength to weight ratio Thermal conductivity

57

y y y

Ease of fabrication, including welding, machineability and ductility Porosity Wettability

Most of the above are self-explanatory. A high strength to weight ratio is more important in spacecraft applications. The material should be non-porous to prevent the diffusion of vapor. A high thermal conductivity ensures minimum temperature drop between the heat source and the wick.

Working Fluid
A first consideration in the identification of a suitable working fluid is the operating vapor temperature range. Within the approximate temperature band, several possible working fluids may exist, and a variety of characteristics must be examined in order to determine the most acceptable of these fluids for the application considered. The prime requirements are:
y y y y y y y y y

Compatibility with wick and wall materials Good thermal stability Wettability of wick and wall materials Vapor pressure not too high or low over the operating temperature range High latent heat High thermal conductivity Low liquid and vapor viscosities High surface tension Acceptable freezing or pour point

The selection of the working fluid must also be based on thermodynamic considerations which are concerned with the various limitations to heat flow occurring within the heat pipe like viscous, sonic, capillary, entrainment and nucleate boiling levels.

58

In heat pipe design, a high value of surface tension is desirable in order to enable the heat pipe to operate against gravity and to generate a high capillary driving force. In addition to high surface tension, it is necessary for the working fluid to wet the wick and the container material i.e. contact angle should be zero or very small. The vapor pressure over the operating temperature range must be sufficiently great to avoid high vapor velocities, which tend to setup large temperature gradient and cause flow instabilities. A high latent heat of vaporization is desirable in order to transfer large amounts of heat with minimum fluid flow, and hence to maintain low pressure drops within the heat pipe. The thermal conductivity of the working fluid should preferably be high in order to minimize the radial temperature gradient and to reduce the possibility of nucleate boiling at the wick or wall surface. The resistance to fluid flow will be minimized by choosing fluids with low values of vapor and liquid viscosities. Tabulated below are a few mediums with their useful ranges of temperature.

B.3 PHP DESIGN
The cooling device performance depends on it¶s structure, shape, material and length. Thermal performance of any device vastly depends on a parameter known as thermal resistance. Thermal resistance is Rth = ( T/Q)

Where.

T= temperature drop along the device Q= heat load

The overall thermal resistance of a pulsating heat pipe composed of several components from evaporator to condenser.
59

y y y y y

Two conductive thermal resistance in the wall R wall Thermal resistance due to evaporation at evaporator R evap Thermal resistance due to condensation at condenser Rcond Thermal resistance along the heat pipe length R l-v Two contact resistance due to surface roughness Rcont

The total heat transfer capacity of PHP, Q

Q = ( T)/ (2 Rwall + R evap +R cond + R l-v + 2 Rcont)

Where, T = temperature drop along the device Q = heat load

Wall Resistance, R wall
The conductive thermal resistance of the wall is negligible as the wall material has high thermal conductivity. The copper is the most common wall material and 1 mm Copper material introduces 2 × 10-6 °C/W

Evaporation Resistance, R evap
Resistance in the evaporator of heat pipe can be estimated to be between (.001A)
0

C/W and (1.180* 10

-4

A) 0C/W. water has been widely approved to have the best

transport capabilities. Best evaporation resistance is achieved due to the best heat

60

transfer in the case of square channel s due to the liquid film evaporation enhancement in the channel angles and best bubble rise in that case.

Condensation Resistance, R cond
As the matter of cause a similar range for the heat transfer coefficient in the condensation region can be applied.

Liquid Vapor Thermal Resistance, R l-v
Liquid vapor thermal resistance along the PHP , R , is the most important part

l-v

of the thermal chain and is a function of the pressure /temperature state conditions from the evaporator to the condenser .this resistance determines the PHP transfer rate .It can be summarized altogether with R evap , R cond , R following effects
y y y y
l-v

heat

depends on

Effect of number of turns Effect of filling ratio Effect of evaporator/condenser section size area Effect of inclination angle.

Contact Resistance, R cont
Generally PHP should introduce small contact resistances. Usually in power electronics, contact thermal resistances appear between the power module and the cooling device, heat sink or heat exchanger due to the surface roughness.

61

B.4 INFLUENCING DESIGN PARAMETERS

Looking into the available literature, it can be seen that six major thermo mechanical parameters bottom heat mode of operation is possible. have emerged as the primary design parameters have emerged as the primary design parameters affecting the CLPHP system dynamic. These include: 

Internal diameter of the CLPHP  Input heat flux to the device  Volumetric filling ratio of the working fluid  Total number of turns  Device orientation with respect to gravity  Working fluid thermo physical properties Other conditions which influence the operation are: 

Use of flow direction control check valves  Tube cross sectional shape  Tube material and fluid combination  Rigidity of the tube material.

