Ap Euro Semester 1 Study Guide 1. The Habsburg-Valois wars were fought between which two countries?

About what? Spain vs France- over territories in Italy 2. Name the great masters of the High Renaissance Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Raphael, Machiavelli 3. Social strife and competition for political power became so intense within the cities that most evolved into what? Despotisms 4. Who protested the marriage of Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon? Portugal and France 5. Erasmus had a profound and influential effect on this person. Martin Luther 6. A new alliance between monarchs and this group helped break the bonds of feudal society Townspeople 7. Who is considered the “father of Renaissance painting?” Giotto 8. He was by far the most effective and outspoken critic of the Spanish conquerors: Bartolome de las casas 9. What is the significance of “the Renaissance Garden?” Source of food and medicine, place of social and religious significance 10. His most famous painting is the Mona Lisa: Leonardo Da Vinci 11. Over the second half of the 15th century this nation delivered 150,000 slaves to Europe: Portugal 12. By the time of the spanish conquests, the Aztecs ruled almost all of: Central Mexico 13. List the major events that took place under the reign of king Louis XI: Conquered Burgundian lands 14. Humanism paved the way for Protestant reforms in which countries? Spain 15. What are the characteristics of Northern Humanism? Educational, towards lay people 16. He was known as “the father of humanism”: Francesco Petrarch 17. Which cities had uninterrupted trade between Europe and the Near East throughout the middle ages, maintaining a vibrant urban society? Italian cities 18. Who were the fist Humanists? Petrarch, Dante, Boccaccio 19. With the growing cost of warfare in 15th and 16th centuries, monarchs needed new national sources of income and created them by taxing who and/or what? Taxed laity/clergy on servants/peasants

was imposed on all English churches by: The Act of Uniformity 36.20. and shipping 29. What does the following phrase mean? “There was endemic warfare between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor. Protestants were more likely than catholics to: allow divorce 35. The Act of Succession called for what? made Anne Boelyns children legitimate heirs to the throne 39. guild masters. What was the most important intellectual recovery made during the Italian Renaissance? The revival of greek studies 27. What are ways the church calendar regulated life in the 15th century? 1/3 year to religious observations frequent fasting 40.” Natural conflict 23. Lutheranism was introduced to Denmark by” King Christian II 34. 13th through 15th century lay religious movements shared a common goal of what? religious simplicity 30. Which cities played a key role in trade between Europe and the Near East? Italian port cities 24. The canonical. What is the significance of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedraʼs contributions to his time? He started as a french slave and managed to become famous from Don Quixote 38. written by Thomas Cranmer. or church-sanctioned age for marriage prior to the 16th century was what? 14. The Peace of Augsburg recognized in law what had already been established in practice what? rulers determined the religion of their land 37. The council of Trentʼs most important reforms concerned what? internal church discipline 31. What were 4 major social groups that existed in Florence? Grandi. Ferdinand and Isabella accomplished what during the 15th and 16th centuries? Conquered the moors in branada 22. popolo grosso. agriculture. How did Valla become a hero among Protestant Reformers? Because of his “Donation of Constantine” 26. The Book of Common Prayer. What are 3 major components of the colonial economy of Latin America? mining. poplo minuto 28. This influential womenʼs order was founded in 1535 for the religious education of girls from all social classes The Ursulines .men 32. What was the primary theological point of contention between Luther and Zwingli? the presence of christ in the Eucharist 33.

