Intermediate Grammar Workbook 3

, Sylvia Chalker

, -

SECTION 1 DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS

CONTENTS

1.1 Own

1.2 The or ZERO: What do they play?

1.3 The meaning of the: A trip to the magnetic north

1.4 Fewer/more than, as many/much as: Watch your weight! 1.5 Test your knowledge!

1.6 The most, the least, the fewest: Cakes

SECTION 2 NOU NS

2.1 Collective nouns 2.2 Six is ...

2.3 's or of: The team's success or the success of the team

3

SECTION 3 VERBS: TIME AND TENSE

3.1 Present simple or present progressive: 'stateverbs 3.2 Some tricky verbs

3.3 Present perfect or past simple: Have you ever .. .? When did you .. .? 3.4 Present perfect and past simple: Inventions

3.5 Past simple and past perfect: A boy's discovery

3.6 Passive: Heart transplants

3.7 Active or passive?: Disasters

SECTlON4 AUXILIARIES AND MODALS

4.1 Having things done 4.2 Mustn'tor needn't?

4.3 Permission: may, can, could

4.4 Could-and other ways of making suggestions 4.5 Possibility: Is it certain or only possible?

4.6 Would rather- and other ways of expressi ng preference

SECTION 5 ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

5.1 -Iywords: Adjectives or adverbs?

5.2 Adjective order: My two smart red Japanese nylon golf umbrellas 5.3 Comparison of adjectives: The good old days

504 Comparison of adverbs: A driving test

5.5 Already, still, yet

5.6 How ... ! What ... !

SECTION 6 PREPOSITIONS,

6.1 Some prepositions of place: The cinema 6.2 Climbing through a postcard!

6.3 Adjectives + prepositions

6.4 Time expressions without any prepositions 6.5 Because of, due to: Causes

6.6 Instead of

6.7 Mixed adverbs and prepositions: Warming up 6.8 An acrostic

SECTION 7 PH RASAL VERBS

7.1 Out: The News

7.2 Prepositional or phrasal verbs? 7.3 Phrasal-prepositional verbs

- SECTION 8 VERB PATTER NS

8.1 Let, make, allow, force: School rules 8.2 What did he tell her to do?

8.3 I managed to: An air journey

8.4 Remember, forget

8.5 To-infinitives and -ingforms as subjects

SECTION 9 COMPLEX SENTENCES

9.1 Verbs of sayingfthinki ng + that clauses 9.2 Hope a nd suggest, advise and want

9.3 Non-defining relative clauses

9.4 Past conditions: Unidentified flying objects

9.5 Wishing about the past: I wish I had done that! 9.6 50 that, in case: Going on holiday

9.7 A puzzle: The philosophers

9.8 Joining words: The Sindbad voyage

4

SECTION 1

DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS

1.1 Own

Marie-Christine has hIT own car. }

IT BELONGS ONLY TO HER Isn't she lucky to have a car of her own!

Please don't take my pen. Use your own/one of your own. Minoji came to England on his own. BY HLMSELF/ALONE

Complete the following, using mylourlyourlhislherlitsltheir + own. Use of or on if necessary.

1 Sofia makes nearly all her own clothes ..

2 Stephan has never hired skis. He has always had

5

DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS

3 Juan and Suleiman both came to Europe

4 Suleiman drives his father's car, but he'd like to

haveone ___

6 Gudrun: When you get a job, Olga, you'll be

able to have _

_________ bank account.

Olga:

But I'd like" _

__________ bank account now.

9 Susan: Does your mother live with you and David?

Wendy: No. Shehas _

___________ home. Of course she

has lived ___

since my father died.

6

5 Gudrun lives with her parents, but she hopes

to have a flat ___

one day.

7 Susan: These tomatoes are delicious" Wendy.

Wendy.: Thank you. We grow _

8 The Greens' cat has

______ , you know.

___________ basket.

10 Rachel and Andrew have never shared a room.

--- rooms,

They have always had _

DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS

1 .2 The or ZERO: What do they play?

Juan plays football. A GAME

Gudrun plays the guitar. THAT KIND OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

Use the following words, plus the where necessary, to complete the sentences. badminton baseball cards chess piano saxophone squash tennis violin

1 Rachel is learning

4 Stephan would like to play

7 David can play

2 Marie-Christine enjoys

5 Sofia likes

8 Minoji loves

3 Suleiman plays

6 Olga would like to learn

9 Wendy's mother plays

7

DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS

1.3 The meaning of the: A trip to the magnetic north

the (count singular and plural, and mass) '= definite

The magnetic north is in the Arctic- THERE IS ONLY ONE MAGNEliTC NORTH, AND ONE ARCTlC

A bear attacked him. He shot the bear. A PARTICULAR BEAR MENTIONED AGAIN

The seeitne weather was cold. THE SEA/THE WEATHER THERE

The men celebrated the achievement. WE KNOW WHICH MEN AND WHICI-I. ACHIEVEMENT

He'll always remember the day the bear attacked him. THIS TELLS US WHICH DA Y

Which is the coldest place in the world? NOT JUST ANY COLD PLACE

Complete the following true story using the for definite meaning. Use alan or ZERO (121) when the meaning is indefinite.

In May 1984 1~~~~_ twenty-seven-year-old

explorer, David Hempleman Adams, became

2 first man to complete 3 _

solo journey to 4 magnetic north pole.

His success came 5 year after

6 earlier unsuccessful attempt to walk

nearly 7_~~~_ five hundred miles to

8 true North Pole. In 1983 he had ha d to

give up his walk because of 9 rib in] ury

and because 10_~~~_ weather had been

impossible. But in 1984 his efforts were successful.

To reach 1I __ ~~_ magnetic north pole David

Hempleman Adams walked 12 two

hundred and fifty miles.across 13 Arctic

at 14 ~_temperatures below freezing

point, from Resolute, 15 remote town in.

north-west Canada.

Several frightening things happened during

16_~~~_ bitterly cold twenty-two days that he walked across 17 ice, pulling nearly all

his supplies on 18 plastic sledge. One

da y 19 polar bear a ttacked him outside

his ten t. He had to shoot 20 animal

8

dead. Another day Z1_~_~_explorer fell

through 12_~~~_ patch of 23 ~_ thin

ice into 24 sea, but fortunately he

managed to get out quickly.

Soon after his arrival at 2c;_. magnetic

north pole, his two-man support team flew in to

join him, using 26_ .. _~~~ special aeroplane

equipped with 27 skis. They brought

28 . food, 29 drink and

30 flag, and 31 three men

celebrated 32_~~ __ achievement together.

Glossary

solo - wi thou t an yone else

magnetic north pole - the poin t shown as north by a compass needle

sledge - a vehicle with long thin pieces of wood or metal instead of wheels

rib - one of the bones going round a person's chest

DETERMIN.ERS AN DPRONOU NS

1 .4 Fewer/more than, as many/much ~s: Watch your weight.!

Count fewer calories
plural more than
Mass I less
more sugar as many (calories)
as
not as/so much (sugar) I

c:s@MENU~

A calorie is actually a measure of how much heat or energy is produced by food. If you eat too many calories, you put on weight.

Here is part of a menu showing the calories. Refer to it to complete the conversation, usingfewer than, as many as etc. (Informally, less is sometimes used not only with mass nouns but also with countable plural nouns. But practise using fewer as shown.)

1 sausage

1 portion of cheese 1 egg

1 roll & butter ice cream

chocolate ice cream low-fat yoghurt apple

CALORIES 160 240

90 160 100 140

75 50

I'm going to have a sausage. I know it contains 1 . calories an

SUSAN

SUSAN

egg, but if's got 2 the cheese, and I'm starving.

SUSAN

BOB Well, I shall only have a roll and butter. I must lose weight.

orange 50

banana ~5

coffee, black, no sugar none

lemon tea, no sugar none

tea or coffee, with milk, no sugar 20

with milk & sugar 60

1 glass milk 125

But that contains just 3 calories a sausage. Are you going

to have anything else?

BOB Yes, chocolate ice cream.

You can't! It contains 4 calories ordinary ice cream ~ I think it

has 5 fat in it. You ought to have yoghurt. That's got 6 fat.

And it doesn't contain 7 sugar ice cream either. You should

ea t 8 sugar - it's bad for your teeth.

BOB SUSAN

Bu t r don't wan t yoghurt.

I'm going to have yoghurt. Unless I have a banana.

9

DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS

BOB

Actually perhaps I'll just have an apple. An apple doesn't have 9 calories

_______ yoghurt. In fact it has 10 calories a

banana. It only has 11 an orange.

Wen, I shan have a banana and a glass of milk.

You know, you shouldn't drink 12 milk. You should drink tea or coffee.

Even coffee with sugar has 13 fat and therefore 14 ~ calories.

SUSAN BOB

SUSAN

I'm afraid with all this talk of calories I've lost my appetite. Me too. Two black coffees, please.

BOB

1 .5 Test your knowledge!

Complete the following with words from columns 2, 3 and 5.

1 2 3 4 5
a few
a lot of ,
are as many days (count plural) as ...
,
fewer than. ' ..
There more
a little
a lot of
is as much snow (mass) as ...
less than ...
I more 1 There days in December in November.

2 There _. days in February in any other month.

3 There .. hours in a day in the winter in the summer.

4 There snow in Siberia.

5 There snow in London in Moscow.

6 In the Arctic and Antarctic there only weeks of summer each year.

7 There storms around Cape Horn.

S There sometimes _, rain in the Sahara Desert, but 'not much.

9 There land north of the Equator south of it.

10 There n't rain in Hong Kong in Singapore.

11 There active volcanoes in Indonesia in any other

country.

12 There active volcanoes in the southern half of the world

10

_______ in the northern half.

DHERMINERS AND PRONOUNS

1 .6 The most, the least, the fewest: Cakes

Count I the fewest
eggs ,
plural most
I
Mass the least butter
most ('225g) butter 80z '

7 OZ (200g) sugar

10 oz (3Oog) flour

4 eggs .

1100g) chernes

4 oz \ , d f it

1 \b l450g) dne, ru

tmeg-pinch

nuin ',ch

cinnamon - plnl treacle 1 tablespoonfu ..

4 oz (100g) butter

2 oz (50g) sugar

12 oz (350g) flour

1 egg \

8 oz (225g) treac~,

1/4 pint (150 rnl) mIlk

salt

ginger - pinch

3 oz (75g) sugar 3 oz (75g) 'flour

3 eggs

GINGERBREAD

FATLESS SPONGE

CAKE .~,.,-_,~ ..

(i~j~~~~

RICH FRUITCAKE

A Here are the ingredients for three cakes in Susan's cookery book. Complete the following, using the information and most, least or fewest.

