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Date Performed: February 09, 2011 Date Submitted: February 16, 2011
“Tongue Tasters” / Cleaners
Ex. 10 “A” ‐ “not A” Test
Discrimination tests are some of the most common methods employed in sensory science. They are used to determine if a difference (or similarity) exists between two or more samples. Statistical significance testing is used to analyze the data and determine whether or not samples are deemed to be different or similar. Discrimination tests are rapid techniques and can be performed by both naive and experienced assessors; however, a panel should not be a combination of both. These are often used when the samples are considered to be ‘confusable’, i.e. their differences are not obvious but need to be investigated (Kamp et al., 2009). “A” – “not A” test is used to determine whether test samples in a series are the same as or different from the reference sample. It is an especially useful test where triangle and duo‐trio tests cannot be used. This may be the case where comparisons are required between products that have a strong or lingering flavor/aftertaste when you will need to control the time between sample presentations or if there are differences in appearance. It is also useful to determine assessor sensitivity to a stimulus. Initially, panelists require familiarization with the reference or “A” sample. Panelists are then presented with a series of samples, some of which are the reference sample “A” and some “not‐A”. Generally, the panelist does not have access to the reference “A” while evaluating the test samples. The panelist must determine whether the sample is the same (“A”) or different (“not‐A”) so it is a forced‐ choice test. Only one type of “not‐A” sample exists per test series. Panelists may test one, two or up to 10 samples in series (depending on fatigue factors). The samples are presented randomly with 3‐digit codes and one at a time (an assessment is made and recorded before proceeding to the next sample). All samples are prepared in an identical way and are representative of the product (Mason and Nottingham, 2002). The total number of responses for ‘A’ and ‘not A’ are tallied for each sample presentation. The chi‐squared test (χ2) is used to compare the different sample presentations and their responses. When calculating by hand, the χ2 statistic is compared to a statistical table (see Appendix 6) that shows the minimum value required before it can be concluded that a significant difference exists between the samples. The significance level (typically 5%) must also be specified. Alternatively, software packages provide not only the χ2 statistic and the critical minimum value that must be exceeded, but also the probability of making a type I error (p‐value) should it be concluded that a significant difference exists between the samples. This analysis is not wholly appropriate for the design involving multiple sample presentations to each assessor; however, it is commonly used and the p‐value is considered to be a good approximation (Kamp et al., 2009). Working equation:
χ2 = N (AD‐ BC)²
Materials ‐ Trays ‐ Score sheets ‐ Serving plates (small) ‐ Master sheet ‐ Distilled water ‐ Cheese samples (Eden and Cheezy) III.Where: A = number of correct responses for ‘A’ sample B = number of incorrect response for ‘not A’ sample C = number of incorrect response for ‘A’ sample D = number of correct response for ‘not A’ sample E = total number of ‘A’ samples given to all panelists F = total number of ‘not A’ samples given to all panelists G = total number of A and B H = total number of C and D N = total number of G and H II. The order of serving of the two samples is determined randomly. Analyze results statistically using chi‐square. Two coded samples composed of “A” and “not A” will be served to each judge. Allow the judges to familiarize themselves with sample “A” and “not A”. Procedure ‐ Spitting cups ‐ Toothpicks ‐ Small containers Prepare two samples labeled “A” and “not A”. . Decode the results. Prepare the samples to be used using the standard procedure for sample preparation.
In this exercise. While the alternative hypothesis (Ha) states that there is significant 2 difference between Eden cheese and Cheezee cheese at 0.IV.05 level of significance. Now to decide whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis. Quantitative data obtained for chi‐square calculation analysis. The alternate hypothesis is that if there is a perceptible difference between the samples the population would match the reference and the sample correctly more frequently than one in two times. this test is used for product reformulation or process (procedure) change. thus. Results Table1. 2010). and for product improvement or product development The null hypothesis states that the long‐run probability (Pdt) of the population making a correct selection when there is no perceptible difference between the samples is one in two (H0: Pdt = 1/2). there is test 2 2 2 criterion. reject Ho and accept Ha. there is no significant difference between Eden cheese and Cheezee cheese. The value of the χ cal is 23. But if χ cal < χ2tab. the samples are not significantly different at 0. Also. If χ cal > χ tab.68 which was obtained using the values tabulated in table 1 and also the computation is shown in . (Heymann and Lawless. accept Ho and reject Ha. the samples are significantly different. thus. V. Percentage distribution on the responses of the panelists using the “A” – “not A” test. the null hypothesis (Ho) is. Discussion of Results Discrimination testing is used to find the difference characteristic(s) or overall characteristics of the sample(s).05 level of significance. “A” “not A” TOTAL “A” 17 2 19 “not A” TOTAL 19 19 38 2 17 19 89% "not A" sample 11% "A" sample Figure1. It is used when sensory specialist wants to determine whether two samples are perceptively different.
Heldman. Figure 1 shows the percentage distribution of the responses of the panelists prior to “A” – “not A” test which is able to ask if which of the given coded samples is the same with the given reference cheese samples (“A” and “not A”). Naresuan University. Therefore. The percentage of correct responses for both “A” and “not A” sample is 89% while percentage of the incorrect responses for both “A” and “not A” sample is 11%. Because. S.05 level of significance. H. Thus.841). The Atrium. VI. DPI. R. T.. Ed. trials. PO19 8SQ. Ltd.05 level of significance. E.05 level of significance (which is Eden and cheezee). Wiley‐Blackwell: A John Wiley & Sons. The type 1 error is rejecting the Ho when it is true and the type 2 error is accepting Ho when it is false.) New York. VIII. there is significant difference between Eden cheese and Cheezee cheese at 0. and Nottingham. Chichester. replicates (batch production) to asses that there is really significant difference between the two samples of cheese which from different brands at 0. VII. (2002). & Lawless. the χ cal (23. Reference Heymann. Sensory Evaluation of Food: Statistical Methods and Procedures. there is significant difference between Eden cheese and Cheezee cheese at 0.841).). Southern Gates. Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted. R. the χ cal (23. But this does not necessarily mean that the Ha is true. Thus. these recommendations may be used to verify the results obtained based on this particular exercise and more modifications can be used as for the improvement of the methods or procedures of the test. Conclusion 2 2 Based on the results. Ho is rejected and Ha is accepted. Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices (2nd ed. Thailand. L. Based on the results. (2009).68) > χ tab (3. USA: Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London.68) > χ tab (3. United Kingdom. West Sussex. Sensory Evaluation: A Practical Handbook. one may commit either of the two possible error in this statistical analysis used. Publication. (2010). Thus. there is still a need for more panelists. Centre for Food Technology.the sample calculation section. Kamp. Rejecting Ho means there is insufficient evidence to accept it. et al. Phitsanulok. Therefore. This just means that 89% of the panelists judged that each of the coded sample cheeses is the same with the reference or the “A” and “not A” cheese samples. S. Mason. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. M.. H. Brisbane. 2 2 Sample Calculation . (D.
IX. Appendix Master Sheet “A” – “not A” Test NA = “Not A” () A = “A” () .
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