B.5 TUBE DIAMETER

The internal tube diameter is one of the parameters which essentially defines a PHP. The physical behavior adheres to the µpulsating¶ mode only under a certain range of diameters. The critical Bond number (or Eötvös) criterion gives the tentative design rule for the diameter

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This criterion ensures that individual liquid slugs and vapor bubbles are formed in the device and they do not agglomerate leading to phase separation, if the device is kept isothermally in a non-operating period. This is most crucial, especially if top heating mode is employed. In bottom heat mode, though at EO > 4 the tendency of slug flow diminishes as surface tension tends to reduce, a certain amount of liquid transport is still possible by the bubble pumping action thereby providing substantial heat transfer. For a given specified heat power, decreasing the diameter will increase the dissipative losses and lead to poor performance. Increasing the diameter much above the critical diameter will change the phenomenological operation of the device. It will no more act as a pulsating heat pipe but will transform into an interconnected array of two phase thermosyphons. In this case then, only

B.6 TOTAL NUBER OF TURNS
The number of turns increases the level of perturbations inside the device. If the number of turns is less than a critical value, then there is a possibility of a stop-over phenomenon to occur. In such a condition, all the evaporator U-sections has a vapor bubble and the rest of the PHP has liquid. This condition essentially leads to a dry out and small perturbations cannot amplify to make the system operate selfsustained. If the total heat throughput is defined, increasing the number of turns leads to a decrease in heat flux handled per turn. Thus, an optimum number of turns exits for a given heat throughput.

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APPENDIX C
Inclination: Vertical FR=28%
Time (sec.) 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4500 5400 6000 6600 7200 7800 8400 Heat Input (w) 7.94 16.01 21.13 25.57 31.42 36.72 42.4 47.51 57.02 63.36 63.38 63.38 Avg. Tevap (°C) 46.54 57.78 64.34 70.41 78.84 84.37 93.08 97.71 101.21 104.01 103.32 103.72 Avg. Tcond . (°C) 32.25 36.82 42.98 46.12 53.39 56.46 62.98 67.2 70.43 69.71 71.31 72.41 Thermal Resistance (°C/W) 1.8 1.31 1.01 0.95 0.81 0.76 0.71 0.64 0.54 0.54 0.51 0.51

Inclination: Vertical FR=41.3%

Time (sec.)
600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4800 5400 6000 7200 7800 8400

Heat Input (w)
4.73 8.43 15.29 23.37 29.91 38.41 43.73 48.38 55.45 64.27 64.27 64.27

Avg. Tevap (°C)
35.78 40.31 48.54 57.13 64.12 73.76 79.49 84.78 94.27 102.23 102.43 102.37

Avg. Tcond . (°C)
28.31 28.43 28.78 29.32 33.61 36.50 44.07 49.46 57.12 62.01 62.83 63.41

Thermal Resistance (°C/W) 1.58 1.41 1.30 1.19 1.02 0.97 0.81 0.73 0.67 0.63 0.62 0.61

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Inclination: Vertical FR=63%
Time (sec.) 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200 4800 5400 6000 6600 7200 7800 Heat Input (w) 4.12 9,71 15.81 21.78 28.48 35.37 41.82 54.32 62.73 62.81 62.81 62.81 62.81 Avg. Tevap (°C) 35.79 43.57 52.17 59.97 66.73 75.84 83.64 96.71 101.73 102.55 102.42 102.67 102.57 Avg. Tcond. (°C) 28.39 29.01 30.43 31.34 36.826 41.88 49.35 56.51 59.70 61.35 61.34 61.56 61.74 Thermal Resistance (°C/W) 1.8 1.49 1.37 1.31 1.05 0.96 0.82 0.74 0.67 0.66 0.654 0.653 0.65

Inclination: Vertical FR=82.5%
ime (sec.) 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200 4800 5400 6000 6600 7200 7800 Heat Input (w) 4.78 8.64 12.1 21.49 28.67 33.23 38.78 46.52 52.64 62.31 62.31 62.31 62.31 Avg. Tevap (°C) 38.14 45.49 51.23 63.78 71.43 76.08 81.78 89.93 95.83 101.23 101.43 101.39 101.54 Avg. Tcond. (°C) 29.27 31.39 33.12 33.73 35.02 37.21 39.89 42.95 45.29 49.51 52.21 56.53 56.76 Thermal Resistance (°C/W) 1.9 1.62 1.50 1.43 1.27 1.17 1.08 1.01 0.96 0.83 0.79 0.72 0.72