What reasons contributed to the wide usage of wet nursing among upper-class women? vanity and convenience.what did it summarize? The new teachings of salvation by faith alone 42. writted by Martin Luther. In Luthers address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation. Huguenots made up about how much of the population of Europe? Who were they? 1/15 of Europe.41. It was during this period of fighting that Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution and struck panic in the hearts of Protestants: the Danish Period 55. This treaty brought the Swedish period of war to an end: Treaty of Leipzig 59. Anabaptism desired what? rapid and thorough implementation of Apostolic Christianity 46. The Freedom of a Chirstian. who was Edwards VIʼs successor in England? Mary Tudor 54. Calvin. this nation has always been Europeʼs highway for merchants and traders going north. south. During the first half of his reign. he urged the German princes to: force reforms on Roman Catholic Church 49. The reformation in Zurich was led by: Ulrich Zwingli 53. the Imitation of Christ: Thomas A. The characterization “magestrial reformers” refers to the what? the role of reformers such as Luther. east. reflected social standing. and west: Germany 58. Despite his wishes. Anabaptists are the 16th century ancestors of which of the following modern groups: Amish 52. they were french Calvinists 57. The reformation broke out first in the cities of: Switzerland and Germany 50. What happened in the immediate aftermath of the Peace of Saint Germain-en-laye? the crown acknowledged the power of protestant nobility 60. and Zwingli 48. One of the first actions Ferdinand took as king of Bohemia was to: revoke religious freedom of Bohemian Protestants . The medieval church taught that salvation was what? a joint venture 47. Kempis 45. An indulgence was: a pardon for sins sold by priests 51. This writer summarized the philosophy of the Brothers of Common life in what became the most popular religious book of the period. Due to its central location. lactating women forbidden to engage in intercourse 44. When German peasants revolted in 1524-1525 they won the support of: the peasants 43. Philip II focused on: the mediterranean and turkish 56.

multiple choice 62. The Edict of Nantes was criticized for: creating a state within a state 74. Bavaria was a major center of: Catholic power 73. What sparked the first wave of Protestant persecution in France? capture of King Francis I at the battle of Pavia 67. this was a revision of Thomas Cranmerʼs works that made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England. By 1609. What roused suspicion of James foreign policy? its efforts to arrange a marriage between his son and a spanish princess 75. Not on final. Guises 64. Pope Pious V excommunicating Elizabeth I 72. Hostility between Spain and England reached a climax in 1588 when: The Spanish armada was sent to invade the English 63. Passed by Queen Elizabeth I. Heidelberg was an intellectual center for: German Calvanism 70. The term “ecclesiastical reservation” refers to: the attempt to freeze the territorial holdings of Lutherans and Catholics 69. List 16th century European dynasties and the lands which they ruled 83. Under the role of Peter the Great. In the 1560s. 77. List the contributions of the Netherlands to the Age of Discoveries . What contributed to the outbreak of war between England and Spain? English Seamen began preying on Spanish shipping. Palatine Calvinists headed a protestant defensive alliance against Spain with the assistance of these nations: England. what is the significance of Russiaʼs boyars? they lost much of their power 82. Not on final. Charles I might have ruled indefinitely without parliament had his religous policies not provoked war with: Scotland 78. The “Table of ranks” published by Peter the Great in 1722 was: A table that equated a personʼs social position with his rank in military/ bureaucracy 80. Who were the three powerful families that sought the French monarchy after the death of King Henry II? Bourbons. John Law believed that: an increase in paper money supply would stimulate Frances economic recovery 76. What were the two most important models of European political development in the early modern period? parliament monarchy and political absolutism 81. montmorency-chatillons. What event starkly marked the beginning of the French Wars of Religion? The Duke of Guise massacred a Protesant Congregation in Champagne 71. multiple choice. France. the Netherlands 65. 39 Articles 66.61.