The fruitcake contains the 1 . sugar,

while the gingerbread contains the

2 , But the gmgerbread needs the

3 flour. The recipe using the

4 flour is the sponge .. The fruitcake

uses the 5 eggs, and the gingerbread

uses the 6 . only one, in fact. The

sponge has the 7 ingredients, and

the fruitcake has the 8 _

Glossary

ginger, nutmeg, spice - flavours treacle - kind of dark, Iiquid sugar 102 - 28.349g

Ilb-1602

1 pint - 0.568 litre

sugar the nicest.
The cake with the butter would be the easiest to make.
ingredients the best/worst for you. B Now what do you think? Use this table to write some sentences, completing them with most, least or fewest.

9 __

10 ~-----------------------

11 ___

12 __

11

S.ECTION2 NOUNS

2. 1 Collective nouns

This committee

is important, isn't it?

A SINGLE GROUP does useful work.

are all hardworking, anm't they? ALL TIlE iNOrvlDUALS

are going for their lunch. IN A GROUP

Choose the most suitable alternatives in the following sentences. Do not mix singular and plural in the same sentence.

1 That family areiis. always arguing among tffleljl themselves.

2 The crowd was/were throwing its/their hats in the air and shouting.

3 The staff at our school areiis kind people.

4 Our school team wear/wears blue shirts and white shorts.

5 The British press prides itself/themselves on its/their freedom.

6 The audience was/were standing on itsltheir seats and cheering.

7 The public doesn't/don't want more of its/their incomes taken away in taxes.

8 The government are/is a democratic one.

2.2 Six is ...

Six people is the maximum I can take in my car. THAT NUMBER IS ... Well, seven people are trying to climb in. THEY ARE .•.

Complete the following with is or are.

1 These three tickets ~ 1000 dollars each.

2 1000dollars_. cheap.

3 You won't be allowed all that luggage on the plane. 60 kilograms too heavy.

4 Ten hours a long time to sit in a plane.

S 40 degrees Celsius too hot for me.

6 800 kilometres a long way to drive in one day.

7 How many miles 800 kilometres?

8 There over 657 million TV sets in the world.

9 657 million a vast number.

10 But 657 million sets wa tched every day?

12

NOUNS

2.3 "sor of: The team's success or the success of the team

Possession

collective nouns

places identified with people

things

Describing

connected with time

other

containing

quantities

of

's or s'

the team's success the school's name

London's West End

the third world's problems

the success of the team the name of the school

the West End of London

the problems of the third world

the end of the road

today's paper PUBLISHED TODAY three weeks' pay PAY FOR 3 WEEKS

a girls' school A SCHOOL FOR GIRLS a dentist's drill THE KIND A DENTIST

USES

a book of short stories a bottle of milk

a map of the world

a pint of milk

Show the relationships between the following pairs of words. Use's or 5' whenever possible. Only use of if you have to.

1 the traditions/the school_t:::_h:=ce-"5=d.:..::1Oc.=.o::..../'s:o....:c.tr.:::_ad"'. 1"'.tl""0'-"115"'. _

2 the condition/the windows the condition of...::;th~e::..;w=il1!!:d::::o=w::::.s'_. ~

3 the neighboursllndia _

4 a map/Africa ._. _

5 the weather/this year _

6 a holiday/two months _

7 the decision/the government ~

8 waiting-rooms/doctors _

9 the enemies/the country _

10 a boxlbiscuits _

11 a thoughtla moment _

12 the gravity/the earth ~

13 clothes/children ~~_~ _

14 ten litres/petrol ~ ~_

15 the roof/our house _

13

SECTION3 VERBS: TIME AN.D TENSE

3.1 Present simple or present progressive: 'state' verbs

• What are you doing? ... I'm weighing myself.

• And what do you weigh? '" I weigh 125 lb.

Complete the following, using the verbs shown, once in the present simple and once in the present progressive.

1

taste

2

• What's the matter? What are you doing? .. Well, I (just) am iust tasting_ the soup.

I'm afraid it tastes rather salty. mind

Who the children

this evening, while Bob and Susan are out? .... I am. They're such good children they

____ n't at all if their

3

parents go out. think

• We of having a holiday

soon. you we would

4

enjoy Austria? hope

6

feel

• Why you that parcel?

Why don't you open it?

.... I'm trying to guess what's in it. It ________ like a cassette.

7

hear

• I very bad reports about

you these days .

.... What? Who? How? Rubbish!

• Don't shout at me, please. I ________ you perfectly well.

8

see

• Where's Wendy?

.... She her mother off at the

station ..

• We haven't heard from Tom for ages, but we • 1 _

5

(still) _~ ~ for a letter.

.... I he's all right.

hold

.... The students a meeting

in Room 3.

• But that room (only) _

about six people.

14

9

include

• you Wendyand

David on your invitation list for the party?

..... Of course. The list _

everybody.

VERBS: TIME AND TENSE

3.2 Some tricky verbs A Complete the table.

Infinitive Past haslhave +
beat a beaten
bit I
b c
fall d e
feel felt f
!
lead led g
h left i
live J lived
lie k lied
I lay m
n laid laid i
0 rose p
I raise raised q B Now use the right parts of the right verbs to complete the sentences.

1 Rachel Andrew at tennis yesterday, and he very cross about it.

2 Ouch! I've just my tongue. It hurts.

3 My grandmother downstairs yesterday and . on the floor until we helped

her to get up.

4 ... Have you always at home?

•• Yes, but my brother home when he was 18. He went to in his own flat.

5 The hen has . two eggs. She two eggs yesterday, too.

6 Have you the table for dinner?

7 All their gold and jewellery has just in the bank for years.

8 He when he said he didn't know. He did know.

9 Prices have over 5°/" this year, but nobody has c, my salary.

10 Don't shout. your hand if you want something.

15

VERBS: TIME AND TENSE

3.3 Present perfect or past simple: Have you ever ... ? When did you ... ?

• Have you ever eaten snails?

... Y I h .l I've often eaten them.

es, ave. lance ate some for breakfast.

• When did you last eat snails?

... Oh, I ate some last year in Paris.

A Write some more conversations, using the right tenses of the verbs given. Be very careful!

1 wear

• . you ever glasses?

... Yes, I . I glasses when I was a child.

• Why you glasses then?

A I them because I had a squint.

2 swim

• you ever in very cold water?

... No, 1 n't. But I in natural hot pools.

• When you last in a hot pool?

... Well, last year I in a very hot pool in New Zealand.

3 forget

• you ever . something important?

... Yes, 1 . I (often) things.

• When you last something really

important?

... Last week. It was awful. I my brother's birthday.

4 break

________ you ever anything valuable?

... Yes, I . As a matter of fact I my watch last week.

• How on earth you it?

... I dropped it.

S ride

• you ever on an elephant?

... No, I nt, but I on a camel a few years ago.

• Goodness. you on one in a desert or

somewhere?

... Well, actually I on one at the Pyramids in Egypt.

16

VERBS: TIME AND TENSE

6 fly

• ~~ __ ~ __ ~_~ you ever~ in Concorde?

... No, I n't, But last year I _~ in a helicopter.

• How far ~ you in it?

7 tear

... Oh we just ~round for about twenty minutes.

_________ you ever your clothes?

... Yes, I . I once _~~ ~ an expensive new shirt.

• you it on something?

... Yes, I it on a nail.

Have you ever

been to Britain? fallen off a bicycle? climbed a mountain? been camping? swum underwater?

spent a whole day in bed? won a prize?

flown in a big plane? had a seaside holiday?

B Ask and answer some questions with a friend. Make the conversation Like this:

QUESTION

ANSWER

QUESTION

ANSWER

QUESTION

ANSWER

Have you ever been to Britain ? ~

Yes I have. I No I haven't.
l No I never have.

How many times have you been ? ~
f
Once. I Twice/Three times/Several times!
i Lots of times.
t
When did you go to Britain ? J i When was the last time you went to Britain ? I

t
I went in 19821 Llast went in 1982/
last yearlS years ago. last year/5 years ago. Write down some true facts about yourself.

1

________________________________ ~ twice/lots of times.

2 I last in 19 _ / years ago/several weeks ago.

3

_____ never _

17

VERBS: TIME AND TENSE

3.4 Present perfect and past simple: Inventions

Present perfect

Since + past simple

We have learned more about the stars

since Lippershey invented the telescope in 1608.

A Complete the following, using the correct tenses of the verbs shown.

1 discover/make We more and more about the stars since Hans

Lippershey of the Netherlands the first telescope in 1608.

2 invent/send Since Samuel Morse, an American, the telegraph in

1832, people millions of messages round the world by dots and

dashes (- .. --_ ... ).

3 help/start The Red Cross (or Red Crescent) many sick and injured

people since J. Dunant of Switzerland it in 1864.

4 send/become Since Guglielmo Marconi of Italy the first 'wireless'

message in 1895, radios popular all over the world.

S develop/discover Doctors many new treatments

since Marie Curie, who was born in Poland, and her French husband Pierre

______________ radium in 1898.

6 become/invent Ordinary pens old-fashioned since Lazlo Biro of

Hungary the ballpoint pen in 1940.

I was in class _

we/he/she came to live in _

1975/1980/

Iwas born.

I was six/eight/ years old.

livedin _

been at this school been in this class

known my friend _

watched TV

I have

since

B Use this table to write about yourself. Add some true information.

7 _

8 __

9 __

10 __

11 __

18

VERBS: TIME AND TEN.SE

3.5 Past simple and past perfect: A boy's discovery

He wanted to rescue his dog, which had fallen down a hole.

Past simple Past perfect

Complete the following true story by using the correct tenses of the verbs shown.

One day in 1940, at Lascaux in sou th-west France, a teenage French boy, who was out for a walk with three friends, carefully e slide) slid down a hole in the woods. His dog e fall) had[allen down the hole and he

e want) to rescue it.

After a long sLide he (4 reach) the dog - and a large cave .. But as he only

(5 have) a box of matches with him, he (6 not realize) that

he C find) one of the most remarkable caves in Europe.

Next day, however, the four friends (8 return) with a lamp, and they

(9 be) excited to see large animal paintings on the walls and roof of the cave. They

et° see) horses, bison and other animals which

(11 once wander) wild around this part of Europe. But they still

(H not know) that they (13 discover) pictures that prehistoric

men e4 paint) more than 16,000 years before.

Other people, however, soon es realize) the importance of the discovery, and when

the news (1.6 spread) , the public et? hur:ry) to see the

paintings for themselves. And they did so in increasing numbers until, on 20th April 1963, the cave

es be closed) _

Unfortunately, in only twenty-three years, the dampness from the breath of so many visitors

(19 seriously damage) the paintings which

eo survive) in secret for 16,000 years.