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Inclination: Vertical FR=100%
Time (sec.) 600 1200 1800 2400 3600 4200 4800 6000 6600 7200 7800 8400 9000 10200 Heat Input (w) 4.73 7.384 8.25 15.12 17.73 23.41 27.58 34.46 37.35 43.63 49.51 56.67 56.67 56.67 Avg. Tevap (°C) 39.29 44.43 45.57 54.63 55.71 62.68 66.45 75.12 79.23 87.31 95.04 101.78 101.53 101.67 Avg. Tcond. (°C) 28.37 28.79 30.80 31.08 31.12 31.67 31.78 36.56 39.133 40.24 45.03 46.24 46.54 46.64 Thermal Resistance (°C/W) 2.31 2.12 1.79 1.53 1.50 1.41 1.26 1.12 1.073 1.07 1.02 0.98 0.97 0.97

Inclination: Horizontal FR=82%
Time (sec.) 600 1200 1800 2400 3600 4200 4800 5400 6000 6600 7200 Heat Input (w) 3.61 7.42 12.59 19.12 23.34 28.16 33.42 39.41 40.92 40.92 40.92 Avg. Tevap (°C) 35.49 43.13 54.91 68.37 79.47 87.78 96.25 101.21 101.43 101.87 101.62 Avg. Tcond. (°C) 29.01 30.37 34.64 38.16 43.99 45.56 46.12 48.16 48.53 48.42 48.32 Thermal Resistance (°C/W) 1.80 1.72 1.61 1.58 1.52 1.51 1.50 1.50 1.39 1.37 1.35

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Inclination: 30° FR=79%
Time (sec.) 600 1200 1800 2400 3600 4200 4800 5400 6600 7200 8400 9000 Heat Input (w) 4,97 14.81 19.28 27.06 32.87 32.87 39.25 39.28 42.56 56.78 56.78 56.78 Avg. Tevap (°C) 38.35 56.74 61.14 72.08 79.27 79.54 87.45 87.56 94.72 104.57 104.47 104.31 Avg. Tcond. (°C) 28.34 29.79 30.87 37.44 44.10 44.69 49.77 50.24 57.27 57.44 57.91 57.75 Thermal Resistance (°C/W) 2.01 1.82 1.57 1.28 1.07 1.06 0.96 0.95 0.88 0.83 0.82 0.82

Inclination: 45° FR=85.6%
Time (sec.) 600 1200 1800 2400 3600 5100 6000 6600 7200 8400 9000 9600 10800 Heat Input (w) 5.07 14.73 19.47 27.53 33.57 33.57 39.43 39.48 44.32 58.68 58.68 58.68 58.68 Avg. Tevap (°C) 38.8 56.72 62.83 71.69 79.13 79.54 86.23 86.78 93.37 103.24 103.54 103.43 103.78 Avg. Tcond. (°C) 28.12 33.23 34.14 41.95 47.91 48.99 51.93 52.43 57.47 60.99 61.08 61.84 62.12 Thermal Resistance (°C/W) 1.93 1.61 1.48 1.08 0.93 0.91 0.87 0.87 0.81 0.725 0.72 0.71 0.71

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Inclination: 60° FR=79%
Time (sec.) 600 1200 1800 2400 3600 4800 5400 6600 7200 7800 8400 9000 Heat Input (w) 5.12 15.04 19.56 26.53 33.68 33.68 39.48 47.35 53.47 61.23 61.24 61.24 Avg. Tevap (°C) 38.92 57.41 63.28 72.77 80.45 80.91 85.34 91.04 97.82 104.74 104.57 104.81 Avg. Tcond. (°C) 28.14 33.80 37.07 43.06 47.78 48.58 53.36 55.53 60.93 64.33 64.76 65.62 Thermal Resistance (°C/W) 1.91 1.57 1.34 1.12 0.97 0.96 0.81 0.75 0.69 0.66 0.65 0.64

Heat Input vs. Filling Ratio (Vertical) Filling Ratio (%) 28 41.3 63 82.5 100 Maximum Heat Input(W) 63.38 64.27 62.81 62.31 56.67

Heat Input vs. Inclination Angle (Nearly same filling ratio) Inclination Angle(deg.) 90 60 45 30 0 Filling Ratio (%) 82 79 85.6 79 82.5 Maximum Heat Input(W) 40.92 56.78 58.68 61.24 62.31

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