Not on final.84. The treaty of Carlowitz required the Ottoman Empire to: to surrender the heart of itʼs empire in Europe 85. power hungry creatures. midwifery was a trade often pursued by: elderly or widowed women 101. In the Treaty of Dover. naturally evil 96. What is the Declaration of Indulgence issued by the king in 1687? it permitted free worship 86. Hobbes saw human beings as: self-centered. human beings escape the terrible state of nature by: agreeing to live by the Golden Rule 97. Over the years. How many people were sentences to death for witchcraft or harmful magic between 1400-1700? 70. Francis Bacon believed that: the knowledge of nature should be used to improve the human condition 94. Not on final. Dhimmis in the Ottoman Empire obtained economic success because: they possessed the highest level of commercial skills in the empire 92. Charles II and Louise XIVʼs secret agreement called for Charles II to: announce his conversion to Catholicism if Louis payed him a substantial subsidy 89. In the 16th century.100. multiple choice 103. According to Hobbes. He was known as the Great Elector: Frederick William 88. troops not to be billeted in private homes 87. The most elaborate Baroque monument to political absolutism was: Louis XIVʼs palace at Versailles . Baroque art first emerged in: Papal Rome 98. Russian victory in the great Northern war led to: the expansion of russian territory in the Baltic 90. Robert Warpole (1676-1745) derived his political power from what? his ability to maintain peace abroad 91.000. In the early sixteenth century.000 93. What is the petition of Right? required all males with propery worth more than 5 pounds to vote. The Catholic church admitted that errors had occurred in the 1633 trial of Galileo in: 1992 102. He addressed the issue of planetary motion and established a basis for physics that endured for more than two centuries: Isaac Newton 95. the standard explanation of the palce of the earth in the heavens combined the work of: Ptolemey and Aristotle 100. multiple choice 99.

the home country was to protect and administer the colonies 119. Newton was a mathematical genuis. The treaty of Aix-la-Chaplle. Maria Theresaʼs great achievement was: she reformed the Austrian administration and managed to keep Austrian rule intact through Prussian invasions 108. midwives. Not on final. Joseph II of Austria: was determined to play major diplomatic and military roles in Europe 123. A vast increase in the number of Africans brought as slaves to the Americas occurred during the 18th century. in the transatlantic economy landed on: the west indies and south america 109. The French and Indian war formally erupted in the summer of: 1755. The first phase of European contact with the rest of the world came to a close by: the end of the 17th century 112. The 19th century carving of new empires saw new European settlements in such regions as: Australia. New Zealand. colonies existed to provide markets and natural resources for the industries of the home country was to: in turn. Not on final. 116. The first slaves traded. dating to the early 16th century. and female orphans 107. body and: mind 106. Not on final. main targets of witch hunts were poor women. The seven years war was fought mainly in: North America 118. but before he upheld a theory he thought it should be: tested to see if it was actually what had been observed 105. resulted in what? Prussia retaining Silesia 113. Algeria 110. Under mercantilism. Of all the rising states of the 18th century. multiple choice 117. with most arriving in: the Caribbean and Brazil 114. multiple choice 115. Which groups was not a target of witch hunts? men. widows. multiple choice . The war of Jenkinsʼ Ear was fought by England to block incursions on British trade by: Spain 120. Descartes divided things into two categories. Frederick IIʼs invasion of Silesia offset the continental balance of power and: shattered the provisions of the Pragmatic Sanction 111. this state was the most diverse in its people and problems: 121.104. South Africa. The most important political thought of the Enlightenment occurred in: England 122. 1748.

According to Ethics. picture of pope as devil 141. Cosimo de Medici brought stability to this city after his ride to power in 1434: Florence 137. Catherine the Great of Russia: (1729-1796) empress of russia. Which novel is Cervantes most known for? Don Quixote 144. According to Smiths four-stage theory. this man closely identified god and nature. started protestant reform with 95 theses S. Recognized by the pope in 1528.Jacques Rasseau 131. increased control of landed gentry over serfes. Ludovico of Milanʼs fatal mistake was that he: appealed to the French for aid 132. the most famous of his works. Ignatius of Loyola taught good Catholics to: submit without question to higher church authorities . promoted education and enlightenment 128.124. Who were the philosophes? writers and critics who flourished in the expanding print culture and took the lead in forging new attitude favorable to change 129. Explain Luthers 95 theses: explained everything corrupt and wrong that needed to be fixed in the church 142.opened learning centers for protestants in germany A.created lutheranism.removed her husband expanded russias borders to black sea. belief in life after death 125.political conservative. tried to take power away from church E.cultural values affect economic success. an idea for which his contemporaries condemned him: Spinoza 127. Columbus expected his first landfall to be: Japan 138.values toward worldly success and saving . Discuss Martin Lutherʼs importance using PERSIA: P. promoted westernization. human societies: can be classified as hunting and gathering 130. R.gave people motivation to go against church corruption I.depicted church as pure evil. The two major points in the Deistʼs creed were: belief in an existence of a god. this group sought to return to the original ideals of saint francis and became popular among the ordinary people to whom they directed their ministry: the Capuchins 143. He contended that the process of civilization and the Enlightenment had corrupted human nature? Jean. This occurred in 1378 as a result of the unbearable conditions for those at the bottom of society and the disruption caused by the Black Death: Ciompi Rebellion in Florence 135.