19 .

VERBS: TIME AND TENSE

3.6 Passive: Heart transplants

What happened? ItIHe/She was
They were
What had happened before? ItlHefShe had
They DONE
been
What has happened since? HfHe/She has
They have Complete the following, using the right passive tenses of the verbs given.

On 3rd December 1967 in Cape Town, South Africa, a human heart e successfully transplant)

was successfullytransp_lanted

from a dead person to a live one. The recipient of the new heart was 56 ~year~

old Louis Washkansky; the donor was a 25-year-old woman who e kill) in a

car crash a few hours before. The double operation (3 carry out) in five

hours by thirty doctors and nurses. It (4 perform) in four stages. .

First, the donor and the recipient (5 connect) to heart-lung machines. Then

the woman's heart (6 remove) . Next, a pump C connect) _

_______ to Washkansky to keep his blood moving round his body, while his heart

(8 remove) ~. Finally, the new heart (9 transplant) ~

________ into his chest. Electrodes eo place) against his heart, and

these (11 switch on) briefly to start his new heart bea ting normally.

Sadly, Washkansky died on 21st December, only three weeks after he

ez give) his new heart.

Since 1967 many more transplants e3 carry out) , In several cases a

person e4 give) a new heart and new lungs. In September 1986 a baby

boy of only two and a half months became the youngest heart-lung transplant patient Both his heart and

lungs es replace) _

Glossary .

Iu ng - one of the two breathing organs in the human bod y heart-lung machine - machine to keep the heart and lungs working pump - machine that forces liquids into or out of something electrodes - points at which electrici ty en ters or leaves

20

VERBS; TIME AND TENSE

3.7 Active or passives: Disasters

Active In about 1500 B. c. the Greek island of Santorini erupted.

Passive The centre of the island was completely blown aumy.

Find out about some more great natural disasters by completing the following. Use the verbs given, in the past simple, choosing active or passive.

1 happen/bury Another famous volcanic eruption happened in A. D .. 79 .. Mount Vesuvius in Italy blew up.

People and animals in the town of Pompeii: . were bUried under a thick layer of ash ..

2 rebuild/destroy Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, after 1755, for in that

year a powerful earthquake most of the city

3 kiU/hear The greatest volcanic eruption of modern times happened at Krakatoa, an island near Java, in

1883. The disaster 36,000 people, and the explosion 3,000

miles away.

4 des.troylcause San Francisco, in the USA, (largely) in an earthquake

in 1906. Fire, rather than the earthquake itself, most of the damage.

S damagetbreak. out Tokyo by fire in the great Japanese earthquake of

1923. Altogether over a hundred big fires _

6 explodelrescue Tristan da Cunha, a small island in the South Atlantic, in 1961,

but fortunately the 260 islanders in time, and later they were able to return.

7 sweep away/die Mount St Helens, in Washington State, USA, erupted in May 1980, and hundreds of

homes, bridges and trees by falling rocks. A hundred people

8 strike/kill In September 1985 a powerful earthquake Mexico City, Thousands of

people _

21

SECTION4 AUXILIARIES AND MODALS

4.1 Having things done

She is going to have her hair trimmed.

David and Wendy Green (that is not them abovel) are going on holiday soon, and Wendy has made a list of jobs to be done before they go, But they are both very busy, so they are having the jobs done by other people. The jobs with the ticks have been done, but not the others. Write a report on the present position.

1 Wendy has lUid a sundress made.

2 She is going to have her camera checked.

3 They __

4 David __

5 They ~

6 They ~

7 They ~

8 Wendy _

22

AUXILIARIES AND MQDALS

4.2 Mustn't or needn't?

You are in a. train. Another passenger thinks you are cold and offers to close the window. You say:

_ You needn't close the window, thank you. I'm not cold. A child starts leaning out of the window .. You say:

_ You musin' f lean out of the window.

Now write what people say in the following situations. Use mustn't and needn't. Think carefully!

1 At Victoria Station (London) your mother suggests looking for a porter to carry your luggage. But then you see a luggage trolley.

You say: We ------------------.i we can use a trolley.

2 The trolley has a notice on it: NOT TO BE REMOVED FROM VICTORIA

STATION.

You say: We _

3 Outside the station your mother wants to get a taxi, but your father sees the entrance to the underground.

He says: We .; we can take the

underground.

4 On the underground, your brother puts his feet on the seat, but there is a

notice: PLEASE DON'T PUT FEET ON SEATS.

You say: you _

o PL.'E.ASE DON'T III PUT FEET

ON SEATS

(j 0

o o

5 When you get to the hotel, your father lights a cigarette in the lift, but there's a

notice saying NO SMOKING. 1""'1 N-. -O-·-S-M-O-K-r-N-C-'II

I: •••••• 0 •••• :1

You say: You the lift.

6 It is rather late and your mother thinks you may be too tired to unpack tonight,

She says: You if you don't want to.

10 0 0 .0 d of)

23

AUXILIARIES AND MODALS

4.3 Permission: may, can, could

can.
Yes, of course you
May may.
Can I borrow your car, please?
we
Could I'm afraid
No, I'm sorry, but you can't. A Practise with a friend. You want to:

1 come in 2 open a window

5 borrow his/her dictionary.

3 turn -the TV off

4 ask him/her a personal question

Your friend gives permission. Write the dialogues.

1 YOU MayI_C~O~m~e~I~'n~? __

FRIEND Yes .si course you may':__. _

2 YOU Can _

FRIEND __

3 YOU Could _

FRIEND __

4 YOU

FRIEND __

5 YOU

FIDEND __

B Now change roles. Your friend wants to:

6 borrow your car 7 use your typewriter

10 say what he/she really thinks.

8 look at your newspaper

9 make a telephone call

You are feeling cross and refuse permission. Write the dialogues.

6 FRIEND ~ __

YOU

7 FRIEND _

YOU

8 FIDEND _

YOU

9 FRIEND _

YOU

10 FRIEND __

YOU

24

AUXILIARIES AND MODAlS

4.4 Could-and other ways of making suggestions

, - - -

WefYou could
Let's go to the United States(?)
Why don't we/you
Why not
How about going to the United States?
What A Minoji and his Icelandic friend, Magnus, are talking on their radio transmitters. They are trying to arrange a meeting. Complete the conversation.

MINOII How about e come) to Japan next year?

MAGNUS I don't think I can. But why don't you e come) to Iceland?

MINOJI I'd love to, but it's a long way Perhaps we e meet) halfway.

MAGNUS Oh, yes. Let's (4 do) that. Well, I think actually half way would be

Siberia, if I flew over the North Pole! But what about e meet) ~~~~~~~~~~_ in the United States, say?

Well, that's possible. Yes, why not (6 go) ~~~~~~~~~~_somewhere like San

Francisco? And what about (' hire) ~ __ ~ a car?

MAGNUS Mm. That's a great idea. Agreed. How about (8 decide) on dates

MINOJ!

MINO]!

now? Why don't we (9 make) ~ it Iune?

Wen, I'll have to ask my boss.

MAGNUS O. K. You Co call) me next week perhaps.

B A friend of yours from another town is coming to stay with you for a week. Write down some suggestions about what you could do together ..

11 __

12 __

13 . _

14 __

15 ~ _

16 _

17 ~

18 __

25

AUXILIARIES AND MODAlS

4.5 Possibility: Is it certain or only possible?

The left column roughly shows the degrees of certainty of will, etc. Complete the sentences, saying exactly what you think. Different answers are possible.

Certain will
won't
Very It may (not) rain.
possible be raining.
Possible might (not)
could 1 It be very hot here

6 My family . take me to

tomorrow.

Britain next year.

.' Mymother beout

shopping at the moment.

2. It be snowing today at

the South Pole.

3 Prices be going up soon.

4 Prices come down.

8 1_. be married by this time

next year.

5 I get full marks for my

9 There be a good

next homework.

programme on TV tonight.

10 My country win the next

World Cup for football.

4. 6 Would rather - and other ways of expressing preference

Which would you rather do, stay at home or go to school? I
prefer to wear old clothes or new ones? I'd rather stay at home than go to school. I
Iwou!d wear old clothes new ones. A If you could choose, would you prefer to Irather:

1 stay at home or go to school 2 be rich or happy 3 go to the moon or stay on the earth 4 learn hang-gliding or underwater swimming 5 wear old clothes or new ones 6 listen to pop music or classical music 7 become a politician or a religious leader 8 get married or stay single?

Work with a friend. Ask each other questions 1-8 (on the patterns in the first box), and answer using the pa ttern in the second box. Now wri te down your first four answers.

1 I'drather than __

2 I would rather than _

3 _

4 __

26

AUXILIARIES AND MODALS

I'd rather not stay at home.
I would prefer not to wear old clothes. B Now think about your answers to questions 5-8 and write down the things you would rather not do/you would prefer not to do.

5I'dprefurnot __

6 I'd prefer not..,-. _

7 I'drathernot _

8 I'drathernot _

tea or coffee? 9
sunshine or rain? 10
swimming or dancing? 11
prefer, TV or the cinema? 12
Which do you watching sport or the news? 13
like better, rna ths or English? 14
flying or travelling by car? 15
getting up in the morning 16
or going to bed? prefer coffee to tea.
I swimming dancing.
like English better than maths. C Practise asking and answering questions with a friend. Then complete the sentences below with your own preferences from the table above.

9 I prefer to _

10Iprefer ___

11 I like better than _

12Ilike ___

13Iprefur __

14Ilike _

15Iprefur ___

16Ilike _

27

SECTION 5 ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

5. 1 -Iy words: Adjectives or adverbs!

Adjective and adverb
early, hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, Some people buy a weekly bus ticket. (adjective)
yearly (But: annual/annually) I buy my ticket weekly. (adverb)
Adjective only
cowardly, deadly, elderly, friendly, leisurely, That was a cowardly thing to do. (adjective)
lively, lonely, lovely, motherly, silly He behaved in a cowardly way. (adverb phrase) Complete the following using an adverb or adverb phrase corresponding to the adjective in italics.

1 That was a cowardly thing to do. You behaved _

2 • Do you read a daily paper?

... Yes, the newspaper boy calls at the house _

3 • Do you shop ?

... Yes, I do my weekly shopping on Saturdays.

4 The other students are very friendly They greeted me the first time

I met them.

5 We are going to have a leisurely holiday. We're going to cruise up the Rhine

6 The car has to have an annual service, and a road-tax has to be paid

7 • He made a lively speech, didn't he?

... Yes, 1 thought he spoke _

8. Please don't leave _

... I'm sorry, but I'want an early night.

9 Tom doesn't usually behave r but that was a rather silly thing to do.

10 People who are paid a monthly salary often pay their bills too.

n I suppose the old man was lonely, because he sat in the park for hours

_____________ , hoping somebody would talk to him.

28

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

5 .2 Adjective order: My two smart red Japanese nylon golf umbrellas

Determiner

Number

Noun

Made of Purpose

or consists of

Japanese

umbrellas ..

I

Where from?

Opinion, Colour

size,

shape

etc ..

nylon

two

My

red

smart

golf

Putting a lot of adjectives in the right order can be a problem. Here is one way. Can you put these in order?

1 Norwegian canvas strong orange one tent

2 plastic maps two useful touring German

3 rugs woollen warm three Scottish her car

4 four capes plastic new Hong-Kong-made

rain

5 British frame second-hand our five

rucksacks

6 six boots climbing Italian pairs of

hardwearing leather pairs of

7 modern sleeping Finnish those bags green

seven

8 eight bottles large plastic Australian water

29

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

5.3 Comparison of adjectives: The good old days

People were kinder than they are now"
more thoughtful
,
They aren't I kind they were.
as/so thoughtful as I A Here is an old man talking about the good old days - when he was young - and how awful things are today. Complete what he says, using the adjectives given.

a The summers were then they are now.

b They aren't now they were.

a The girls were they are now.

b The girls today aren't our girls were.

6 good~looking a The boys then were boys today.

1 nice

2 helpful

3 good

4 sunny

5 beautiful

a Young people were nicer than they are now.

b Young people today aren't as nice as we were.

a People were they are now.

b People today aren't we were.

a The weather was then it is now.

b It isn't it was then.

b The boys today aren't _. we were.

,
People crowded
Food dangerous
The streets was less difficult then.
The world were expensive
The traffic ! selfish
I Everything violent B Write dqwn six more things that the old man says, using the table.

7 Peop._lewere less seifi"'sh.:....:.:.th;_:;e;_:n.;_. _

8 9 10

11

12

30

ANSWERS

1.1 Own

2 his own 3 on their own 4 of his own 5 of her own 6 your own ... my own 7 our own 8 its own 9 her own ... on her own 10 their own

1.2 The or ZERO: What do they play?

1 the piano 6 the violin

~ squash 3 chess 4 baseball 7 the saxophone 8 badminton

5 tennis 9 cards.

1.3 The meaning of the: A trip to the ma!I.netic north
1a 2 the 3a 4 the Sa 6an 7.0 8 the
9a lOthe 11 the 12.0 13 the 14.0 15 a
16the 17 the 18a 19 a 20 the 21 the 22 a
23.0 24 the 25 the 26a 27.0 28.0 29.0
30 a 31 the 32 the 1.4 Fewer/more than, es many/much as:

Watch your weight!

1 more. __ than 2 fewer than 3 as many .... as

4 more .... than 5 more 6 less 7 as much ... as 8 less 9 as many ... as 10 fewer. __ than 11 as

many as 12 so much 13 less 14 fewer

1.5 Test your knowledge!

1 are .... more than 2 are ... fewer than 3 are

... as many as 4 is ... a lot of 5 is less.. than

6 are __ . a few 7 are _. a lot of 8 is _ . _ a little 9 is

.. more .. _ than 10 is as much ... as 11 are ...

more ... than 12 are fewer .. ,. than

1 .6 The most, the least, the fewest: Cakes

A 1 most 2 least 3 most 41east 5 most 6 fewest 7 fewest 8 most

2.1 Collective nouns

2 were. __ their 3 are 4 wear (or wears) 5 itself ... its 6 were ... their 7 don't ... their 8 is

2.2 Six is ...

I are 9is

2is lOare

7 is/are

8 are

3is

4is

5is

6is

2.3 'sor of:

The team's success or the .success of the team

3 India's neighbours 4 a map of Africa 5 this year'S weather 6 two months' holiday 7 the governmsnr's decision 8 doctors' waiting-rooms 9 the country's

enemies 10 a box of biscuits 11 a moment's thought

12 the earth's gravity 13 children's clothes 14 ten

litres of petrol 15 the roof of our house

3 .. 1 Present simple or present progressive: 'state' ve rbs

2 is minding ... don't mind 3 are thinking _ . _ Do you think 4 are still hoping ... hope 5 are holding ... only holds 6 are you feeling ... feels 7 am hearing ... hear 8 is seeing .. _ see 9 Are you including ... includes

3.2 Some tricky verbs

A a beat b bite c bitten d fell e fallen f felt

g led h leave i left i lived k lied I lie m lain n lay a rise p risen q raised

B 1 beat _ felt 2 bitten 3 fell ... lay 4 lived .... left. live 5 laid ... laid 6 laid 7lain 8 lied

9 risen ... raised 10 Raise

3.3 Present perfect or past simple:

Have you ever .• .? When did you ... .?

A 1 Rave you ever worn ... Yes, I have. I wore _ .. Why did you wear ... I wore 2 Have you ever swum. _ . No, I haven't. But I have swum .... When did you last swim ... last year! swam 3 Have you ever forgotten ... Yes, r have. I have often forgotten .... When did you last forget

, .. I forgot 4Have you ever broken .... Yes, I have ... 1

broke How on earth did you break 5 Have you ever

ridden No, I haven't, but r rode .... Did you ride . I

rode 6 Have you ever flown .. _ No, I haven't. But last year I flew ... How far did you fly .... we just flew

7 Have you ever torn ... Yes, I have. I once tare ... Did you tear ., I tore it

3.4 Present perfect and past simple: Inventions

A 1 have discovered .. _ made 2 invented have

sent 3 has/have helped _ . _ started 4 sent have

become 5 have developed _ . discovered 6 have become, .. invented

3.5 Past simple and past perfect: A boy~sdiscovery . 3 wanted 4 reached 5 had 6 did not realize

7 had found 8 returned 9 were 10 saw 11 (had)

once wandered 12 did not know 13 had discovered

14 had painted 15 realized 16 spread 17 hurried

18 was dosed 19 had seriously damaged 20 had

survived

3.6 Passive: Heart transplants

2 had been killed 3 was carried out 4 was performed S were connected ·6 was removed '7 was connected

8 was removed 9 was transplanted 10 were placed

11 were switched on 12 had been given 13 have been carried out 14 has been given 15 were replaced

3.7 Active or passivel: Disast~rs

2 was rebuilt _ , , destroyed 3 killed .. , was heard

4 was largely destroyed .. , caused 5 was damaged.

broke out 6 exploded ... were rescued 7 were swept

away _ , . died 8 struck .. , were killed

4.1 Having things done

3 have (both) had new photographs taken 4 is going to have his watch mended 5 have had their raincoats dry

cleaned 6 are going to have the car serviced 7 have

had new locks fitted to the front door 8 is going to have her eyes tested

4.2 Mustn'tor needn'tr

1 We needn't look for a, porter 2 We mustn't remove the tr-olley from Victoria Station 3 We needn't get a taxi

4 You mustn't put your teet on the seat 5 You mustn't smoke in the lift 6 You needn't unpack tonight

4.3 Permission: may, can, could

A 2 Can I open a window? . , . Yes, of course you can,

3 Could I tum the TV off? . " Yes, of course you can/may, 4 May/Can/Could I ask you a personal question? __ Yes,

of course you may/can. 5 May/Can/Could I borrow your

dictionary? ... Yes, of course you may/can.

B 6 May/Can/Could 1 borrow your car? , .. No, I'm afraid

you can't/I'm sorry, but you can't- 7 May/Can! Could I

use your typewriter? ... No, I'm afraid you can'tIl'm

sorry, but you can't. 8 May/Can/Could I look at your

newspaper? 9 May/Can/Could I make a telephone call?

... No, I'm afraid you can' tlI'm sorry, but you can't.

10 May/Can/Could I say what I really think? , . _ No, I'm afraid you can't/I'm sorry, but you can't.

4.4 Could-and other ways of making suggestions

A 1 coming 2 come 3 could meet 4 do

5 meeting 6 go 7 hiring 8 deciding 9 make

1Qcould call

4.6 Would rather- and other ways of expressing preference

B 5 I'd prefer not to wear. , ' 6 I'd pr-efer not to listen to

7 I'd rather not become a . , 8 I'd rather not

get/stay,

5.1 -Iy words: Adjectives, or adverbs?

1 in a cowardly way 2 daily 3 weekly 4 in a

friendly way 5 in a leisurely way 6 annually 7 in a

lively way 8 early 9 in a silly way 10 monthly

11 ina lonely way

5.2 Adjective order:

My two smart red Japanese nylon golf umbrellas

1 one strong orange Norwegian canvas tent 2 two

useful German plastic touring maps 3 her three warm

Scottish woollen car rugs 4 four new Hong-Kong-made plastic rain capes 5 our five second-hand British frame

rucksacks 6 six pairs of hardwearing Italian leather

climbing boots 7 those seven modern green Finnish sleeping bags 8 eight large Australian plastic water bottles

5.3 Comparison of adjectives: The good old days A 2 (a) more helpful than (b) sofas helpful as 3 (a)

better ... than (b) so/as good as 4 (a) sunnier,. than

(b) salas sunny, .. as 5 (a) more beautiful than (b) so/as

beautiful as 6 (a) better-looking than (b) so/as good.

looking as

B 8 Food was less expensive 9 The streets were less

crowded 10 The world was less violent 11 The traffic

was less dangerous' 12 Everything was less difficult

5.4 Comparison of adverbs: A driving test

2 (a) She didn't change gear fast enough. (b) She changed

gear faster. 3 (a) She didn't overtake well enough.

(b) She overtook better. 4 (a) She didn't do three point

turns confidently enough. (b) She did three point turns more confidently, 5 (a) She didn't stop for pedestrians soon enough. (b) She stopped for pedestrians sooner.

6 (a) She didn't reverse slowly enough. (b) She reversed

slower/more slowly. 7 (a) She didn't brake quickly

enough. (b) She braked quieker/morequlckly. 8 (a) She

didn't answer the questions carefully enough. (b) She answered the questions more carefully ..

5.5 Already, s(ill, yet

2 Nobody has landed.on Mars yet. 3 We already know a lot about the moon. 4 We don't know enough about Mars yet. 5 We still don't know enough about Mars,

6 Some people still believe the world is flat. 7 You mean, they still haven'! heard! 8 Scientists are still arguing about how the world started. 9 People are

already talking about life in the 21st century. 10 We

aren't living in the 21st century yet

5 •. 6 How .... 1 What, .• 1

3 What stupid ideas some people have! 4 HdW easily

deceived you are! 5 What ridiculous things you say! 6 What a crazy suggestion to make! 7 How very extraordinary it isl 8 How very cleverly the yeti behaves!

6.1 Some prepositions of place: The cinema

2 next to/beside 3 near 4 at- the end of 5 behind

6 between 7 in front of 8 at 9 on 10 at the back

of 11 on 12 in Puzzle - 07

6.2 Climbing through a postcard!

1 in 2 through 3 into 4 down

7 to 8 across 9 in lOatlfrom 12 before 13 in 14 along/down 17 in 18 through

5 of 6from 11 through

15 of 16 at

6.4 Time expressions without any prepositions

1 Last Monday 2 the day before yesterday 3 Last

night/Yesterday everung 4 Tomorrow morning

5 tomorrow night/evening 6 the day after tomorrow

7 next Monday 8 the week after next 9 next year

6.5 Because of, due to: Causes

A 1 Many beautiful old cities. are falling down because of

heavy traffic and air pollution. 2 Because of wrong

farming methods, many countries do not grow enough

food. 3 Koala bears may disappear because of a deadly

new disease. 4 Because of the growth of world

population, more and more of the earth is being built over. B 5 The changing appearance of many cities is due to the

construction of new office blocks. 6 Dirty water in rivers

is due to pollution from factories. 7 A lot of ill health is

due to dirty water supplies. 8 Some changes in the

world's climate are due to the destruction of tropical rain forests.

C 9 Many people have problems because they are

unemployed. 10 Some people give up work because

they are ilL 11 Because they are expensive, some people

don't have cars. 12 Some people say they don't like big

planes because they are dangerous

6.& Instead of

linstead of pulling down old buildings, we should restore them. 2 Perhaps we could use sun and wind power, instead of (using) so much coal and oil. 3 Instead of

driving everywhere, we should walk more. 4 I'm going

to buy a bicycle instead of another cat. 5 Some people

always telephone instead of writing. 6 People could

help themselves more, instead of blaming others.

6.7 Mixed adverbs and.prepositions: Warming up

1 in 2 for 3 Before 4 like 5 up 6 below

7 with 8' at 9 forward 10 back 11 down

12 apart 13 on 14 to 15 to 16 together

18 forward 19 towards 20 with

17 at

6.8 An acrostic

Across: 1 between 3 underneath <1 before

5 across 6 until 7 along 8 without

Down: 2 through

7.1 Out: The News

A 2 broken out

Out 6 got out

out 9 set out

8 11 blowout out

3 carry out 4 look out 5Xeep

7 make that out 8 left something else

10 handing out

12 cut it out 13 tear it out 14 rub it

_7.2 Prepositional or phrasal verbs?

3 rely on them 4 takes after her 5 try it Oft I) taken it

away 7 look into it 8 put it down

7.3 Phrasal·prepositional verbs

2100k forward to 5 look down on

8 running out of

3 keep up with 4 get out of

6 put up with 7 catch up with

9 Look out for

8.1 Let, make, allow, force: School rules

A 1 They make us arrive at 8.30 a.m, ·2 They force us

to wear the school uniform. 3 They make us learn

maths. 4 They force us to do homework every night. 5 They don't let us wear T-shirts. 6 They don't let liS miss games. 7 They don't allow us to cut lessons.

8 They don't allow us to eat sweets. 9 They let us

choose where to sit. 10 They allow U$ to ask the

teachers questions. 11 They allow us to talk in class.

12 They let us take extra music lessons.

8.2 What did he tell her to do?

2 He advised her to hurry up. 3 He warned her not to

make mistakes. 4 He forbade her to tell anyone. 5 He

invited her to go to the cinema. 6 He persuaded her to go (to the cinema). 7 He reminded her to write to him.

8 He told her to look after herself. 9 He wanted her 10

have a good time. 10 He asked her to marry him.

8.3 I managed to: An air journey

A 3 I didn't expect her to try to 6 I never manage to

8 I would like to 9 I hope to

4 I meant to 5 I always

71 didn't want to

10 Ihave asked them to

8.4 Remember, forget

A 2 forgot tv take 3 remember to post 4r·emembe'[

to return 5 remembered to go 6 remembered to pay

7 forget to collect 8 remember to collect 9 forgo! to get

10 remembered to buy

B 12 seeing my first book. . . 13 wearing the first dress

I made myself. 14 hearing Magnus on h~isfmy radio

transmitter. 15 arriving. . . 16 teaching my first

class. 17 promising me a new car. 18 breaking my leg

1),5 To-infinitives and -ingforms as subjects

A I It is much more difficult to do sums in one's head.

2 It is not easy to learn another language. 3 But it is very

interesting to hear about other countries. 4lt is

sometimes a good idea to use a dictionary, 5 But it is

often possible to guess the meaning of a word. 6 It is impossible 10 make no mistakes.

C 12 for Stephan to learn to skiwhen he was a child.

13 for Minoji to fly to Iceland next summer. 14 for

Suleiman to speak English well, 15 for Sofia to find a

job. 16 for Marie-Christine to have a holiday this year.

17 for Olga to go to Portugal with Cudrun. 18 for

Gudrun to pass a lot of exams. 19 for the students to

have a reunion.

9 .. 1 Verbs of saying/thinking + that clauses

2 that there are more people alive today than have ever

lived before. 3 that the sun goes round the earth.

4 that the earth goes round the sun. 5 that there are beings on other planets. 6 that people can travel in

space. 7 that the earth is not actually a perfect sphere.

8 that the earth is like a perfectly round ball.

9.2 Hope and suggest, advise and want

A 2 (a) all his class to sit the exam. (b) (that) all his class would sit the exam. (c) all his class to sit the exam.

(d) (that) all his class should sit the exam. 3 (a) (that) her mother would come and stay. (b) (that) her mother should come and stay. (c) her mother to come and stay. 4 (a) us to work harder. (b) (that) we will work harder. (c) (that) we should work harder. (d) us to work harder.

9.3 Non-defining relative clauses

A 1 Captain James Cook, who led three scientific

voyages in the Pacific, was. . . 2 Simon Bolivar, who

gave his name to Bolivia, led .. , 3 Kemal Ataturk,

whose tomb can be visited in Ankara, was ...

4 '0'inston Churchill, whom people remember as a great

statesman, was .. 5 Tenzing Norkay, who climbed

Mount Everest with Edmund Hillary of New Zealand in 1953, was. . . 6 The American artist Grandma Moses, whose pictures are now world-famous, only started.

7 Emmeline Pankhurst, whose two daughters also worked for women's rights, started ...

B 8 The Great Wall of China, which once stretched 50,000

km, is . . . 9 Leningrad, whose art treasures are world-

famous, was once. , lQ The pyramids of Egypt, whlch

are about 4000 years old, were .. , 11 The Buddhist

temple of Borubodur in Java, which is the largest manmade monument south of the Equator, dates ...

12 Easter Island, whose huge statues are a mystery, is .. ,

9.4 Past conditions: Unidentified flying objects

1 If the other two pilots hadn't turned back in time, they would have been killed. 2 If he had thought it was an

ordinary plane, he would not have reported seeing a UFO. 3 They thought that if it had been an ordinary plane, it

would have made a noise, 4 He said that if he had not

seen a real UFO, he wouldn't have found footprints.

5 If a UFO had really fallen to earth, something would

have been found. 6 Many people think that if aliens had

really made the moon, 'we would have found signs of life.

9.5 Wishing about the past: I wish I had done that! A 2 '1 wish 1 had (already) left school.' 3 'I wish 1 had

learned to ski when I was a child: 4 She wishes she

hadn't been to the cinema yesterday. 5 He wishes he

hadn't called Magnus in the middle of the night. 6 She

wishes she hadn't eaten so/too much yesterday. 7 'I

wish r had had a holiday last year.' 8 'I wish I had finished writing my new book.'

9.6 So that, in case: Going on holiday

3 Put your passport somewhere safe so that you won't lose it. 4 Confirm your return flight in case the plane is full. 5 Take plenty of films with you in case they are ' unobtainable. 6 Take plenty of films with you so that you won't run out. 7 Send me a postcard so that I'lllI know where you are.

9.7 A puzzle: The philosophers

1 because 6 So 7 as

5 because

11 So 12 So

2 While 3 When 8 if 9 because

4But lOBut

9.8 Joining words: The Sindbad voyage

1 but 2 who 3 who 4 Or 5 in order to 6 ago 7 some 8 had 9 instead of 10 to build 11 to pay

12 although 13 Although 14 There 15 Later

16 couldn't 17 so 18 while 19 until 20 managed

to 21 Their 22 of 2~ who 24 leaving

ADJECTIVES AND ADV,ERBS

just as kind as (even) kinder than

People are

they were ..

C What do you think? Is the old man right? Write down some of your opinions. If you disagree with him, you can also use the box above.

13

14

15 16 17

5.4 Comparison of adverbs: A driving test

well

better

carefully dearly confidently

more carefully more clearly more confidently

fast

faster

soon sooner

quicker/more quickly slower/more slowly

Stephan'S mother has just taken her driving test for the second time. Here are the examiner's notes, showing why she failed the first time. The second time she did everything better and passed. Write out what happened both times.

1 a 1st test She didn't indicate clearlyenoug:.:::;h.:...._ __

b 2nd test She indicated moreclearly.:.... _

2 a

b _

quickly slowly

I Report II· Performance in fi rst test I

,

u Indicating 1101: c\ea\f' QJAc~k
~ Changing wi fost enou,~
gear
~ Overtaking ~ 90CJ. QV! 0 vf.
L~_ DOing three ~ COiltF1J~
point turns e~0}~h
~ Stopping for ~ Soo/.1 ~OUj~
pedestrians
~ Reversing LW-t :s 1 ot.v WlouJl
12. Braking lAd q_v1c..U. ~o~L-t
l..!.. Answering the k6t CaI('L~\ <uu~h..
questions 31

ADJECTIVES AND

ADVERBS

3 a

--

b

b

b

32

b

-----

6 a

b

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

5.5 Already, still, yet

They have

already

know.

They

I: done that.

They are

I doing that.

They

still

think so.

don't know. haven't decided.

They are

hoping.

They don't know

They haven't done that They aren't doing that

yet.

Rewrite the following, adding already, stil! or yet ..

1 Man has landed on the moon.

Man has already-landed on the moon.

2 Nobody has landed on Mars.

3 We know a lot about the moon.

4 We don't know enough about Mars. (We soon will!)

5 We don't know enough about Mars .. (It takes a long time to find out.)

6 Some people believe the world is flat.

7 You mean, they haven't heard! (After all this time!)

8 Scientists are arguing about how the world started. (They have been arguing for a long time.)

9 People are talking about life in the 21st century. (It's too soon!)

10 We aren't living in the 21st century.

33

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

5.6 How ... ! What. . .!

How silly you are! Adjective
ridiculously you talk! 1 Adverb
What stupid ideas you nave! I Noun
an odd thing to believe! A friend tells you about some of his unusual beliefs. You do not believe them. Comment on wha t he tells you, beginning How ... ! or What _ .!

Your friend believes that UFOs (unidentified flying objects) are spaceships from another planet.

You think:

1 That's an odd thing to believe. 2 He is silly.

3 Some people have stupid ideas. 4 He is easily deceived.

You say:

1 What an odd thing_;;to"-""be""l""ie-"-ve"'! _

2 Howsil~y.""ou~.~ar~e~.! __

3 4

34

Your friend says that the yeti (the 'abominable snowman', whose footprints have been seen in the

Himalayas) is a human giant. .

You think:

5 He says ridiculous things.

6 That's a crazy suggestion to make. 7 It is very extraordinary.

8 The yeti behaves very cleverly! (Because nobody has actually managed to see one.)

You say:

5 6

7

8

SECTION 6 PREPOSITIONS

6.1 Some prepositions of place: The cinema

the left the right

on

in

the middle (of the row) the frontlback row

I

the back the front the side

at

(of the cinema)

the end

(of the row)

behind

in front of next to/beside near

between

I

us

s C R E E N
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
A A
B B
C C
0 D
E E
F F
G G
H H
I
J J
K K
L L
M Look at the cinema plan and fill in the gaps with words from the boxes above to find out where people sa t.

Juan and Sofia sat IJ!!_ Row D, in seats 6 and 7. Unfortunately Olga couldn't sit

~ them, because there was somebody else in 08. But she was

3 them, 4 the row.

David and Wendy, and Wendy's mother, were 5 them in row E. Wendy's mother

sat 6 Wendy and David, with Wendy on her left. Juan was immediately

7 David.

Rachel and Andrew sat s· ~ the side, further back 9 the

left. Tom sat right 10 the cinema, 11_. the right,

12 the back row.

Puzzle: What was the number of Juan's seat? _

35

PREPOSITIONS

6.2 Climbing through a postcard!

Use these prepositions and learn a trick. You will need some of them more than once - and sometimes more than one answer is possible.

along

in into

at

of

before down

through to

across from

Can you make a hole 1 a

postcard, and then climb 2 it?

It sounds impossible, but if you are careful you can

cut a card 3 quite a big circle.

First rule a line, AB, 4 the

centre 5 the card, almost

6 the top 7 _

the bottom, but not quite. Then mark thirteen

lines s the card, as shown

9 the drawing.

Notice that the lines that start 10 _

the edges do not quite reach AB, while the lines

that go u .AB stop

12 the edges.

Next fold the card 13 half,

14 AB and cut your thirteen

lines carefully, cutting two thicknesses

36

15 card 16 _

a time. You will find that AB is now

17 six sections, and you must

now cut those.

Finally shake your postcard and climb

18 it.

PREPOSITIONS

6.3 Adjectives + prepositions

1 afraid I
Who 2 ashamed of?
What are you 3 fond
4 proud
5 interested in?
6 keen on?
What are you 7 excited
about?
8 worried :
9 goodlbad at?
What kinds of food are 10 goodlbad for you?
Do your parents ever get 11 cross with you?
Who are you 12 friendly ? I spiders? flying? heights? 2 losing your temper?

3 your sister? your parents? 4 your paren ts? your school?

5 science fiction?

6 swimming? science?

7 your next birthday?

8 exams? finding a job?

9 maths? tennis?

10 sugar? milk? vegetables?

11 often? sometimes? never?

12 rmrmm

A Answer the questions. We have made some suggestions, but you can use your own ideas if you prefer.

1 I am afraid of _

2 I am ashamed of _

3 ___

4 ~

5 __

6 __

7 ___

8 ___

9 ___

10 __

11 My parents __

12Iam _

B Can you complete these questions? Use for, from and to. And can you answer them?

13 Is baseball similar football? _

14 Or are they very different each other? _

15 What is Rio de Janeiro specially famous ? _

37

PREPOS'lTIOINS

6.4 Time expressions without any prepositions

Tuesday yesterday morning
week afternoon
last month tomorrow evening
next January
year last night
tomorrow the day

before yesterday after tomorrow

before last after-next

the week

Gaby and Heidi are two German girls on holiday in the Far East. Here is part of their programme. It is now Monday 19th July, and they are in Bali. Complete the letter they are writing to Stephan; using time expressions from the tables above.

___ Programme __

SAT 10th JUL Y- fly to Sri Lanka (4 nights)

- sightseeing in Kandy

-(oAP'1

EON 19t9 - inland. See temp les f v~kanoes

, MaN 12th

WED 14th

SAT 17th

SUN 18th

TUES2o.rh

WED 21st

SAT 24th

- fly to Singapore (3 nights)

- fly to Bali (4 nights)

- morn: shopping. aft: Kuta Beach.

9 p.m. see fire-walking

- mom: Ubud. 8 p.m. Balinese dancing

- fly to Hong Kong (3 nights)

- fly to Bangkok

-----

(4 nights-Thailand)

MON26th

WED 28th

38

- floating market

- fly home

PREPOSITIONS,

J)~~)

. ~.Q.'re.. «: fJaJJ. "-~ ~ cc.a t..o...v{~ a... tJ~

hM.IJ.... cse: WU'~ S~L...tu.e.ta -:

;c~. 'n»: we, ~ t:iJ f~~J!., a-d /I-e....; ~ l....vt_g_

39

PREPOSITIONS

6.5 Because of, due to:· Causes

Result Cause
The world's oil supplies may run out because of our big demand for fuel.
Cause Result
Because of our big demand for fuel, the world's oil supplies may run out. A Here is some information about some of the things that are happening and their causes. Make sentences by putting because of in the right places.

1 Many beau tiful old cities are falling down/hea vy traffic and air pollution.

2 Wrong farming methods/many countries do not grow enough food.

3 Koala bears may disappear/a deadly new disease.

4 The growth of world population/more and more of the earth is being built over.

Dirty air in cities

is

Cause

Result

cars and factories.

Ma~y famines

are

drought.

due to

B Here are some more causes and results. Can you match these up? Write sentences on the pattern given with is/are due to.

CAUSES

pollution from factories

the construction of new office blocks the destruction of tropical rain forests dirty water supplies

RESULTS

the changing appearance of many cities dirty water in rivers

a lot of ill health

some changes in the world's climate

5 ___

6 ~-----

7 ___

8 ___

40

PREPOSITIONS

Tom doesn't go to football matches

Preposition + Noun

because of the violence.

because they are violent.

Conjunction + Clause

C Rewrite these because of sentences as because sentences. Use the words given and make any other changes that are necessary.

9 Many people have problems because of unemployment. unemployed

10 Some people give up work because of ill-health, ill

11 Because of the expense, some people don't have cars. expensive

12 Some people say they don't like big planes because of the danger. dangerous

6.6 Instead of

We should not destroy the forests. We should be planting more trees instead .. _ Instead afdestroying the forests, we should be planting more trees.

Many people move to the cities. They do not stay in their villages.

_ Many people move to the cities, instead of staying in their villages.

Bob went to the meeting because I couldn't go.

_ Bob went to the meeting instead of me.

Rewrite the following, using instead of and making any other necessary changes.

1 We should not puIl down old buildings. We should restore them.

2 Perhaps we could use sun and wind power. Then we need not use so much coal and oil.

3 We ought not to drive everywhere. We should walk more.

4 I'm going to buy a bicycle. I'm not going to buy another car.

5 Some people always telephone. They never write.

6 People could help themselves more .. They should not blame others.

41

PREPOSITIONS

6.7 Mixed adverbs and prepositions! Warming up

Put a ring round the right words.

Regular exercise keeps the body lat/inlon good working order, and is specially good 2forltolwith the heart. S After/Before/Until doing any energetic exercise, 4forllikelwith swimming or jogging, spend two or three minutes warming 50ft/down/up with the simple stretching exercises given6abovelbelowlunder.

"'''\ ARM CIRCLING Stand 7onlwithlwithout your feet apart arms Sat/down/on your

sides. Slowly raise your arms 9behindlbefore/forward and up, as high as is comfortable. Then move them lObacklbetween/beyond and llbacklbelowldown in a smooth circular movement.

SIDE BENDING Stand with your feet Ha!onglapartlaway, hands 13onlintolat hips. Slowly bend 14int%ver/to the left and then 15intofoverfto the right alternately, keeping your legs straight.

BODY, HIP and KNEE BENDING Stand with your feet 16toltogether!towards (not apart), slowly raise one knee and 17 at/in/on the same time bend 18backward/ forward/towards so that your head moves 19backwardlforwardltowards your knee. Go only as far as you can .. Then repeat 2°bylwithlwithout the other leg.

6.8 An acrostic

, 2 I I
13 1 1 1 'I
4
five and six. 5
yumbreLla. e 1 !
y'means 7
e I Complete the acrostic with prepositions.

Across 1 Come and see me _

3 Come and stand m

4 The day ..:........_ yesterda

two days ago.

5 There's a bridge the river.

6 I'll wait six o'clock, but no later.

7 We walked the river bank.

S I love you. I can't live you!

Down 2 The train went a tunnel.

42

SECTION7 PHRASAl, VERBS

7 .1 Out: The News

break out (begin suddenly) carry out (do as asked)

get out (escape)

hand out (giveldistribute) keep out (stay outside)

leave out (omit) look out (take care)

make out (manage to understand)

put out (make something stop burning) set out (begin a Journey)

A Find au t what has been happening, by choosing the right verbs from the box. Be careful to use suitable tenses.

• What was on the TV news today?

• There's been a terrible factory fire, and the firemen are still desperately trying to l_p"ut it

. oyt. Fighting has 2 again on the frontier. But some of the soldiers are

refusing to 3 orders, so the governmen t will be in trouble if it doesn't

4 . Some children who ignored a s notice and

climbed a fence into a chemical factory have been badly injured. And the police are still looking for a

dangerous prisoner who 6 yesterday.

• But where is all this happening?

• Oh, I couldn't ' that . I saw it on TV and it was too

quick for me.

• And haven't you 8 something else ?

... You mean I've said nothing about any good news? r am just coming to that. A grandmother has

just 9 on a SOO-mile walk to raise money fo~ charity. And a millionaire is

1° 10,000 free radios to old people.

B Find out! Can you find out the right out verbs to complete the following?

11 Y ou turn out an electric light, but you a candle,

12 If you want to keep a picture from a magazine, it with a pair of scissors.

13 Don't it or you may tear the picture.

14 If you make a mistake in this book, it with a rubber.

43

PHRASAL VERBS

7.2 Prepositional or phrasal verbs?

Complete the following sentences, using the verbs given and replacing the words in italics with pronouns (it, them, him etc.). Remember to use the right part of the verb and to put the pronouns in the right place.

Phrasal verb

Prepositional verb

Look

1 • Do you believe in ghosts? .&. No, I don't believe in them,

2 • The smell of fish puts Tom off. .&. Of course it ~ r?_uts him off-,----

3 • You can rely on my parents.

... I know I can ~ _

4 • Tom takes after his mother, doesn't he?

... Oh, I don't think he ~ _

at all.

catch
keep up
put with
get up that word.

that word it

up.

Look a!

this book. it.

5 • Why don't you try on this very attractive coat?

... Yes, I think I will _

6 • Please take away the rubbish .

.&. I've already _

7 • I'll look into this problem for you.

.&. It's very kind of you to _

8 • I couldn't put down that book you lent me. (It was so good.)

... No, lcouldn't either.

7.3 Phrasal-prepositional verbs

Use the nine verbs given to complete the following, roughly matching the meanings to the definitions given in brackets. Be careful to use the tenses indicated.

out of

get run

forward to

look down on out for

• How are you r progressing with) _getting on with your work, Tom?

.&. Oh, all right. But I never really e expect to enj oy) ~ ~ school.

• Why? Can't you e stay level with) the others? Is the work too difficult?

... Oh, the work's easy, but I ha ve to sit next to a really a wful boy. I wish 1 could (4 avoid) ___________ having to talk to him. He's stupid.

• Tom, it's wrong to (5 despise) otherpeople .

.&. . Well, I can't (6 bear) . Derek much longer. I simply can't.

• I thought you were trying to e draw level with) the car in front .

.&. I can't. We're rapidly (8 using up) petrol. (9 Keep your eyes open for)

~ . a petrol station.

44

SECTI.QN8 VERB PATTERNS

: .. 1 Let, make, allow, force: School rules

make arrive at 8.30 a.m.
Compulsory
force to arrive at 8.30 a .. m.
They I don't let wear T-shirts.
NotaUowed , us
don't allow to wear I-shirts.
let choose where to sit.
Allowed
allow to choose where to sit. Compulsory Not allowed
1 arrive at 8.30 a.m, S wear T-shirts
2 wear the school uniform 6 miss games
3 learn maths 7 cut lessons
4 do homework every night 8 eat sweets Allowed

9 choose where to sit

10 ask the teachers questions 11 talk in class

12 take extra music lessons

A Andrew and Peter have made lists of some of the things that are compulsory and some of the things that are allowed in their schooL Complete the following, using the sentence patterns from the box and the lists. Remember to add don't and to if necessary.

1 (make)
2 (force)
3 (make)
4 (force)
S (let)
6 (let)
7 (allow)
8 (allow)
9 (let)
10 (allow)
11 (allow)
12 (let) 45

VERB PATIERNS

B What about your school? It is probably different from Andrew and Peter's school. Write six sentences.

13 They force
14 They make
15 They don't allow
16 They don't let
17 They let ..
18 They allow 8.2 What did he tell her to do?

1 encourage 2 advise 3 warn 4 forbid 5 invite 6 persuade

7 remind 8 tell 9 want 10 ask

someone

to DO not to DO

something

1 Of course you should enter the competition. 2 You'd better hurry up.

3 But don't make mistakes.

6 Go on! You will come, won't you?

7 Don't forget to write to me, while you're away 8 And look after yourself.

9 I hope you have a good time. 10 Will you marry me?

4 You must not tell anyone.

S Would you like to go to the cinema?

Explain what he told her to do by using the numbered verbs in the box at the top, and making sentences in the way shown. Be careful with numbers 4 and 7!

1 He encouraged her to enter the comf?e::;.:t::.:it::.:io'-'-n:::.. _

2 ___

3 ___

4 __

5 ___

6 ___

7 __

8 _

9 ___

10 ___

46

VERB PAlTERNS

8.3 I managed to: An air journey

• Did you get a window seat?

.& manage Yes, I managed to (get one).

• Did they give you a window seat?

.& ask Of course .. r always ask them to (give me one).

A Complete the dialogue in the way shown with the verbs given.

1 .& Did you have injections before you left?

• tell Yes, mydoctor.....:;.::to;.:;::ld"-'.m:.:..:.:..e.:::to:..:.., __ ~_~_ 2 .... Did you feel air-sick?

•. used to No, I used to r but I don't now. 3 .& Did your grandmother go to the airport?

• noi expeci No,I~ _

4 .& Did you watch the in-flight film?

• mean No, I _~ , but I fell asleep.

5 .& Do you enjoy meals on planes?

• try Well, I always , but I don't usually.

6 .& Did you sleep much on the plane?

• manage No, I never _

7 .& Did you stop over in Los Angeles?

• not want No, 1 _

8 ... Surely you want to visit the United States?

•. would like Yes, of course I _

9 .& Do you think you may go next year?

• hope Well, yes 1 _

10 .& Are your parents going with you next time?

• ask Well, I have _

B What about you? Answer these questions about yourself, using phrases like: I hope toll (don't) want to/I'd like tolMy parents (don't) want me to.

11 Will you get your own car one day? _

12 Do you think you'll visit Britain some time? _

13 Are you going to leave school soon? _

14 Would you like to work abroad? _

47

VERB PATTERNS

8.4 Remember, forget

to Iake the list,

I forgot

He remembered

Djd

didn't

forget remember

He

you he

A Susan asked Bob to do some jobs, but unfortunately he went out without the list, and you can see that although he remembered to do most of the jobs (/), he forgot to do others

( X ). Complete the conversation, using remember and forget and information from the list.

BOB I'm afraid I 1_ fQ!got to take the list with me, darling, and I

SUSAN

BOB

SUSAN

BOB

SUSAN

BOB

SUSAN

48

2 ~ the kitchen clock to be mended. But

I did 3 the parcel.

Did you 4 my library books?

No. Sorry. But I 5 to the bank, and

I 6 the electrici ty bill.

Well, that's something. But where's your coat? Did you 7 _

___________ it from the dry-cleaner's?

Yes, I'm afraid I simply didn't B it.

And my shoes? I suppose you 9 rny

shoes heeled?

No I didn't. Look, here they are.

Oh good, I needed them. Thanks. And you 10 _

_______ some bread I see. At least we won't starve!

VERBPA TTERN S

never forget always remember

meeting Wendy at Bob and Susan's wedding.

I I'll

B David Green and his class were once talking about memorable occasions - the kind of event that you never forget. He told them that he first met Wendy, his future wife, at Bob and Susan's wedding. That's something he'll never forget doing. Here are some of the memorable occasions the students mentioned. Write what they actually said, using remember/forget + the -ing form.

11 (when she played her guitar in public for the first time)

Gudrun: I'll never forget _ F!layi:!1g my~gllitar in p"ublic [or the [l::..·rs::.:tc..:t""ir::..ne::.:. _

12 (when he saw his first book in print)

Juan: I'll always remember _

13 (when she wore the first dress she made herself)

Marie-Christine: I remember _

14 (when he heard Magnus on his radio transmitter for the first time)

Minoji.J have never forgotten _

15 (when she arrived at Heathrow in a thunderstorm)

Olga: I could never forget _

16 (when she taught her first class)

Sofia: I have always remembered . ~

17 (when his father promised him a new car)

Suleiman: I hope my father hasn't forgotten ~

18 (when he once broke his leg skiing)

Stephan: I remember once . _

C What about you? Write down two things you must remember to do soon:

19 I must remember _

20 I mustn't forget _

And now two things you once did that you'll always remember doing:

21 I'll always remember _

22. I've never forgotten _

And now ten your friend two things you want him/her to do:

23 Pleaseremember_. __

24 Don'tforget ~

49

VERB PATTERNS

8.5 To-infinitives and -ingforms as subjects

Doing sums on a calculator is easy. It is easy to do sums on a calculator.

A Rewrite the following sentences in the way shown above.

1 Doing sums in one's head is much more difficult.

2 Learning another language is not easy.

3 But hearing about other countries is very interesting.

4 Using a dictionary is sometimes a good idea.

5 But guessing the meaning of a word is often possible.

6 Making no mistakes is impossible!

B What do you think about school? Your lessons? Write some more sentences.

7 It is important to _

8 It is boring _

9 Itisfun ~ ___

10 _

11 _

Juan flew to Europe.

It was expensive for Juan to fly to Europe.

C Comment on the information below in the same way as in the example.

12 Stephan learned to ski when he was a child.

Itwascheap __

13 Minoji could fly to Iceland next summer.

It would be expensive _

50

VERB PATIERNS

14 Suleiman must speak English well.

It's important _

15 Sofia found a job.

It wasn't easy _

16 Marie-Christine hasn't had a holiday this year.

It has been impossible _

17 Olga went to Portugal with Gudrun,

Itwasexciting _

18 Gudrun has got to pass a lot of exams,

It will be necessary _

19 The students would like to have a reunion.

It would be lovely _

51

SECTION 9 COMPLEX SENTENCES

9.1 Verbs of saying/thinking + that dauses

think
People say that ... ,
estimate a There are more people alive today than have ever lived before ..

b Twelve times the world's present population died between 40,000 B.C. and

A.D. 1980. .

c The sun goes round the earth. d The earth goes round the sun.

e There are beings on other planets. f People can travel in space.

g The earth is like a perfectly round ball.

h The earth is not actually a perfect sphere.

In each of the pairs above, one sentence is a true fact and the other a belief. Decide which is which, Then use them to complete the pairs of sentences below sensibly. You can use that to introduce the second part of your sentences.

aandb

1 Experts estimate that twelve times the world's p_resentp"Qp_u!a!i0n died between 40,000 B.C. and A. D. 1980.

2 But many people wrongly suppose . _

candd

3 Peoplenolongerbelieve _

4 In the sixteenth century Copernicus discovered _

e and f

5 Science fiction writers suggest _

6 We all know _

gandh

7 Scientists now realize ~

8 But people often imagine _

52

COMPilEX SENTENCES

9.2 Hope and suggest, advise and want

hope we will
hoped (that) we would
They work harder.
suggest(ed) we should
advise(d) us to
want(ed) A Report what the people say/said, using the verbs given and following the verb patterns in the table.

1 Gudrun said: 'Olga, why don't you learn the guitar?'

Gudrun a suggested (that) Olga should learn the g.::;u:.:ita",r...:., _

b wanted. Olga to learn the ",u;,;.:i"'-Ota.::_r.:... _

c hoped (that) Olga would learn the g,;,,;.u;.;,;ita;;,;.r..;_. _

2 David Green told all his class: 'You should sit t.he exam.'

David a advised _

b hoped _

c wanted _

d suggested _

3 Wendy Green said: 'Mother, why don't you come and stay?'

Wendy a hoped _

b suggested ~

c wanted _

4 Our teacher says: 'You ought to work harder' .

The teacher a has advised _

b hopes _

c is always suggesting _

d wants _

B What do your parents say to you? Complete the sentences.

5 Theyhopethat _

6 Theywantme ~

7 They have advised _

8 They sometimes suggest ~ _

53

COMPLEX SENTENCES

9 .. 3 Non-defining relative clauses

People

Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States of America. We remember him for his fight against slavery.

___,. Abraham Lincoln, whom we remember for his fight against slavery, was the 16th president

of the USA. I

Ferdinand Magellan was himself killed during the voyage. His ship was the first to go round the world.

___,. Ferdinand Magellan, whose ship was the first to go round the world, was himself killed during the voyage ..

Abdul Aziz ibn Saud reigned from 1925 to 1953. He was the founder of Sa udi Arabia.

__ Abdul Aziz ibn Saud, who was the founder of Saudi Arabia, reigned from 1925 to 1953.

A Here are some facts about the people described below. Can you match them to the right people, using who, whom or whose?

Remember to add commas too.

Her two daughters also worked

for women's rights.

His tomb can be visited in Ankara. He gave his name to Bolivia.

People remember him as a great statesman. Her pictures are now world-famous.

He climbed Mount Everest with

Edmund Hillary of New Zealand in 1953. He led three scientific voyages in the Pacific.

S4

1 Captain James Cook _

______ was an 18th century English

naval captain and explorer.

2 Simon Bolivar _

led the fight for independence in South America.

4 Winston Churchill _

______ was also a great writer.

6 The American artist Grandma Moses

_______________ only started painting when she was seventy eight.

COMPLEX SENTENCES

3 Kemal Ataturk ~

was first president of the Turkish republic.

5 Tenzing Norkay _

_____ was a Sherpa from Nepal.

7 Emmeline Pankhurst _

_______ started a votes for women movement in 1903.

55

COMPLEX SENTENCES

Things

The Statue of Liberty was a gift from the French. It stands in New York harbour.

--+ The Statue of Liberty, which stands in

New York harbour, was a gift from the French.

Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil untiI1960. Its Sugar LeafMountain is world-famous.

--+ Rio de Janeiro, whose Sugar Loaf Mountain is world -famous, was the capital of Brazil until 1960.

B Now add the following facts to the sentences below. Use which or whose and commas.

It is the largest man-made monument south of the Equator.

It once stretched 50,000 km.

8 The Great Wall of China ~

________ is the only man-made object on earth seen from space.

9 Leningrad _. _

_____ was once St Petersburg and the capita! of Russia.

56

Its art treasures are world-famous. Its huge statues are a mystery. They are about 4000 years old.

10 The pyramids of Egypt ~~~~~~~_

_______ were built as tombs for the

Pharoahs.

11 The Buddhist tern pie of Borubodur in Java

_ ~ dates

from the 8th and 9th centuries.

12 Easter Island _

_~~~_ is in the Pacific west of Chile.

COMPLEX SENTENCES

9.4 Past conditions: Unidentified flying objects

In June 1947 Kenneth Arnold, flying alone over the Rocky Mountains in North America, saw nine 'unidentified flying objects' in the sky _ He used the word 'saucer to describe them. So people started talking about 'flying saucers'.

--+ If he hadn't used the word 'saucer, people wouldn't have started talking about ' flying saucers.

There wasn't another pilot with him, so Arnold did not have a witness.

--+ if there had been another pilot with him, Arnold would have had a witness.

Join the sentences below, using If in the same way. Think about when you need had(n't) or would(n't) have.

1 In 1948 people in Kentucky, USA, saw a big UFO in the sky. Three planes wentup to look. One plane was mysteriously destroyed. But the other two pilots turned back in time, so they were not killed.

If the other two pilots ~

2 In 1952 a French customs officer at Marseilles airport saw a strange object land on the runway. He did not think it was an ordinary plane, so he reported seeing a UFO.

If something

3 In 1956 a UFO was seen in England, travelling at over 8000 k. P .h. People thought that it was JUJt an ordinary plane because it did not make a noise.

They thought that if _

4 In 1964 a policeman in New Mexico, USA, saw a 'real UFO' take off from the desert .. Later he found 'footprints' of the UFO in the sand!

He said that if he _

5 In 1976 two pilots said they saw a flying saucer fall from the sky near Teheran. But a UFO did not really fall to earth because nothing was found-

If something

6 Two Russian scientists have suggested that the moon is really a satellite made by aliens. But many people think that aliens did not really make the moon because we have not found signs of life there.

57

COMPLEX S.ENT.ENCES

9. SWishing about the past:· ,. wish' had done that!

What happened What they wish now
He did it. He wishes (that) he hadn't done it.
He has done it.
They didn't do it. They wish (tha t) they had done it.
They hauen'! done it. A Write out what people wish now.

1 Stephan spent too much money last year.

'1 wish I hadn't sp"ent so much mon~ last ye;;.;_a;.;_r_' _

2 Olga hasn't left school yet.

'1 _

3 Suleiman did not learn to ski when he was a child.

'I wish _

4 Sofia went to the cinema yesterday.

She wishes _

5 Minoji called Magnus in the middle of the night.

He _

6 Cudrun ate too much yesterday.

She~ -------------------------------------------------------------

7 Marie-Christine didn't have a holiday last year.

'I wish _

8 Juan has not finished writing his new book.

'I _

B What about you? Write about three bad or unpleasant things that happened/have happened, and three nice things that unfortunately did not happen/have not happened.

9 r~sh _

10 _

11 ___

12 ___

13 _

14 __

58

COMPLEX SENTENCES

9.6 So that, in case: Going on holiday

II:

Wear a money belt

so that your money will be safe. in case there are thieves about.

Rewrite the following, using so that or in case. Be careful with verb tenses.

1 Take lots of books. Then you will have plenty to read.

Take lois of. books so that youwill have R_lenty..:::to"-:.::re::::ad",, .. :____. _

2 Take plenty of sun oil. The sun may be very strong.

TakeP..len~...2f.sun oil in case .thesun is ver:g_ strong~. ~

3 Put your passport somewhere safe. Then you won't Jose it.

4 Confirm your return flight. The plane could be full

5 Take plenty of films with you, They might be unobtainable.

6 Take plen ty of films with you. You don't want to run out of them.

7 Send me a postcard. I'd like to know where you are.

9.7 A puzzle: The:philosophers

To find out what this puzzle is, complete the following paragraph using because (twice), but, when and whi.le.

Three Greek philosophers (A, B and C) lay down under a tree to sleep 1 they were tired

of arguing. 2 they were sleeping, a naughty girl put green paint on their faces.

3 they woke up, they all began to laugh at each other. 4 suddenly

one of them stopped laughing, 5 he realized that his own face must be green too. How

did he know?

Now read the solution. Complete it with as, because, but, if and so (3 times).

A thought: B is laughing. 6 B does not realize that his own face is green, Now,

,, B thinks that his own face is clean, 8 he saw that my face was

clean too, he would be very surprised to see C laughing, ~.~~ C would have nothing to

laugh at. 10 B is not surprised at C laughing. lI B must think that C

is laughing at me. 12 my face must be green.

59

COMPLEX SENTENCES

9.8 Joining words: The Sindbad voyage

Put a ring round the right words.

The voyages of Sindbad the Sailor are worldfamous, land/butlor nobody quite knows 1.how/ when/who he was. He was probably an Arab sailor 'who/which/whom lived over 1000 years ago. 4BecauselOr/When perhaps his adventures happened to several different Arab sailors and the storytellers joined them together sso thatlin casetin order to make them more exciting.

Some years 6ago/sincelye.t an Irish explorer called Tim Severin read the Sindbad stories and also old

Arab geography books, and discovered that 7 any/ somelmudi of the old Arab sailors shad/have/were

travelled all the way to China. He decided to do the same. But he decided that, 9becauselin spite of/instead ot sailing in a comfortable modern ship, he would build an old type of Arab sailing ship - a ship that had no nails but was sewn together. But how? Where could he find the money or the men 1°/0 bu"ild/ building/built the strip?

He found the answer to the first question in Oman. The Sultan of Oman promised lIto pay/pay/paying for the whole voyage. He found the second answer in India. There he also found the right wood for the boat and the right coconut string to sew it together with, llaUhoughlbecause/despite the boat was actually built in Oman. It took 20 men 165 days.

The ship, the Sohar, sailed from Oman on 23rd November 1980, with an international crew - from

Oman, Britain, New Zealand, America, Denmark, India and Pakistan.

13 Althoughl Because/But the voyage was very

60

different from Sindbad's, Severin and hiscrew had many adventures. 14It1ThereiThey were sharks in

the Indian Ocean. 15 After/lAterIWhile, the wind dropped completely and they 16cnn't!couldr:l'tl

haven't move for a whole month. At this time they were 17 as/so/such short of water that they had to ration it until it rained. Then, tBatter/untillwhiJe they were crossing the Bay of Bengal the important main spar of the ship broke in two, and they could not get it mended 19since/untillwhile they reached Sumatra.

In the Malacca Straits, between Sumatra and

Malaysia, the Schar nearly got stuck on a sandbank, but fortunately the crew2ocouldlmanaged/managed to prevent such a disaster. In Singapore the Sohar received a big welcome, and then there was the South China Sea.

21 TherelTheirlThey' re adventures were not over. Terrible storms tore the sails. They were also afraid not/that/to meeting pirates. In fact, they only met Vietnamese 'boat people', 23wholwhomlwhose were pleased to be given food and medicine.

Finally on 29th June 1981, seven and a half months after 24leavinglleftlto leave Oman, they reached China and a welcome in Canton. They had sailed 6000 miles without an engine in a boat sewn together with string!

Glossary

coconut - a large nut-like fruit from a tropical tree coconut string - string made from the truck hair

which grows on the outside of a coconut shark - a large dangerous fish with sharp teeth spar - a thick pole to support sails or ropes pirate - a sailor who stops and robs ships

Intermediate

. Grammar

Wo-rkbook 3 -

o This is the third in a series of three books which provide graded written practice in grammar.

Special features .

• wide variety of exercises, covering many stimulating topics

• space for students to ~rite i~ ans~ers

• concise grammar boxes for reference .

• clear instructions and examples of correct answers, - making the book suitable for self-study as well as classroom use • detachable Answer Key

.•.

Longman::

ISBN 0-582-97604-~

<tI

9 780582 976047

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