England was officially: a puritan republic 155.sentenced non converted laity to galleys 159. During the reign of James I.government paralyzed. What is significant about the rule of James I of England: because of his political skills. What event immediately triggered Pope Sixtus V to give public support to Spain? execution of Mary. The Thirty Years War began as a/an: revolt of protestant nobility against an unpopular king 149. The Peace of Augsburg recognized in law what had already been established in practice: rulers choose their countryʼs religion 152.ptolemy and aristotle 162. Under Oliver Cromwell. Spain. and the Pope by: abandoning Protestantism and embracing Catholicism 148. 18th. Describe political and economic conditions 17th and 18th century poland? 17th.poland entirely ripped apart by other nations taking over 160. among other things: they threatened social order 164. Charles I employment of Rubens illustrated to the people of england that: he had roman catholic sympathies .145.weakened. The Reformation Parliament met for 7 years and determined that: Henry VIII rules church in England “as far as christ allows” 146. The witch hunts ended because. queen of Scots 150. place of earth and heavens. closed protestant churches and schools.exiled protestant ministers. what were some of the most significant discoveries and who made them? astronomy. What did the perpetual Edict of 1577 do? provided removal of spanish troops from the netherlands in 20 days 154. the British parliament met: only when called by the monarch 157. King Henry IV stunned France. In the 16h century. his rule was relatively stable 158. William Shakespeare was a member and principal writer of a famous compay of actors known as: The Kings Men 147. no effective centralized government. The seven provinces that became the United Provinces of the NEtherlands emerged as a nation in 1572 after revolting against this nation: Spain 156. Many proponents of mechanism believed: world can be explained in mechanical metaphors 161. In Lockeʼs view the relationship between rules and the governed had as its foundation: in the essential element of trust 163. The most successful politique was: Elizabeth I of England 153. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes resulted in what? ceremonial baptism of protestant kids by catholic priests.

and implicitly criticized the abuses of french society: Candide 174. An expanding. from which spain never fully recovered? defeat of the spanish armada 177. especially their religious liberty. literate public and the growing influence of secular printed materials created a new and increasing influential social force called public opinion 173. this german city became a refuge for the prosecuted protestants and the center of Lutheran resistance: magdeburg 176. what two imperial problems did the British government face? costs of maintaining empire and vast expanse of new territory in north america that needed organization 168. By 1600. The chief feature of 18th century French political life was the: attempt of nobility to use its authority to limit power of the monarchy 182. new political alliances formed in Europe and included the alliance between: France and Austria 169. The war over the Austrian succession and the British. The thirty years war broke out first in: Bohemia 178. the population of the Holy Roman Empire: was equally divided Protestant/Catholic 179. In the mid-16th century. The primary purpose of the Stamp Act was to: raise badly needed revenue 167. According to the advocates of the “divine right of kings” kings were only judged by: God 180. What significant event weakened the spanish dominance in europe. What united them was the: Role of France 170. Mercantilist thinkers assumed that: only modest levels of economic growth were possible 166. At the conclusion of the French and Indian war. At the outbreak of the French and Indian war. .165. this book praised the virtues of the english.Spanish commercial conflict might have remained separate disputes. Written by voltaire in english and later translated to french.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful